Anda di halaman 1dari 70

Plant Biochemistry

Subject : Plant Biochemistry


A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)

The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of


life on earth
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)

Photosynthesis is an electron transport process


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)

ATP is generated by photosynthesis


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)

Mitochondria are the power station of the cell


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)

The Calvin cycle catalyzes photosynthetic CO2 assimilation


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
Phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase activity of RubisCO is
recycled in the photorespiratory pathway
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)

Polysaccharides are storage and transport forms of carbohydrates


produced by photosynthesis
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)

Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)

Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for
growth
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)

Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites


of consumption and storage
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)

Products of nitrate assimilation are deposited in plants as storage


proteins
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)

Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites


of consumption and storage
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)

Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)

Secondary metabolites fulfill specific ecological functions in plants


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)

A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant


metabolism
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)

Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary


metabolites and cell wall components
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)
109. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites
and cell wall components - Answer (click here)
110. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzes the initial reaction of
phenylpropanoid metabolism - Answer (click here)
111. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols - Answer (click
here)
112. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules - Answer
(click here)
113. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring
derived from acetate residues - Answer (click here)
114. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants - Answer (click here)
115. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive
light - Answer (click here)
116. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -
Answer (click here)

Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant


organs
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)
109. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites
and cell wall components - Answer (click here)
110. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzes the initial reaction of
phenylpropanoid metabolism - Answer (click here)
111. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols - Answer (click
here)
112. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules - Answer
(click here)
113. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring
derived from acetate residues - Answer (click here)
114. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants - Answer (click here)
115. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive
light - Answer (click here)
116. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -
Answer (click here)
117. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs
and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions - Answer (click
here)
118. Signal transduction chains known from animal metabolism also function
in plants - Answer (click here)
119. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds - Answer
(click here)
120. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth - Answer (click here)
121. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation - Answer (click here)
122. Cytokinins stimulate cell division - Answer (click here)
123. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant - Answer (click here)
124. Ethylene makes fruit ripen - Answer (click here)
125. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones - Answer (click here)
126. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -
Answer (click here)
127. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants - Answer (click
here)

A plant cell has three different genomes


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)
109. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites
and cell wall components - Answer (click here)
110. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzes the initial reaction of
phenylpropanoid metabolism - Answer (click here)
111. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols - Answer (click
here)
112. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules - Answer
(click here)
113. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring
derived from acetate residues - Answer (click here)
114. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants - Answer (click here)
115. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive
light - Answer (click here)
116. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -
Answer (click here)
117. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs
and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions - Answer (click
here)
118. Signal transduction chains known from animal metabolism also function
in plants - Answer (click here)
119. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds - Answer
(click here)
120. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth - Answer (click here)
121. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation - Answer (click here)
122. Cytokinins stimulate cell division - Answer (click here)
123. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant - Answer (click here)
124. Ethylene makes fruit ripen - Answer (click here)
125. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones - Answer (click here)
126. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -
Answer (click here)
127. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants - Answer (click
here)
128. A plant cell has three different genomes - Answer (click here)
129. In the nucleus the genetic information is divided among several
chromosomes - Answer (click here)
130. The DNA of the nuclear genome is transcribed by three specialized RNA
polymerases - Answer (click here)
131. DNA polymorphism yields genetic markers for plant breeding - Answer
(click here)
132. Transposable DNA elements roam through the genome - Answer (click
here)
133. Viruses are present in most plant cells - Answer (click here)
134. Plastids possess a circular genome - Answer (click here)
135. The mitochondrial genome of plants varies largely in its size - Answer
(click here)

Protein biosynthesis occurs in three different locations of a cell


1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)
109. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites
and cell wall components - Answer (click here)
110. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzes the initial reaction of
phenylpropanoid metabolism - Answer (click here)
111. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols - Answer (click
here)
112. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules - Answer
(click here)
113. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring
derived from acetate residues - Answer (click here)
114. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants - Answer (click here)
115. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive
light - Answer (click here)
116. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -
Answer (click here)
117. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs
and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions - Answer (click
here)
118. Signal transduction chains known from animal metabolism also function
in plants - Answer (click here)
119. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds - Answer
(click here)
120. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth - Answer (click here)
121. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation - Answer (click here)
122. Cytokinins stimulate cell division - Answer (click here)
123. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant - Answer (click here)
124. Ethylene makes fruit ripen - Answer (click here)
125. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones - Answer (click here)
126. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -
Answer (click here)
127. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants - Answer (click
here)
128. A plant cell has three different genomes - Answer (click here)
129. In the nucleus the genetic information is divided among several
chromosomes - Answer (click here)
130. The DNA of the nuclear genome is transcribed by three specialized RNA
polymerases - Answer (click here)
131. DNA polymorphism yields genetic markers for plant breeding - Answer
(click here)
132. Transposable DNA elements roam through the genome - Answer (click
here)
133. Viruses are present in most plant cells - Answer (click here)
134. Plastids possess a circular genome - Answer (click here)
135. The mitochondrial genome of plants varies largely in its size - Answer
(click here)
136. Protein biosynthesis occurs in three different locations of a cell - Answer
(click here)
137. Protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes - Answer (click here)
138. Proteins attain their three-dimensional structure by controlled folding -
Answer (click here)
139. Nuclear encoded proteins are distributed throughout various cell
compartments - Answer (click here)
140. Proteins are degraded by proteasomes in a strictly controlled manner -
Answer (click here)

Biotechnology alters plants to meet requirements of agriculture


nutrition and industry
1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments - Answer (click here)
2. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability - Answer (click here)
3. Vacuoles have multiple functions - Answer (click here)
4. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria - Answer (click here)
5. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts - Answer (click here)
6. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are
formed - Answer (click here)
7. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus form a network for the
distribution of biosynthesis products - Answer (click here)
8. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -
Answer (click here)
9. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites
between different compartments - Answer (click here)
10. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and
products - Answer (click here)
11. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity - Answer (click here)
12. Porins consist of β-sheet structures - Answer (click here)
13. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on
earth - Answer (click here)
14. How did photosynthesis start? - Answer (click here)
15. Pigments capture energy from sunlight - Answer (click here)
16. The energy content of light depends on its wavelength - Answer (click here)
17. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment - Answer (click here)
18. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule - Answer (click here)
19. An antenna is required to capture light - Answer (click here)
20. How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and
transferred to the reaction centers? - Answer (click here)
21. The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem
II - Answer (click here)
22. Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out
photosynthesis even in dim light - Answer (click here)
23. The photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules - Answer (click
here)
24. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis - Answer
(click here)
25. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved
by X-ray structure analysis - Answer (click here)
26. How does a reaction center function? - Answer (click here)
27. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in
photosynthesis of algae and plants - Answer (click here)
28. Water is split by photosystem II - Answer (click here)
29. The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between
photosystem II and photosystem I - Answer (click here)
30. Photosystem I reduces NADP - Answer (click here)
31. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from
photosystem I to oxygen - Answer (click here)
32. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons
between the two photosystems - Answer (click here)
33. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during
ATP synthesis - Answer (click here)
34. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to
heat - Answer (click here)
35. H -ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a
common basic structure - Answer (click here)
36. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the
protein - Answer (click here)
37. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form
bound hydrogen and CO2 - Answer (click here)
38. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration - Answer (click here)
39. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place
in the matrix compartment - Answer (click here)
40. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? - Answer
(click here)
41. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the
photosynthetic electron transport chain - Answer (click here)
42. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of
ATP via proton transport - Answer (click here)
43. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions - Answer (click here)
44. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific
membrane translocators - Answer (click here)
45. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -
Answer (click here)
46. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyzes the fixation of CO2 -
Answer (click here)
47. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate - Answer
(click here)
48. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate - Answer (click
here)
49. Besides the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an
oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - Answer (click here)
50. Reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -
Answer (click here)
51. Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose - Answer (click here)
52. Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways - Answer (click here)
53. Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in
chloroplasts as starch - Answer (click here)
54. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the cytosol - Answer (click here)
55. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly
regulated - Answer (click here)
56. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols
or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family - Answer (click here)
57. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole - Answer
(click here)
58. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -
Answer (click here)
59. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -
Answer (click here)
60. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions - Answer (click
here)
61. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots - Answer (click here)
62. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled - Answer (click here)
63. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino
acids - Answer (click here)
64. Glutamate is the precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes - Answer
(click here)
65. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth
- Answer (click here)
66. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-inducing bacteria - Answer (click
here)
67. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations - Answer
(click here)
68. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher
than for the utilization of NO3- - Answer (click here)
69. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi - Answer (click here)
70. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway
for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
71. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing
compounds - Answer (click here)
72. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis - Answer (click
here)
73. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the
detoxification of pollutants - Answer (click here)
74. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine - Answer (click here)
75. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -
Answer (click here)
76. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of
consumption and storage - Answer (click here)
77. There are two modes of phloem loading - Answer (click here)
78. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow - Answer (click here)
79. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading - Answer (click here)
80. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins - Answer (click here)
81. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses - Answer (click here)
82. 2S-Proteins are present in seeds of dicot plants - Answer (click here)
83. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals - Answer (click
here)
84. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
85. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -
Answer (click here)
86. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores - Answer
(click here)
87. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents - Answer (click here)
88. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds - Answer (click here)
89. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids - Answer
(click here)
90. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -
Answer (click here)
91. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic
reticulum - Answer (click here)
92. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the
glyoxysomes during seed germination - Answer (click here)
93. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are
defense and signal compounds - Answer (click here)
94. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic
microorganisms and herbivores - Answer (click here)
95. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -
Answer (click here)
96. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals - Answer (click
here)
97. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils - Answer (click here)
98. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -
Answer (click here)
99. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant
metabolism - Answer (click here)
100. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -
Answer (click here)
101. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units - Answer
(click here)
102. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air - Answer (click here)
103. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate - Answer
(click here)
104. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of
sesquiterpenes - Answer (click here)
105. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds,
phytohormones, and carotenoids - Answer (click here)
106. A Prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble - Answer (click here)
107. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis - Answer (click here)
108. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances - Answer (click here)
109. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites
and cell wall components - Answer (click here)
110. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzes the initial reaction of
phenylpropanoid metabolism - Answer (click here)
111. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols - Answer (click
here)
112. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules - Answer
(click here)
113. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring
derived from acetate residues - Answer (click here)
114. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants - Answer (click here)
115. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive
light - Answer (click here)
116. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -
Answer (click here)
117. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs
and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions - Answer (click
here)
118. Signal transduction chains known from animal metabolism also function
in plants - Answer (click here)
119. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds - Answer
(click here)
120. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth - Answer (click here)
121. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation - Answer (click here)
122. Cytokinins stimulate cell division - Answer (click here)
123. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant - Answer (click here)
124. Ethylene makes fruit ripen - Answer (click here)
125. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones - Answer (click here)
126. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -
Answer (click here)
127. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants - Answer (click
here)
128. A plant cell has three different genomes - Answer (click here)
129. In the nucleus the genetic information is divided among several
chromosomes - Answer (click here)
130. The DNA of the nuclear genome is transcribed by three specialized RNA
polymerases - Answer (click here)
131. DNA polymorphism yields genetic markers for plant breeding - Answer
(click here)
132. Transposable DNA elements roam through the genome - Answer (click
here)
133. Viruses are present in most plant cells - Answer (click here)
134. Plastids possess a circular genome - Answer (click here)
135. The mitochondrial genome of plants varies largely in its size - Answer
(click here)
136. Protein biosynthesis occurs in three different locations of a cell - Answer
(click here)
137. Protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes - Answer (click here)
138. Proteins attain their three-dimensional structure by controlled folding -
Answer (click here)
139. Nuclear encoded proteins are distributed throughout various cell
compartments - Answer (click here)
140. Proteins are degraded by proteasomes in a strictly controlled manner -
Answer (click here)
141. Biotechnology alters plants to meet requirements of agriculture, nutrition
and industry - Answer (click here)
142. A gene is isolated - Answer (click here)
143. Agrobacteria can transform plant cells - Answer (click here)
144. Ti-Plasmids are used as transformation vectors - Answer (click here)
145. Selected promoters enable the defined expression of a foreign gene -
Answer (click here)
146. Genes can be turned off via plant transformation - Answer (click here)
147. Plant genetic engineering can be used for many different purposes -
Answer (click here)