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In today’s world, all of us are under the influence of ‘Advertisement’. Right from buying groceries
to children’s study materials, finding a holiday spot to watching a movie, selecting restaurant for
dinner to booking a banquet hall for special events, and searching educational institutions to
hunting for a company to find jobs, almost every act is guided and decided by advertisements.


Advertisement (ad) is an efficient and effective technique to promote goods, services, and ideas.
It is a paid form of non-personal communication wherein business information is made available
for potential customers.

Advertisement, is derived from the Latin word “Advertere” which literally means “to turn the
minds of … towards…” Advertisement promotes and supplements selling of products, services,
and ideas to a great extent. The most interesting part of an advertisement is – it carries factual
information with fascinating emotional appeal. Hence, without a proper advertisement no business
can prosper.


The literal meaning of “Buzz” is – “a low, continuous humming or murmuring sound.” In the
advertising sense, it is a technique of marketing. It is getting viral these days. Buzz marketing
technique relies upon the power of one-on-one personal messages.

It is believed that word-of-mouth holds more weightage with consumers. Buzz marketing is
perceived as an impartial form of marketing people trust the recommendations made by their
relatives and friends. Social media is the most energetic vehicle of buzz marketing.


The fundamental idea behind advertisement is to increase the business by selling goods/services.
Besides, there are many other objectives of advertisement, significant of them are −
 To promote newly launched products among the potential customers.
 To promote personal selling program.
 To create awareness among maximum people about your business in a short period of time.
 To enter national or even international market and motivate new group of customers.
 To enhance the goodwill and build credibility among the customers by promising to
provide better quality of products and services.

The advertisements that we see in the newspapers, magazines, and roadside hoardings or watch on
television or on the internet involves a lot of work. An advertisement goes through different stages
from its initial planning stage to its execution. In addition, it also involves groups of people
specialized in different fields. For example, experts of management, copyediting, creative writing,
photography, videography, acting, etc.

Following are the fundamental stages to develop and execute an ad −

Typical Workflow in an Ad Agency
Stage Work Performed

Idea briefing to an Ad Agency

Internal discussion
Market research relevant to ad (to find competitors, customers’
Beginning Stage
behaviors, & target audiences)
Media selection (print, electronic, or outdoor)
Setting budget

Designing and creation of Ad (creative/copy writing, filming, etc.)

Internal review/editing
Presentation to client and taking his final approval
Development Stage Final production of ad
Approval from the concerned authority
Fixing the time and place to release the ad

Media Scheduling and media booking

Execution Stage
Handing over to media to make it live

Media release monitoring

Judging the performance
Post Execution
Noting customer’s review
Market response


Following are the three major sectors of Advertisements −
1. Advertiser − Business organization or any other individual, who wishes to advertise their
products, services, or ideas.
2. Ad Agency − A service-based firm that creates innovative ideas and develops an attractive
and meaningful ad.
3. Media − A communication platform that offers substantial and effective medium to

While planning to advertise your business/product/idea, you also need to decide which medium
would be the best suited to execute your ad. You can choose from multiple mediums from the list
given below –

1. Print Media-It is one of the oldest, but still popular medium of advertisement. It includes
newspapers, brochures, magazines, and fliers. It is the low budget medium of
advertisement, but the rate varies to a great extent depending upon the −
 Geographic location (city, town, etc.)
 Brand (of newspaper & magazine), and
 Space (how much & which part of the page you are booking).

2. Broadcast/Electronic Media-It is the most advanced and fastest media, which reaches the
remotest regions of the world in a fraction of a minute.
It includes radio, television, and the Internet. Since, on television and internet, both video
and audio can be run; therefore, it is the most popular and effective medium.

3. Outdoor − It is the cheapest, but effective medium. It includes hoardings, flags, banners,
billboards, motor vehicles, building/fence wraps, events, etc. Outdoor advertisement is
used in various ways to increase brand awareness and for the promotion of

It is only because of its beautiful design, communicative power, and fascinating execution. Thus,
design is one of the most fundamental features of an ad.


There is neither a magical formula nor pre-defined rules to combine lines, colors, images,
typefaces, and other graphic elements to create an eye-catching ad. However, design depends upon
the requirement of the client and features, functions, appearance, and nature of the product.
Execution of a well-thought out layout and design has an impressive effect on consumers. A
smartly articulated design encourages or in other words subtly compels people to buy the product.


Designing is all about creative idea and creative idea is solely dependent upon the clear
understanding of a project’s goal. Once the project is clear, one needs to do a little market research
to understand the behavior of potential customers.


Punchline, eye-catching heading, succinct content body, and relevant image (if any required) must
be figured out in advance. If you have all equipment ready with you, you can develop a creative


A clear-cut idea and a well-defined strategy are the integral parts of a creative design. Strategy
includes some of the essential components such as –

 Simplicity − Try to keep the layout simple. Put large pictures on top, headline beneath that,
content body in the middle, while logo and address on the right side at the bottom.

 Balance − To focus on some points, you need to create a symmetry in design. The key part
of creative designing is to organize all elements including images, blocks, headlines,
content body, and illustration so that they seem balanced.

 Proportion − The size and color of all graphic elements must be determined by their
significance and surroundings of the illustration. For example, important idea, image, or
design must be larger, brighter, and bolder so that it appears distinct from other elements
(as shown in the image given below).

 Unity − First find out the focal point of the ad where you want people to focus. Once done,
highlight it as a central point by dimming the surrounding and background design and
color. One point to always keep in mind is that all elements of your design - the visual
language and presentation should be in unity.

 Contrast − Create contrast so that it can grab people’s attention. For example, among a
bunch of mango, an apple grabs attention.

 Consistency − Maintain the consistency. Page to page consistency is indispensable for an

eye-catching ad. It helps people understand the meaning of different elements of an ad.

 Photo Design − Generally, photo attracts people first. Selection of a good photograph and
placing it smartly in an ad is another smart way to grab people’s attention.

 Proximity − Proximity is one of the most significant elements of creative design. It

compels people to think on the design (ad). Therefore, designing proximity is a cerebral
task. For example, remember the ad Marlboro Cigarette — the mythical man, a
combination of cigarette, horse, cowboy, and rustic image of the Old West. The ad was an
instant hit.

 Color Design − Selection of color is also a very important task. Normally, black and white
is boring, but some ads demand only black and white colors.


Ads which require being colorful, needs to be designed very carefully maintaining the
consistency and proportion. Excessive use of colors or excessive brightness distracts
people’s attention.


Once an ad is developed, it should not be published without checking the following points −
 Does the ad illustrate all elements in a balanced form?
 Does the ad have all essential elements including, punchline/headline, logo, content, price,
and balanced illustration?
 Does the ad make any false promises?
 Does the ad contain any deceptive element?
 Does the ad consist of clear, precise, and crisp presentation?


Campaign and promotions are the activities and technique that make your product popular among
the customers.

Campaign is a focused term that promotes targeted products/services for a short period of time. It
uses various medium for communication such as pamphlets, banners, roadside stalls, events, etc.

Campaign has some specific objectives, significant of them are −
 To tell people — about the launch of a new product/service.
 To tell people — where it is available.
 To tell people — at what price it is available.
 To tell people — from when and how long it would be available of concerned
 To tell people — what are the special features


The campaign for which positive response starts coming in just after a short period of time is
known as an effective campaign. To make your campaign, the most effective and result oriented,
you must focus on the following aspects –

 Who − Represents the target audiences or target markets

 Where − Represents the geographical locations of your target audiences and what media
vehicles you are required to reach there.
 What − Represents what messages need to be given to your target audiences.
 Why − Represents the objectives of your campaign.
 When − Represents the time schedule (availability of the product).
 How − Last, but not the least, you need to plan, how you will deploy the available resources
to run your business.

Planning is the most necessary aspect of your campaign. There are a series of steps starting from
the creation to execution; therefore, each step has to be defined adequately.

Planning doesn’t include only the creation, budget appropriation, and execution part, but rather it
also includes the aftermath stage. Once a campaign is executed, you need to get feedback on the
same. An appropriate feedback evaluation is a very good way to know the maximum Return on
Investment (ROI). It is also a lesson for the next campaign.

Advertisement campaign is a process, which involves following steps −


There are many questions of such kind that you need to think over, again and again before
advertising your product/service. But the question is how will you get the answer? Answers to all
these questions can be got through “Research.”


Advertising Research is a scientific technique of depth analysis of consumers’ behaviors.

It is done through a process, which involves systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data
related to the effectiveness of an advertisement.


 To Enhance Awareness − through research, it is easy to plan the marketing strategy of

any product/service.

 To Know Attitudinal Pattern − A thorough research predicts the people’s attitude. It

analyses the changing attitudinal pattern of a geographic area. Knowing the consumers’
attitude is very important before launching a new product and its advertisement.

 To Know People’s Action/Re-action − Research also records and analyzes people’s

action or re-action regarding a particular product/service.

 Analysis − Based on deep research and analysis, it is simple to design and develop a
creative ad, effective enough to influence consumers.


Following are the essentials of advertising research that support researcher to complete the
research task successfully –

 Research Equipment − It is the basic requirement of advertising research. It includes a

skilled person, computer system with internet, and relevant newspapers and magazine.
However, field research is also important. For example, interviewing people in the market
or their residential places.

 Media Research − To determine, which media is the most effective advertisement vehicle,
media research is necessary. It helps to reach the potential customers in a short period of
time and at lower cost.

 Marketing Trends − Knowledge of marketing trends help advertisers to know what

products people are buying and what are the specific features of the products, which
compels people to buy. With this information, manufacturers can modify their product
according to the trend on competitive price.


 Target Audience − For any advertising research, it is very important to identify target
audience and geographic location.


Conducting research before launching a new product and subsequently developing an ad has
the following advantages −
 Develops creative design and strategy − Once, all information is available, it is very
simple to develop an eye-catching design. It also helps in making a well-defined strategy
to develop your business.

 Identifies Opportunity in the Market − Research suggests — what is the right time to
launch the product. It also tells, which geographical location is the best for the product.

 Measures Your Reputation − It is always beneficial to know your competitor’s reputation

and credit in the market. It helps to develop faultless strategy.

 Identifies Major Problems − Research helps to identify the potential problems.

 Analyzes Progress − It helps to analyze the performance of your product. Likewise, you
can monitor your progress.

 Minimize the Risk − If you have done a thorough market research, there is least chance
of failure.


Copywriting is the skill of choosing the right words and technique of arranging them smartly to
promote business, product, service, idea, or a person. The selection of words and its presentation
largely depends upon the media through which it is planned to convey. For example, depending
on whether it is a newspaper, magazine, hoarding, radio, television, or internet, the script will vary

However, whatever is the type of media, the purpose of copywriting is the same i.e. promotion.
Therefore, it should be persuasive enough to be instantly attention grabbing.


Copywriting has some essential elements required to develop a convincing ad. Following are the
significant elements −
1. Heading − Headline gives the first impression and lasts on readers’ mind, therefore, it
should be eye-catching. Heading should tell – what it is all about your ad in a very few
words, ranging from 3 to 30 words.
2. Body Copy − Write body copy in such a way that it seems as the continuity of the heading.
Provide details of all the features and benefits that you are claiming for. The language
should be promising and trustworthy.


3. Slogans − Think of "The ultimate driving machine" (BMW); “Just do it”
(Nike); "Because I'm worth it" (L'Oréal), what comes to your mind? The moment, you hear
the slogans; you link it with the respective brand not only because you have heard it many
times, but rather it works. A well-written and effective slogan is a trustworthy brand
representative. However, your slogan should be small and crispy giving meaning to your
4. Taglines − Taglines are usually used for literary products to reinforce and strengthen the
audience's memory of a literary product. For example, “she went in search of answers, and
discovered a love she never expected,’ Book Name “Faithful” and Writer - Janet Fox. Thus,
tagline tells the gist of the products for marketing purpose. Like, a slogan, it should be
small and eye-catching.
5. Jingle Lyrics − More often accompanied with background music, Jingle lyric is a short
slogan, tune, or verse written to be easily remembered (especially used in advertising). For
example, Fanta: "Wanna Fanta, Don’t You Wanna?" It should be small, crisp, and rhythmic
(like a song) so that it registers with people at once and they remember it.
6. Scripts (for audio and video ad) −Scripts are the descriptions of an ad that narrates the
dialogues, actions, expression, and movements of characters. Since, script is a complete
guideline of an ad; therefore, it should be written meaningfully, orderly, and nicely.
7. Others − (White Paper, Press Release, & other written material such as emails, articles,
and blog (for the internet)): These are all promotional write-ups written purposefully to
promote a particular product/service. So, while writing white paper, press release, articles,
blog, or even an email you need to focus or emphasize ONLY on one product that you
want to promote. You need to describe all features and offers of the respective product in
simple and plain language.


The basic purpose of an ad is to fascinate people. Only after catching people’s attention, an ad
arise interest and desire to buy the product. Therefore, it should be an eye-catching and interesting.
Copywriters play a very important in the advertising industry, as they are the ones to choose the
right word or phrase to connect with the audience.

Copywriting is the art of creative and persuasive writing that goes a long way to sell the product
or an idea. One of the most traditional, but successful techniques of copywriting is “AIDA” i.e.
Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action.


Following are the techniques of persuasive copywriting −

 Use Action Words − Such as watch, look, ask, get, etc.
 Use of Buzzwords − Normally, buzzwords are eye-catching such as now, today, etc.
 Use Exciting or Emotive words − Such as amazing, wonderful, beautiful, etc.
 Use Alliteration − Use meaningful words of similar sound. For example, Don’t be vague,
ask for Haig.
 Use Colloquial words − Colloquialisms in copywriting is pretty popular and effective. For
example, ‘Pick ‘n Choose.’


 Use Punctuation − Proper use of punctuations and grammar is an important aspect so that
you can pass the right message.
 Pay Attention while Writing Headlines
 Try to keep headline as small as possible (5 to 10 words are ideal).
 Use meaningful and striking words to make heading persuasive.
 Try to use brand name in the headline.
 Stick with the typeface in a headline.
 Pay Attention while Writing Subheading
 Subheading should support the headline.
 It should be appealing so that the reader is impressed to read the body copy.
 Use minimum, but meaningful and fascinating words in subheading.
 Pay Attention while Writing Body Copy
 Try to keep the sentences in present tense.
 Use simple and familiar words.
 Keep the sentences small, and do not lose the link between the sentences.
 Use singular noun.
 Use active verbs.
 Convey message as if it is a new information to grab attention.
 Avoid using clichés and superlative words.
 Protect Yourself From using any vague word or sentence.
 Using many adjectives.
 Copying any others’ sentences (Copyright issue).
 Using unfamiliar words; your target audiences are not language expert.
 Be honest; do not promise something, which is not there.
 Do not use too many words (avoid wordiness); you have limited space.
 Your message should not be violating anyone’s right or feelings; you have to be honest and

Your employer or your client needs to know about your skill sets supported with the projects that
you have done. The simplest and preferable way to showcase your skills and let people know about
it is to create a portfolio.


A portfolio is wholesome and integrated information about an individual or a company. It

showcases qualifications, skill sets, and work experiences on a piece of paper. It is a succinct write-
up presented with some fascinating graphics, charts, and images.

A portfolio is an opportunity that offers you space to plan and reflect the best of your practice. It
represents in-depth information, helping you identify your strengths and find ways to build a career
on it.

Portfolios are developed for different purposes and its content and presentation vary accordingly.
However, the most common portfolio that most of us need is professional portfolio.



Design is the most important feature that you need to pay attention to while developing a portfolio.
Secondly, you have to showcase everything in a limited space. Hence, your design has to be
creative to include text, graph, images, and other artifacts.

Following are the significant features that you need to take care of while creating your portfolio:
 Customize your templates as required and as suitable for you.
 Represent each project or chapter with a thumbnail image.
 Select standard font as preferred for the portfolio.
 Select small, but high resolution images.
 Arrange in chronological order, but it has to be synchronized.
 Highlight your strength and hide your weaknesses.
 Be creative because there is no standard format of a portfolio that suits everyone and is
applicable for all purposes.
 Based on types of portfolio, purpose of portfolio, and individual’s skill sets, it varies


A well-organized and eye-catching portfolio includes the following points −

 An index page.
 A brief bio-data including your interest and proof of your skill sets.
 Key achievements.
 Examples of your works put it in chronological order with synchronization. Highlight
important ones with example.
 Skills that show your thought process and development of ideas, etc.


Following are the common mistakes that you need to avoid while creating your portfolio −
 Important, but Irrelevant Information − Be specific. Shortlist the important points first.
 Too much Colorful Design − Avoid using too colorful designs.
 Low Resolution Images − Do not use low resolution or poorly printed images.
 Excessive Information − Do not give excessive information regarding anything.
 Size of Portfolio − Keep a standard size, do not make it lengthy and boring.
 Space Management − Use standard and balanced font size, font color in proportion to
space and images. Maintain balance on the page.


Do you know – What does a tailor do?

As a tailor’s job is to design a piece of cloth as per your choice; similarly, an ad agency designs
your ideas into a complete audio or/and video ad tailored to your requirements.
Similarly, an advertiser gives an idea to an ad agency and in return ad agency returns back a
fascinating ad.



An ad agency is a service organization, specialized in planning, development, management, and

execution of advertising program for the clients.

Making an ad is a lengthy process that involves experts from various fields. Ad agencies are
usually independent firms offering qualitative work and assisting organizations or individuals to
reach their target audience through their eye-catching audio/visuals. An ad agency plans, creates,
researches, manages, and executes ad on different media platforms for the advertiser.


An ad agency has wide range of functions starting from the materialization of an idea, the
commercialization of a new product/service to development of healthy public relation. However,
some of the significant functions of an ad agency are −
 To take the advertiser’s idea/message and transform it into an effective and memorable
 To increase sales.
 To provide an integrated, professional, and quality services.
 To accelerate the economic growth and create public awareness.
 Gathering feedback given by the customers and other audiences for the future


An ad agency offers an integrated solution under one roof to its clients (advertisers). It has qualified
professionals, who are experts in their respective fields. For example, copywriters, jingle writers,
planners, researchers, videographers, managers, etc.

The Following Salient Features Make an Ad Agency Important −

 It has great social contacts and huge networking.
 Makes optimum use of every resource.
 Provides quality work.
 Saves cost to great extent.


Based on function and size, following are the most common types of ad agency −
1. Full Service Agency − It is a bigger firm having whole range of advertising and marketing
2. Interactive Agency − It is a smart ad agency using all latest digital technology. It offers
pretty creative and interactive ad solutions.
3. Creative Boutiques − A smaller sized firm specialized in creative ad services.
4. Media Buying Agency − These sort of agencies buy and manage places for the
advertisement and other sort of campaigns. It also manages the time schedule with the


media to place the ad and supervises the ad to see if it is broadcasted properly on time or
5. In-House Agency − It is a full services agency, usually in-built and works as per the needs
of the organizations.
6. Specialized Ad Agency -There are some ad agencies, which offers only a particular type
of ad service. They are known as specialized agency. They have highly qualified and
subject expert professionals. For example, agency providing financial advertisement,
medicinal advertisement, and advertisement related to social and political issues, etc.


An ad agency provides a whole range of advertisement and marketing solutions. Important of them
are −
 Integrated Ad Service − Provides services starting from strategic planning, creative
designing & development, profound research, and media selection to execution.
 Integrated Media Service − Offers services for both advertisers as well as for media
including print media, electronic media, and digital media. It is a medium between
advertisers and media.
 Marketing Services − Provides a range of marketing solutions including advertising, sales
promotion, campaigning, market research, event marketing, public relations, and many
 Content Services − Provides content for all sorts of events, TV program, animated content,
and for entertainment as well.
 E-Solution − Provides whole range of e-solutions. For example, system integration
services, search engine marketing, e-business consulting & customer relation management,
e-sales promotion, etc.
 Integrated Branding Service − Ensures advertisers and its clients receive branding
service of the highest quality.


“Mr. ‘X’, a celebrity, has served notice for giving false and arbitrary information in ‘y’ ad …”
“Advertiser is sued because of broadcasting absurd or disrespectful ad …”
This sort of news we hear every now and then. More often, to increase the sell and achieve success
in short span of time, some of the businesses/individuals make false promises, use unethical words,
or claim one to be better than their competitors. All these acts are illegal.

Therefore, to avoid disputes or discrepancies, it is necessary to promote reasonable and fair

competition, and protect everyone’s right, dignity, and integrity. For this to happen, rules of
advertisement are legislated.


Code of Ethics defines the legal as well as ethical rules and norms of creating and broadcasting an
ad. It restrains an advertiser to promote any product/service through unreliable, false, and immoral


Such kind of language and information may damage someone’s fundamental right, business
reputation, and can stain their honor and dignity. So, the law prevents any sort of ad that infringes
on public values, norms, and morality.

Further, it also discourages creation of any sort of ad that contains disrespectful comparison with
other similar products (either of same nature or different) to maintain fair competition.


While dealing with an advertisement, the most important point that you need to take care is — you
need to develop a healthy, promising, and long-lasting public relationships.

The purpose of code of ethics is to maintain fair competition and protect the right of every
individual. Code of ethics help advertisers set ethical standards to govern the ways of
communication and develop self-regulatory ads. Ethical norms of advertising restrict ads that make
false claims and are not within the normal standards of decency.


The following type of advertisements are considered as illegal/immoral and prohibited by the law

 False or Misleading Information − Any ad must not contain any sort of claim, which is
false, deceptive, or ambiguous to public. It includes false promises, partial truth,
exaggerated commitment, false price, etc. It is important to know that such kind of content
is not limited only to verbal or written claim, but rather it is also applicable to images,
video, and other sort of demonstration.
 Inaccurate Testimonials − When a person gives his opinion or talks about his experiences
regarding any product/service, he must not give fake information. Law discourages false
and deceptive testimonials.
 Provoking Statements − Any sort of statement, insulting phrase, immoral comparisons,
etc. is prohibited. Insulting phrase includes any sort of disrespectful comment regarding a
race, nationality, profession, cast, sex, social background, age, religion, language, etc.
 Offensive Materials − All material used in an ad such as verbal and textual
communication, audio, video, and images must be decent for the general public. Any
material used in an ad, which is offensive, obscene, or indecent to the common people is
outlawed as per the Standards of Practice.


If someone violates the code of conduct and disseminates unscrupulous ad by any means shall be
liable to damages caused by the immoral or unlawful ad. He may be punished and ordered to pay.
A compensation amount (fixed by the court of law) equal to the harm done by him to the wealth,
health, or life of a person or to any other legal entity.
 A compensation for moral damage.
 A compensation for all sorts of losses.



Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a

product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses
the media campaigns that help sell the product.
Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that
fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an
effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods
and services.

Advertising management begins from the market phase. At this point, the data produced by
marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific
product. Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to
the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also
available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the
outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the
launch of the product.

If you wish to make the advertising effective, always remember to include it from the market
research time. Market research will help to identify the niche segment of the population to which
the product or service has to be targeted from a large population. It will also identify why the niche
segment would opt for the product or service. This information will serve as a guideline for the
preparation of advertising campaigns.

Once the niche segments are identified and the determination of what types of advertising will be
used is done, then the advertising management focuses on creating the specifics for the overall
advertising campaign. If it is a radio campaign, which type of ads would be used, if it is a print
campaign, what write ups and ads will be used, and if it is a television campaign, what type of
commercials will be used.

There might also be a mix and match advertising in which radio might supplement television
advertising and so on. It is important that through advertising management the image is conveyed
that all the strategies complement each other. It should not look to public that the radio advertising
is focusing on something else while television on something else. The whole process in the end
should benefit the product or service.

The role of people designing the advertising campaign is crucial to its success. They have been
trained by seasoned professionals who provide the training in the specific field. Designing an
advertising campaign is no small a task and to understand the consumer behavior from the data
collected from market research is a very important aspect of the campaign.

A whole lot of creativity and inspiration is required to launch an adequate advertising campaign.
In addition, the management skills come into play when the work has to be done keeping the big
picture in mind. It would be fruitful for the company if the advertising campaign lasts well
over the lifetime of a product or service, reach the right customers, and generate the desired


Advertising is the promotion of a company’s products and services though different mediums to
increase the sales of the product and services. It works by making the customer aware of the
product and by focusing on customer’s need to buy the product. Globally, advertising has become
an essential part of the corporate world. Therefore, companies allot a huge part of their revenues
to the advertising budget. Advertising also serves to build a brand of the product which goes a long
way to make effective sales.

There are several branches or types of advertising which can be used by the companies.

Classification of Advertising
Print Advertising - The print media has been used for advertising since long. The newspapers
and magazines are quite popular modes of advertising for different companies all over the world.
Using the print media, the companies can also promote their products through brochures and fliers.
The newspaper and magazines sell the advertising space and the cost depends on several factors.
The quantity of space, the page of the publication, and the type of paper decide the cost of the
advertisement. So an ad on the front page would be costlier than on inside pages. Similarly an ad
in the glossy supplement of the paper would be more expensive than in a mediocre quality paper.

Broadcast Advertising - This type of advertising is very popular all around the world. It consists
of television, radio, or Internet advertising. The ads on the television have a large audience and are
very popular. The cost of the advertisement depends on the length of the ad and the time at which
the ad would be appearing. For example, the prime time ads would be more costly than the regular
ones. Radio advertising is not what it used to be after the advent of television and Internet, but still
there is specific audience for the radio ads too. The radio jingles are quite popular in sections of
society and help to sell the products.

Outdoor Advertising - Outdoor advertising makes use of different tools to gain customer’s
attention. The billboards, kiosks, and events and tradeshows are an effective way to convey the
message of the company. The billboards are present all around the city but the content should be
such that it attracts the attention of the customer. The kiosks are an easy outlet of the products and
serve as information outlets for the people too. Organizing events such as trade fairs and
exhibitions for promotion of the product or service also in a way advertises the product. Therefore,
outdoor advertising is an effective advertising tool.


Covert Advertising - This is a unique way of advertising in which the product or the message is
subtly included in a movie or TV serial. There is no actual ad, just the mention of the product in
the movie. For example, Tom Cruise used the Nokia phone in the movie Minority Report.

Public Service Advertising - As evident from the title itself, such advertising is for the public
causes. There are a host of important matters such as AIDS, political integrity, energy
conservation, illiteracy, poverty and so on all of which need more awareness as far as general
public is concerned. This type of advertising has gained much importance in recent times and is
an effective tool to convey the message.

Print Advertising is a widely used form of advertising. These advertisements appear in

newspapers or magazines and are sometimes included as brochures or fliers. Anything written
in the print media to grab the attention of the specific target audience comes under the purview of
print advertising.

People who read newspapers or other publications have a tendency to browse the print ads that
they come across. The decision to buy the product might not be instantaneous, but it does settle
down in their subconscious mind. Next time they see the product in the market, they are tempted
to buy it.

Print advertisements are only effective when people see them. When people browse through
newspapers and publications, these advertisements should grab the attention of the potential
customer. Therefore, these advertisements should be created in such a manner that they can hold
the attention of the customer to some extent. Usually a team of individuals is required in order to
design the advertisements.

The newspaper or magazine ad should be such that it should compel people to spend money
on the products. This is just what the advertising team does. To create such an ad, the team
members work on a concept and develop the wordings and images of the ad. These wordings and
images are then brought together to form the final ad. Then there are people who deal with the
placement of the ad. They have to make sure that if the client has paid for premium place, they get
the desired exposure. For example, an ad on the first page will get instant attention of the reader
than the ad on the subsequent pages. Likewise, an ad which occupies greater space is likely to get
more attention. All these factors have to be looked into while designing the ad.

The sales team of the publication makes sure that it gets ads regularly. In fact, these ads are a major
source of income for the publication and hence it is expected that there should be a constant flow
of the ads. The sales team does just that.

Mailers are another type of print ads. These can range from well-designed postcards to simple
paper leaflets. These are usually delivered by the postal workers in people’s mailboxes. The
problem with these mailers is that they get least attention and are usually considered as junk and
thrown away even without reading. To reduce this occurrence, companies sometimes make use of
fliers. These are paper ads which are handed over to individuals in person. The logic is that if the


ad is given to people personally, they will pay more attention to it, which is actually true to some

Though print advertising is still very popular, it does take a hit from time to time. For example,
during the recession phase, when people’s budgets were tight, they did not resort to print ads. In
addition, with the advent of Internet, the print ads in the publications have gone down because
Internet has a wider reach online. To overcome this scenario, new strategies have to be developed
by advertisers and the print media. Globally, advertisers keep on developing strategies which
benefit the business of print publications. Therefore, it can be said that print advertising is here to

Broadcast Advertising - Generally speaking, broadcast advertising is radio, television, and

Internet advertising. The commercials aired on radio and televisions are an essential part of
broadcast advertising.

The broadcast media like radio and television reaches a wider audience as opposed to the print
media. The radio and television commercials fall under the category of mass marketing as the
national as well as global audience can be reached through it.

The role of broadcast advertising is to persuade consumers about the benefits of the product. It is
considered as a very effective medium of advertising. The cost of advertising on this channel
depends on the time of the commercial and the specific time at which it is aired. For example, the
cost of an ad in the premium slot will be greater than in any other slot.

A radio ad must be aired several times before it actually sinks in the minds of the consumers. Thus
the frequency of the ad is important. The type of your target audience is also important. Therefore,
one must do a research on which type of audience listens to which channels if they want the ads to
be successful. The voice talent in the commercial should be taken keeping in mind the type of
audience and the type of commercial.

The television advertising is usually considered the advertising for the corporate giant, though
even the small businesses can benefit from it. A strong audio and video combination is a must for
the success of the commercial. But it is also important that the audio and video should function
well without each other. For example, if a person is not viewing the TV but just listening to it, s/he
should get the idea and vice versa.


It is extremely important that whatever has been advertised in the commercial is true. For this
reason, organizations such as Federal Trade Commission (FTC) are there to monitor the
commercials on television and radio. This ensures that the advertisers are not making any false
claims to lure consumers to buy their products.

Most of the radio and television advertisements are paid though there are some public service ads
which can be aired for free. The advertisers usually have to pay for the spot which lasts for 30
seconds. In rare cases, this spot can increase to 60 seconds too.

These days radio and television ads are prepared by advertising agencies for their clients. They
understand the need of the client and make the commercial keeping in mind the current state of
affairs. Broadcast advertising has become a very essential part of marketing in recent times.
Companies allocate specific budget for radio and television ads and make an estimate of how much
revenue they can earn through broadcast advertising. For example, marketing consultants are hired
to determine the return on investment (ROI) for spending on radio and television ads. Sometimes
the marketing consultants of these businesses run sample ads to judge its popularity among the

Internet or online advertising uses the Internet or the World Wide Web for the purpose of
attracting consumers to buy their product and services. Examples of such advertising include ads
on search engine result pages, rich media ads, banner ads, social network advertising, and email
marketing and so on. Online advertising has its benefits, one of them being immediate publishing
of the commercial and the availability of the commercial to a global audience. But along with the
benefits come the disadvantages too. These days, advertisers put distracting flashing banners or
send across email spam messages to the people on a mass scale. This can annoy the consumers
and even the real ads might get ignored in the process. Therefore, ethics in advertising is very
important for it to be successful.

Whatever the mode of advertising, broadcast advertising is an inherent part of any advertising
campaign these days.

Outdoor Advertising communicates the message to the general public through highway
billboards, transit posters and so on. Outdoor advertising is a very important form of
advertising as the ads are huge and are visible to one and all. The important part of the
advertising is that the message to be delivered should be crisp and to the point. Though images can
be used, but they cannot be used in excess. Everything should be presented to the viewer in such
a format so that the viewer’s make up their mind to buy the product or service.

The message to be delivered can be an ad to buy a product, take a trip, vote for a politician, or give
to a charity. According to Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA), millions of
dollars are being spent on outdoor advertising each year and the figures are expected to grow. This
is due to the fact that outdoor traffic keeps on growing every year and hence the target audience
for outdoor advertising is ever increasing.

The print and newspaper advertising takes up a huge part of advertising but outdoor advertising is
unique in its own way. It is an extremely cost-effective method of advertising. All you need to do


is to design a billboard and get it printed as compared to the television advertising where an entire
30 second commercial has to be designed. If the outdoor ads are strategically placed, it can
guarantee substantial exposure for very little cost. That is why outdoor advertising is very cost-

Different industries make use of outdoor advertising in their own different way. For example,
eating joints and eateries on the highway make use of highway billboards to draw the customer to
have a bite and rest a little at their joint. Mac Donald’s and Subway are the excellent examples.
The automobile and tourism industries make use of the billboards to advertise their products and
tourism plans. These are way too successful because of the fact that people on the highway are on
the lookout for such information.

Apart from the billboards, there are several other forms in which outdoor advertising can take
place. For example, beverage companies make use of sporting events and arenas to showcase their
products. For example, Coca Cola was one of the FIFA World Cup sponsors. Other places where
you can see outdoor advertising are:
 Taxicabs
 Buses
 Railways
 Subways and walls on which murals are painted

All these forms of outdoor advertising are very popular and extremely cost effective.

The OAAA has divided the Outdoor Advertising into four major categories: Billboards - These
usually account for almost half of the revenue of outdoor advertising. Then there is transit system
and mobile advertising which also takes up a major pie of outdoor advertising. Advertising on
public furniture is also used comprehensively these days globally. Last but not the least
is alternative advertising. Such advertising can be in the form of corporate blogging which is an
important form of advertising these days.

To conclude, one can say that outdoor advertising, if used wisely is very powerful and cost-
effective way of advertising.

Covert and Public Service Advertising

As evident from the word “covert”, this type of advertising aims to integrate the advertising
with the non-promotional mediums. This practice is most-commonly found in films. For
example, billboards of the products may be shown in the film for a prolonged period of time. Or a
character in the film may mention the name of the brand again and again. At other times the director
may present the product as an integral part of the film. For example, the cars featured in several
action flicks. Remember the Cadillac in Matrix Reloaded and BMWs in James Bond movies.
It is a fact that these tactics seem to be high profile and also seem to require a lot of bucks. Only
established brand names have used such form of advertising. Not everyone has the financial
prowess to use this form of advertising. However, there are ways through which you can also
promote your product or service. Maybe contributing an article in local daily will work well for
you. You can mention your brand quite subtly there. On the Internet too, covert advertising is a


hot trend. You can blog about the product or ask a well-known blogger to write about your product
or service. However, this should be done inconspicuously.

As opposed to covert advertising, public service advertising aims at spreading awareness about
issues that are relevant to public interest. Such ads may quote a political viewpoint, a
philosophy, or a religious concept. Such humanitarian ads are usually broadcasted on the radio or
television, though they can also appear in newspapers and magazines. A PSA or Public Service
Announcement is aimed to alter public attitudes on issues ranging from health, safety, and

Most of the PSA ads use celebrities in order to gain attention. Others focus their ads on the
risks that can come to men, women, and children. In recent years, it has become quite common in
US to broadcast the public service ads just after or in between the programs that relate to public
service in any way. They provide information such as the toll free help lines, websites and
addresses. In general, the public service ads are about rape, HIV, cancer, child abuse, domestic
violence, and civil rights.

While public service advertising is not as popular as paid advertising, it should be given due
importance. All across the world, such type of advertising is now widely used. In fact, in US,
public service advertising was once a requirement if the radio and television stations were to get
their licenses from Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

Public Service Advertising should carry a short and to the point message. The advertisement
should be made keeping the target audience in mind. As it is not about buying a product but a
change in the attitude altogether, the advertisements have to be amply clear and the message should
prompt the people to take a step forward. If the shift in the mindsets of people does not happen,
then the ad is not conveying the message properly. For this reason, the PSA’s are often dramatic
and expressive.


Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the
customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them.
Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types,
with different techniques and methods most suited.

Objectives of Advertising
Four main Objectives of advertising are:
1. Trial
2. Continuity
3. Brand switch
4. Switching back

Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The
trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product
introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers
take a look on the products and purchase for trials.


Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the
product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the
advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.

Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers
of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing
brand they are using to their product.

Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who
have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back
like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.

Basically, advertising is a very artistic way of communicating with the customers. The main
characteristics one should have to get on their objectives are great communication skills and very
good convincing power.

Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing
which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the
traders, or the customer. Advertising is an important part.

Advertising is important for the customers

Just imagine television or a newspaper or a radio channel without an advertisement! No, no one
can any day imagine this. Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers
are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the
market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available
and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit. One more thing is that
advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When
they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so
that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important
for the customers.

Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products
Yes, advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products,
1. Advertising helps increasing sales
2. Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan
accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
3. If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will
make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product
so that the consumers come and try the product.
4. Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after
reaching a mature age.
5. The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and
supply become a never ending process.


Advertising is important for the society
Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with
like child labor, liquor consumption, girl child killing, smoking, family planning education, etc.
thus, advertising plays a very important role in society.


Marketing communications is essentially a part of the marketing mix. The marketing mix defines
the 4Ps of marketing and Promotion is what marketing communications is all about. It is the
message your organization is going to convey to your market. You need to be very particular about
different messages you are going to convey through different mediums.

Traditionally printed marketing was the whole sole method of conveying the messages to the
consumers. However, in recent times, emails, sms, blogs, television and company websites have
become the trendy way of conveying the organization’s message to the consumers. It is important
though that the message you give in one medium should tally with the message provided in other
medium. For example, you should use the same logo in on your website as the one you use in your
email messages. Similarly, your television messages should convey the same message as your
blogs and websites.

For the above reason, people controlling the marketing communication process are very important
for the company. These executives make it an integrated marketing communication process. You
would now understand why it has to be ‘integrated’. The reason is that the messages to be conveyed
through different mediums should be the same.

Let us now look at the marketing communication process. It is very important to have a process in
place because then your advertising will reap proper benefits. There is an old advertising joke “I
know my advertising works, I don’t know which half.” That’s why if the marketing
communication process puts a tab on advertising because companies cannot bear to lose dollars on
wrong type of advertising. Things have to be well-defined and integrated to get maximum

Your marketing communication process would look like:

The marketing communication process identifies where the investments are being done and
what is bringing more return on investment. Therefore, you can alter the advertising campaign
to reap maximum benefits.

The process begins at the strategic development stage. You start by creating a marketing
communications program. At this point, you decide what all will fall in your advertising bracket.
At the next stage, you capture responses of your consumers. These responses are then recorded
and maintained as advertising data. The executives then analyze and evaluate the collected data.
They generate the all-important reports which will help to allocate the integrated marketing and
communications budget.


The integrated marketing communications is a data-driven approach which identifies the consumer
insights and develops a strategy with the right combination of offline and online channels which
should result in a stronger brand-consumer relationship. It has grown manifolds in recent years
due to several shifts in the advertising and media industry. This is the reason why it has developed
into a primary strategy for the developers. Some examples of shifts are from media advertising to
the multiple forms of communication, from general focus advertising to data based marketing and
so on.

Selecting the most important communications elements is crucial for the success of company’s
business. The advertising campaign should be effective across all platforms. Once the integrated
marketing process is set, the company can reap rich dividends from it. These days, there are
companies that specialize in creating the marketing communications process for you. So you can
either do it on your own or take their services. But an effective marketing communication process
is the order of the day!


Consumer communication and persuasion is an essential part of any Marketing Strategy. In

fact, it is the starting point of all improvement as consumer voices provide companies with the
data such as where they are lacking and what all they could do to improve the product or service.

Do all companies listen to the consumer voices? Not really. It is only the ones which have an
effective consumer communication process in place, that are really able to focus on consumer
needs. Are you one of them? Let us take a look at the consumer communication process at Suntory
to understand the Consumer Communication Process.


This company has set up a Customer Centre which takes up all inquiries, complaints, and proposals
from customers. Though most of the queries are answered, the customer voices are sent across to
related departments of the company. These departments analyze the gap between the customer
needs and the products and services. After doing so, the quality improvements are suggested and
the product development takes place in keeping with the customer demands.

Consumer communication should be used effectively to drive maximum benefits to the

company. You must be thinking how. Let us look at few ways which will help you market
effectively even in a downturn.

1. When economy is changing, it is all the more important to get the customer feedback. It is
not a good idea to fill their inboxes and mobiles with promotional messages. More so, you
can use online surveys to understand how they are thinking and what they want. You can
then make changes in your strategies, processes and so on to deliver the product that your
consumers are aiming for.
2. It is just not important to feed information to your consumers. Having a dialogue with them
from time to time is also important. You can use the email marketing newsletters to invite
them for such conversations. Apart from understanding their concerns, showing your
consumers that you care is also very important. This will have far-reaching consequence
and will benefit your company’s image.
3. Try and co-host an event with another local business. This will highlight your product’s
image in a positive manner. This is a kind of customer relationship building activity where
you interact face-to-face with the consumer and show him your expertise.
4. Consumers are becoming more and more environmentally aware these days. Anything
against the environment would put you in a bad light. So focus that your product or service
is following all the environment friendly standards. You can also show your concern by
teaming up with local charity and involving your consumers in the event too.

The above points can also be used for consumer persuasion too. Face-to-face meetings are more
effective in persuading people to buy your stuff. People can judge easily whether what you are
saying has substance or not. Therefore, try your level best to portray the positive image of your
product in a positive fashion. Once you learn the essence of consumer communication, you would
never have to look back.


Companies make investment in understanding consumer behaviour and implementing strategies,

which will help them, retain customers.

Consumers can be categorized as an individual consumer and organizational/industrial consumers.

Understanding their behaviour and buying pattern is important in ultimate survival of companies
in the market place.

Consumer behaviour consists of activities/process followed in making any buying decision of

goods as well as a service. In recent time service (holiday, travel, etc.), decisions are forming
large part of consumer behaviour.


One thing needs to be highlighted here is that consumer behaviour does not end with purchase of
goods or service, but also post purchase activities are included in consumer behaviour.

Consumer behaviour and consumption behaviour are two different concepts developed and cannot
be used as a substitute. Consumer behaviour deals with the process of an individual or organization
in coming to the purchase decision, whereas consumption behaviour is a study focus on consuming
unit or service.

Furthermore, there is a difference between consumer behaviour and buying behaviour. Consumer
behaviour as highlighted before talks about process and actions taken by the final or end users
whereas buyer behaviour looks at intermediate users (who add value to goods and service) and
final users.

Understanding of the consumer behaviour begins with study of the consumer buying process.
Consumer buying process is five step activities. The starting with need recognition, which leads
to information search, once information is obtained from different sources next step, is
the evaluation and intent where in consumer evaluates various parameters of the product or
service. The next step in five-step activity is the purchase decision where in intent is converted
into an actual purchase of the good or the service. The final step is post-purchase reaction where
in customer if she is satisfied with goods or services recommends to other prospective customers
or repeat the purchase. If the customer is not happy with purchase, a bad word of mouth follows,
and she looks for alternative product or service.

Three factors are identified as determinants to consumer behaviour namely economic

determinants, psychological determinant and sociological determinant. Economic Determinants
are personal income (individual’s purchasing power), family income (total purchasing power of
the family), the future income expectations (expected increase or decrease in availability of
disposable income), availability of liquid asset (asset, which can be converted to cash), consumer
market credit (if market conditions are good credit easily available) and social class (effluent class,
upper-middle class, middle class, etc.).

In compare the industrial buying process is much more formal process done according to pre-
defined policy and norms. The key features of organization buying are it’s a formal and
standardized process, it is done in large quantities and may be done at periodic intervals of time,
and decision-making process usually involves more than one individual.

As there are determinants for consumer behaviour, similar industrial buying behaviour has its own
set of determinants, which are overall objectives of the organization, technological capabilities of
the organization which consist of information systems and network capabilities and finally
organization structure, which includes its capital and number of employees.

From above it can be comprehended that consumer behaviour is important factor in

determining marketing policies.


Every work to be done needs a plan of action so that the work is done in a desired and correct
manner. Media Strategy plays a very important role in Advertising. The role of Media Strategy is
to find out the right path to transfer or say deliver the message to the targeted customers.

How many people see or hear or read all the advertisements or promotional offers and buy the
product or service? The basic intention of media strategy is not only procuring customers for their
product but also placing a right message to the right people on the right time and of course that
message should be persuasive and relevant. So, here the planners of the organization decide the
Media Strategy to be used but keeping the budget always in mind.

The Media Strategy process has three “W”s to be decided. They are
Where to advertise?
When to advertise?
What media type to use?

Where is the place for showing or delivering advertisement? In short it means the geographical
area from where it should be visible to the customers who use or are most likely to use the product
or services offered. The place does not mean only TV or radio but it can also be newspapers, blogs,
sponsorships, hoardings on roads, ads in the movie break in theatres, etc. The area varies from
place to place like it can be on national basis, state basis and for local brands it can be on city basis.

When is the timing to show or run advertisement? For e.g. you cannot show a raincoat ad in
the winter season but you need to telecast ad as soon as the summer season is coming to an end
and rainy season is just about to begin. The ad should be delivered with perfect timing when most
customers are like to buy the product. The planners need to plan it keeping the budget in mind as
the maximum of 20% of revenues of the company can be used in the advertisement section.
Different products have different time length for advertisements. Some products need yearlong
ads as they have nothing to do with seasonal variations e.g. small things like biscuits, soaps, pens,
etc. and big services like vehicle insurance, refrigerators, etc. Some products need for three or four
months. E.g. umbrellas, cold creams, etc. So the planners have to plan the budget according to the
time length so that there is no short of money at any time in this process.

What type of media is to be used for delivering the message?

There are basically two media approaches to choose from.
1. Media Concentration Approach
2. Media Dispersion Approach

In media concentration approach, the number of categories of media is less. The money is spent
on concentrating on only few media types say two or three. This approach is generally used for
those companies who are not very confident and have to share the place with the other competitors.
They don’t want anyone to get confused with their brand name so this is the safest approach as the
message reaches the target consumers.

In media dispersion approach, there is more number of categories of media used to advertise.
This approach is considered and practiced by only those people who know that a single or two


types of media will not reach their target. They place their product ads in many categories like TV,
radio, internet, distributing pamphlets, sending messages to mobiles, etc.


Whichever category is selected by the planners of the organization, they should select a proper
media to convey their message.

If the product is for a big amount of customers then a mass media option can be selected like TV,
radio or newspaper. The best examples for this type are detergent ads, children health drinks and
major regular used products such as soap, shampoo, toothpastes etc.

If the planners want to change the mind of people doing window shopping or just doing shopping
for sake of name, then point of purchase type can be opted by the company. This helps the company
to explain their point to the buyers and convince the buyers to go for their product.

If the planners want to sell their product on one to one basis, then the third option is direct response
type. Here, the company people directly contact the customers via emails, text messages, phone
calls or meeting for giving demos. The best example of this type of media is the Life cell Cord
Blood Banking. They go to their customers, explain them what it is all about and try to convince

Thus, this process of media strategy plays an important and vital role in the field of Advertising.


“The work of a tailor is to collect the raw material, find matching threads, cut the cloth in desired
shape, finally stitch the cloth and deliver it to the customer.”

Advertising Agency is just like a tailor. It creates the ads, plans how, when and where it should be
delivered and hands it over to the client. Advertising agencies are mostly not dependent on any

These agencies take all the efforts for selling the product of the clients. They have a group of
people expert in their particular fields, thus helping the companies or organizations to reach their
target customer in an easy and simple way.

The first Advertising Agency was William Taylor in 1786 followed by James “Jem” White in 1800
in London and Reynell & Son in 1812.


 Creating an advertise on the basis of information gathered about product

 Doing research on the company and the product and reactions of the customers.
 Planning for type of media to be used, when and where to be used, and for how much time
to be used.


 Taking the feedbacks from the clients as well as the customers and then deciding the further
line of action.
All companies can do this work by themselves. They can make ads, print or advertise them on
televisions or other media places; they can manage the accounts also. Then why do they need
advertising agencies? The reasons behind hiring the advertising agencies by the companies are:
 The agencies are expert in this field. They have a team of different people for different
functions like copywriters, art directors, planners, etc.
 The agencies make optimum use of these people, their experience and their knowledge.
 They work with an objective and are very professionals.
 Hiring them leads in saving the costs up to some extent.


1. Full Service Agencies

 Large Size Agencies
 Deals with all stages of advertisement
 Different expert people for different departments
 Starts work from gathering data and analyzing and ends on payment of bills to the media

2. Interactive Agencies
 Modernized modes of communication are used.
 Uses online advertisements, sending personal messages on mobile phones, etc.
 The ads produced are very interactive, having very new concepts, and very innovative.

3. Creative Boutiques
 Very creative and innovative ads
 No other function is performed other than creating actual ads.
 Small sized agencies with their own copywriters, directors, and creative people.

4. Media Buying Agencies

 Buys place for advertise and sells it to the advertisers.
 Sells time in which advertisement will be placed.
 Schedules slots at different television channels and radio stations.
 Finally supervises or checks whether the ad has been telecasted at opted time and place or

5. In-House Agencies
 As good as the full service agencies
 Big organization prefers this type of agencies which are in built and work only for them.
 These agencies work as per the requirements of the organizations.
 There are some specialized agencies which work for some special advertisements. These
types of agencies need people of special knowledge in that field. For example,
advertisements showing social messages, finance advertisements, medicine related ads,



“Every coin has two sides”

Advertising is praised but also criticized by critics in their own ways. Advertising has many
positive impacts along with its negative pictures. As the President of American Association of
Advertising Agencies, John O’ Toole has described advertise is something else. It is not related to
studies, but it educates. It is not a journalist but gives all information. And it is not an entertaining
device but entertains everyone.


Value of Products:
The advertised products are not always the best products in the market. There are some
unadvertised products also present which are good enough. But advertising helps increase value
for the products by showing the positive image of the product which in turn helps convincing
customers to buy it. Advertising educates consumers about the uses of the products hence
increasing its value in minds of the consumers. For e.g. mobile phones were first considered as
necessity but nowadays the cell phones come with number of features which makes them mode of
convenience for consumers.

Effect on Prices:
Some advertised products do cost more than unadvertised products but the vice versa is also true.
But if there is more competition in the market for those products, the prices have to come down,
for e.g., canned juices from various brands. Thus some professional like chartered accountants and
doctors are not allowed to advertise.

But some products do not advertise much, and they don’t need much of it and even their prices are
high but they are still the leaders in market as they have their brand name. e.g., Porsche cars
Effect on consumer demand and choices:

Even if the product is heavily advertised, it does not mean that the demand or say consumption
rates will also increase. The product has to be different with better quality, and more variety than
others. For E.g., Kellogg’s cornflakes have variety of flavors with different ranges to offer for
different age groups and now also for people who want to lose weight thus giving consumers
different choices to select from.

Effect on Business Cycle:

Advertising no doubt helps in employing more number of people. It increases the payrolls of
people working in this field. It helps collecting more revenues for sellers which they use for
betterment of product and services. But there are some bad effects of advertisements on business
cycle also. Sometimes, consumer may find the foreign product better than going for the national
brand. This will definitely effect the production which may in turn affect the GDP of the country.

The economic aspects are supported by the Abundance Principle which says producing more
products and services than the consumption rate which helps firstly keeping consumers informed


about the options they have and secondly helps sellers for playing in healthy and competitive
atmosphere with their self-interest.


There are some positive and some negative aspects of advertising on the social ground. They are
as follows.

Deception in Advertising:

The relation between the buyers and sellers is maintained if the buyers are satisfied with what they
saw in advertise and what they got after buying that product. If seller shows a false or deceptive
image and an exaggerated image of the product in the advertisement, then the relation between the
seller and buyers can’t be healthy. These problems can be overcome if the seller keep their ads
clean and displays right image of the product.

The Subliminal Advertising:

Capturing the Minds of the consumers is the main intention of these ads. The ads are made in such
a way that the consumers don’t even realizes that the ad has made an impact on their minds and
this results in buying the product which they don’t even need. But “All ads don’t impress all
consumers at all times”, because majority of consumers buy products on basis of the price and

Effect on Our Value System:

The advertisers use puffing tactics, endorsements from celebrities, and play emotionally, which
makes ads so powerful that the consumers like helpless preys buy those products.

These ads make poor people buy products which they can’t afford, people picking up bad habits
like smoking and drinking, and buy products just because their favorite actor endorsed that
product. This affects in increased the cost of whole society and loss of values of our own selves.


Some ads are so offensive that they are not acceptable by the buyers. For example, the ads of denim
jeans showed girls wearing very less clothes and making a sex appeal. These kinds of ads are
irrelevant to the actual product. But then there are some ads which are educative also and now
accepted by people. Earlier ads giving information about birth control pills was considered
offensive but now the same ads are considered educative and important.

But at the last, there are some great positive aspects which help:
 Development of society and growth of technologies
 Employment
 Gives choices to buyers with self interest
 Welcomes healthy competition


 Improving standard of living.
 Give information on social, economic and health issues.


“Mass demand has been created almost entirely through the development of Advertising” Calvin
Coolidge in the New York Public Library.

For the development of advertising and to get best results one need to follow the advertising
process step by step.

The following are the steps involved in the process of advertising:

Step 1 - Briefing: the advertiser needs to brief about the product or the service which has to be
advertised and doing the SWOT analysis of the company and the product.

Step 2 - Knowing the Objective: one should first know the objective or the purpose of
advertising. i.e. what message is to be delivered to the audience?

Step 3 - Research: this step involves finding out the market behavior, knowing the competitors,
what type of advertising they are using, what is the response of the consumers, availability of the
resources needed in the process, etc.

Step 4 - Target Audience: the next step is to identify the target consumers most likely to buy the
product. The target should be appropriately identified without any confusion. For e.g. if the product
is a health drink for growing kids, then the target customers will be the parents who are going to
buy it and not the kids who are going to drink it.

Step 5 - Media Selection: now that the target audience is identified, one should select an
appropriate media for advertising so that the customers who are to be informed about the product
and are willing to buy are successfully reached.

Step 6 - Setting the Budget: then the advertising budget has to be planned so that there is no short
of funds or excess of funds during the process of advertising and also there are no losses to the

Step 7 - Designing and Creating the Ad: first the design that is the outline of ad on papers is
made by the copywriters of the agency, and then the actual creation of ad is done with help of the
art directors and the creative personnel of the agency.

Step 8 - Perfection: then the created ad is re-examined and the ad is redefined to make it perfect
to enter the market.

Step 9 - Place and Time of Ad: the next step is to decide where and when the ad will be shown.


The place will be decided according to the target customers where the ad is most visible clearly to
them. The finalization of time on which the ad will be telecasted or shown on the selected media
will be done by the traffic department of the agency.

Step 10 - Execution: finally the advertise is released with perfect creation, perfect placement and
perfect timing in the market.

Step 11 - Performance: the last step is to judge the performance of the ad in terms of the response
from the customers, whether they are satisfied with the ad and the product, did the ad reached all
the targeted people, was the advertise capable enough to compete with the other players, etc. Every
point is studied properly and changes are made, if any.

If these steps are followed properly then there has to be a successful beginning for the product in
the market.


Today every company needs to advertise its product to inform the customers about the product,
increase the sales, acquire market value, and gain reputation and name in the industry. Every
business spends lot of money for advertising their products but the money spent will lead to success
only when the best techniques of advertising are used for the product.

So here are some very common and most used techniques used by the advertisers to get
desired results.

1. Emotional Appeal
This technique of advertising is done with help of two factors - needs of consumers and fear
factor. Most common appeals under need are:
 need for something new
 need for getting acceptance
 need for not being ignored
 need for change of old things
 need for security
 need to become attractive
Most common appeals under fear are:
 fear of accident
 fear of death
 fear of being avoided
 fear of getting sick
 fear of getting old, etc.

2. Promotional Advertising
This technique involves giving away samples of the product for free to the consumers. The
items are offered in the trade fairs, promotional events, and ad campaigns in order to gain the
attention of the customers.


3. Bandwagon Advertising
This type of technique involves convincing the customers to join the group of people who have
bought this product and be on the winning side.

4. Facts and Statistics

Here, advertisers use numbers, proofs, and real examples to show how good their product
works. For e.g. “Lysol floor cleaner cleans 99.99% germs” or “Colgate is recommended by
70% of the dentists of the world” - just 6 seconds.

5. Unfinished Ads
The advertisers here just play with words by saying that their product works better but don’t
answer how much more than the competitor. For e.g. Lays - no one can eat just one or Horlicks
- more nutrition daily. The ads don’t say who can eat more or how much more nutrition.

6. Weasel Words
In this technique, the advertisers don’t say that they are the best from the rest, but don’t also
deny. E.g. Sunsilk Hairfall Solution - reduces hairfall. The ad doesn’t say stops hairfall.

7. Endorsements
The advertisers use celebrities to advertise their products. The celebrities or star endorse the
product by telling their own experiences with the product.

8. Complementing the Customers

Here, the advertisers used punch lines which complement the consumers who buy their
products. E.g. Revlon says “Because you are worth it.”

9. Ideal Family and Ideal Kids

The advertisers using this technique show that the families or kids using their product are a
happy go lucky family. The ad always has a neat and well-furnished home, well-mannered
kids and the family is a simple and sweet kind of family. E.g. a Dettol soap ad shows everyone
in the family using that soap and so is always protected from germs. They show a florescent
color line covering whole body of each family member when compared to other people who
don’t use this soap.

10. Patriotic Advertisements

These ads show how one can support their country while he uses their product or service. For
e.g. some products together formed a union and claimed in their ad that if you buy any one of
these products, you are going to help a child to go to school. One more cellular company ad
had a celebrity showing that if the customers use this company’s sim card, then they can help
control population of the country.

11. Questioning the Customers

The advertisers using this technique ask questions to the consumers to get response for their
products. E.g. Amway advertisement keeps on asking questions like who has so many farms
completely organic in nature, who gives the strength to climb up the stairs at the age of 70,


who makes the kids grow in a proper and nutritious ways, is there anyone who is listening to
these entire questions. And then at last the answer comes - “Amway: We are listening.”

12. Bribe
This technique is used to bribe the customers with something extra if they buy the product
using lines like “buy one shirt and get one free”, or “be the member for the club for two years
and get 20% off on all services.”

13. Surrogate Advertising

This technique is generally used by the companies which cannot advertise their products
directly. The advertisers use indirect advertisements to advertise their product so that the
customers know about the actual product. The biggest example of this technique is liquor
ads. These ads never show anyone drinking actual liquor and in place of that they are shown
drinking some mineral water, soft drink or soda.

These are the major techniques used by the advertisers to advertise their product. There are some
different techniques used for online advertising such as web banner advertising in which a banner
is placed on web pages, content advertising using content to advertise the product online, link
advertising giving links on different sites to directly visit the product website, etc.


“Money does matter a lot.”

Advertising Budget is the amount of money which can be or has to be spent on advertising
of the product to promote it, reach the target consumers and make the sales chart go on the
upper side and give reasonable profits to the company.

Before finalizing the advertising budget of an organization or a company, one has to take a look
on the favorable and unfavorable market conditions which will have an impact on the advertising
budget. The market conditions to watch out for are as follows:
 Frequency of the Advertisement
 Competition and Clutter
 Market Share of the Product
 Product Life Cycle Stage

Frequency of the Advertisement

This means the number of times advertise has been shown with the description of the product or
service, in the granted time slots. So here, if any company needs more advertising frequency for
its product, then the company will have to increase its advertising budget.

Competition and Clutter

The companies may have many competitors for its product. And also there are plenty of
advertisements shown which is called clutter. The company has to then increase their advertising


Market Share
To get a good market share in comparison to their competitors, the company should have a better
product in terms of quality, uniqueness, demand and catchy advertisements with resultant response
of the customers. All this is possible if the advertisement budget is high.

Product Life Cycle Stage

If the company is a newcomer or if the product is on its introduction stage, then the company has
to keep the budget high to make place in the market with the existing players and to have frequent
advertisements. As the time goes on and product becomes older, the advertising budget can come
down as then the product doesn’t need frequent advertising.

When the market conditions are studied thoroughly, then the company has to set up its advertising
budget accordingly. For setting advertising budget, there are three methods:

1. Percentage of Sales: In this method, the budget is decided on the basis of the sales of the
product from previous year records or from the predicted future sales. This is a pure
prediction based method and best applicable to the companies which have fixed annual
sales. But if in case there is a requirement for more promotional activities then this method
has a disadvantage because there will be decrease in advertisements as the budget is fixed.

2. Affordability: this method is generally used by the small companies. Only the companies
which have funds and can afford advertising opt for this method. The companies can go
for advertising at any time in whole year whenever they have money to spend. The amount
spent also varies from time to time as per the advertisements takes place.

3. Best guess: This method is basically for newcomers who have just entered the market and
they have no knowledge or say they are not aware of how the market is and how much to
spend on advertising. Thus, this method is applied by the higher level executives of the
company as they are the only experienced people. Thus, doing the homework and then
moving forward, i.e. searching for best market conditions and setting the best advertising
budget will have a great impact on improvement and development of the company.


Advertising campaigns are the groups of advertising messages which are similar in nature. They
share same messages and themes placed in different types of medias at some fixed times. The time
frames of advertising campaigns are fixed and specifically defined.
The very prime thing before making an ad campaign is to know-

Why you are advertising and what are you advertising?

Why refers to the objective of advertising campaign. The objective of an advertising campaign is
to 1) Inform people about your product 2) Convince them to buy the product 3) Make your product
available to the customers


1. Research: first step is to do a market research for the product to be advertised. One needs
to find out the product demand, competitors, etc.


2. Know the target audience: one need to know who are going to buy the product and who
should be targeted.

3. Setting the budget: the next step is to set the budget keeping in mind all the factors like
media, presentations, paper works, etc. which have a role in the process of advertising and
the places where there is a need of funds.

4. Deciding a proper theme: the theme for the campaign has to be decided as in the colors
to be used, the graphics should be similar or almost similar in all ads, the music and the
voices to be used, the designing of the ads, the way the message will be delivered, the
language to be used, jingles, etc.

5. Selection of media: the media or number of Medias selected should be the one which will
reach the target customers.

6. Media scheduling: the scheduling has to be done accurately so that the ad will be visible
or be read or be audible to the targeted customers at the right time.

7. Executing the campaign: finally the campaign has to be executed and then the feedback
has to be noted.

Mostly used media tools are print media and electronic media. Print media includes newspaper,
magazines, pamphlets, banners, and hoardings. Electronic media includes radio, television, e-
mails, sending message on mobiles, and telephonic advertising. The only point to remember is
getting a proper frequency for the ad campaign so that the ad is visible and grasping time for
customers is good enough.

All campaigns do not have fix duration. Some campaigns are seasonal and some run all year round.
All campaigns differ in timings. Some advertising campaigns are media based, some are area
based, some are product based, and some are objective based. It is seen that generally advertising
campaigns run successfully, but in case if the purpose is not solved in any case, then the theory is
redone, required changes are made using the experience, and the remaining campaign is carried


Scheduling directly refers to the patterns of time in which the advertisement is going to run. It
helps fixing up the time slots according to the advertiser so that the message to be delivered will
reach target audience in a proper way with proper timings. There are basically three models of
advertising scheduling as follows:

1. Continuity: This model is very good option for the products or services which don’t
depend on season for advertisements. They run ads whole year round. The advertisements
under this type run at regular and fixed intervals. The main advantage here is reminding
about your products to the customers continuously. This model helps maintain a continuous


and complete purchase cycle. This is a best model for the products having continuous
demand all the year round. There can be a Rising Continuity in which some specific
products are been advertised in the peak seasons for e.g. floaters are advertised more in
rainy season while some products fall under a Falling Continuity in which either ads for
new products are run or if there is any other change in the existing product. E.g. packaging
of Pediasure, a kid’s health drink is recently changed.

2. Flighting: This model is also called bursting. As the name suggests, this an absolute season
based products model. The ads here run at very irregular intervals. Advertisements are for
very shorter periods and sometimes no ads at all. The ads are in concentrated forms. So,
the biggest advantage here is there is very less waste of funds as the ads run only at the
peak time when the product demand is on high. Television and radio are the most used
media types in this method. So the advertisers who cannot afford the yearlong ads, this is
a best option.

3. Pulsing: This model is the combination of both continuity and flighting scheduling. Here,
ads run whole year round but at a lower side that means fewer ads, and heavy
advertisements are preferred at the peak time. So this model has advantages of both the
other models. Generally scheduling is fixed for a month. There are six types of scheduling
method here.
 Steady pulse has fixed schedule for 12 months.
 Seasonal pulse has bunches of ads season wise.
 Period pulse regular basis ads.
 Erratic pulse refers to irregular ads normally used for changing old patterns.
 Start-up pulse is used for new product with heavy advertisements.
 Promotional pulse refers to short period single use ads used basically for promoting
products or events.

Thus, points to remember while scheduling an advertisement are:

 Selecting a proper media type for running ads
 Selecting a correct time for running ads so that the purpose is solved.
 Advertisements should be sufficient enough (in number) to deliver the message to the
 Industrial Advertising - Business to Business Advertising

The most popular terminology used for industrial advertising is Business to Business advertising.
This type of advertising generally includes a company advertising its products or services for the
companies which actually uses same or similar products or services or we can say that the
advertising company should produce the products which the other company needs for its
productions or functions. For e.g. some mineral water companies which work on a smaller scale
outsource the packaging bottles, the caps for bottles, the cover with name printed on it, etc. so for
this, the advertisements of the manufacturers of bottles, caps and outer packaging paper can work.

A smaller to smaller and largest of all, every company has to do industrial advertising. For e.g. if
a company is making coffee powder, it will sell its powder to the distributors who in turn will sale
it to the retailers and wholesalers and also to the big companies who has a coffee machine for their


employees. Thus companies manufacturing any products can be advertised to the other companies,
like raw materials, the machineries used by other companies, spare parts of the machines which
makes it work, anything.

Role of Industrial Advertising

 It minimizes the hunt for buyers.
 It helps in increasing sales of the company.
 It helps in making more and more distribution channels.
 It makes company work more efficiently to produce the desired product or service.
 It creates awareness among the customers or other companies about the products and

Process of Industrial Advertising

The strategies used in industrial advertising differ from company to company, as different
companies have different products to be advertised. So, a single rule cannot work for all the
companies’ advertisements. But the basic process which can lead to a successful advertisement is:
knowing the objective for advertising - identifying the target companies - researching about the
market conditions and the competitors - creating the ad to be delivered - selecting media to be used
- what should be the budget allotted - execution of the advertisement - getting the feedbacks from
the customers.

Media types in Industrial Advertising

The media generally used in the industrial advertising is print media and direct marketing.

Print Media includes business magazines, trade publications, newspapers, technical journals, etc.

To make print media work efficiently, there are some do’s and don’ts to be kept in mind:
 Visual image of the ad should be very sharp and prominent
 The ad should be so impressive that readers get attracted towards reading it
 The highlight should be on the service or product offered and not the source by which it is
being offered
 Let the ad be simple to be read (with no difficult fonts)
 The picture shown should not be irrelevant with the product.
 The ad should reflect the company’s image.


 The ad should to be in logical sequence if it is of two or more pages.
 Headlines should be catchy and suiting the product image.
 And lastly, at the bottom of the page, the company name, address and phone number of the
respected office should be mentioned clearly without fail.

Direct Marketing includes:

 Direct Mail - here, the newsletters, data sheets, and the brochures of the company are
directly mailed to the customers’ postal address.

 Telephonic Advertising - the advertising is done by calling up the customers on there

telephones, giving messages on mobile phones, etc.

 Online Advertising - includes companies sending e-mails to the customers or other

companies enclosing information about their products and services, putting online banners,
providing e-shopping options, etc.

The advertisers also use other ways for promoting their products like participating in trade shows,
trade expos, and fairs.

Thus, the companies can use any or every type of advertising, the important motto being increase
in sales, producing best quality products, maintaining good relations with the customers, and
achieving the desired goal.


Ethics means a set of moral principles which govern a person’s behavior or how the activity is
conducted. And advertising means a mode of communication between a seller and a buyer.

Thus ethics in advertising means a set of well-defined principles which govern the ways of
communication taking place between the seller and the buyer. Ethics is the most important
feature of the advertising industry. Though there are many benefits of advertising but then there
are some points which don’t match the ethical norms of advertising.

An ethical ad is the one which doesn’t lie, doesn’t make fake or false claims and is in the limit
of decency.
Nowadays, ads are more exaggerated and a lot of puffing is used. It seems like the advertisers lack
knowledge of ethical norms and principles. They just don’t understand and are unable to decide
what is correct and what is wrong.

The main area of interest for advertisers is to increase their sales, gain more and more customers,
and increase the demand for the product by presenting a well decorated, puffed and colorful ad.
They claim that their product is the best, having unique qualities than the competitors, more cost
effective, and more beneficial. But most of these ads are found to be false, misleading customers
and unethical. The best example of these types of ads is the one which shows evening snacks for
the kids, they use coloring and gluing to make the product look glossy and attractive to the


consumers who are watching the ads on television and convince them to buy the product without
giving a second thought.

Ethics in Advertising is directly related to the purpose of advertising and the nature of
advertising. Sometimes exaggerating the ad becomes necessary to prove the benefit of the
product. For e.g. a sanitary napkin ad which shows that when the napkin was dropped in a river by
some girls, the napkin soaked whole water of the river. Thus, the purpose of advertising was only
to inform women about the product quality. Obviously, every woman knows that this cannot
practically happen but the ad was accepted. This doesn’t show that the ad was unethical.

Ethics also depends on what we believe. If the advertisers make the ads on the belief that the
customers will understand, persuade them to think, and then act on their ads, then this will lead to
positive results and the ad may not be called unethical. But at the same time, if advertisers believe
that they can fool their customers by showing any impractical things like just clicking fingers will
make your home or office fully furnished or just buying a lottery ticket will make you a millionaire,
then this is not going to work out for them and will be called as unethical.
Recently, the Vatican issued an article which says ads should follow three moral principles -
Truthfulness, Social Responsibility and Upholding Human Dignity.

Generally, big companies never lie as they have to prove their points to various ad regulating
bodies. Truth is always said but not completely. Sometimes it is better not to reveal the whole truth
in the ad but at times truth has to be shown for betterment.

Pharmaceutical Advertising - they help creating awareness, but one catchy point here is that the
advertisers show what the medicine can cure but never talk about the side effects of that same thing
or the risks involved in intake of it.

Children - children are the major sellers of the ads and the product. They have the power to
convince the buyers. But when advertisers are using children in their ad, they should remember
not to show them alone doing their work on their own like brushing teeth, playing with toys, or
infants holding their own milk bottles as everyone knows that no one will leave their kids
unattended while doing all these activities. So showing parents also involved in all activities or
things being advertised will be more logical.

Alcohol - till today, there hasn’t come any liquor ad which shows anyone drinking the original
liquor. They use mineral water and sodas in their advertisements with their brand name. These
types of ads are called surrogate ads. These types of ads are totally unethical when liquor ads are
totally banned. Even if there are no advertisements for alcohol, people will continue drinking.

Cigarettes and Tobacco - these products should be never advertised as consumption of these
things is directly and badly responsible for cancer and other severe health issues. These as are
already banned in countries like India, Norway, Thailand, Finland and Singapore.

Ads for social causes - these types of ads are ethical and are accepted by the people. But ads like
condoms and contraceptive pills should be limited, as these are sometimes unethical, and are more


likely to lose morality and decency at places where there is no educational knowledge about all
these products.

Looking at all these above mentioned points, advertisers should start taking responsibility of self-
regulating their ads by:

 Design self-regulatory codes in their companies including ethical norms, truth, decency,
and legal points
 Keep tracking the activities and remove ads which don’t fulfill the codes.
 Inform the consumers about the self-regulatory codes of the company
 Pay attention on the complaints coming from consumers about the product ads.
 Maintain transparency throughout the company and system.
 When all the above points are implemented, they will result in:
 Making the company answerable for all its activities
 Will reduce the chances of getting pointed out by the critics or any regulatory body.
 Will help gain confidence of the customers; make them trust the company and their


“When a child writes the examination papers, he has to see the result come what it may be, so that
he comes to know where he is wrong and where he should pay more attendance. This will help him
work better in future.”

This is exactly the case of the advertisement. The work is not complete if the effectiveness of
advertise is not measured. This is the only way to know how the advertisement is performing, is it
reaching the targets and is the goal achieved.

It is not at all possible to measure advertisement effectiveness accurately as there are many factors
like making a brand image, increasing the sales, keeping people informed about the product,
introducing new product, etc., which affect the effectiveness of an advertisement.
We all know that there are some companies who advertise at very low level but still their products
are a hit and some companies indulge in very heavy advertisements but they don’t get desirable
results. But then, there are some traditional and modern tools to measure most of the effectiveness
of an advertisement through which the advertiser can or may get more and more information about
how their ads and product are performing in the market. According to Philip Kotler and Armstrong,
the Gurus of Marketing, there are two most popular areas which need to be measured for knowing
the effectiveness of advertisement and they are:
 Communication Effect
 Sales Effect

Communication Effect Research consists of three types of researches:

 Direct Rating Method - here, customers are directly asked to rate the advertisement and
then these rating are calculated.


 Portfolio Tests - here, the customers see the ads and listen carefully to the ads and all the
contents of the ads and then they are asked to recall the ad and the contents. Then the
calculations are done with help of this data.

 Laboratory tests - here, the apparatus to measure the heart rates, blood pressure,
perspiration, etc. are used on the customer after he watches the ad, to know the
physiological reactions of the body.

Sales Effect Research totally depends on the sales of the company. The sales keep varying from
time to time. There are some factors affecting sales like product availability, the price of the
product, contents of the product, and sometimes the competitors. So this method is a little difficult
than the communication one. The company doing sales effect research generally bothers about the
sales of the product, they try to know whether or not the money they are spending on the ads is
enough or excess.

As earlier said, it is not possible to measure each and everything and the chances are at the lower
end if the company has many ads running through various mediums at the same time. So
suggestion is that the advertiser or the company should use appropriate and different methods
which are most suitable for the media under use.

The company can hold surveys and product recognition tests:

 Questionnaire or feedback flyers can be distributed and customers could be asked to fill it
 Toll free number can be highlighted on the ads so that customers can call up.
 The response rates can be increased by telling customers what to do. For e.g. some ads
have lines in flashy color like “Hurry Up” or “No one can eat just one” or “be the first” etc.

These are the traditional ways. Nowadays, internet is the modern tool for measuring the
effectiveness of an advertisement. There are some types such as:

Integrated Direct Marketing

This is an internet based tool where they have a response corner designed on the websites.
Whenever the customers visit the sites, they fill up their contact details and give feedbacks. Thus
the company supplies more information and sends newsletters and also gets the idea for further
action. But then it is not that only online advertiser have this facility but then advertisers who don’t
work online can use coupons, discount vouchers, etc. to do this.

Analysis Tool
There is an analysis tool available on internet by using which the advertiser will know how many
customers are visiting the site, who are shopping online, how many pages are viewed, etc. which
in turn will help advertiser to measure the effectiveness.

Internet is the most easy, cheaper and cost effective way to measure the effectiveness because here
no money is wasted as the ad is only viewed when the customer want to view it where as in normal
print method or using TV, the ad sometimes goes unwatched or unattended and viewed for the
sake of viewing.


Advertising Myths - Ifs and Buts of the Advertising Industry
Advertising is considered as the best tool to make people aware of the product a company wants
to sell. This is the best way to communicate with the audience and to inform them about the product
but with a proper media selection and of course timing. But there are some myths which have been
creating problems in the path of successful advertising. We have tried to clarify some
misinterpretations about the if’s and but’s of the advertising industry.

Advertising Myths
Advertising works only for some business?
Wrong. Advertising works for each and every company or business it only it is executed properly.
But due to bad advertising, many ad campaigns fail to work in desired way and the people think
that advertisements are not their cup of tea. They must understand one simple rule of advertising -
it should be for right people at right time through right medium on right place.

Advertising is only needed when business is slow.

Wrong. Who said that the big and successful brands don’t advertise their products? Advertising is
a continuous process with some renovations whenever needed. But, yes, when the business really
is going slow or at its low, the advertising will have to be heavy and more in number. This will
help the product to improve its market value and make people aware of the product.

If the product is not selling, advertise it.

This is just not true. Just think about it. If you are selling a product which is not at all in vogue,
and no one is using it, how will it get clear from the shelf? You need to understand the need of
customers and then sell the product. Advertise doesn’t mean selling anything you want but it means
selling what customers wants.

Advertise Creates Needs

No. The people already had cassettes to play and listen to music they liked when they didn’t have
the option of CDs. It is technology which came in, and it was only then CDs were advertised and
sold. Advertise only replaces the old things with new, it doesn’t creates needs.

Advertise Effects Persist For Decades

It’s the quality of the product which persists. Advertise no doubt helps increasing sales of the
product and stays in memory of the people, but minds are captured by the product itself.

Humor in Ads
Sometimes humor gets in the way of delivering message properly to the consumers but not every
time it creates problems. Many of the times it helps people to remember the ad and the product
and helps creating a positive attitude towards the advertise.

Sex Sells
Not always. Some advertisers use sex for just increasing the sales and forget that the product
doesn’t need this type of ad at all. Remember once models Milind Soman and Madhu Sapre posed
naked for a shoe brand. It was really irrelevant.


Creativity is the Most Important Factor
The ad should be no doubt creative enough to attract consumers but it is not the only selling factor.
There has to be good message to deliver, best media selection, and best quality of the product to
make the product and ad both successful.

Advertising Costs so Much

Advertise needs money but one has to also consider the results in forms of increased sales,
increased reputation in industry, recognition for product and also increased market value of
product which advertisements brings along. Let us consider advertising as investment and not

Thus these are the most common myths of the ad industry which are working as hurdles in the way
of bright future of advertisers and advertising and we need to overcome these hurdles and rise.


Advertising is still all about the ‘ifs and buts of a product’, presented in a glowing rainbow like
picture trying to attract consumers….but what is the future of advertising in coming years?

Let us go way back when the idea of advertising a product was regarded as some kind of a big
deal. Then the advertisements were very limited, and it took lots and lots of efforts to make a single
advertisement. And the customers then, had no option other than watching those advertisements.
Now, time has changed. Since last 20 years or let us just consider last 10 years, there has been a
dramatic change in the world of advertisement. And this will not have a stoppage in coming years.

The change doesn’t mean that the advertising agencies will all be shut down and firms will take
over. It just means that the existing advertising agencies will have to experience a change in the
industry and within. They will be redefined and reinvented so that they can survive in the years
ahead. The agencies which gave their number of years to this industry will also change for good,
be capable to cope up with new challenges, new competition and new attitudes of the consumers.

Once an article was written on change in advertising in 1992 and the title then also suits now, it
said - Advertising Age: Change or Die and very well said. To understand what is going to change
and what will remain the same should be on the top of the list of the advertisers.

Now is the beginning of the digital era. The agencies had a system of having some few creative
people who used to come with ideas for ads. That was the time when giving an ad in radio and
television was very expensive. But now no one minds actually about the cost for such ads because
consumers are responding well. But now and onwards, internet and technology has taken a front
seat. Let’s talk about the mass media. Today every TV serial, all movies running in theatres and
all breaks in the radio channels have fillers called ads. But in the coming years, the ads can be
shown to the consumers only if they want to see and not because the advertisers want them to see
it. The cost of using internet and digital gadgets is everyday dropping down so the customers don’t
mind spending on these things other than fooling themselves with the colorful advertisements. The
future will be in favor of the advertisers and advertisements but only at the cost of proper
management and proper use of digital technologies and internet.


The Bond
Nowadays, no one trusts the ad industry because there is no transparency. The ethics are not being
the part of ads anymore. In coming years, the bond of trust has to be again rebuilt between the
consumers and the advertisers. The advertisers will have to work hard to gain the confidence of
the customers.

More Creativity
The creative people of the agencies should not limit their creativity by only working with the old
style menu. This is the time to explore with help of internet and digital tools.
Differentiated Products
The advertisers should launch a product which will be completely different but excellent to use.
Then only the voice will be heard.

Attract Talent
More and more quality people should be hired today who will be leaders for tomorrow. They will
be the people who lead the industry in the future will with the best quality being coping up will
everything. Better HR practices should also be appointed.
These are some points which may help advertisers to survive and survive in a better way in the
future. The people who will not change can just not stay in this new industry.

News Based Advertising: Ethical or Not!

Maybe you read the article that was shared on Facebook that said “10 best places to visit this
summer” and maybe that article ended up influencing your choice for summer vacation
destination. You may have thought that this article was written by a user or a travel enthusiast that
wanted to share their experience.

In the worst case you may have thought that this article was written by a news reporter? What if I
told you that this article is a part of a disturbing trend called “news based advertising” wherein
corporations sponsor content that is shared with users and intended to influence their

We will understand more about news based advertising as well as the ethical implications that
impact the issue by the following:

The Rise of News Based Advertising

Online advertising has reached a saturation point. The situation is so severe that the pay per click
model is almost irrelevant. Less than 0.2% of people that view an online advertisement actually
click it. Therefore, there is a serious lack of trust between consumers that view online
advertisements and companies that sponsor them. This is leading to big budgets earmarked for
online advertisements going down the drain.

This sparked off a new trend. Companies like Buzz feed have come into existence and have
brought along the news based advertising model. Consumers tend to engage a lot more with such


content. Not only do they read the content avidly, but they also share the content on social media
giving it their stamp of approval. The method has become so effective that traditional media
companies like Time Inc. have also created special teams to meet the demands of their clients.
Corporate behemoths like General Electric and Chevron have also been known to extensively use
news based advertisements.

What is News Based Advertising?

The simplest definition of news based advertising is that news articles actually do the work of
advertisements. An advertisement is camouflaged as a news article. For instance if a company
wanted to promote a brand of cereal as a healthy breakfast option, they would get an article written
with the title “ 5 healthy breakfast options” wherein they would list 4 other options which are
already accepted by the public and then add their brand to the list as well.

Media houses like Buzzfeed and Scoop Whoop are required to disclose that these articles are
sponsored by corporations. However, the disclosure happens in a form that is not obvious and
difficult to find. Hence, the law is followed in letter but not is spirit.

The Principle of Separation of News and Advertisements

Media houses have always been required to ensure that the revenue that they generate from
advertisements does not impact their news reporting. News is an important part of the social fabric
and it is important that the news is not polluted via corporate interests. Media houses are therefore
believed to have a basic responsibility that they clearly mark their advertisements as
advertisements. This will enable the user to determine what content has been genuinely reported
and what content has been sponsored and therefore might have ulterior motives.

Why Editorial Independence is Important for Society?

The trend of news based advertising is disturbing to say the least. This is because news based
advertisements misuse the trust of the consumers. This is trickery to say the least. It is not long
before consumers realize this and this trust gets shattered. Media houses may have to most to lose.

Consider for instance, if Volkswagen has an extremely cozy relationship with media houses. Then
it can influence news reports on how its carbon emission negligence is reported! The society needs
to know the full extent of negligence that has been committed by a profit mongering corporation
but the same may be prevented or misdirected by news reporters because of their financial
dependence on such firms.

This is one of those situations where the interests of business and the interests of society are clearly
at conflict with one another. Society deserves to have an unbiased and uninfluenced reporting of
the events around them. News based advertising is a deterrent to this independence. As mainstream
companies are joining this trend, the future looks dangerously unstable and bleak!

Why Editorial Independence is Difficult to Protect?

Editorial independence is difficult to protect because consumers have started expecting free
stuff. Well nothing in life is free. Media houses incur production and editorial expenses that


consumers are unwilling to pay. On the other hand, corporations are more than happy to pay for
such expenses if media houses mix advertisements with regular news articles.

This has put pressure on all media houses. The ones that are indulging in this seemingly unethical
practice are reaping financial rewards. This has made them the darling of investors on stock
exchanged. The companies that still choose to be ethical are facing grim financial situations. They
face the danger of hostile takeovers from other companies.

As a result, pretty much every media house is on board with news based advertising. Some are
using their own brand to do so whereas others are more careful and have created subsidiaries to
detach themselves from this questionable practice.