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Medicine and surgery: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery

Subject : Medicine and surgery: Principles and practice of


medicine and surgery
Principles and practice of medicine and surgery
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)

Cardiovascular system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)

Respiratory system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)

Gastrointestinal system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)

Hepatic biliary and pancreatic systems


1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)

Genitourinary system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)

Nervous system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)

Musculoskeletal system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)

Dermatology and soft tissues


1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)

Breast disorders
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
Endocrine system
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
524. Principles of endocrine testing - Answer (click here)
525. Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary - Answer (click here)
526. Pituitary adenomas - Answer (click here)
527. Hypopituitarism - Answer (click here)
528. Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
529. Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
530. Growth axis - Answer (click here)
531. Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
532. Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
533. Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
534. Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click
here)
535. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
536. Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
537. Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis - Answer
(click here)
538. Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
539. Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
540. Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
541. Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
542. Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
543. Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click here)
544. Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
545. Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
546. Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
547. Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
548. Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
549. Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
550. Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
551. Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
552. Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) -
Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
553. Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
554. Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
555. Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
556. Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
557. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
558. Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
559. Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click
here)
560. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia
syndrome - Answer (click here)
561. Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Answer (click here)
562. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - Answer (click here)
563. Secondary diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
564. Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
565. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
566. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
567. Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
568. Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
569. Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
570. Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
571. Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
572. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
573. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes -
Answer (click here)
574. Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)

Haematology and clinical Immunology


1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
524. Principles of endocrine testing - Answer (click here)
525. Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary - Answer (click here)
526. Pituitary adenomas - Answer (click here)
527. Hypopituitarism - Answer (click here)
528. Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
529. Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
530. Growth axis - Answer (click here)
531. Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
532. Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
533. Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
534. Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click
here)
535. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
536. Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
537. Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis - Answer
(click here)
538. Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
539. Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
540. Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
541. Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
542. Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
543. Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click here)
544. Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
545. Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
546. Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
547. Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
548. Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
549. Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
550. Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
551. Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
552. Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) -
Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
553. Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
554. Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
555. Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
556. Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
557. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
558. Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
559. Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click
here)
560. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia
syndrome - Answer (click here)
561. Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Answer (click here)
562. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - Answer (click here)
563. Secondary diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
564. Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
565. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
566. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
567. Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
568. Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
569. Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
570. Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
571. Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
572. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
573. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes -
Answer (click here)
574. Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
575. Lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
576. Bleeding tendency - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
577. Full blood count - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
578. Coagulation screening tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
579. Bone marrow sampling - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
580. Haemopoeitic progenitor cell transplantation - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
581. Allergy testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
582. Anaemia - Answer (click here)
583. Iron deficiency anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
584. Sideroblastic anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
585. Anaemia of chronic disease - Normocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
586. Macrocytic normoblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
587. Megaloblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
588. Vitamin B12 deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
589. Pernicious anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
590. Folate deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
591. Haemolytic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
592. Hereditary spherocytosis - Inherited haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
593. Haemoglobinopathies - Answer (click here)
594. Sickle cell anaemia - Answer (click here)
595. α-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
596. β-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
597. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency - Metabolic
defects - Answer (click here)
598. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia -
Answer (click here)
599. Aplastic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
600. Malaria - Answer (click here)
601. Myelodysplastic syndromes - Answer (click here)
602. Myeloproliferative diseases - Answer (click here)
603. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia - Answer (click here)
604. Polycythaemia vera - Answer (click here)
605. Myelofibrosis - Answer (click here)
606. Essential thrombocythaemia - Answer (click here)
607. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click
here)
608. Acute myeloid leukaemia - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click here)
609. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia - Chronic leukaemia - Answer (click here)
610. Hodgkin’s disease - Lymphoma - Answer (click here)
611. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma - Answer (click here)
612. Multiple myeloma - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
613. Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click
here)
614. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) -
Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
615. Haemophilia A - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
616. von Willebrand disease - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
617. Haemophilia B - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
618. Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Clotting disorders - Answer (click
here)
619. Vitamin K deficiency - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
620. Acute immune thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders - Answer
(click here)
621. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders -
Answer (click here)
622. Thrombophilia - Thrombotic disorders - Answer (click here)
623. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - Vascular causes of bleeding -
Answer (click here)
624. Transfusion medicine - Answer (click here)
625. Hypersensitivity reactions - Allergy - Answer (click here)
626. Urticaria Anaphylaxis - Allergy - Answer (click here)
627. Hereditary angioedema - Allergy - Answer (click here)
628. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS - HIV - Answer (click here)
629. Kaposi’s sarcoma - HIV - Answer (click here)
630. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) - HIV - Answer (click here)

Nutritional and metabolic disorders


1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
524. Principles of endocrine testing - Answer (click here)
525. Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary - Answer (click here)
526. Pituitary adenomas - Answer (click here)
527. Hypopituitarism - Answer (click here)
528. Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
529. Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
530. Growth axis - Answer (click here)
531. Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
532. Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
533. Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
534. Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click
here)
535. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
536. Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
537. Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis - Answer
(click here)
538. Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
539. Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
540. Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
541. Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
542. Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
543. Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click here)
544. Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
545. Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
546. Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
547. Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
548. Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
549. Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
550. Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
551. Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
552. Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) -
Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
553. Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
554. Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
555. Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
556. Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
557. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
558. Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
559. Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click
here)
560. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia
syndrome - Answer (click here)
561. Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Answer (click here)
562. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - Answer (click here)
563. Secondary diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
564. Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
565. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
566. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
567. Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
568. Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
569. Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
570. Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
571. Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
572. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
573. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes -
Answer (click here)
574. Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
575. Lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
576. Bleeding tendency - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
577. Full blood count - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
578. Coagulation screening tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
579. Bone marrow sampling - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
580. Haemopoeitic progenitor cell transplantation - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
581. Allergy testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
582. Anaemia - Answer (click here)
583. Iron deficiency anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
584. Sideroblastic anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
585. Anaemia of chronic disease - Normocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
586. Macrocytic normoblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
587. Megaloblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
588. Vitamin B12 deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
589. Pernicious anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
590. Folate deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
591. Haemolytic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
592. Hereditary spherocytosis - Inherited haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
593. Haemoglobinopathies - Answer (click here)
594. Sickle cell anaemia - Answer (click here)
595. α-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
596. β-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
597. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency - Metabolic
defects - Answer (click here)
598. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia -
Answer (click here)
599. Aplastic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
600. Malaria - Answer (click here)
601. Myelodysplastic syndromes - Answer (click here)
602. Myeloproliferative diseases - Answer (click here)
603. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia - Answer (click here)
604. Polycythaemia vera - Answer (click here)
605. Myelofibrosis - Answer (click here)
606. Essential thrombocythaemia - Answer (click here)
607. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click
here)
608. Acute myeloid leukaemia - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click here)
609. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia - Chronic leukaemia - Answer (click here)
610. Hodgkin’s disease - Lymphoma - Answer (click here)
611. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma - Answer (click here)
612. Multiple myeloma - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
613. Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click
here)
614. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) -
Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
615. Haemophilia A - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
616. von Willebrand disease - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
617. Haemophilia B - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
618. Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Clotting disorders - Answer (click
here)
619. Vitamin K deficiency - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
620. Acute immune thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders - Answer
(click here)
621. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders -
Answer (click here)
622. Thrombophilia - Thrombotic disorders - Answer (click here)
623. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - Vascular causes of bleeding -
Answer (click here)
624. Transfusion medicine - Answer (click here)
625. Hypersensitivity reactions - Allergy - Answer (click here)
626. Urticaria Anaphylaxis - Allergy - Answer (click here)
627. Hereditary angioedema - Allergy - Answer (click here)
628. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS - HIV - Answer (click here)
629. Kaposi’s sarcoma - HIV - Answer (click here)
630. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) - HIV - Answer (click here)
631. Obesity - Nutritional disorders - Answer (click here)
632. Malnutrition (including kwashiorkor and marasmus) - Answer (click here)
633. Hyperlipidaemia - Answer (click here)
634. Vitamin A deficiency - Answer (click here)
635. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
636. Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency (pellagra) - Answer (click here)
637. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
638. Vitamin C deficiency - Answer (click here)
639. Amyloidosis - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
640. Porphyria - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
641. Hyperhomocysteinaemia - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)

Genetic syndromes
1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
524. Principles of endocrine testing - Answer (click here)
525. Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary - Answer (click here)
526. Pituitary adenomas - Answer (click here)
527. Hypopituitarism - Answer (click here)
528. Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
529. Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
530. Growth axis - Answer (click here)
531. Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
532. Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
533. Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
534. Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click
here)
535. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
536. Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
537. Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis - Answer
(click here)
538. Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
539. Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
540. Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
541. Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
542. Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
543. Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click here)
544. Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
545. Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
546. Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
547. Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
548. Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
549. Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
550. Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
551. Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
552. Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) -
Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
553. Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
554. Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
555. Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
556. Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
557. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
558. Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
559. Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click
here)
560. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia
syndrome - Answer (click here)
561. Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Answer (click here)
562. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - Answer (click here)
563. Secondary diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
564. Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
565. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
566. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
567. Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
568. Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
569. Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
570. Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
571. Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
572. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
573. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes -
Answer (click here)
574. Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
575. Lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
576. Bleeding tendency - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
577. Full blood count - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
578. Coagulation screening tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
579. Bone marrow sampling - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
580. Haemopoeitic progenitor cell transplantation - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
581. Allergy testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
582. Anaemia - Answer (click here)
583. Iron deficiency anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
584. Sideroblastic anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
585. Anaemia of chronic disease - Normocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
586. Macrocytic normoblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
587. Megaloblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
588. Vitamin B12 deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
589. Pernicious anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
590. Folate deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
591. Haemolytic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
592. Hereditary spherocytosis - Inherited haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
593. Haemoglobinopathies - Answer (click here)
594. Sickle cell anaemia - Answer (click here)
595. α-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
596. β-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
597. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency - Metabolic
defects - Answer (click here)
598. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia -
Answer (click here)
599. Aplastic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
600. Malaria - Answer (click here)
601. Myelodysplastic syndromes - Answer (click here)
602. Myeloproliferative diseases - Answer (click here)
603. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia - Answer (click here)
604. Polycythaemia vera - Answer (click here)
605. Myelofibrosis - Answer (click here)
606. Essential thrombocythaemia - Answer (click here)
607. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click
here)
608. Acute myeloid leukaemia - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click here)
609. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia - Chronic leukaemia - Answer (click here)
610. Hodgkin’s disease - Lymphoma - Answer (click here)
611. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma - Answer (click here)
612. Multiple myeloma - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
613. Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click
here)
614. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) -
Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
615. Haemophilia A - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
616. von Willebrand disease - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
617. Haemophilia B - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
618. Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Clotting disorders - Answer (click
here)
619. Vitamin K deficiency - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
620. Acute immune thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders - Answer
(click here)
621. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders -
Answer (click here)
622. Thrombophilia - Thrombotic disorders - Answer (click here)
623. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - Vascular causes of bleeding -
Answer (click here)
624. Transfusion medicine - Answer (click here)
625. Hypersensitivity reactions - Allergy - Answer (click here)
626. Urticaria Anaphylaxis - Allergy - Answer (click here)
627. Hereditary angioedema - Allergy - Answer (click here)
628. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS - HIV - Answer (click here)
629. Kaposi’s sarcoma - HIV - Answer (click here)
630. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) - HIV - Answer (click here)
631. Obesity - Nutritional disorders - Answer (click here)
632. Malnutrition (including kwashiorkor and marasmus) - Answer (click here)
633. Hyperlipidaemia - Answer (click here)
634. Vitamin A deficiency - Answer (click here)
635. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
636. Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency (pellagra) - Answer (click here)
637. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
638. Vitamin C deficiency - Answer (click here)
639. Amyloidosis - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
640. Porphyria - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
641. Hyperhomocysteinaemia - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
642. Patterns of inheritance - Genetic syndromes - Answer (click here)
643. Down syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance - Answer
(click here)
644. Klinefelter syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance -
Answer (click here)
645. Turner syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance - Answer
(click here)

Overdose poisoning and addiction


1. Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click
here)
2. Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
3. Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
4. Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
5. Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
6. Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
7. Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
8. Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
9. Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
10. Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
11. Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance - Answer (click here)
12. The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
13. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
14. Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care - Answer (click
here)
15. Postoperative complications - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
16. Surgical site infection - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
17. Pain control - Perioperative care - Answer (click here)
18. Nosocomial infections - Infections - Answer (click here)
19. Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections - Answer (click here)
20. Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections - Answer (click here)
21. Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
22. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
23. Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
24. Syncope - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
25. Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
26. Signs of Oedema - Answer (click here)
27. Signs of Cyanosis - Answer (click here)
28. Signs of The arterial pulse - Answer (click here)
29. Signs of Jugular venous pressure - Answer (click here)
30. Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation - Answer (click here)
31. Signs of Heart murmurs - Answer (click here)
32. Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
33. Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer
(click here)
34. Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
35. Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
36. Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
37. Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
38. Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
39. Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
40. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
- Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
41. Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer
(click here)
42. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease - Answer (click here)
43. Rheumatic fever - Answer (click here)
44. Mitral regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
45. Mitral valve prolase - valve disease - Answer (click here)
46. Mitral stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
47. Aortic regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
48. Aortic stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
49. Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease - Answer (click here)
50. Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease - Answer (click here)
51. Cardiac arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
52. Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
53. Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
54. Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
55. Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
56. Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
57. Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
58. Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
59. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias - Answer (click
here)
60. Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
61. Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
62. Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
63. Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias - Answer (click here)
64. Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
65. First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances - Answer
(click here)
66. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach
phenomenon) - Answer (click here)
67. Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II - Answer (click here)
68. Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block) - Answer (click
here)
69. Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
70. Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances - Answer (click here)
71. Heart failure - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
72. Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
73. Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
74. Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure - Answer (click here)
75. Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
76. Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
77. Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
78. Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium - Answer (click here)
79. Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
80. Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click here)
81. Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
82. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer
(click here)
83. Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium - Answer (click
here)
84. Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium - Answer (click here)
85. Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
86. Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
87. Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
88. Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
89. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and
vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
90. Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
- Answer (click here)
91. Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click
here)
92. Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer (click here)
93. Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases -
Answer (click here)
94. Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases - Answer
(click here)
95. Introduction to congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
96. Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
97. Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
98. Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
99. Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease - Answer (click here)
100. Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
101. Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology - Answer (click here)
102. Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
103. Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
104. Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
105. Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
106. Clubbing - Signs - Answer (click here)
107. Breath sounds - Signs - Answer (click here)
108. Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
109. Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
110. Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures - Answer (click here)
111. Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
112. Pneumonia - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
113. Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
114. Influenza - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
115. Lung abscess - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
116. Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections - Answer (click here)
117. Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
118. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
119. Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections - Answer
(click here)
120. Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
121. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive
lung disorders - Answer (click here)
122. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders - Answer (click here)
123. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - Answer (click here)
124. Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
125. Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders - Answer (click here)
126. Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders - Answer (click here)
127. Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders -
Answer (click here)
128. Pleural effusion - Answer (click here)
129. Empyema - Answer (click here)
130. Pneumothorax - Answer (click here)
131. Pleurisy - Answer (click here)
132. Respiratory failure - Answer (click here)
133. Pulmonary embolism - Answer (click here)
134. Pulmonary hypertension - Answer (click here)
135. Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
136. Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click
here)
137. Silicosis - Occupational lung disease - Answer (click here)
138. Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
139. Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
140. Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology - Answer (click here)
141. Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
142. Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
143. Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
144. Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
145. Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
146. Constipation - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
147. Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
148. The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
149. Dyspepsia - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
150. Peritonitis - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
151. Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
152. Paralytic ileus - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
153. Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
154. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
155. Pruritus ani - GI presentations - Answer (click here)
156. Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
157. Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
158. Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
159. Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
160. Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
161. Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
162. Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
163. Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer
(click here)
164. Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
165. Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
166. Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
167. Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections -
Answer (click here)
168. Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
169. Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click here)
170. Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections - Answer (click
here)
171. Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall - Answer (click here)
172. Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer
(click here)
173. Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
174. Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
175. Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
176. Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
177. Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
178. Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click here)
179. Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus - Answer (click
here)
180. Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
181. Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
182. Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
183. Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click here)
184. Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach - Answer (click
here)
185. Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
186. Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
187. Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix -
Answer (click here)
188. Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
189. Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer
(click here)
190. Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix - Answer (click
here)
191. Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory
bowel disease - Answer (click here)
192. Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and
inflammatory bowel disease - Answer (click here)
193. Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
194. Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel
disease - Answer (click here)
195. Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click
here)
196. Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
197. Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
198. Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
199. Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
200. Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus - Answer (click here)
201. Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
202. Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
203. Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
204. Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer
(click here)
205. Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel - Answer (click here)
206. Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
207. Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
208. Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
209. Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
210. Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
211. Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
212. Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
213. Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
214. Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click
here)
215. Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer
(click here)
216. Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology - Answer (click here)
217. Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
218. Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
219. Signs: Hepatomegaly - Answer (click here)
220. Signs of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
221. Signs: Ascites - Answer (click here)
222. Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
223. Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
224. Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
225. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
226. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
227. Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
228. Liver resection - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
229. Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
230. Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver - Answer
(click here)
231. Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
232. Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
233. Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
234. Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease - Answer (click here)
235. Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer
(click here)
236. Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease -
Answer (click here)
237. Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
238. Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
239. Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
240. Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
241. Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
242. Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease - Answer (click here)
243. Alcohol-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
244. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Answer (click here)
245. Drug-induced liver disease - Answer (click here)
246. Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
247. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
248. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease - Answer (click here)
249. α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease - Answer (click here)
250. Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease - Answer (click here)
251. Wilson’s disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
252. Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
253. Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease - Answer (click here)
254. Hydatid disease - liver disease - Answer (click here)
255. Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
256. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click
here)
257. Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver - Answer (click here)
258. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer
(click here)
259. Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
260. Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder - Answer (click
here)
261. Introduction to the pancreas Disorders - Answer (click here)
262. Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
263. Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
264. Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
265. Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas - Answer (click here)
266. Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
267. Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
268. Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms -
Answer (click here)
269. Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click
here)
270. Urine tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
271. Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
272. Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
273. Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
274. Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
275. Anion gap - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
276. Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
277. Dialysis - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
278. Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
279. Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
280. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click
here)
281. Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
282. Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney - Answer (click here)
283. Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
284. Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
285. Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
286. Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
287. Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease -
Answer (click here)
288. IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
289. Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease - Answer
(click here)
290. Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) -
Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
291. Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
292. Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click here)
293. Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease - Answer (click
here)
294. Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
295. Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
296. Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases - Answer (click
here)
297. Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases -
Answer (click here)
298. Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
299. Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease - Answer (click here)
300. Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
301. Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal
tract obstruction - Answer (click here)
302. The kidney in sytemic disease - Answer (click here)
303. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome -
Answer (click here)
304. Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
305. Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the
kidney - Answer (click here)
306. Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
307. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate -
Answer (click here)
308. Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate - Answer
(click here)
309. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click
here)
310. Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
311. Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
312. Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections -
Answer (click here)
313. Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections - Answer
(click here)
314. Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections - Answer (click here)
315. Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
316. Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones - Answer (click here)
317. Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
318. Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
319. Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
320. Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
321. Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click
here)
322. Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system - Answer (click here)
323. Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
324. Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
325. Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
326. Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
327. Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology - Answer
(click here)
328. Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
329. Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary
oncology - Answer (click here)
330. Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
331. Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology - Answer (click here)
332. Headache - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
333. Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
334. Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
335. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms - Answer
(click here)
336. Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer (click here)
337. Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
338. Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders - Answer
(click here)
339. Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
340. Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer
(click here)
341. Gait - Patterns of sensory loss - Answer (click here)
342. Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
343. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) -
Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
344. Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
345. CT head - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
346. MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
347. Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
348. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
349. Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
350. Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
351. Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
352. Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click here)
353. Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease - Answer (click
here)
354. Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and
encephalitis - Answer (click here)
355. Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
356. Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
357. Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
358. Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system - Answer (click
here)
359. Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
360. Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders -
Answer (click here)
361. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system -
Answer (click here)
362. Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
363. Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
364. Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
365. Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
366. Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
367. Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
368. Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer
(click here)
369. Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory -
Answer (click here)
370. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and
memory - Answer (click here)
371. Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory - Answer (click here)
372. Parkinson’s disease - Answer (click here)
373. Other causes of Parkinsonism - Answer (click here)
374. Benign essential tremor - Answer (click here)
375. Huntington’s disease - Answer (click here)
376. Multiple sclerosis - Answer (click here)
377. Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
378. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache - Answer
(click here)
379. Migraine - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
380. Tension headache - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
381. Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache - Answer (click here)
382. Motor neurone disease - Answer (click here)
383. Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
384. Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
385. Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer
(click here)
386. Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord - Answer (click here)
387. Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies - Answer (click here)
388. Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer (click here)
389. Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders - Answer
(click here)
390. Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
391. The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
392. Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
393. Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
394. Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
395. Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
396. Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
397. Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
398. Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
399. Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click here)
400. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves -
Answer (click here)
401. Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial
nerves - Answer (click here)
402. Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer (click
here)
403. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves - Answer
(click here)
404. Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer
(click here)
405. Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
406. Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
407. Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
408. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
409. Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
410. Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
411. Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click here)
412. Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
413. Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves - Answer (click
here)
414. Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click here)
415. Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
416. Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer
(click here)
417. Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
418. Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders - Answer (click
here)
419. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth
disease) - Answer (click here)
420. Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer
(click here)
421. Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system - Answer (click here)
422. Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the
nervous system - Answer (click here)
423. Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
424. Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
425. Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
426. Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
427. Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
428. Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
429. Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
430. Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
431. Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
432. Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
433. Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections - Answer (click here)
434. Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis - Answer (click here)
435. Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
436. Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
437. Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies) -
Answer (click here)
438. Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides
(spondyloarthropathies) - Answer (click here)
439. Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
440. Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click
here)
441. Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders -
Answer (click here)
442. Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
443. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders - Answer
(click here)
444. Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
445. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders - Answer (click here)
446. Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
447. Gout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
448. Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies - Answer (click here)
449. Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
450. Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
451. Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders - Answer (click here)
452. Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer (click here)
453. Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders - Answer
(click here)
454. Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours - Answer (click here)
455. Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
456. Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
457. Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
458. Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
459. Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis - Answer (click here)
460. Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis) - Answer (click here)
461. Buerger’s disease - Answer (click here)
462. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura - Answer (click here)
463. Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon - Answer (click here)
464. Behc¸et’s syndrome - Answer (click here)
465. Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues - Answer (click here)
466. Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
467. Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
468. Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
469. Psoriasis - Scaly lesions - Answer (click here)
470. Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
471. Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases - Answer (click here)
472. Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
473. Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
474. Urticaria - Erythematous lesions - Answer (click here)
475. Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
476. Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions - Answer (click here)
477. Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions - Answer
(click here)
478. Pemphigus - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
479. Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
480. Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders - Answer (click here)
481. Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
482. Rosacea - Facial dermatoses - Answer (click here)
483. Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
484. Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
485. Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders - Answer (click here)
486. Impetigo - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
487. Cellulitis - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
488. Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections - Answer
(click here)
489. Leprosy - Bacterial infections - Answer (click here)
490. Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
491. Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click here)
492. Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections - Answer (click
here)
493. Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click here)
494. Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections - Answer (click
here)
495. Head lice - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
496. Scabies - Parasitic skin infections - Answer (click here)
497. Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
498. Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
499. Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
500. Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
501. Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
502. Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
503. Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
504. Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
505. Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps - Answer (click here)
506. Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
507. Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
508. Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours - Answer (click here)
509. Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
510. Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
511. Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms - Answer (click here)
512. Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
513. Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
514. Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures - Answer (click here)
515. Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
516. Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
517. Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
518. Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
519. Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
520. Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast - Answer (click here)
521. Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast - Answer (click here)
522. Breast cancer - Answer (click here)
523. UK programme - Breast cancer screening - Answer (click here)
524. Principles of endocrine testing - Answer (click here)
525. Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary - Answer (click here)
526. Pituitary adenomas - Answer (click here)
527. Hypopituitarism - Answer (click here)
528. Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
529. Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis - Answer (click here)
530. Growth axis - Answer (click here)
531. Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
532. Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
533. Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
534. Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click
here)
535. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
536. Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
537. Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis - Answer
(click here)
538. Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis - Answer (click here)
539. Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
540. Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer
(click here)
541. Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
542. Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click
here)
543. Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid - Answer (click here)
544. Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
545. Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
546. Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
547. Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
548. Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
549. Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
550. Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
551. Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis - Answer (click here)
552. Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) -
Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
553. Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis - Answer (click here)
554. Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
555. Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
556. Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
557. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer
(click here)
558. Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click here)
559. Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids - Answer (click
here)
560. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia
syndrome - Answer (click here)
561. Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Answer (click here)
562. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - Answer (click here)
563. Secondary diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
564. Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus - Answer (click here)
565. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
566. Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
567. Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
568. Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
569. Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
570. Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer
(click here)
571. Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
572. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click
here)
573. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes -
Answer (click here)
574. Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes - Answer (click here)
575. Lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
576. Bleeding tendency - Clinical Signs - Answer (click here)
577. Full blood count - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
578. Coagulation screening tests - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
579. Bone marrow sampling - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click
here)
580. Haemopoeitic progenitor cell transplantation - Investigations and
procedures - Answer (click here)
581. Allergy testing - Investigations and procedures - Answer (click here)
582. Anaemia - Answer (click here)
583. Iron deficiency anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
584. Sideroblastic anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
585. Anaemia of chronic disease - Normocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
586. Macrocytic normoblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
587. Megaloblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
588. Vitamin B12 deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
589. Pernicious anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
590. Folate deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
591. Haemolytic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
592. Hereditary spherocytosis - Inherited haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click
here)
593. Haemoglobinopathies - Answer (click here)
594. Sickle cell anaemia - Answer (click here)
595. α-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
596. β-Thalassaemia - Answer (click here)
597. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency - Metabolic
defects - Answer (click here)
598. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia -
Answer (click here)
599. Aplastic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia - Answer (click here)
600. Malaria - Answer (click here)
601. Myelodysplastic syndromes - Answer (click here)
602. Myeloproliferative diseases - Answer (click here)
603. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia - Answer (click here)
604. Polycythaemia vera - Answer (click here)
605. Myelofibrosis - Answer (click here)
606. Essential thrombocythaemia - Answer (click here)
607. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click
here)
608. Acute myeloid leukaemia - Acute leukaemia - Answer (click here)
609. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia - Chronic leukaemia - Answer (click here)
610. Hodgkin’s disease - Lymphoma - Answer (click here)
611. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma - Answer (click here)
612. Multiple myeloma - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
613. Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia - Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click
here)
614. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) -
Paraproteinaemias - Answer (click here)
615. Haemophilia A - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
616. von Willebrand disease - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
617. Haemophilia B - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
618. Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Clotting disorders - Answer (click
here)
619. Vitamin K deficiency - Clotting disorders - Answer (click here)
620. Acute immune thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders - Answer
(click here)
621. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders -
Answer (click here)
622. Thrombophilia - Thrombotic disorders - Answer (click here)
623. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - Vascular causes of bleeding -
Answer (click here)
624. Transfusion medicine - Answer (click here)
625. Hypersensitivity reactions - Allergy - Answer (click here)
626. Urticaria Anaphylaxis - Allergy - Answer (click here)
627. Hereditary angioedema - Allergy - Answer (click here)
628. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS - HIV - Answer (click here)
629. Kaposi’s sarcoma - HIV - Answer (click here)
630. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) - HIV - Answer (click here)
631. Obesity - Nutritional disorders - Answer (click here)
632. Malnutrition (including kwashiorkor and marasmus) - Answer (click here)
633. Hyperlipidaemia - Answer (click here)
634. Vitamin A deficiency - Answer (click here)
635. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
636. Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency (pellagra) - Answer (click here)
637. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency - Answer (click here)
638. Vitamin C deficiency - Answer (click here)
639. Amyloidosis - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
640. Porphyria - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
641. Hyperhomocysteinaemia - Metabolic disorders - Answer (click here)
642. Patterns of inheritance - Genetic syndromes - Answer (click here)
643. Down syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance - Answer
(click here)
644. Klinefelter syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance -
Answer (click here)
645. Turner syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance - Answer
(click here)
646. Alcohol abuse and dependence - Answer (click here)
647. Opiate abuse and dependence - Answer (click here)
648. Cocaine abuse and dependence - Answer (click here)
649. Amphetamine abuse - Answer (click here)
650. Ecstasy abuse - Answer (click here)
651. Overview of acute poisoning - Overdose and poisoning - Answer (click
here)
652. Paracetamol poisoning - Overdose and poisoning - Answer (click here)
653. Salicylate poisoning - Overdose and poisoning - Answer (click here)
654. Iron overdose - Overdose and poisoning - Answer (click here)
655. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose - Overdose and poisoning - Answer
(click here)
656. Lithium overdose - Overdose and poisoning - Answer (click here)