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LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM

Gas Turbine Engine


(Removal & Installation Engine Allison M250-250)

Dosen Pembimbing: Radi Suradi K, Dipl.Ing. M.Eng

Disusun oleh:
Regina Dwi Maulida (151221024)
Rhismansyah Adiguna Effendi (151221025)
Rizal (151221026)
Rizal Fadilah (151221027)
Sandi Tresna Priandi (151221028)
Sulaiman (151221029)
Vicka Berliseptiany (151221030)

PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK AERONAUTIKA


JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN
POLITEKNIK NEGERI BANDUNG
2018
DAFTAR ISI

DAFTAR ISI............................................................................................................................ 1
DAFTAR GAMBAR .................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
BAB I PENDAHULUAN ........................................................................................................ 2
I. 1 LATAR BELAKANG ............................................................................................. 2
I. 2 TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM ........................................................................................ 2
I. 3 BATASAN MASALAH .......................................................................................... 3
BAB II TINJAUAN PRAKTIKUM ...................................................................................... 4
II.1 ENGINE HELIKOPTER ....................................................................................... 4
II.2 SA 3180 ALLOUETTE ASTAZOU ENGINE DATA ......................................... 5
1. ENGINE CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................. 5
2. ENGINE OUTPUT PERFORMANCE ................................................................. 5
BAB III HASIL PRAKTIKUM ............................................................................................. 6
BAB IV KESIMPULAN ....................................................................................................... 17
REFERENSI.......................................................................................................................... 18
LAMPIRAN........................................................................................................................... 19
A. DOKUMEN PENDUKUNG..................................................................................... 19
B. DOKUMENTASI KEGIATAN PRAKTIKUM ..................................................... 26

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BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

I. 1 LATAR BELAKANG
Helikopter adalah pesawat udara yang tergolong pada jenis sayap putar (rotary
wing) dimana helikopter memiliki sayap yang berputar atau baling – baling untuk
menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift). Adanya perbedaan sayap helikopter yang merupakan
baling – baling dengan sayap pesawat yang bersayap tetap (fixed wing), tentunya akan
terlihat pada penggunaan komponen – komponen utama dan prinsip kerja dari
helikopter dan pesawat fixed wing.
Perbedaan yang sangat terlihat salah satunya adalah pada sumber tenaga
penggerak atau engine yang digunakan. Pada laporan praktikum ini penulis berusaha
untuk membahas mengenai engine yang digunakan pada helikopter dengan melakukan
pengamatan pada salah satu contoh helikopter yaitu SA 3180 Allouette Astazou yang
menggunakan engine Allison M250 seri C250.
Pengamatan yang dilakukan oleh penulis yaitu kondisi engine secara
keseluruhan, dari hasil pengamatan ditemukan bahwa engine mengalami damage
berupa erosi dan korosi, maka dari itu engine perlu di-remove untuk dilakukan proses
maintenance. Akibat dari proses maintenance, nilai jam terbang dan cycle dari engine
mengalami perubahan.

I. 2 TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM
Tujuan diadakannya praktikum ini antara lain,
1. Memahami jenis kerusakan/damage yang ditemukan pada engine allison pada
helikopter alouette.
2. Memahami prosedur kerja removal dan installation engine allison pada helikopter
alouette.
3. Memahami dan bisa menghitung perubahan jam terbang dan cycle engine setelah
dilakukan proses maintenance.

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I. 3 BATASAN MASALAH
Batasan masalah pada pelaksanaan praktikum ini adalah,
1. Praktikum dilakukan pada helikopter SA 3180 Alouette Astazou.
2. Praktikum dilakukan pada engine Allison M250 seri C250.
3. Jenis praktikum yang dilakukan hanya removal dan installation.
4. Perubahan jam terbang yang dihitung adalah TSN, TSO dan CSN.

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BAB II
TINJAUAN PRAKTIKUM

II.1 ENGINE HELIKOPTER


Engine adalah salah satu komponen penting sebuah pesawat yang berfungsi
sebagai penghasil tenaga dengan berbagai macam penggunaan sesuai dengan jenis
pesawat atau ukuran pesawat tersebut. Penggunaan yang diaplikasikan pada berbagai
macam pesawat udara antara lain, sebagai penghasil gaya dorong (untuk engine dengan
jenis turbojet dan turbofan) dan sebagai tenaga penggerak propeller atau rotor (untuk
engine dengan jenis turboprop, turboshaft dan piston engine).

Helikopter alouette astazou menggunakan engine turbine berjenis turboshaft,


engine turboshaft ini tidak menghasilkan langsung gaya dorong (thrust) ataupun gaya
angkat (lift) yang membuat helikopter tersebut bergerak. Engine turboshaft pada
helikopter menggerakkan shaft (poros) yang ditransmisikan melalui reduction gearbox
untuk mengerakkan main rotor dan tail rotor.

Gambar 1. Ilustrasi Free-Turbine

Berbeda dengan engine turbine lainnya engine turboshaft yang digunakan pada
helikopter sebagai penghasil tenaga untuk memutarkan shaft, pada bagian turbine
terdapat bagian atau stage turbine khusus yang langsung ditransmisikan pada reduction
gearbox menjadi tenaga keluaran untuk menggerakkan shaft. Stage khusus ini disebut

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free-turbine, disebut free-turbine karena pada stage ini turbine tidak terhubung untuk
menggerakkan compressor yang berada di engine guna mengkompresi udara untuk
proses pembakaran. Sehingga dihasilkanlah tenaga yang cukup besar untuk
menggerakkan shaft yang nantinya ditransmisikan untuk menggerakkan main rotor dan
tail rotor.

II.2 SA 3180 ALLOUETTE ASTAZOU ENGINE DATA

1. ENGINE CONSTRUCTION
Nama engine : Allison 250
Compressor : 2 Stage Axial
Combustion chamber : Single Can with Single Burner
Turbine : 2 Stage Axial with 5.8:1 reduction gear

2. ENGINE OUTPUT PERFORMANCE


Design power output 400 shp (298 kW)
Design speeds:
Gas producer 100% (50,970 rpm)
Power turbine 100% (33,290 rpm)
Power output shaft 100% 6,016 rpm
Maximum measured gas temperature–– 1490°F (810°C)
stabilized (TOT)
Dimensions:
Length 40.8 in. (1036 mm)
Height 23.2 in. (589 mm)
Width 19.1 in. (485 mm)
Engine weight:
Dry 155 lb (70 kg)
(Bendix)
158 lb (72 kg)
Maximum oil consumption 0.05 US gallons per hour or 1 qt in 5
hours
(0.9 liter in 5 hours)

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BAB III
HASIL PRAKTIKUM
Unscheduled maintenance
A. Special inspection due to erosion and Corrosion Inspection

Special inspections are required when the engine has been subjected to abnormal
operating conditions, when engine damage is suspected, or when associated parts are
removed from the engine. In table 604, special inspection must be do when Operation
in erosive environment

If the aircraft is frequently subjected to sand or dust ingestion or operated in a


corrosive environment (salt laden or other chemically laden atmosphere such as
pesticides, herbicides, sulphur, industrial pollutants, etc.), inspect compressor blades,
vanes, and case plastic coating for erosion or corrosion damage. Engines operated in a
corrosive environment should be subjected to daily fresh water compressor rinses.

NOTE: If the aircraft is subjected to sand or dust ingestion, periodic compressor erosion
inspection is recommended. The frequency of the inspection should be based on the
degree of ingestion and condition of the compressor at the last inspection. The need for
more frequent compressor rinse may also be indicated.

NOTE: See CSL–1135 for instructions on suggested contamination removal using


water only and for maps of operating areas with salt laden air.

B. Water Rinse Procedure:

Engines subjected to salt water contamination or other chemically laden


atmosphere (industrial pollutants, sulfur laden atmosphere, pesticides, herbicides, etc.)
shall undergo water rinsing after shutdown following the last flight of the day. Perform
the rinse operation as soon as practical after flight, but not before the engine has cooled
to near ambient temperature.
NOTE: Operators should be aware that salt laden air may be encountered for 75--150
miles inland under certain weather conditions. All islands are considered a severe area.
If there is any doubt about the conditions in which your engines are operated, the
engines should be given a daily water rinse. Acceptable water will not damage the
engine but salt and chemicals will.

In our case, the helicopter fly around in Indonesia which is from the Corrosion Severity
Maps of the World Indonesia included in severe corrosion area. See the maps below:

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(1) Precautions

CAUTION: BE SURE THE IGNITION CIRCUIT BREAKER IS PULLED TO


PREVENT IGNITION DURING THE RINSE CYCLE.

CAUTION: THE PC TUBE FROM THE SCROLL TO THE PC FILTER SHOULD


NOT BE REMOVED WHEN PERFORMING THE DAILY WATER RINSE.
(a) Do not perform the rinse procedure while the engine is operating at idle speed
as damage to the compressor will result.
(b) N1 speed must not exceed 10% rpm during water spray injection.
(c) Use the highest quality water available, distilled or demineralized water is
recommended.

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NOTE: Use of water not meeting electrical conductivity of 20 micromhos per
centimeter maximum will require the engine to be inspected per Rolls-Royce
CSL 205 HOT CORROSION -- SULFIDATION.

Operation in erosive
environment (d) Do not spray water into a hot engine. The engine temperature is
satisfactory for water rinse when the bare hand can be placed on the outer
combustion case without discomfort.
(e) Avoid conditions which would allow the rinse water to freeze.
NOTE: Methyl alcohol may be added to the water to prevent freezing during water
rinse in below freezing weather. Mix one part methyl alcohol to one part water.
This mixture prevents freezing down to --40°C (--40°F). The methyl alcohol
shall contain methanol in concentrations not less than 99.85% by volume.
(f) Do not inject a solid stream of water into the engine. Use a nozzle which
provides a diffused spray pattern.
(g) A conventional nozzle meeting the flow requirements of para 2, this section,
may be used. Center the spray around the bullet nose of the inlet to ensure that
all of the spray is injected into the engine. Spray a minimum of one quart into
the compressor.

(2) Materials and Equipment

(a) The highest quality water available must be used. Distilled or demineralized
water is recommended.
The most rapid and economical means to assess water quality is by measuring
electrical conductivity. Control of electrical conductivity to a specific low level
will automatically yield a low level of chlorides, sulfates, sodium, and other
elements. Distilled or demineralized water with a maximum electrical
conductivity of 20 micromhos per centimeter is recommended.

NOTE: Most water deionizing equipment has the capability to determine


electrical conductivity. Commercially purchased deionized/demineralized
water conductivity
information should be requested from the vendor. Should the electrical
conductivity of the water not be known, the use of distilled or demineralized
water is preferred. However, if water of unknown electrical conductivity is
utilized, or if the water does not meet the maximum electrical conductivity of
20 micromhos per centimeter, then the engine must be inspected per CSL 205
“HOT CORROSION – SULFIDATION”

(b) Portable equipment such as a clean garden sprayer or fire extinguisher which
can be pressurized to obtain the required flow rate is recommended for water
rinse. To provide capability for rinse with either portable equipment or a water

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supply system, a nozzle capable of flowing the recommended rate at about 55
psig (379 kPa) is desired.

(c) The spray nozzle shall provide a diffused spray of water at a flow rate of
one quart (1 liter) in nine to eleven seconds at the pressure conditions used
during compressor rinse. The nozzle should be sized to provide the proper flow
rate at the average pressure maintained during each rinse cycle.
NOTE: Test for proper water flow at the pressure to be used by placing the
nozzle in a large container so that no water can splash out. Time the flow for
10 seconds and measure the quantity collected. Proper nozzle size for the
pressure used should accumulate 1 to 1--1.125 quarts (0.95 to 1.06 liters).
Adjust nozzle size as necessary to meet the specified flow limits.
(d) A quick opening valve shall be installed in the supply tube as close to the
nozzle as practical.

(3) Spray application:

(a) Retain/select anti--ice valve in the “off” position.


(b) Pull the engine ignition circuit breaker.
(c) Series I and II engines:
Block the bleed valve in the closed position using the wedge in compressor
cleaning protector kit (6886204) (Ref. Fig. 1). It is not necessary to
disconnect any lines.

(d) Series III and IV engines:


As a customer option, the bleed valve may be open or closed during the
water rinse procedure. If it is to be closed, use the following procedure:
1. On double--plumbed bleed valves (23003106), remove the AN 929 cap
from the tee--fitting at the bleed valve control solenoid. (Ref. Fig. 2).
On single—plumbed bleed valves (prior to 23003106), remove the plug
covering the Pc inlet port and insert an AN 815 union in the opening.
(Ref. Fig. 3.)
2. Close the double--plumbed bleed valve by applying shop air at no more
than 100 psi (689 kPa) to the tee--fitting. Close the single--plumbed
bleed valve by applying the shop air to the union installed in the Pc inlet
port.

NOTE: Some aircraft manufacturers provide an airframe mounted air


fitting to assist in pressurizing the bleed valve for the compressor rinse.
If shop air is not available for bleed valve pressurization, and you want
to close the bleed valve, the bleed valve must be removed and blanking
plate fabricated and installed in its place prior to rinsing the compressor.

CAUTION: TO PREVENT POSSIBLE BLADE DAMAGE AND TO


ASSURE ADEQUATE RINSE AT THE BASE OF THE BLADES, N1

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MUST NOT EXCEED 10% RPM. IF N1 RPM REACHES 10%,
RELEASE THE STARTER AND CONTINUE THE WATER SPRAY.
PERMIT N1 RPM TO REDUCE TO APPROXIMATELY 5% AND
THEN REENERGIZE THE STARTER TO OBTAIN A FULL TEN
SECONDS OF ENGINE ROTATION WHILE WATER IS SPRAYED
INTO THE COMPRESSOR.

CAUTION: NEVER PERFORM THE WATER RINSE PROCEDURE


WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING; THE COMPRESSOR
IMPELLER WILL BE DAMAGED. A MOTORIZED RINSE
PROCEDURE UTILIZING THE STARTER WITH N1 SPEED
BELOW 10% IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED PROCEDURE FOR
THE MODEL 250--C28 OR --C30 SERIES ENGINE.

(e) Spray water into the compressor inlet for 10 seconds while the engine is
being motored with the starter. Start the water injection three seconds prior
to starter engagement. The three second delay will reduce the tendency of
the engine to accelerate above 10% rpm. The spray must flow the water as
close to the bullet nose of the compressor inlet as possible to ensure that all
of the spray is injected into the engine. Do not flood the engine prior to
starter engagement.
NOTE: Observe engine speed during the 10 second rinsing operation. The
engine rpm will generally stagnate at or just below 10%; but when using a
fully charged battery or an A.P.U., the rpm may tend to exceed 10%.

(f) Continue injection of water spray during coast down until N1 stops, this
improves the rinse of the base of the blades. Do not continue spray after
engine stops.
(g) Allow engine to drain. Combustion drain valves may be removed to
improve rapid draining of the turbine.
(h) Restore engine to operating configuration:
1. On Series I and II, remove the wedge from the bleed valve.
2. On Series III and IV, remove any installed fitting. Reinstall any
removed caps or plugs as may be required (if removed).
3. Reinstall the combustion drain valves (and plumbing) if previously
removed.
(i) Within 15 minutes of the water rinse, operate the engine at idle for five
minutes to purge and evaporate all residual water (actuate anti--icing
system for one minute).
NOTE: If exposure to excessive salt or other corrosive media has occurred,
a repeat to
the rinse procedure may be necessary.

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Alat Yang Digunakan:

 Open Wrench 10 mm, 9 mm, 7/16 inch dan 5/8 inch.

 Twister

 Safety Wire

 Work Stair

 Crane

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 Coverall

 Safety Shoes

 Safety Glasses

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TSN and TSO

Installed : 20 November 2016 Removed 21 November 2017


TSN Pesawat : 21.000 TSN Pesawat : 22.100
TSN Engine : 6.000 TSN Engine : 7.100
CSN Engine : 8.000 CSN Engine : 9.100
TSO Engine : 1.600 TSO Engine : 2.700

TBO = 3600

Rata-rata terbang/hari = 3 jam

Rata-rata cycle/hari = 3 cycle

Rata-rata Estimasi Terbang = 60 satuan menit perhari

TSN = Rata-rata terbang x hari selama setahun

3x365= 1095

TSO = Rata-rata terbang x hari selama setahun

3x365= 1095

CSN = Rata-rata Cycle x hari selama setahun

3x365= 1095

Rata-rata terbang/Rata-rata Cycle =

3 jam = 180 / 3 = 60 satuan menit

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Wheel turbine Allison 250

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15
Ketentuan Manual
TSN 1st-Stage Wheel 1775
TSN 2st-Stage Wheel 1775
TSN 3st-Stage Wheel 4550
TSN 4st-Stage Wheel 4550

stage sisa umur Overhaul


1 0 ( 4x ganti)
Wheel Turbin 2 0 ( 4x ganti)
3 2550 ( 1x ganti)
4 2550 ( 1x ganti)

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BAB IV
KESIMPULAN

Helikopter SA 3180 Alouette Astazou II merupakan helikopter konfensional


bermesin turboshaft pertama didunia. Helikopter ini didukung oleh mesin berjenis
mesin turbin gas bertipe mesin turboshaft. Dimana turboshaft memiliki perbedaan
dengan turbojet. Mesin turboshaft memliki hasil output yang digunakan untuk
memutar poros yang nantinya akan digunakan untuk memutar main rotor pada
helikopter. Berbeda dengan mesin turbojet, output dari engine yang dihasilkan akan
memberikan gaya dorong dan tidak akan memutar shaft untuk memutar rotor. Turbin
yang digerakan udara panas pun digunakan untuk memutar kembali kompresor.

Pada engine Allison M250-250 terdapat damage berupa korosi dan erosi yang
menyebabkan engine harus di-remove dan di-install kembali sebagai salahsatu proses
maintenance. Setelah dilakukan remove&installation, engine mengalami perubahan
jam terbang yaitu: TSN Pesawat 22.100, TSN Engine 7.100, CSN Engine 9.100, TSO
Engine 2.700, dengan rata-rata terbang/Rata-rata Cycle 60 Menit.

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REFERENSI

B, A. (2017, January 7). Alouette: Artouste versus Astazou. Retrieved from What's
Occur: http://occurs.lineum.org.uk/index.php?pages/Alouette%3A-Artouste-
versus-Astazou
NATIONAL AERONAUTIC AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION. (2017, January 6).
Nozzles. Retrieved from NATIONAL AERONAUTIC AND SPACE
ADMINISTRATION: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-
12/airplane/nozzle.html
The Turbomeca Astazou Aircraft Engine. (2017, January 7). Retrieved from Air
Power World: http://www.airpowerworld.info/aircraft-engine-
manufacturers/turbomeca-astazou.htm
Turboméca. (1970). Engine Maintenance Manual, Turboméca Astazou II . Paris.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL
AVIATION ADMINISTRATION. (2012). AVIATION MAINTENANCE
TECHNICIAN HANDBOOK-POWERPLANT, Vol 1. Oklahoma city: United
States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.
Wikipedia Indonesia. (2017, January 6). Mesin Turboshaft. Retrieved from Wikipedia
Indonesia: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesin_Turboshaft

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LAMPIRAN

A. DOKUMEN PENDUKUNG

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B. DOKUMENTASI KEGIATAN PRAKTIKUM

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