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GIS based PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE &

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (GPMMS)

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Award of the Degree of

Master of Technology
In
Civil Engineering
(Traffic and Transportation Planning)

NIJU.A

Roll No. CEO4M024

Department of Civil Engineering


National Institute Of Technology Calicut
Calicut, Kerala 673 601

May 2006
Certificate

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “GIS based PAVEMENT


MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (GPMMS)” is a record of the
bona fide work done by Mr. NIJU.A (Roll No. CE04M024) under my
supervision and guidance. This thesis is submitted to the National
Institute of Technology Calicut in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of the degree of Master of Technology in Civil
Engineering (Traffic & Transportation Planning) during 2004-06.

Sri M.V.L.R. Anjaneyulu Dr. S. Chandrakaran


Programme Coordinator Professor and Guide
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
N.I.T. Calicut National Institute of Technology
Calicut, Kerala-673601

Dr. V. Mustafa
Professor & Head
NITC, Calicut Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Date : Calicut, Kerala-673601
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I express my profound sense of gratitude to Dr. S. CHANDRAKARAN,


Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, for his systematic guidance, valuable advice
and constant encouragement throughout this project work.

I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. B.N NAGARAJ, Professor (Retd.),


Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, for his
valuable suggestions for the improvement of this work.

I am thankful to Dr. V. MUSTAFA, Professor & Head, Department of Civil


Engineering and Dr. N GANESAN, former Head of the Department of Civil
Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut for providing all the facilities in
the department.

I wish to convey my sincere thanks to Mr. JAYASURIAN. M, MCA student,


NITC, for all his supports and backups render to me throughout, then Mr. SIJU, Lab
Assistant, Transportation Engineering laboratory and all members of transportation
family for their wholehearted co-operation.

Finally I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to all my friends who gave
valuable suggestions and encouragement especially Ms. KEERTHI.M.G, MTech,
Traffic and Transportation, which were very helpful to me throughout this project work.

NIJU.A

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ABSTRACT

The road networks are capacity constraint and structurally deficient due to
lack of timely maintenance, rehabilitation and upgradation. This has adversely
affected the traffic movement, resulting into higher operating costs and delays.
Maintenance and upgradation of such a large network is a challenging task
because of the logistics and constraints of resources. There is a need to manage
the network more efficiently in a scientific manner; the most important aspect
lacking is the application of information system.
Therefore there is a need to establish a centralized facility where
information on road and road transportation can be utilized for the development
of effective and efficient maintenance and rehabilitation measures and for
planning upgradation strategies.
Aim of this work is to build a GIS based system that provides information
for use in implementing cost-effective reconstruction, rehabilitation, and
preventive maintenance programs and results in pavement design to
accommodate current & forecasted traffic and pavement deteriorations, in a safe,
durable, and a cost-effective manner.
A well-designed geographic information system (GIS) provides a platform
on which all aspects of the PMMS process can be built. The resulting system,
GPMMS, represents a significant enhancement of all aspects of the PMMS
process. A variety of spatially integrated data are important to pavement
management decision making. GIS technology is shown to be the most logical
way of relating these diverse, but relevant, data.
The GIS based pavement management system would eventually lead to
the development of the frame work for GIS based Pavement Maintenance &
Management System (GPMMS). Here I had reviewed the role of GIS (GeoMedia
environment) for pavement management system.
Looking at the PMMS process in its entirety leads to the enumeration of a
set of functions to be embedded in the GIS platform that is required for effective
GPMMS. These functions include thematic mapping, a flexible data base editor,

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Linear Referencing System, dynamic segmentation, statistics, charting, network
generation, and integration with external programs.
The most important pavement management tools in GeoMedia are Linear
Referencing System and Dynamic Segmentation. Dynamic segmentation is the
overlay and display of attributes describing a linear referenced road network.
Dynamic segmentation can accommodate multiple attribute tables, describing a
road network, without requiring duplication of network geometry or data. Only a
single, graphic representation of the highway network is required. The locations
of attribute records along the road network are identified using a linear
referencing method.
A comprehensive plug-in software, GeoMedia Pavement Maintenance and
Management Assistant (GPMMA) for GeoMedia has also been developed, which
provides no bounds for PMMS analysis in GeoMedia. Important features in
GPMMA are Deterioration prediction, Economic analysis, BBD overlay design,
Maintenance Prioritization, Overlay Cost Calculator, Maintenance scheduler etc
An exemplar GPMMS analysis was carried out on the whole of Calicut
district. A well scaled georeferred Calicut district road map was developed in
GeoMedia, GIS environment. Almost all the available data, including bridge
inventory details, culvert inventory details, and condition survey details had been
incorporated using dynamic segmentation for the analysis.
Altogether a concise and succinct approach for pavement maintenance
and management have been developed using GeoMedia in hand with GPMMA.

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CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE NO
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES xi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-6


1.0 GENERAL 1
1.1 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1
1.2 FEATURES OF PMMS 2
1.3 PMMS INPUTS 2
1.4 ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND OUTPUTS 2
1.5 STRUCTURE OF PMMS 3
1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY 4
1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 4
1.8 PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES AND THREATS 5
1.9 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 5
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE DISSERTATION WORK 5
1.11 CONCLUSIONS 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7-24
2.0 GENERAL 7
2.1 STATE - OF - THE – ART 7
2.2 GLOBAL PMMS SCENARIO 8
2.2.1 United Stases of America 8
2.2.2 Canada 10
2.2.3 Australia 11
2.2.4 United Kingdom 12
2.2.5 France 13
2.2.6 Germany 13
2.2.7 Denmark 14

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2.2.8 New Zealand 14
2.2.9 Sweden 15
2.2.10 Austria 16
2.2.11 Indian Scenario 16
2.2.12 Studies at universities and Research Institutions 17
2.3 GIS TECHNOLOGY AND BENEFITS 20
2.4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PMMS 21
2.5 CONCLUSION 24

CHAPTER 3 A BRIEF REVIEW OF GeoMedia 25-34


3.0 GENERAL 25
3.1 GEOMEDIA PROFESSIONAL 25
3.1.1 GeoWorkspace 25
3.1.2 Co-ordinate system 26
3.1.3 Warehouse 27
3.1.4 Windows 27
3.1.5 Legend 27
3.1.6 Feature and feature class 29
3.2 FUNCTIONS OF GEOMEDIA 31
3.2.1 Digitization 31
3.2.2 Queries 31
3.3 GEOMEDIA TRANSPORTATION MANAGER 5.2 32
3.3.1 Linear referencing 32
3.3.2 Dynamic segmentation 33
3.3.3 Routing network 33
3.3.4 Routing analysis 33
3.4 CONCLUSIONS 34
CHAPTER 4 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT 35-55
4.0 GENERAL 35
4.1 AN OVERVIEW OF GPMMA 35
4.2 BEHIND GPMMA 35
4.2.1 GPMMA & External Component Installation 35
4.2.2 GPMMA Command Installation 37
4.2.3 External Software Installation 38

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4.3 GPMMA OVERVIEW & IMPORTANT FEATURES 39
4.3.1 PMMA Deterioration Prediction 40
4.3.1.1 Prediction of Yearly Change in CSA 40
4.3.1.2 Prediction of Yearly Change in Deflection 41
4.3.1.3 Prediction of Yearly Change in Unevenness 41
4.3.1.4 Prediction of Yearly Change in PSR 41
4.3.2 PMMA Economic Analysis 42
4.3.2.1 Construction Cost 43
4.3.2.2 Vehicle Operation Cost 43
4.3.3 PMMA BBD Overlay Design 46
4.3.3.1 Conversion of Curves into Mathematical Forms 47
4.3.4 PMMA Maintenance Prioritisation 50
4.3.4.1 Index Ranking Method 50
4.3.4.2 Percentile Ranking Method 51
4.3.4.3 Weightages Given For Various Parameters 52
4.3.5 PMMA Overlay Cost Calculator 53
4.3.6 PMMA Maintenance Scheduler 53
4.3.7 Hooks to External Softwares 54
4.4 CONCLUSIONS 55
CHAPTER 5 GPMMS INPUTS 56-67
5.0 GENERAL 56
5.1 GPMMS INPUTS 56
5.2 GPMMS DATABASE 56
5.2.1 Inventory Data 57
5.2.2 Construction Data 58
5.2.3 Traffic Data 59
5.2.4 Condition Data 60
5.2.4.1 Physical Distress Data 60
5.2.4.2 Roughness Data 61
5.2.4.3 Structural Capacity Data 62
5.2.4.4 Friction Data 62
5.3 UPDATING GPMMS DATABASE 62
5.3.1 Linear Referencing 62

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5.3.2 Dynamic Segmentation 64
5.4 DATA ENTRY 65
5.5 GEOREFERENCED DIGITISED BASE MAP 66
5.6 PMMS ANALYSIS TOOLS (GPMMA) 67
5.7 CONCLUSIONS 67
CHAPTER 6 GPMMS OUTPUTS & RESULTS 68-88
6.0 GENERAL 68
6.1 GPMMS OUTPUTS 68
6.1.1 Thematic Maps 68
6.1.2 Deterioration Prediction 73
6.1.3 Economic Analysis 74
6.1.3.1 Net Present Value Method (NPV) 75
6.1.4 Maintenance Scheduling 79
6.1.5 Maintenance Prioritization 80
6.1.6 BBD Overlay Design 83
6.1.7 Overlay Cost Calculation 84
6.1.8 Other Outputs 85
6.2 CONCLUSIONS 88
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS & SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK 89-90
7.0 GENERAL 89
7.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 89
7.2 LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE OF FURTHER WORK 90
7.3 CONCLUSIONS 90
REFERENCES 91

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE PAGE
TITLE
NO. NO.

1.1 Conceptual representation of PMMS 3


2.1 Structure of the PMS implemented in the Oklahoma State 10
2.2 Framework of Canadian Pavement Management System 11
2.3 Principal Components of HAPMS 12
2.4 Structure of VISAGE and GIRR 13
2.5 Three Levels of PMS Along With Three Types of Databases 15
2.6 Inputs – Analysis – Output - Chart 21
3.1 A Legend 28
3.2 Style Keys representing feature classes in Legend 29
3.3 Style Keys representing errors in Legend 29
3.4 Illustrating Linear Referencing 33
4.1 GPMMA & External component installation setup files 36
4.2 GPMMA & External component installation setup-1 36
4.3 GPMMA & External component installation setup-2 37
4.4 GPMMA Command Installation setup-1 37
4.5 GPMM Command Installation setup-2 38
4.6 GPMMA Command Installation setup-3 38
4.7 External Software Installation linking form 38
4.8 PMMA command installed in menubar 39
4.9 PMMA command windows 39
4.10 GUI for PMMA Deterioration predictor 42
4.11 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 1 45
4.12 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 2 45
4.13 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 3 46
4.14 GUI for PMMA BBD overlay design 49
4.15 Access Database for PMMA BBD overlay design 49
4.16 Index Ranking Method process 50

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4.17 GUI for Priority Ranking 52
4.18 GUI for PMMA Overlay Cost Calculator 53
4.19 Graph showing best time for Maintenance scheduling 54
4.20 GUI for PMMA Maintenance scheduler 54
4.21 Snap Shots of External Softwares windows 55
5.1 Microsoft Access Database showing Inventory data 58
5.2 Microsoft Excel Database showing Traffic data 59
5.3 Microsoft Access Database showing Physical distress data 60
5.4 Microsoft Access Database showing Roughness data 61
5.5 Linear Referencing Command Toolbar & Work Flow 63
5.6 Linear Referenced Access Warehouse table & road network 63
5.7 Basic Concepts of Dynamic Segmentation 64
5.8 Dynamic Segmentation Command Toolbar & Work Flow 65
5.9 Microsoft InfoPath form Query View and Data Entry View 66
5.10 Georeferenced Raster Images & Digitized Map 67
6.1 Thematic Map showing the lengthwise distribution of MDR 69
6.2 Thematic Map showing the bridge inventory details 70
6.3 Thematic Map showing the bridge attribute details 70
6.4 Thematic Map showing the ODR condition details 71
6.5 Thematic Map showing the SH condition details 71
6.6 Thematic Map showing the Culvert inventory details 72
6.7 Thematic Map showing the Culvert attribute details 72
6.8 Thematic Map showing the IRQP Phase of NH 73
6.9 Deterioration Prediction - output 74
6.10 Economic Analysis – Deterioration Prediction 76
6.11 Economic Analysis – Overlay Cost Calculation 77
6.12 Economic Analysis – NPV & Strategy Selection 78
6.13 Present Serviceability Index Vs Age of Pavement 79
6.14 Maintenance scheduling- output 80
6.15 Maintenance prioritisation of MDR’s 81
6.16 Maintenance prioritisation of SH’s 81

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6.17 BufferZones & Closest path around Koduvally 82
6.18 BufferZones & Closest path around Koduvally 83
6.19 BBD Overlay design-output 84
6.20 Overlay cost calculation -output 85
6.21 Customised Window for chart output 85
6.22 Bar Chart showing Raveling details along the stretch 86
6.23 Bar Chart showing Crack details along the stretch 86
6.24 Bar Chart showing Potholes details along the stretch 87
6.25 Bar Chart showing Patchwork details along the stretch 87

x
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
NO.
TITLE NO.

4.1 Equations for vehicle operating cost 44


4.2 Percentage of vehicles and growth rate 44
4.3 Equations for moisture correction factor 48
4.4 Equations for moisture correction factor 48
5.1 Data collected from 12th Mile to Kattankal of MDR-2 57

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.0 GENERAL
A comprehensive fully integrated Pavement Maintenance & Management
Systems (PMMS) is the key to better reconstruction, restoration and maintenance
decision-making of pavements. It weaves together information on all pavement
inventories, condition and performance databases, and alternative investment options. An
operating PMMS provides the road authorities the ability to better plan and manages
highway, street, and road pavements. The Pavement Maintenance & Management
Systems is a set of tools or methods that can assist decision makers in finding cost
effective strategies for providing, evaluating, and maintaining pavements in a serviceable
condition. It provides the information necessary to make these decisions. The PMMS
consists of two basic components: A comprehensive database, which contains current and
historical information on pavement condition, pavement structure, and traffic. The second
component is a set of tools that allows us to determine existing and future pavement
conditions, predict financial needs, and identify and prioritize pavement projects.

1.1 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

According to the World Bank Report, “The developing countries have lost
precious infrastructure worth billions of dollars through the deterioration of roads. The
cost of restoring these roads is going to be three to five times greater than the bill would
have been for timely and effectively maintenance. Vehicle operating cost rapidly
outpaces the cost of road repair as the condition of road passes from good to fair to poor”.
With several thousand vehicles per day moving on the highways, even a small saving in
vehicle operation cost can justify very large investments on pavements.

Pavement Maintenance & Management Systems are useful tools in quantifying


the overall maintenance needs of pavements and presenting the alternative maintenance
strategies under budget constraints. The most important aspect of development of a
PMMS is to collect, manage and analyse the pavement condition data in a considerably
detailed format. Since geographical information systems (GIS), with their spatial analysis
capabilities, match the geographical nature of the road networks, they are considered to

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be the most appropriate tools to enhance pavement management operations, with features
such as graphical display of pavement condition. The Pavement Maintenance &
Management Systems is comprised of:
?? Storage, analysis and reporting software
?? Collection of stored pavement data
?? Maintenance and treatment costs
?? Data and formulas on pavement deterioration
?? Algorithms that calculate future needs and budget scenarios

1.2 FEATURES OF PMMS

A PMMS is any tool or process that helps a road agency to manage pavement in
other words, any tool or process that helps an agency to maintain a network of safe and
serviceable pavements in a cost-effective manner. When most agencies refer to the term
“pavement management system,” they usually mean a computerized system where
pavement condition information is stored, analyzed, and displayed.
1.3 PMMS INPUTS
At the heart of the pavement management system is the database, which is the
storehouse for all pavement-related information collected. This database possesses
several features, including: a large capacity, user friendly access, flexibility for future
expansion, security features, and compatibility with other databases that store related
information (such as bridge, congestion, and traffic crash data). Every piece of
information in the database is referenced to the particular section of pavement (i.e., the
particular intersection or segment of road) which it describes.
The information collected and stored in the database can be divided into five categories:
?? Inventory data,
?? Pavement history,
?? Construction data,
?? Traffic data,
?? Condition data (physical distress, roughness, structural capacity, friction),

1.4 ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND OUTPUTS


While the database is the “heart” of a pavement management system, data
are not useful unless they are presented in a meaningful way. It is the role of analysis

2
procedures to transform the raw collected data into products such as charts, graphs, and
reports that are helpful to decision-makers. A pavement management system can
transform a spreadsheet containing pavement condition data into a map. A map can be
quickly and easily used to examine the health of pavement in ways that are not readily
apparent from columns of numbers. Analytic procedures are grouped into four categories:
?? Simple queries,
?? Pavement condition score calculations,
?? Remaining service life calculations, and
?? Strategy selection procedures.

1.5 STRUCTURE OF PMMS


Pavement Management in its broadest sense, encompasses all the activities
involved in planning, design, construction, maintenance and rehabilitation of the of the
pavement portion of public works program. The integration of both Attribute data and
spatial data is made possible through GIS. The analysis of data is carried out through
PMMA & GeoMedia analysis tools. This can be conceptually represented in fig 1.1

Fig 1.1 Conceptual representation of PMMS

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1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY
In India, due to the large scale industrialization and commercial activities, there
has been an unprecedented traffic growth during the last four decades. The high volume
of vehicular traffic and increasingly heavy axle loads witnessed on Indian highways have
brought the existing arterial road network to such a crippling stage that heavy
investments are needed for restoring it to a desired serviceability level. This is a
particular difficult situation, because pavements often are deteriorating faster than they
are being corrected. Effective management of pavements is essential in these challenging
times. Therefore, there is a need to link together explicitly the activities of planning,
design, construction and maintenance of pavements.
The Road User Cost Study in India has established that due to improper
maintenance and poor surface condition of road pavements, there is a considerable
economic loss to the country due to increase in vehicle operation costs. If the road
pavements are maintained to the desired level at an appropriate time, it is possible to save
the losses in road user cost. In view of the budgetary constraints and the need for
judicious spending of available resources, the maintenance planning and budgeting are
required to be done based on scientific methods.
The whole life cycle cost analysis based on the road user cost relationships
enables the decision makers to examine financial and economic implications of various
options for formulating appropriate strategies for cost effective use of resources.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


?? Collection of relevant data for analysis.
?? To develop a digitised road map of Kozhikode district in GIS environment.
?? To assess the overall pavement condition based on functional and structural
evaluation data.
?? Design of flexible pavement overlays.
?? To find the rate of progression of structural and functional deterioration.
?? To develop a plug-in software program for GeoMedia using Microsoft Visual
Basic 6.0 environment,
?? To assess the impact of different maintenance strategies on the performance of
pavement during the design period.

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1.8 PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES AND THREATS

?? Lack of structural information regarding the thickness of the overlays, the


maintenance method used, the type of bitumen used, or the construction quality.
?? Lack of knowledge about the exact age of pavement.
?? Lack of fixed evaluation segments for the condition and other surveys.
?? Increased rate of deterioration. (pavements deteriorate fast)
?? Overloading of vehicles. (no commitment with the legal loading)
?? Rapid traffic growth. (high increase of vehicle ownership )
?? Poor maintenance. (improper materials, wrong implementation, etc)
?? Improper design and implementation.
?? Limited resources (geometry, funds, equipment, materials, etc)
?? Insufficient information for decision-making.
?? Inefficient current traditional management system.
1.9 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work is an essential requirement for project planning and budget allocation.
This work will help to reduce the effort needed than in conventional methods, to collect
and analyse the data periodically by reducing the repeated works. The present work
consists of the analysis and design of pavement data of Kozhikode District. The
important aims of PMMS are:
?? An essential requirement for project planning and budget allocation.
?? Flexible pavement deterioration models include Deflection, Unevenness, and
Present Serviceability Rating models representing structural condition and also
functional condition model.
?? The performance and life of the Overlay has been assured on the basis of
acceptable limits for deflection, UI and maintenance cost.

1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE DISSERTATION WORK

The contents of the study are organized and presented in a chapter wise manner as
follows:
Chapter 1: General introduction, need, objectives, scope of the study,
challenges.

5
Chapter 2: Literature Review, general. Introduction, some definition, its basic
components are explained. Also planning activities are described in detail.
Chapter 3: Discusses the capability of the software, GeoMedia Professional
used for this work.
Chapter 4: In this chapter, About the Plug-in Software PMMA and the
methodology used were described.
Chapter 5: The inputs for the GPMMS, data entry methods and Dynamic
segmentation methods were discussed.
Chapter 6: The inputs for the GPMMS, Data entry methods and Dynamic
segmentation methods were discussed.
Chapter 7: Concludes the thesis by pointing at the limitations of the study and
scope for the further study.

1.11 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter gives a brief review about the basics of Pavement Maintenance &
Management Systems. The objectives, scope, layout of the thesis were also explained.

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Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 GENERAL
The purpose of this chapter is to review the available literature on Pavement
management system, maintenance system and pavement management softwares and to
discuss about the international PMS scenarios. An extensive literature survey was carried
out to keep abreast with the latest development in the Pavement Management Systems.
The work done both at the International level and domestic level is reviewed. Research
work being carried out in various academic research institutions is also considered.

2.1 STATE - OF - THE – ART


Most highway agencies of the developed countries are now engaged in the
development, implementation, and operation of pavement management systems. As early
as 1980, five states in USA viz. Arizona, California, Idaho, Utah, and Washington were
reported to be in various stages of development of systematic procedures for managing
pavement networks on a project-by-project basis. AASHTO has had a significant role in
furthering the development and use of Pavement Management Systems through the years.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Transportation Research Board (TRB),
and the National Cooperative Highway Research Programme (NCHRP) have contributed
to major Technical studies. Notable among them is the NCHRP- Project 1-35 A, FY 1997
which was the basis for Guide for Pavement Management.
The “Guidelines for Pavement Management Systems,” published by AASHTO in
July 1990, contains information needed for establishing a framework for a pavement
management system. However, this document didn’t address the day-to-day issues
encountered by pavement engineers or the issues associated with new and emerging
technologies. Upon further research, a revised final report has been distributed to the
members of the AASHTO Joint Task Force on Pavements and the AASHTO Highway
Subcommittee on Design and has been approved for publication as AASHTO Guide for
Pavement Management.

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Universities and Research Institutes have developed research based Pavement
Management System. Notable contributions are from Texas Transportation Research
Institute (USA), Louisiana Transportation Research Centre (UK), University of
Birmingham (UK) and Transport Research Laboratory (TRL, UK). Apart from these
studies there had been a number of studies by Private Consulting Agencies as part of
World Bank funded Highway Development projects in developing countries.

2.2 GLOBAL PMMS SCENARIO


In the early seventies, the phrase “Pavement Management System” began to be
used by researchers to describe the entire range of activities involved in managing and
maintaining pavements. At the same time, initial operational systems were also
developed. Since then, the following factors have provided great impetus for growing
interest in PMS development

?? Increasing budgetary constraints in relation to maintenance needs.


?? Recognition of direct effect of pavement condition on road user costs
?? Awareness of social and environmental values affected by road transport and road
surface characteristics.
?? Advances in the development of pavement technology.
?? Increased capacity in pavement condition monitoring through advanced
measuring equipment.
?? Advanced in computerization and information systems
?? General growth in awareness of management methods.

Presently, highway authorities in developed countries are using systematic and


objective method to determine pavement condition and programming maintenance in
response to observed conditions, as budget permits. In many of the developing countries,
PMS is in various phase of working process with diversified approaches as per the
respective needs and problems of each country.

2.2.1 United Stases of America


The concept of PMS took root in USA during the recent era of austere budgets.
The first PMS model was developed by the Washington State Department of Highways
in the mid seventies. This model consisted of development of performance prediction

8
model and a cost model based on a databank of information collected in Washington over
a period of 6 to 8 years. Since then, various state departments of transportation have
developed their own PMS methodologies suitable to their own needs and requirements.
The Arizona Department of Transportation has reported savings to the tune of $2000
million over a period of five years as a consequence of successful implementation of
PMS program to optimize pavement rehabilitation expenditure. The use of PMS at
California Department of Transportation has resulted in improved communications
between political and technical decision makers as regarding priority programming of
pavement rehabilitation projects.

The Pavement Management System (called PMS-III) developed and implemented


for the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT), is a network level system that can
prescribe optimal maintenance and rehabilitation actions and the required budget for each
year for a 6 year planning period. On the basis of present network condition and
deterministic prediction model, PMS-III forecasts future network condition and
rehabilitation needs and as associated budget. The optimal maintenance policies
recommended by this pavement management system are based on maximizing the
preservation of pavement investments for a given annual budget or on minimizing the
cost of maintaining the network condition for a given performance level.
The State of Iowa has developed an Iowa Pavement Management Program
(IPMP) to support both project level and network level PMS conducted by local and
regional governments and the Iowa Department of Transportation. The PMS of
Oklahoma Department of Transportation is characterized by the integration of a
pavement performance - modeling tool with a new pavement network optimization model
for identifying and selecting cost effective projects for maintenance and rehabilitation.
The unique feature of this system is the integration of a pavement performance -
modeling tool and a global optimization model for pavement network analysis. Pavement
performance models can be updated whenever new data is available. All models can be
evaluated and alternative models can be developed using the interactive modeling too.
This system can produce satisfactory results for pavement engineers to perform pavement
maintenance and rehabilitation planning up to 20 years. Flow chart shows the structure of
the Pavement Management System implemented in the Oklahoma State.

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Database Master Table
Sufficiency
Build Performance
Structural History Model

Performance Analyze Models


Models

Network Optimization

Setup
Distress Deducted Values
Treatments
Material Categories Choose Best Scenario
Assigned to each
Treatments
pavement group
Performance Indices
for each year
Grouping Variables
Pavement Groups

Multiple Years
Prioritization

Treatments
Assigned to each
pavement section
for each year.

Generate / Modify
Projects

Sections are
aggregated in to
Projects

Fig 2.1 Structure of the PMS implemented in the Oklahoma State


2.2.2 Canada
The Primary method of structural evaluation in Canada are deflection base e.g.
Benkelman beam, Dynaflect and Falling Weight Deflectometer, with the latter becoming
the primary device of choice and the former now seeing only very limited use. The
indices commonly used are Riding Comfort Index (RCI), Structural Adequacy Index
(SAl), Surface Distress Index (SDI), a composite measure Pavement Quality Index (PQI)
and Pavement Condition Index (PCI), Performance prediction models commonly are for
RCI, PQI, or PCI v/s pavements age, and are mainly developed through regression,
Markov and Bayesian techniques.

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Fig 2.2 Framework of Canadian Pavement Management System
2.2.3 Australia

For a population of just over 20 million, Australia covers a very large landmass
with an extensive network of roads, providing one of World’s road lengths per head of
population. The Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) has been actively engaged in
developing and promoting the adoption of PMS by road authorities to improve the
efficiency of decision making and ensuring that maximum value is obtained from the
funds allocated to road improvement. There are over 12 different PMS software packages
available, which can cater for range of roads from National Highways to low volume
rural roads.

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2.2.4 United Kingdom
The United Kingdom Pavement Management System (UKPMS) has been
designed to assist highway authorities in structural maintenance of pavements, It does so
by improving both the systematic collection of information and the decision making
process required to optimize resources and to generate a works program and the
corresponding budget. UKPMS uses innovative technology to improve treatment
selection and by optimizing the allocation of funds for various rehabilitation schemes.
A new generation pavement management system called HAPMS, for the National
Roads of England has been developed by the Highways Agency, an executive body of the
Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) of the Central
Government. The network of roads managed by the Highways Agency comprises only 4
per cent of the total road network of England, but carries 25 per cent of the total traffic.
The applications working on this data are concerned with the presentation to all users of
data in convenient format, including map backgrounds, the preparation and allocation of
budgets and the determination of priorities for investment in major pavement
maintenance. Fig. 2. 3 show the principal components of HAPMS.

Fig 2.3 Principal Components of HAPMS

12
2.2.5 France
The French Directorate of Road in association with LCPC (Central Public Works
Laboratory) and the SETRA (Roads and Motorways Engineering Department) has
developed a road management system, based on two complimentary suits of tools the
VISAGE road database with its own facilities for the graphic representation of data and
the GIRR package with its various data analysis modules. This system was implemented
in 1992 by the state departments on the National Roads Network and extended more
widely in 1996 to regional network also. The VISAGE AND GIRR software package as
shown in Figure 2.4 use a rational approach for the management of pavement
maintenance. It is an approach designed around four main stages; after an inventory on
the nature of the road network, and an assessment of its condition, a maintenance policy
must be defined and then applied through works programming. Finally, network follow -
up is carried out on a regular basis to measure the effects of the policy put in place and,
when applicable, to adopt the appropriate corrective actions.

Fig 2.4 Structure of VISAGE and GIRR

2.2.6 Germany
In Germany, there are 11000 km of motorways and 45000 km of federal roadways
reported. To ensure that this road network is always functional for economy and society,
a system was introduced in 1992, whereby the condition of the federal trunk roads is
rated every three years. A road preservation management program called UMASTER has
been developed with the objective of computations of the cost to the agencies responsible
for financing road construction and preservation. But the road preservation program

13
includes only those types of conditions, which are relevant to medium and long range
planning, and not those which require immediate attending e.g. filling of potholes.
Funding needs are computed based on periodically performed surveys of roadway
conditions and related predictions of the behavior of the future course of development of
the condition of highway.
Methods have also been developed for forecasting the behavior of flexible
pavements taking into account their conditions of use and climate influences,
Quantitative forecasting model for the aspect of road conditions described as rut depth,
water retention and network of cracks are in the process of development. On the basis of
the condition rating and evaluation process ( called ZEB in German), a standard National
Pavement Management System has been developed and applied by road construction
authorities in 8 different states since January 1999. The Federal Ministry of Transport is
now contemplating to extent this pavement management process to all 16 states. Tools
now exist for the data required for a PMS, which can create a graphical representation of
the data on plan and maps so that it is possible to get a quick overview of the road
network condition.
2.2.7 Denmark
The Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with Dynatest Engineering
developed the Dynatest Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Management System
(DPMS) during eighties. This system is capable of predicting future pavement condition
for number of years on project as well as network level. It contains an optimization
procedure to determine that combination of M&R measures that will ensure the optimal
use of the budget. The system is not only based upon objectively measured functional and
structural pavement characteristics, but it also ensures that the knowledge and experience
of the local engineer is incorporated. The system ensures compatibility in all the steps of
data flow, right from the collection of data out on the road to the final consequence
analysis.
2.2.8 New Zealand
It was only in late 1998 that the Government of New Zealand decided to
implement a National PMS. The initial objective was to have a completed preliminary
system is place and integrated with the existing National Road Asset Management
Program (RAMM). This consisted of a basis inventory and pavement condition database

14
along with an algorithm for selecting maintenance treatments. The new PMS has been
build on the existing road management inventory system and the existing funding
framework. The software package dTIMS (Deighton Total Infrastructure Management
System) design total Infrastructure funding framework. The software package dTIMS
along with a hybrid set of predictive models from HDM-II and HDM-4 has been adopted
for the development of PMS would be used by over 70 different road - controlling
authorities (city, district and state level) responsible for a network of more than 100,000
km of sealed and unsealed roads. Consultants engaged in management of the road
networks would also use it.
2.2.9 Sweden
The Swedish PMS has been developed and implemented at several levels i.e,
strategic level, programming level and Project level. The main objective of PMS at
strategic level is to produce objective information as decision support in fund raising, in
allocation of available budgets to the regions. The objective of PMS at programming
level is to serve as a tool to identify candidate projects and the objective of the PMS at
project level is to assist in planning and design of individual projects. Figure 2.5 shows
the three levels of PMS along with three types of databases.

Fig 2.5 Three Levels of PMS Along With Three Types of Databases

15
2.2.10 Austria
Increased road deterioration in Austria combined with the demand for a fair
distribution of the available budgets urged the Australian Federal Road Administration to
take necessary steps for the implementation of a nationwide PMS. A number of extensive
studies by different investigators and improvements in administration ultimately paved
the way for the start of very first application in practice of the Austrian Pavement
Management System VIAPMS-AUSTRIA in late 1999. The Institute for Road
Construction and Maintenance and Vienna University of Technology provided the road
specific data and the practical use of VIAPMS analytical software. This PMS is the only
available tool in Austria that underlined the necessity of allocating budget resources for
pavement maintenance.
2.2.11 Indian Scenario
The absence of coordinated research has impaired the progress of developing an
implementable PMS for India. Nevertheless there had been notable contributions from
different research institutes and organizations like Central Road Research Institute
(CRRI) (Updating Road User Cost Data URUCS 1991, Pavement Performance Study
(PPS-EPS 1993), RITES (HDM Calibration Studies -1994), Bangalore University
(Transition Probability Matrices for Optimal maintenance decisions-1995), & Indian
Institute of Technology Kharagpur (Analytical Pavement Design (999). These studies
laid the basis for the pavement data analysis and development of Pavement deterioration
model for Indian roads. Apart from research institutes some private consultants have also
tried to develop Pavement Management options in connection with some of the externally
aided projects.
The PMS for National Highways funded by Asian Development Bank had been
completed in 1995. Initially it was installed on a pilot basis in the states of Karnataka and
Uttar Pradesh and at the National level in the ministry of Surface Transport. Another
World Bank study was the 4 States PMS towards instituting a network level PMS in the
States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The study included a section
of State Highways, Major District Roads and Other District Roads which are directly
managed by States. The ARAN (Automated Road Analyzer) was used for the collection
of pavement data. For the National Highways the PMS adopted is called NETTER-PMS
and for the four states the PMS adopted is dTIMS (Deighton Total Infrastructure

16
Management System). The NETTER VOC model uses the Brazilian relationships from
the World Bank HDM III model. The road deterioration and maintenance models for
dTIMS had been established using HDM-III equations with adaptation for local
conditions.
2.2.12 Studies at universities and Research Institutions
A brief review of the studies reported by various researchers is attempted in the
following pages.
Dr. S S Jam, Dr. A K Gupta & Sanjeev Rastogi (1992) have made an attempt to
analyze the data of nine test sections of overlaid flexible pavements located in the States
of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The data has been analyzed for pre-monsoon,
post-monsoon and winter season for the years between 1980 to 1990. The performance
and life of the overlays has been assessed on the basis of acceptable limits for deflection,
rut depth, cracks and cracking pattern and maintenance cost. Models are also
incorporated for the choice of type and thickness of materials for overlays on different
sub grade soils economically without sacrificing the safety of road structure. Models
developed in these studies are capable of predicting life of an overlay for given values of
pavement thickness, overlay thickness, traffic intensity and acceptable limits for
deflection, rut depth and cracking. The general model includes wide variation of climate,
terrain, rainfall, temperature and thickness of overlay can be chosen economically.
Prof. (Dr.) S S Jam, Prof. (Dr.) A K Gupta, Prof. (Dr.) S K Khanna and Dayanand
(1992) have studied the performance of twelve test sections of overlaid flexible pavement
located in the states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The data has been analyzed
for pre-monsoon and post monsoon seasons for the year 1994 for assessing the needs of
corrective and strengthening measures and the pavement outputs with time has been
presented using data from 1980 to 1993 from studies conducted at University of Roorkee.
The influence parameter considered includes deflection, roughness, rutting, cracking and
pot holes and the availability of resources for the choice of the type and thickness of
materials for overlay and these parameters were recorded for the year 1993 and 1994
whose comparison showed the deterioration of flexible pavements with passage of time.
The investment need for corrective measures were obtained and the investment strategy
has been developed for maintenance and rehabilitation of flexible pavements. The
conditions of the flexible pavements can be asserted by functional and structural

17
evaluations. The maintenance and rehabilitation need comes if any of the influencing
parameters reaches its lowest acceptable limits, the overlays needs to be designed based
on the cumulative number of standard axles rather than total number of commercial
vehicles. Based on the requirements of corrective and strengthening measures, the
investment estimation is done. Hence the study helps in taking decisions for maintenance
and rehabilitation of flexible pavements rationally.

Maj. C R Ramesh, B P Nityananda, Y S Madvesh and Dr. C E G Justo (1994)


conducted a study done jointly by Karnataka PWD and Department of Civil Engineering,
Bangalore University on a stretch of cracked Cement Concrete pavement on Bangalore -
Mysore State Highway to compute the relative performance of bituminous overlay with
and without geo fabric at the interface. Installation of geo fabric at the interface between
cracked CC pavement and bituminous overlay retards the propagation of reflection
cracking and also there is a reduction in formation of new cracks on the overlay surface
and a lower rate of increase in unevenness index. Geo fabric is a geo synthetic material
like non-woven polypropylene fabric. A field study for ten years period using geo textile
as stress-relieving interlayer has been reported to have given excellent results. In terms of
service life treatment is likely to be economical. It is also desirable to vary the thickness
of bituminous overlay with or without geo synthetic and to continue observation until
failure of these overlays, for arriving at equivalency factors and also for comparison of
cost on more realistic terms. Cost analyses of various alternatives are also done.

S. Chakrabarti, Ms Rawat and B Mondal (1995) have done the calibration of


HDM-II and adaptation aspects of HDM Road Deterioration and Maintenance Effect
(RDME) relationship for Indian conditions. The methodology for calibrations using
pavement performance data, notably, the Pavement Performance Study (PPS) has been
described. The deterioration factors have been derived for the pavement types and traffic
loading levels appropriate for the country. The study claims that DDM RDME is robust,
yet flexible enough to predict the deterioration for road in the country with the
deterioration pavements factors very close to default values.
V K Sood and B M Sharma (1996) have reported the status of road network
deficiencies in the present maintenance practices in our country. A pavement
Performance Study was conducted with a view to develop data for total transportation

18
cost model for Indian conditions, to be achieved through development of pavement
performance data to attempt development of layer equivalence and strength coefficients
as feasible. Data was collected on the construction and maintenance inputs of different
pavements based on studies carried out on nine pavement sections for a period of about
10 years. A brief description on various models such as cracking models, cracking
progression models, ravelling models, pot holes models and roughness progression
models have been included. Validations of models have been done based on limited
fieldwork.

Turki I Al-Suleiman and Azm. S Al-Homoud (1996) have reported the work of
evaluating the effects of pavement characteristics on pavement condition of the street
network in Irbid City in Northern Jordan using the concept of Pavement Condition Index
(PCI). It was found that 35.48 percent of the inspected pavement sections in Irbid City
were in poor condition while 6.45 percent of the inspected pavement sections were in
excellent condition. Alligator cracking, rutting, depression and swell distresses were
found to be the most frequent distress types that caused the pavement deterioration.
Pavement age, traffic level and pavement thickness were found to be highly significant
and affect the pavement condition to great extent. Some of the asphalt mix properties
such as air voids, bulk specific gravity and asphalt contents were found to have small
effect on pavement condition. Pavement section of low air voids in the asphalt mix
suffered from distortion and cracking due to the small resistance to compaction under
traffic. Statistical models were developed to describe the relationship between PCI and
pavement characteristics.

Mr. S C Sharma and R K Pandy (l997) made a study on the existing pavements
completed in recent years presenting and extensive indigenous research back up and basic
relationships to develop a total transportation cost model for Indian conditions. Indian
research results have been used to develop this model and therefore, its predictions and
results are considered truly reflective of Indian conditions. The model makes it possible
to apply a rational approach in road maintenance decisions for obtaining best results from
available funds including benefits of periodic maintenance, cost effectiveness of
maintenance strategies etc.

19
Maj. Ramesh, Dr. A Veeraraghavan, R Sridhar, and Chandrasekhar S Pichika
(1999)’ have collected an extensive field data develop the performance models and in the
determinations of the life cycle cost. A computer program is developed to calculate the
cost, first stage strengthening cost, user delay cost and salvage value. The program has
the capability to compute the life cycle cost for any design period and for any number of
sections by varying the threshold Present Serviceability Index Value which is on a scale
of 1 to 10. The budget scenario can also be varied and the effect of budget level on
pavement performance can be studied.

2.3 GIS TECHNOLOGY AND BENEFITS


A GIS is a computerized data base management system for accumulating, storage,
retrieval, analysis and display of spatial (i.e. locationally defined) data. A GIS contains
two broad classifications of information, geocoded spatial data and attribute data.
Geocoded spatial data define objects that have an orientation and relationship in two or
three-dimensional space. Attributes associated with a street segment might include its
width, number of lanes, construction history, and pavement condition and traffic
volumes. An accident record could contain fields for vehicle type, weather conditions,
contributing circumstances and injuries. This attribute data is associated with a topologic
object (point, line or polygon) that has a position somewhere on the surface of the earth.
A well-designed GIS permits the integration of these data. The sophisticated database in a
GIS has the ability to associate and manipulate diverse sets of spatially referenced data
that have been geocoded to a common referencing system. The software can transform
state plane coordinates and mile point data to latitude-longitude data and vice versa.
A GIS can expand the decision making on repair strategies and project scheduling
by incorporating such diverse data as accident histories, economic needs hazardous
materials shipment and vehicle volumes. A GIS can perform geographic queries in a
straightforward, intuitive fashion rather than being limited to textual queries; A GPMMS
can be used to build projects through spatial selection, can compute traffic impacts of
various PMS plans and can incorporate the results of life cycle forecasts into
measurements of future mobility.
The network-level PMS has been integrated with GIS for the selected highway
network. The input data and results obtained under life-cycle cost analysis of the highway

20
network have been used to demonstrate the use of GIS in enhancing the pavement
management system. The commercially available GIS software GeoMedia has been used
for this purpose. A spatial map of the study area has been created, which is comprised of
various GIS themes such as national highways, pavement sections, section nodes and
districts. The input data and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis of highway network
have been imported into GIS as attributes of the pavement sections. GIS has been used to
enhance pavement management information with its typical features, such as graphical
display of highway network and current and future pavement condition of the selected
pavement sections. GIS also provides an excellent spatial query and analysis capability to
select the candidate pavement sections in need of immediate maintenance.

Pavement Performance Forecasting, Optimization & Simulation

INPUT Where, when, OUTPUT


Historical traffic what to treat 1. Avg. statewide composite
condition
future performance index
Historical Pavement
Pavement Performance 2. Funding balance among
distress condition
Forecasting, congressional districts
Optimization and
Given funding Simulation models 3. Workload balance among
working districts
Forecasting time frame 4. Future pavement
(5 or 10 year later) Treatment Determination
performance visualization and
Deterioration models spatial analysis
Optimization models
Simulation models
GIS mapping, visualization
and spatial analysis

Fig 2.6 Inputs – Analysis – Output - Chart

2.4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PMMS

21
For performing GIS based Pavement Maintenance & Management Analysis, there
are so many softwares used world wide. Among them the leading PMS software’s in
practice are:
RoadSoft
RoadSoft, available from the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) at
Michigan Technological University, is a GIS-based roadway management system. The
software package was developed for local road agencies within Michigan and engineers
and managers to analyze roadway information within their jurisdictions. The software
uses the Michigan Accident Location Index (MALI) as a physical reference base.
RoadSoft has a road surface inventory module for rating pavement condition
using the PASER (Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating) system. PASER is a simple
method of rating asphalt, concrete, and gravel roads developed by the University of
Wisconsin’s Transportation Information Center. Manuals filled with pictures detail a one-
to-10 evaluation system in which "10" means excellent while "one" indicates a failed
road. This system is used to obtain consistent ratings based on the types of wear evident
on the roadway surface, such as cracks and deformations. Based on the types of defects,
general characteristics of the roadway, and age of the pavement, PASER makes
recommendations for the types of fixes that would be appropriate for the road. There are
rating manuals available for concrete, asphalt, and gravel roads.

MicroPAVER
MicroPAVER is a pavement management system developed by the U.S. Army
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory and distributed by the Technical
Assistance Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The software
contains a full-featured PMS, including manuals for evaluating pavement conditions.
MicroPAVER is a decision-support tool, allowing agencies to systematically determine
maintenance and repair needs and priorities. The system also enables users to compare
budget scenarios and their effect on pavement networks, and data can be linked to a GIS.
Inspection data from the road network is input into the system’s database. By
taking samples of a section of the entire network, MicroPAVER can calculate the
Pavement Condition Index (PCI). Information from the PCI is used to accurately predict
the overall health of the pavement network. Using pavement life cycle models in the

22
software, this system can quickly determine which pavements need attention the most,
and also calculate the critical condition pavements. (Critical condition pavements are
those that are close to the point where they deteriorate rapidly.)

HDM - 4
The internationally recognised Highway Development and Management System
(HDM-4) have been used to develop this PMS. Since the size of the highway network is
not very large and the analysis period is of medium duration, the ‘programme analysis’
application of HDM-4 has been used for the network-level pavement management
analysis. The results obtained through the network-level pavement management analysis
have been presented through various applications of GIS.4 This helps in easy
identification of the candidate pavement sections, due for maintenance during the
analysis period, and the associated details of timing, type and cost of maintenance
activities can also be readily determined.

GeoPave
GeoPave can extract and display information that a Pavement Manager requires.
It has Dynamic GIS link to your MTC-PMS system. Easy to use menu selections. Also it
has Plug-in extension to ArcView / ArcMap.
The main features of GeoPave are, it can maintain a good Pavement History, it
can analyse Maintenance & Rehabilitation Workplans. It can also directly account for
Funding Scenarios.

Stantec PMS
Stantec developed a Pavement Management Application (PMA) within their
Infrastructure Management System (IMA) software. The Infrastructure Management
Application is a tool for the management and graphical display of asset information,
structural condition, and other available data for municipal utilities and right-of-way
assets, either individually or as a group. IMA is a network planning tool for municipal
assets.
Physical characteristics, structural condition assessment, and rehabilitation
program development for each asset can be objectively compared with the entire network
for planning and rehabilitation and maintenance programs. Information can be analyzed

23
graphically, or through the use of a GIS. A rehabilitation module analyzes road condition
to prioritize rehabilitation activities and budget programming. The system can also
recommend maintenance activities, such as crack sealing and pothole patching.

Hansen PMS
Hansen develops asset management software for both the public and private
sector. Hansen developed a pavement management system to complement the
infrastructure management software developed to assist agencies maintain assets under
their control.
The pavement management system is completely customizable by the user.
Working with consultants from the company, the management system is tailored to meet
the needs of the user. Hansen works with the agency to determine which inputs are
needed to perform analysis, fits the deterioration curves to inputs, and calculates outputs.

CarteGraph PavementView
PavementView pavement management software, developed by CarteGraph
Systems, is part of their more general infrastructure management products. Based on
concepts introduced by the Federal Highway Administration and the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, this system integrates data collection, inspection records, asset history, along
with performance modeling to accurately assess current and future pavement condition.
PavementView is able to graphically display pavement performance using maps,
graphs, or charts. This system allows users to develop queries and reports using all
database fields. Users can generate standard or custom reports to assess inventory
condition and help manage scheduled and completed

2.5 CONCLUSION
A brief review of the available literature on Pavement management system,
Pavement maintenance system and pavement management softwares were done. The
international PMS scenario was also discussed.

24
Chapter 3
A BRIEF REVIEW OF GeoMedia

3.0 GENERAL

This chapter gives a brief description about various functions and tools available
in GeoMedia 5.2 as well as GeoMedia Transportation Manager 5.2.

3.1 GEOMEDIA PROFESSIONAL

GeoMedia Professional is a fully functional desktop GIS solution. Based on


Jupiter technology from Intergraph Corporation, this product is an enterprise GIS for the
Windows 2000, Windows NT and Windows XP operating systems. Using GeoMedia
Professional we can make live connections to geospatial data in multiple data warehouses
simultaneously; analyse data relationships; turn information into precise, finished maps
for distribution and presentation; and put geospatial data into the hands of users.
GeoMedia’s extensive object model is accessible for customization through industry-
standard programming languages such as Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Visual C++,
PowerBuilder, and Delphi.

Some of the important terminologies associated with GeoMedia are given below.

3.1.1 GeoWorkspace

A GeoWorkspace is the container for all our work. Within its confines are the
warehouse connections to our data, map windows, data windows, toolbars, coordinate-
system information, and queries we have built. The first thing we have to do is to open an
existing GeoWorkspace or create a new one. Once we are in a GeoWorkspace, we can
change its coordinate system, establish warehouse connections, run queries, display data,
and perform spatial analyses. The settings and connections we define in a GeoWorkspace
are saved in a .gws file, although the actual data remains stored in the warehouse. Every
GeoWorkspace is built on a template, and we can create our own templates or use an
existing one. The software is delivered with a default GeoWorkspace template,
normal.gwt, which contains an empty map window, an empty legend, and a predefined

25
coordinate system. Opening an existing GeoWorkspace may take a long time. The
amount of time varies with the number of feature classes being loaded into displays, the
amount of data per feature class, and the processing time of any queries. To improve
performance, we can delay the loading of data by selecting the ‘Do not load data when
opening GeoWorkspace’ check box on the General tab of the Options dialog box.

3.1.2 Co-Ordinate System

A coordinate system provides the mathematical basis for relating the features in
our study area to their real-world positions. The software supports the following types of
coordinate systems:
?? ?A geographic coordinate system (the default) references a spheroid, expressing
coordinates as longitude, latitude, where longitude is the angular distance from a
prime meridian, and latitude is the angular distance from the equator.
?? ?A projected coordinate system references a projection plane that has a well-
known relationship to a spheroid, expressing coordinates as X,Y, where X
normally points east on the plane of the map, and Y points north at the point
chosen for the origin of the map. The X coordinate called easting, and the Y
coordinate is called northing.
?? A geocentric coordinate system references an earth-centred Cartesian system,
expressing coordinates as defining the position of a specific point with respect to
the centre of the earth. These coordinates are Cartesian (X, Y, Z) where the X
axis of the geocentric system passes through the intersection of the prime
meridian and the equator, the Y axis passes through the intersection of the
equator with 90 degrees East, and the Z axis corresponds with the earth’s polar
axis. The X and Y-axes are positive pointing outwards, while the Z axis is
positive towards the North Pole.

Each feature class stored in a warehouse can have its own unique coordinate
system. If we change the co-ordinate system after displaying data, the data is transformed
to the new co-ordinate system, and the display is updated. Changing the co-ordinate
system in the GeoWorkspace does not affect the data in the warehouse, only data in the
map window. Finally, co-ordinate systems are heavily data dependant; therefore, one

26
should not define them arbitrarily. To be displayed accurately in a GeoWorkspace, all
data must specify a co-ordinate system. To accommodate data with no specified co-
ordinate system, we must first define a co-ordinate system file (.csf) outside of the
software.

3.1.3 Warehouse

Warehouse is considered as the source of both graphic and non-graphic


information. We can display feature geometries and attribute data in a GeoWorkspace
through connections to warehouses where the data are stored. Each warehouse connection
uses a data server to convert the data into a format that the software can display. All
warehouse types are read-only, except for Access, Oracle, and SQL Server. This protects
the integrity of our source data. So, if we want only to display data in the software from
one or more warehouses, we can simply create one or more warehouse connections and
then use map window and data window to display the data.

3.1.4 Windows

The GeoMedia GeoWorkspace can contain one or more windows—map window,


data window, and a layout window. These windows provide us with different ways of
visualizing our data. The map window shows graphic display or features. The data
window shows the same features in attribute form, that is, non-graphic data associated
with the geographic objects. Thus, if a feature is displayed in multiple map and data
window, it highlights in all when selected. The window allows you to design and to plot a
map layout. Map graphics in the layout window can be optionally linked to reflect
changes made in the map window, or they can be a static snapshot reflecting the
characteristics of the map window at the time of placement. Each map window contains
the following marginalia items: a legend, a north arrow, and a scale bar.
3.1.5 Legend

The legend contains the following parts:


?? ?A title bar, which we can turn on or off. The title bar must be turned on before
we dismiss the legend.

27
?? ?Legend entries, which we use to control the display of the objects in the active
map window. Legend entries can have titles, subtitles, and headings.
The legend contains a separate entry for each map object. When a feature class or

query has multiple geometry or text attributes, a separate entry is added to the legend

for each of these attributes. An example of a legend is shown in Fig 3.1.

Fig 3.1 A Legend


Each entry contains a title and a style key. If statistics for a legend are turned on,
the entry displays the count of map objects in parentheses next to the title. Style keys for
feature classes and queries are dynamic and represent the geometry type of the feature
class (point, line, area, or compound). Style keys for thematic displays, images, and text
are static and represent the object type. The various feature classes and their style keys
appearing in the legend are shown in Fig 3.2 and Fig 3.3. Style keys include the
following:

28
Fig 3.2 Style Keys representing feature classes in Legend

Style keys can also indicate the state of the following legend entries:

Fig 3.3 Style Keys representing errors in Legend

We can add the following types of map objects as entries to the legend:
?? ?Feature classes
?? ?Queries
?? ?Thematic displays
?? ?Raster images

3.1.6 Feature and Feature Class


A feature is represented in a map window by geometry and is further defined by
non-graphic attributes in the database. The values of these non-graphic attributes can be
viewed as cells in the data window view on the non-spatial data of the feature. In a
read/write warehouse, we can create a new feature class, delete a feature class, and edit a

29
feature class definition. We can edit a feature class in the following ways: by adding
attributes, by removing attributes or ?by changing attributes

In a read/write warehouse, we can also manage feature data in the following


ways: by changing attribute values??by adding or deleting features.

Geometry refers to the graphic representation of a feature in the map window. The
following geometry types represent features:
?? A point feature is represented by one or more points on a map that
represent the location of a feature. A point can also represent
features that cannot be mapped at the defined map scale. Elevation
control points, buildings, and manholes are all examples of point
features.

A linear feature is represented by one or more lines and/or arcs.


Rivers, railroad tracks, utility lines, and roads are examples of
linear features.

An area feature is represented by closed boundaries. Counties, land


parcels and water bodies are examples of area features.

A compound feature may have point, linear, and/or area geometry


within the feature class or even within a single feature.

A text feature is represented by text that appears at a point location


on a map. You can place text in an existing text feature class or
create a new one to contain it. Text can have an orientation, that is,
it can be rotated.
An image feature is a raster image.

A feature class is the classification in which each instance of feature is assigned.


The software allows creating feature classes in three ways: from scratch, by copying
some of the information from an existing feature class into a new feature class in the
same warehouse, and by attaching an external data source.

30
3.2 FUNCTIONS OF GEOMEDIA
The main functions of GeoMedia include digitisation, building queries,
performing joins, buffer analysis, overlays, creating special filters etc.,

3.2.1 Digitization
For digitizing first of all the images are to be registered. A raster image, such as a
scanned map sheet, an aerial photograph or a satellite image can be inserted into a
read/write warehouse. The image is not moved from its original location, but the path to
the image is saved in the warehouse. To edit or change the image, the source file must be
edited. Inserting multiple images with the same file name into a single warehouse must
be avoided, even if the images are stored in different directories. The file type and
information contained in the file determine whether the file can be inserted interactively
or automatically.
?? Interactive placement requires a fence to be drawn in the map window to define
the size and location of the image.
?? Automatic placement inserts geo-registered images directly into map window and
preserves image geometry. There are two types of automatic placement, Geo-
referenced and by header.

GeoMedia Professional 5.2 also provides tools that maintain data integrity by
reviewing geometry information, validating geometry and validating connectivity.
GeoMedia provides tools to correct data by trimming and extending geometry to
intersections, inserting intersections, fixing connectivity and fixing geometry.

3.2.2 Queries
A query is a request for information. When we display a query, we are requesting
to see features that meet specific criteria. With GeoMedia Professional, we can build a
query by making selections on a dialog box without needing to know SQL. Queries
present current information in the warehouse. This means that each time we display a
query; we get the current information in the warehouse. Queries are stored in the
GeoWorkspace so that, if a warehouse changes, all queries are updated each time they are
displayed. If a spatial filter is applied to the warehouse connection at the time the query
is defined, the query is limited to the geographic area defined by that spatial filter.

31
?? Attribute-filter query allows limiting the search to individual features whose
attributes contain values that meet the conditions specified by an operator. An
operator is a symbol or expression, such as = (equals) or > (is greater than), that
represents the relationship between two values.
?? Spatial query allows limiting the search to individual features whose geometry
has a spatial relationship to features from another feature class or query.
?? Combined attribute and spatial query requests features with certain attribute
values that meet specified spatial conditions, such as overlapping or being
contained by another feature class or query.
3.3 GEOMEDIA TRANSPORTATION MANAGER 5.2
?? Used for linear data analysis as well as routing analysis.
?? Easiest way to merge linear referencing and geospatial technology.
?? Increases the value of our data by turning it into business critical, decision
support information.
There are two major divisions in GeoMedia Transportation Manager;
??Linear Referencing System (LRS)
??Dynamic Segmentation
??Network Routing
3.3.1 Linear Referencing
Linear Referencing is simply the tracking and analysis of data that is associated
with locations along a linear network. For example, tracking the condition of signage,
condition of pavements, location and severity of accident occurrences etc.
As an example for Linear Referencing, the preceding diagram shows a portion of
road on the left and its geospatial representation on the right. The road has kilometer
posts that indicate cumulative linear measures along the road. It also has a road name,
Highway 6 in this example. A section of fencing along the road is also shown in both the
left and right views. Based on the kilometer posts, it can be determined in the field that
this stretch of fence runs along Highway 6 from kilometer measure 2.0 to 2.6. These LRS
Linear Features are the backbone of the LRS and are used in automating the mapping of
linearly referenced data, such as this stretch of fencing, onto the map view.

32
Fig 3.4 Illustrating Linear Referencing

3.3.2 Dynamic segmentation

Dynamic segmentation is the overlay and display of attributes describing a linear


referenced network. Dynamic segmentation can accommodate multiple attribute tables,
describing a highway network, without requiring duplication of network geometry or
data. Only a single, graphic representation of the highway network is required. The
locations of attribute records along the network are identified using the linear referencing
method. In the present work Linear Referencing and Dynamic segmentation analysis of
GeoMedia Transportation Manager is used to its full extent.
3.3.3 Routing Network
A routing network is a system of connected linear features that can be used to
support the simulated transportation of goods, services, or communications between
locations on the network. A network can be thought of as an abstract model that is
derived from a set of linear features and their relationships. Each network model is
primarily composed of a set of geographic features called Edges and a set of implied
features called Nodes. Each Edge in a network represents one component of the
transportation system that is being modeled.

3.3.4 Routing Analysis


The major routing analysis tools provided with GeoMedia Transportation
Manager are:

33
Best Path – This command gives the ability to find the best path for a vehicle that
needs to make one or more stops. We select whether Paths will be optimized so as to
minimize distance traveled or to have the command minimize other “user costs,” such as
time, money, or even safety. It also has an option to optimize ht e order of stops to further
optimize the path. The timesaving for maintenance, delivery, or other vehicles can result
insignificant cost savings, or in the case of emergency vehicles, even saved lives.

Find Closest Stops – This command finds the closest n destination Stops to a set
of origin Stops. This is particularly useful for finding, for example, the two closest
hospitals to each of a set of sports facilities. Path optimization may be by distance or by
user cost.

3.4 CONCLUSIONS

This chapter gives a brief review about the software GeoMedia Professional and
GeoMedia Transportation Manager used for the work. Important terminologies associated
with GeoMedia are also briefly discussed. Besides this a brief description about the
functions of GeoMedia is also given.

34
Chapter 4
PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT

4.0 GENERAL
This chapter describes in detail about the plug-in software, GeoMedia Pavement
Maintenance and Management Assistant (GPMMA) for GeoMedia.

4.1 AN OVERVIEW OF GPMMA

For performing PMMS analysis in GeoMedia, it is essential to customize it based


on our needs. A comprehensive plug-in software, GeoMedia Pavement Maintenance and
Management Assistant (GPMMA) for GeoMedia was developed, which provides no
bounds for PMMS analysis in GeoMedia. Important features in GPMMA are
Deterioration prediction, Cost analysis, BBD overlay design, Prioritization, Overlay Cost
Calculator, Maintenance schedule etc

4.2 BEHIND GPMMA


The GPMMA software is so developed that it can be used with any GeoMedia
application. GPMMA is developed in Visual Basic platform with direct link to Microsoft
Access database. So it can also be used separately for PMMS analysis, by directly linking
with Access database and the UGI developed.
GPMMA also links GeoMedia with other useful external softwares like,
RomdasRMS, MicroPAVER 5.2, STIP, SW-1, Real Cost LCCA etc.
For GPMMA to work properly three sets of installation procedure is needed. First
is the GPMMA & External component installation, second is GPMMA Command
Installation and External software installation.

4.2.1 GPMMA & External Component Installation


This is the primary step for installing GPMMA. With out this preliminary
installation GPMMA can’t give hooks to external build softwares. The installation
process is as shown in fallowing figures:

35
Fig 4.1 GPMMA & External component installation setup files

Fig 4.2 GPMMA & External component installation setup-1

36
Fig 4.3 GPMMA & External component installation setup-2

4.2.2 GPMMA Command Installation


To bring GPMMA as a plug-in command to GeoMedia, the command .dll files
had to be properly registered into the system registry. The GPMMA command
installation will take care of this. The procedure for command installation is as shown
below:

Fig 4.4 GPMMA Command Installation setup-1

37
Fig 4.5 GPMM Command Installation setup-2

Fig 4.6 GPMMA Command Installation setup-3

4.2.3 External Software Installation


GPMMA won’t directly install the external softwares in to the system. External
softwares can be installed any time later from GPMMA GUI. The procedure for
command installation is as shown below:

Fig 4.7 External Software Installation linking form

38
4.3 GPMMA OVERVIEW & IMPORTANT FEATURES

For performing PMMS analysis in GeoMedia, it is essential to customize it based


on our needs. Important features in GPMMA are Deterioration prediction, Economic
analysis, BBD overlay design, Prioritisation, Overlay Cost Calculator, Maintenance
scheduler etc

Fig 4.8 PMMA command installed in menubar

Fig 4.9 PMMA command windows

39
4.3.1 PMMA Deterioration Prediction

The Deterioration Predictor is an analysis tool to predict the pavement


deterioration for any selected design life. Working from the data collected, the tool
analyses current road conditions, age, and pavement type. These data are factored with
aging of pavement and fix strategies to estimate the future condition of the road network.

The base for Indian pavement deterioration prediction models are mainly the
contributions from different research institutes and organizations like Central Road
Research Institute (CRRI) (Updating Road User Cost Data URUCS 1991, Pavement
Performance Study (PPS-EPS 1993), RITES (HDM Calibration Studies -1994),
Bangalore University (Transition Probability Matrices for Optimal maintenance
decisions-1995), & Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (Analytical Pavement
Design (999). These studies laid the basis for the pavement data analysis and
development of Pavement deterioration model for Indian roads. The following Models
are found to be well suited for Indian conditions and are in practice.

4.3.1.1 Prediction of Yearly Change in Cumulative Standard Axles (CSA)

365 x A[(1+r) n -1] x vdf x tdf


CSA=
r x 10 6
Where

CSA = Cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in


millions.
A = initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the
number of vehicles commercial vehicles per day duly modified to
account for lane distribution.
r = growth rate of vehicles
n = design life in years
vdf = vehicle damage factor
tdf = transverse distribution factor

40
4.3.1.2 Prediction of Yearly Change in Deflection

d = do (1+0.125 CSA / log10H)

Where:
do = initial deflection value immediately after construction
CSA = Cumulative number of standard axles in millions.
d = yearly change in deflection value.
H = equivalent granular thickness in mm.

4.3.1.3 Prediction of Yearly Change in Unevenness

UI = Ulo (1+ 0.11 CSA / log10 H)


Where:
UI = Unevenness after a given number of traffic load repetitions in mm/km
UI0 = initial unevenness soon after the construction of overlay in mm/km
CSA = cumulative standard axles in millions
H = Granular overlay thickness in mm

4.3.1.4 Prediction of Yearly Change in Present Serviceability Rating (PSR)

The following model developed as a part of PDM research project at Bangalore


University is used for predicting the yearly change in serviceability over the design life.

PSR = -1.9326 loge (UI) + 14.3765

Where:
PSR = Present Serviceability Rating
UI = Unevenness Index in cm/km

41
Fig 4.10 GUI for PMMA Deterioration predictor

4.3.2 PMMA Economic Analysis


The Life cycle cost of a pavement is the total highway transportation cost during
the design life of the pavement. The total cost of highway transportation is made up of
the highway cost and the cost of operating motor vehicles over the highways. The
highway cost is that cost borne by the people through their highway department and the
vehicle operation cost is the cost which is borne directly by the owners of the motor
vehicles. In order to get the total cost of highway transportation, it is therefore, necessary
to consider the two sources of basic costs.

42
4.3.2.1 Construction Cost
Construction cost depends upon the type and thickness of the overlay. In the
present work, the construction cost for Bituminous Concrete, Bituminous Macadam,
Mixed Seal Concrete, Asphalt concrete was calculated per kilometer length based on the
standard schedule of rates of Kerala P.W.D. and based on the rate of last ten tenders for
works.
Three different strategies was considered like,

?? BM & AC + MSC with Profile Correction (Once in 5yr)


?? BBD Overlay (BM&BC in 2:1) (Designed Overlay)
?? Periodic Repair 25BM+25BC (Once in 2yr)

4.3.2.2 Vehicle Operation Cost

The vehicle operation cost differs between different classes of vehicles under the
same roadway conditions. Hence, the total vehicle operation cost is the total operating
cost of all vehicles plying on the road. The vehicle operation cost for the same class of
vehicle depends upon the width of the road, unevenness of the road and the gradient of
the road. Kadiyali et.al has given different equations for different classes of vehicles for
calculating the vehicle operating cost per kilometer excluding the tax.
For determining the vehicle operating costs in future years, there are six different
methods of economic analysis. According to Winfrey the Net Present Value method is
reliable as a measure of the comparisons of alternatives. The concept of the Net Present
Value is that the decrease in value of the property in any given year, and therefore its
depreciation for the year, is equal to the decrease for that year in the present value of its
portable future returns. The vehicle operation cost for the design life of the pavement is
calculated using the Net Present Value method in the present study.
Net present value (Present worth) method is based on the discounted cash flow
(DCF) technique. In NPV method benefits are treated as positive and costs as negative
and the net present value are found. Any project with a positive Net Present Value is
acceptable. In comparing more than one project, a project with the highest net present
value should be accepted.

43
VEHICLE TYPE VECHICLE OPERATION COST EQUATION
New technology Cars LogeVOCNC=.2 175-. 1 149w+0.000098U1+.01075Rf
Old technology Cars LogeVOCOC 0.3589-.0916w+0.000009834U1+0.0l042Rf

Heavy Commercial
vehicles 2-axle LogeVOCHCV = 1 .5004-.8 188 W+0.00003732UI+0.00 1 55Rf

Buses LogeVOCB=1 .4041 -.08462W+0.00003939U1+0.0 11 33Rf

Heavy commercial
vehicles (Multi-axle) LogeVOCOCV= 1 .9989-.07709W+0.00003 856U1+0.0 1 OO3Rf

Light Commercial
Vehicles LogeVOCLCV 1.5541 -0.07768W+0.00002833U1+0.00 1 55Rf

Two-Wheelers LogeVOCTW=- 1.1531-0.0591 6W+0.OOQ 1 076U1+0.008786Rf

Table 4.1 Equations for vehicle operating cost

VEHICLE TYPE % TOTAL GROWTH RATE


New tech .cars 0.080 0.075
Old tech cars 0.070 0.075
Heavy commercial vehicle 0.2452 0.075
Buses 0.1362 0.075
Heavy commercial vehicle 0.0039 0.075
Light commercial vehicles 0.2097 0.075
Two wheelers 0.2545 0.075

Table 4.2 Percentage of vehicles and growth rate

Inputs for the Economic analysis will be taken directly from Microsoft Access
Database which intern is connected to GeoMedia as its Warehouse. Other varying inputs
are being given through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed. Snap shot of the
GUI are given below.

44
Fig 4.11 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 1

Fig 4.12 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 2

45
Fig 4.13 GUI for PMMA Economic analysis 3

4.3.3 PMMA BBD Overlay Design

The rebound deflection tests were carried out on permanent deflection observation
points at equal intervals along the outer wheel path at 90 cm from the edge of the two-
lane pavement. The tests were conducted using a Benkelman beam and a loaded truck
having rear axle weight of 8170 kg fitted with two pairs of dual wheels with inflation
pressure of 5.6 kg/cm2. About 20 measurements per pavement stretch were made during
the field studies. The deflection tests were carried out as per Canadian Good Roads
Association (CGRA) procedure as mentioned in the guidelines of the IRC: 81-1997. The
pavement temperature and the subgrade moisture data were collected during each cycle.

46
The temperature observations were made on the bituminous layers by digging a small pit
of 40 mm depth and filling it with glycerol. After the glycerol attained the pavement
temperature, the temperature measurements were made. When the pavement temperature
is different than the standard of 350 C needs to be corrected. The correction will be
positive if pavement temperature is less then 350 C and negative if pavement is higher
then 350 C. Correction for temperature is required for pavement having a substantial
thickness of bituminous construction.
Separate sub programs where written for finding moisture correction, temperature
correction, vehicle damaging factor (VDF), Transverse Distribution Factor (TDF) etc.
Most of the inputs where taken directly from Microsoft Access Database. Remaining
varying data are input through the GUI.

Equivalent Single Axles (ESA).


VDF =
Number of Vehicles

Total no. of commercial vehicles traveling along 90 cm wheel path in


both directions.
TDF =
Total no. of commercial vehicles in both the directions during the
period of survey.

4.3.3.1 Conversion of Curves into Mathematical Forms

IRC recommends the moisture correction factors for different conditions of soil.
These were converted into mathematical equations for different conditions of plasticity
index (P1), type of subgrade soil, annual rainfall and field moisture content. For
development of mathematical equations, a curve was divided into a number of segments
depending upon its shape and variation in the slope. The best fit equations were obtained
by using the GRAPHER package. The converted equations are shown in Table 5.3.
To calculate the thickness of Bituminous Macadam overlay(mm), design curves
of IRC 81-1997 were converted into mathematical equations for different values of
characteristic deflection (mm) and the Cumulative number of standard axles. The results
of overlay thickness are shown in Table 5.4.

47
Fig. No. of Moisture
IRC: Contents (%) Equation for moisture correction factor (y)
81-1997 (x)
For Sandy/Gravely soil subgrade for low rainfall areas
2 4 to 11 y = .0001x4 - 0.0051x3 + 0.0922x2 - 0.7039x + 2.9628

For Sandy/Gravely subgrade for low rainfall areas


3 4 to 13 y = -.0001x4 + 0.0036x3 - 0.0425x2 + 0.1448x + 1.2743
For clayey subgrade with low plasticity (P1 < 15) and low rainfall areas
4 4 to 22 y = .000006x4 - 0.0005x3 + 0.0171x2 - 0.2446x + 2.4393

For clayey subgrade with low plasticity (P1 < 15) and low rainfall areas
5 4 to 22 y = .00002x4 - 0.0012x3 + 0.0303x2 - 0.3546x + 2.8708
For clayey subgrade with low plasticity (P1 > 15) and low rainfall areas
6 4 to 20 y = .00002x4 - 0.0013x3 + 0.0333x2 - 0.4092x + 3.0917
For clayey subgrade with high plasticity (P1 > 15) and high rainfall areas
7 4 to 20 y = .00004x4 - 0.0026x3 + 0.0596x2 - 0.6317x + 3.8078

Table 4.3 Equations for moisture correction factor

Characteristic
CSA Equation for Overlay thickness (y)
deflection (x)
0.1 3 to 6 y = 4.1667x3 - 70x2 + 415.83x - 730
0.5 2 to 6 y = -2.5x4 + 45x3 - 302.5x2 + 930x - 970
1.0 1.68 to 6 y = -2.1093x4 + 37.187x3 - 245.09x2 + 742.82x - 717.56
2 1.4 to 6 y = -1.6162x4 + 28.811x3 - 191.18x2 + 583.9x - 514.85
5 1.15 to 6 y = -1.6824x4 + 29.356x3 - 189.19x2 + 556.93x - 431.6

10 1 to 6 y = 0.4583x5 - 10.208x4 + 88.958x3 - 379.79x2 + 820.58x - 520

y = -0.6306x6 + 13.867x5 - 122.43x4 + 554.52x3 - 1362x2 +


20 .8 to 6
1765.7x - 779.01
y = -0.6834x6 + 14.393x5 - 120.43x4 + 510.44x3 - 1159x2 +
100 .55 to 6
1387.4x - 487.06

Table 4.4 Equations for moisture correction factor

48
Fig 4.14 GUI for PMMA BBD overlay design

Fig 4.15 Access Database for PMMA BBD overlay design

49
The output of the design will directly get saved in corresponding column of the
Access database table. From there it is directly called to GeoMedia for its graphical
representation in map.

4.3.4 PMMA Maintenance Prioritisation


Timely maintenance or rehabilitation of all pavement stretch may not be possible
due to limited funds, material shortage, environmental restriction and so-forth. So the
questions such as what, where and when to maintain and rehabilitate have been common,
but the solution used have not always been the right one. The need for prioritising the
stretches is of principal importance. The various techniques for prioritising projects for
maintenance and rehabilitation works are listed below:
?? Univariate Time Series of Serviceability Index Model
?? Dynamic Decision Model
?? Index Ranking Method
?? Percentile Ranking Method
?? Successive Subsetting method
In this work prioritising techniques like Index Ranking Method and Percentile
Ranking Method are considered.

4.3.4.1 Index Ranking Method


The index uses ranking the proportion of distance that a given segment factor
value lies between the best and worst factor values. The total distance between the best
and the worst factor values in the needs list is called the “range.” A better value is the one
that would place a segment lower in the priority list than the segment currently under
consideration. The process is illustrated in the Fig 5.13

Most needy segment, Fw


X
Segment under consideration
R
Range

Least needy segment, Fb

Fig 4.16 Index Ranking Method process

50
For every segment, an index value is evaluated by using the formula.

? X ?
Ij= ? ?× 1 0 0
? R ?
Then composite index for each segment (Ic) is calculated as:
n

?j=1
Ij × Wj
IC = n

?
j=1
W j

Where:
Fw = Worst value of factor for segments in needs list
Fb = Best value of factor for segment in needs list
X = Difference between Fw and the factor value

R = Difference between Fb and Fw the range of values

Ii = Segment index value, based on its value for factor j

Ic = Composite factor index of the segment under consideration


th
Wj = Weight for j factor

4.3.4.2 Percentile Ranking Method


The segments percentile ranking represents that proportion of the other segments
in the needs list that fail to be as deserving of road funds as measured by the value of the
factor under consideration. For a single factor Percentile rank is given by,

Where:
P = Percentile rank of the segment
B = Number of segments with better values
W = Number of segments with worse values
As in the index method, a better value is one that would place a segment lower in
the priority list than the segment currently under consideration. The percentile ranking is

51
done separately for each factor, and then combined into a weighted sum of the weights W
to produce the composite percentile Pc.

4.3.4.3 Weightages Given For Various Parameters


In this work, parameters average daily traffic, deflection was given a weightage of
1.0 as these are the variable mostly leading to pavement structural failure. Variables
Unevenness Index is given a weightage of 0.75 as it represents functional condition of the
pavement. Pavement serviceability rating as it is not a measured quantity but is a
assumed value, weightage given for it is 0.5 only. If the pavement is not structurally
satisfactory, naturally it deteriorates at a faster rate then the pavement, which fails
functionally. Hence, the factors contributing to structural behavior of pavement are given
more weightage than factors representing functional behavior of the road.

Fig 4.17 GUI for Priority Ranking

52
4.3.5 PMMA Overlay Cost Calculator
For economical planning under restricted funds and materials, Overlay cost
calculator will be of great help to serve the need. We can calculate the cost of overlay
with varying materials and varying overlay thickness. Construction cost depends upon the
type and thickness of the overlay. In the present work, the construction cost for
Bituminous Concrete, Bituminous Macadam, Mixed Seal Concrete, Asphalt concrete was
calculated per kilometer length based on the standard schedule of rates of Kerala P.W.D.
and based on the rate of last ten tenders for works.

Fig 4.18 GUI for PMMA Overlay Cost Calculator

4.3.6 PMMA Maintenance Scheduler


The questions such as what, where and when to maintain and rehabilitate have
been very general in pavement management system. The PMMA Maintenance scheduler
will give you a fair answer for the question “when? & what?”.

53
Fig 4.19 Graph showing best time for Maintenance scheduling

Fig 4.20 GUI for PMMA Maintenance scheduler

4.3.7 Hooks to External Softwares

GPMMA links GeoMedia with other useful external softwares like, RomdasRMS,
MicroPAVER 5.2, STIP, MnPAVE, SW-1, Real Cost LCCA etc.

54
Fig 4.21 Snap Shots of External Softwares windows

4.4 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter gives a brief review about the plug-in software, GeoMedia
Pavement Maintenance and Management Assistant (GPMMA) for GeoMedia. Important
functions of GPMMA are also briefly discussed. Besides this a brief description about the
methodology fallowed in each function is also briefly described.

55
Chapter 5
GPMMS INPUTS

5.0 GENERAL

This chapter deals with the description of inputs and the techniques used to feed
the inputs for a standard GeoMedia based Pavement Maintenance and Management
System.

5.1 GPMMS INPUTS

The main inputs of GeoMedia based Pavement Maintenance and Management


System are:
?? Well Prepared Database
?? Georeferenced Digitized Base Map
?? PMMS Analysis Tools (GPMMA)

5.2 GPMMS DATABASE

The heart of a pavement management system is its database, which is the


storehouse for all pavement-related information collected. A program is only as good as
the data stored in it. A PMS must have usable, accurate, and timely data to produce
credible outputs. The effectiveness of data analysis will increase if the data entered is
accurate. This database possesses several features, including: a large capacity, user
friendly access, flexibility for future expansion, security features, and compatibility with
other databases that store related information. Every piece of information in the database
is referenced to the particular section of pavement which it describes. Table 5.1 shows the
data collected from 12th Mile to Kattankal of Kunnamangalam-Augustianmuzhi road.
The information collected and stored in the database can be divided into five categories:
?? Inventory data,
?? Construction data,
?? Traffic data,
?? Condition data (physical distress, roughness, structural capacity, friction),
?? Treatment data.

56
Sl. No Chainage Item Value (Max)
1 6/330 - 7/240 Cracking % 0.0133
2 6/330 - 7/240 Pothole Area % Nil
3 6/330 - 7/240 Ravelling % Nil
4 6/330 - 7/240 Patch works % Nil
5 6/330 - 7/240 Edge break Nil
6 6/330 - 7/240 Roughness in UI -
7 6/330 - 7/240 Characteristic deflection (mm) -
8 6/330 - 7/240 Skid resistance value -
9 Shoulder
6/330 - 7/240 i. Paved/concreted 300 m one side
6/330 - 7/240 ii. Unpaved remaining
10 Predominant land use
6/330 - 7/240 i. Left Institution
6/330 - 7/240 ii. Right Institution
11 6/330 - 7/240 Terrain Plain
12 6/330 - 7/240 Pavement Type BT
13 6/330 - 7/240 Drainage Nil
14 6/330 - 7/240 Camber 2.5%
15 Level of adjacent land
6/330 - 7/240 i. Left Plain
6/330 - 7/240 ii. Right Plain
16 6/330 - 7/240 Traffic
Year of
2005-06’ (widening
17 6/330 - 7/240 construction/repair/surfacing/strengt
and Overlaying)
hening
18 Inventory
6/330 - 7/240 i. Carriage way 7.5 m
6/330 - 7/240 ii. Right of way 15 m

Table 5.1 Data collected from 12th Mile to Kattankal of Kunnamangalam-


Augustianmuzhi road (MDR-2)

5.2.1 Inventory Data


Inventory data is a collection of the physical characteristics of the pavement, and
usually do not change between maintenance activities. The most basic information about

57
the road is included to reference the pavement, such as the road name or route number,
location (or referencing system), number of lanes, and pavement type. Other inventory
data may include:
?? Type of pavement (asphalt, concrete, composite),
?? Width of road,
?? Number of lanes,
?? Thickness of pavement layers, and
?? Drainage conditions.

Fig 5.1 Microsoft Access Database showing Inventory data

5.2.2 Construction Data


Related to inventory data, construction data contain information about the history
of the pavement. This information is important because roads can only be rehabilitated a

58
limited number of times before a full-scale reconstruction of the road is necessary. The
type of construction data collected includes:
?? Year built,
?? Design service life,
?? Date and type of rehabilitation and maintenance projects,
?? Materials used in construction activities, and
?? Cost of maintenance activities.

This set of data is lacking in the present work. If we don’t have a proper
knowledge about construction details of a pavement, it will be difficult to calculate its
remaining life as well as we can’t predict the deterioration correctly.
5.2.3 Traffic Data
The lifespan of a road is dependent on the amount of traffic that uses it. Traffic
count data are useful for calculating the remaining service life of a pavement. Estimating
traffic type is also important. Heavy loads, such as those generated by trucks, break down
pavement quicker than passenger cars. Knowing traffic volumes and type will be useful
for planning future pavement rehabilitation.

Fig 5.2 Microsoft Excel Database showing Traffic data

59
5.2.4 Condition Data
Condition data refers to information about the past and present surface condition
of a section of pavement. Accurate historical pavement condition information is
absolutely essential for operation of the pavement management system, because all
system recommendations are ultimately based on past and present condition data.
Sophisticated PMMS databases contain four different types of condition data: physical
distress data, roughness data, structural capacity data, and friction data.

5.2.4.1 Physical Distress Data


Physical distress is a measure of road surface deterioration caused by traffic,
environment, and aging. Distress can be measured by type, severity, and extent of
breakdown of pavement. The type of distress can be broken into three categories: fracture
(cracking), distortion (rutting), or surface wear (raveling). This information is the most
important information in the entire database.

Fig 5.3 Microsoft Access Database showing Physical distress data

60
5.2.4.2 Roughness Data
Roughness is a measure of ride quality on a particular pavement section. Studies
have consistently shown roughness can be directly related to both user satisfaction and
user costs. Therefore, road roughness measurements are important pieces of information
in a PMMS.
Unevenness index is the cumulative measure of the vertical undulations of the
pavement surface per unit horizontal length of the road.
,

B
UI = x R x 25.4
W
Where:
UI = Unevenness Index in mm/km
B = Bump Integrator reading
W = Number of wheel revolutions
R = Number of revolutions per km (460)

Fig 5.4 Microsoft Access Database showing Roughness data

61
5.2.4.3 Structural Capacity Data
Structural capacity is the ability of a pavement to support traffic with little or no
structural damage. The structural capacity of a pavement is most commonly estimated
through the use of non-destructive testing equipment. This equipment measures the
deflection, curvature, and/or joint efficiency of the pavement under a specified loading.
Structural capacity data is normally used to evaluate past pavement designs or to select a
maintenance, rehabilitation, or reconstruction treatment for a specific project, not to
evaluate the performance of the entire highway network.

5.2.4.4 Friction Data


Friction data is collected using equipment that measures the skid resistance of the
pavement. Friction data are usually examined to determine if lack of friction is a probable
cause of traffic crashes at high-crash locations, or to identify potentially unsafe locations
that have yet to experience a large number of traffic crashes. In this respect, these data
may belong more to the area of safety management than pavement management
(although the two systems are certainly related).

5.3 UPDATING GPMMS DATABASE

The PMMS databases are usually updated by integrating the new set of database
and existing database by using Linear Referencing and Dynamic Segmentation. Linear
Referencing and Dynamic Segmentation are the process of merging new set of database
and existing database by using some primary key, say ID, Road Name or something.
5.3.1 Linear Referencing
Linear Referencing is one of the most important tools in GeoMedia for PMMS. It
helps to consider the actual road length of the Road network, rather than the airline
distance by which the whole network will get automated. It allows the real time tracking
of both linear and point features along the road. Linear Referencing is simply the tracking
and analysis of data that is associated with locations along a linear network. For example,
tracking the location of and condition of pavement, the location and severity of accident
occurrences etc.

62
Fig 5.5 Linear Referencing Command Toolbar & Work Flow

Fig 5.6 Linear Referenced Access Warehouse table & road network

63
5.3.2 Dynamic Segmentation

Dynamic Segmentation is the process of generating geometry for events based on


a LRS. Event features contain sufficient LRS information such that they can be
dynamically segmented to produce geometry based on an LRS feature class. The
flexibility of dynamic segmentation, with respect to data collection, management, and
integration, was the primary reason it was selected for the GPMMS database.

Fig 5.7 Basic Concepts of Dynamic Segmentation

64
Fig 5.8 Dynamic Segmentation Command Toolbar & Work Flow

5.4 DATA ENTRY


Pavement Management system needs a huge amount of data to meet its indented aim
properly. In this work Microsoft Access had been used as the Database as well as the
read/write warehouse for GeoMedia. For entering the relevant data in to the Access database
a user-friendly GUI had been developed using Microsoft InfoPath. The main motive behind
making such a data entry form is to reduce the work in data entry by auto filling the repeating
data; also it help in querying and editing of present data at any time.
PMMS related data will be collected by various groups and organizations, so there is
a need to standardise and centralise these data. One of the main Challenges in present work
was to clean the whole data collected by various organization and to bring it in to a standard
environment. Microsoft InfoPath form can be used over internet to collect the relevant data
by publishing the form and the supporting Access database in to a subscribed webpage. At
any time later we can retrieve the data collected in the forms in web by various private
groups and organizations. These data can be directly used for Dynamic Segmentation.

65
Fig 5.9 Microsoft InfoPath form Query View and Data Entry View

5.5 GEOREFERENCED DIGITISED BASE MAP

The Scaled road map of Calicut district was scanned and brought to GeoMedia in
image feature classes as raster images. Image feature classes are distinguished from one
another based on the coordinate system of the feature class. You can only insert images into
an existing feature class when the coordinate systems of the image and the feature class are in
agreement. All the images in an image feature class can be represented by a either a single
legend entry or multiple legend entries. You can add images to existing feature classes as
needed, without the images being displayed, thereby managing system resources more
efficiently.
A minimum of four or more known coordinate points from the scanned map where
selected and was placed in the corresponding coordinate in the GeoMedia map window using
point feature. Now we have a set of known coordinate points both in scanned map and in
GeoMedia map window. Now the scanned map was brought to GeoMedia using the option
Insert > Interactive Image . Using the image registration option the corresponding points
in scanned map and GeoMedia map window was linked to get a Georeferenced map of
Calicut District.

66
S TUDY AREA
CALICUT DISTRICT

Latitude: Between
110 04I 14II to 11 0 47I 51II
Longitude: Between
750 31I 17II to 76 0 08I 45II

Fig 5.11 Georeferenced Raster Images & Digitized Map

5.6 PMMS ANALYSIS TOOLS (GPMMA)


For performing PMMS analysis in GeoMedia, it is essential to customize it based on
our needs. A comprehensive plug-in software, GeoMedia Pavement Maintenance and
Management Assistant (GPMMA) for GeoMedia was developed, which provides no bounds
for PMMS analysis in GeoMedia. Important features in GPMMA are Deterioration
prediction, Cost analysis, BBD overlay design, Prioritization, Overlay Cost Calculator,
Maintenance schedule etc.
About GPMMA has already been briefly described in chapter.5. For More details
about the functions and working of GPMMA see its help.

5.7 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter gives a brief review about the inputs of GPMMS. Important functions of
GeoMedia like Dynamic Segmentation and Linear Referencing were also briefly discussed.
Besides this a brief description about the input features are also briefly described.

67
Chapter 6
GPMMS OUTPUTS & RESULTS

6.0 GENERAL

This chapter deals with the description of Work done and preferred Outputs &
Results of a standard GeoMedia based Pavement Maintenance and Management System.
<
6.1 GPMMS OUTPUTS

GPMMS provides variable outputs that provide information for use in


implementing cost-effective reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventive maintenance
programs and results in pavement design to accommodate current and forecasted traffic
in a safe, durable, and a cost-effective manner. This can help in reducing the time
allocated to the maintenance activity and facilitating the decision making process.
While the database is the “heart” of a pavement management system, data are not
useful unless they are presented in a meaningful way. It is the role of analysis procedures
to transform the raw collected data into products such as charts, graphs, and reports that
are helpful to decision-makers. A pavement management system can transform a
spreadsheet containing pavement condition data into a map. A map can be quickly and
easily used to examine the health of pavement in ways that are not readily apparent from
columns of numbers. Analytic procedures are grouped into four categories:
?? Thematic Maps
?? Deterioration prediction
?? Economic analysis
?? Maintenance scheduling
?? Maintenance prioritization
?? Overlay design
?? Overlay cost calculation
?? Other outputs

6.1.1 Thematic Maps


Thematic Maps (also called choropleth map) are the symbolised representation of the
geographic features according to nongraphic attribute data through the use of colors and
other user-defined display properties. We can create a thematic display from a feature class in

68
any open warehouse connection, or from a query in the active GeoWorkspace. In a
cartographic context, thematic mapping is the mapping that is based on the classification of
data of a common theme. Figure 6.1 to 6.8 are some examples of various outputs as Thematic
Maps. Almost all structural and functional attributes can be shown in thematic map form.
The condition data, Unevenness data inventory data are the most suited to represent through
thematic mapping. Thematic map will run on all features, feature classes, dynamic
segmented events, and quires etc. Thematic map can be drawn for a range of values or for
unique values. Range calculation and clustering techniques are also available with thematic
map option.

Fig 6.1 Thematic Map showing the lengthwise distribution of MDR

69
Fig 6.2 Thematic Map showing the bridge inventory details

Fig 6.3 Thematic Map showing the bridge attribute details

70
Fig 6.4 Thematic Map showing the ODR condition details

Fig 6.5 Thematic Map showing the SH condition details

71
Fig 6.6 Thematic Map showing the Culvert inventory details

Fig 6.7 Thematic Map showing the Culvert attribute details

72
Fig 6.8 Thematic Map showing the IRQP Phase of NH

6.1.2 Deterioration Prediction


This is an important output of PMMA analysis. These results will give an overall idea
about the future of the pavement. These predicted values are used as inputs for various other
PMMA analyses. A well equipped database is required to provide the input for Deterioration
prediction analysis.
The base for Indian pavement deterioration prediction models are mainly the
contributions from different research institutes and organizations like Central Road Research
Institute (CRRI) (Updating Road User Cost Data URUCS 1991, Pavement Performance
Study (PPS-EPS 1993), RITES (HDM Calibration Studies -1994), Bangalore University
(Transition Probability Matrices for Optimal maintenance decisions-1995), & Indian Institute
of Technology Kharagpur (Analytical Pavement Design (999).
In the following example (Fig 6.9) the road stretch from Arayadathupalam to
Eranhipalam of Calicut Mini-Bypass is taken for illustration. Apart from the input given
through the GUI, the other required data have been taken directly from corresponding
Microsoft Access Database. The methodology adopted for the calculation where as given by

73
IRC for predicting CSA, Deflection and Unevenness. The PSR value was predicted using the
model developed as a part of PDM research project at Bangalore University.

Fig 6.9 Deterioration Prediction - output

6.1.3 Economic Analysis


Economic analysis has found a ready application in problem concern with the
evaluation of alternative transportation plans. International lending institutions, such as the
World Bank, attach the greatest important to assuring themselves that a particular project for
which a loan its required is not only economically and technically sound, but that its order of
priority in relation to other possible projects has been carefully determined in the light of the
overall development of the country concerned. The basic principle behind any method of

74
economic analysis is to measure the cost of the project, determine the benefits that are likely
to accrue and compare the two.
The objectives of the Economic Analysis are:
1. Whether the plan under consideration is worth investment at all.
2. To rank scheme competing for scarce resources in order of priority.
3. To compare mutually exclusive schemes and select the most economic.
4. To assist in phasing the programme over time period.
After having determined the costs and benefits of a scheme, a method has to be
evolved for relating these two so as to arrive at an assessment of the soundness of a scheme
in economic terms. The important methods are
Rate of Return Method
Benefit cost ratio method, First year rate of return method.
Discounting Cash Flow Method
Net present value method (NPV), Internal rate of return method

According to Winfrey (1994) the NPV method is reliable as a measure of the


comparisons of alternatives. In the present work NPV is selected as the evaluation method.
6.1.3.1 Net Present Value Method (NPV)
Net present value (Present worth) method is based on the discounted cash flow (DCF)
technique. In this method, the stream of costs/benefits associated with the project over an
extended period of time is calculated and is discounted at a selected discount rate to give the
present rate. Benefits are treated as positive and costs as negative and the net present value
are found. Any project with a positive Net Present Value is acceptable. In comparing more
than one project, a project with the highest net present value should be accepted. The net
present value is algebraically expressed as:
N
Bt - C t
NPV ? ?
?1 ? i ?
t
t?0
Where,
NPV = Net present value in the base year.
Bt = Value of benefits which occur in the year t .
Ct = Costs which occur in the year t
i = Discount rate per annum.
N = The number of years for which the return is to be calculated.

75
In the following example (Fig 6.10) the road stretch from Chorode to Vadakara of
NH-17 (Vadakara Sub-division) is taken for illustration. Apart from the input given through
the GUI, the other required data have been taken directly from corresponding Microsoft
Access Database. The evaluation was done for a design life of 10 years, vehicle growth rate
was taken as 7.5% and a discount rate of 4.5%.
The methodology adopted for the deterioration prediction calculation where as given
by IRC for predicting CSA, Deflection and Unevenness. The PSR value was predicted using
the model developed as a part of PDM research project at Bangalore University.

Fig 6.10 Economic Analysis – Deterioration Prediction

76
Construction cost depends upon the type and thickness of the overlay. In the present
work (Fig 6.11), the construction cost for Bituminous Concrete (BC), Bituminous Macadam
(BM), Mixed Seal Concrete (MSC), Asphalt concrete (AC), was calculated per kilometer
length based on the standard schedule of rates of Kerala P.W.D. and based on the rate of last
ten tenders for works. Three different strategies was considered like,

1. BM & AC + MSC with Profile Correction Course (Once in 5years)


2. BBD Design Overlay (BM & BC in 2:1 ratio) (From Overlay Design)
3. Periodic Repair 25mm BM + 25mm BC (Once in every 2years)

Fig 6.11 Economic Analysis – Overlay Cost Calculation

77
The vehicle operation cost differs between different classes of vehicles under the
same roadway conditions. Hence, the total vehicle operation cost is the total operating cost of
all vehicles plying on the road. The vehicle operation cost for the same class of vehicle
depends upon the width of the road, unevenness of the road and the gradient of the road.

For determining the vehicle operating costs in future years, there are six different
methods of economic analysis. Among them the Net Present Value method is the reliable, as
a measure of the comparisons of alternatives. See Fig 6.12 for details.

Fig 6.12 Economic Analysis – NPV & Strategy Selection

78
6.1.4 Maintenance Scheduling

At the present day, the development of systematic procedure for scheduling


maintenance and rehabilitation activities is one of the major concerns of highway agencies
today. For every road link, there is a particular period in its life span, when it is most
effective to undertake particular type of maintenance measure, beyond which the
deterioration of the pavement increases rapidly.

Routine Preventative Maintenance


Maintenance 75% of life
Rehabilitation

30% of life 60% of life


100 Rehabilitation or
90 Deferred Action
A
80
B
70
PCI
60 C
50 D
40
30 E
20
10 F Reconstruction
0
Age of Pavement

Fig 6.13 Present Serviceability Index Vs Age of Pavement

The questions such as what, where and when to maintain and rehabilitate have been
very general in pavement management system. The PMMA Maintenance scheduler will give
you a fair answer for the question “when? & what?”.
The strategy where developed by using optimization techniques to maximize the
benefit with in a given set of constrains. In Fig 6.14 the road stretch from Arayadathupalam
to Eranhipalam of Calicut Mini-Bypass is taken for illustration. Apart from the input given
through the GUI, the other required data have been taken directly from database.

79
Fig 6.14 Maintenance scheduling - output

6.1.5 Maintenance Prioritization


Timely maintenance or rehabilitation for every good link may not be possible because
of limited fund, material shortages, environmental restrictions and so forth. Hence the need
for prioritising the stretches is of principal importance. In this work prioritising techniques
like Index Ranking Method and Percentile Ranking Method are considered.
The prioritization was done for each road type separately. Based on the fund available
per year, the road stretches to be considered for Maintenance in each year will also be
calculated based on the total kilometerage of the considered stretches and the rate for
maintenance/kilometer length. In Fig 6.15 prioritisation of MDR’s are taken for illustration.

80
Fig 6.15 Maintenance prioritisation of MDR’s

Fig 6.16 Maintenance prioritisation of SH’s

81
The vehicle operation cost is directly proportional to the distance traveled and the
travel time. So it is necessary to make sure that the vehicles are able to use the non circuitous
routes. Normally most of the vehicles will be using those path which are in good surface
conditions and having better serviceability (Say, NH’s, SH’s), even though the route may be
more circuitous. Till now there is not much effective methods used to include this fact in a
PMMS analysis. In this work an attempt had been made to incorporate this, utilizing the
functions in GeoMedia like buffer-zones, closest path and so on.
Twenty-eight major centers in Calicut where identified, based on their population
density and expert opinions. A buffer-zone of around 10 to 12 km (based on their
importance) where made around each major center. All other major centers coming in the
buffer zone were found out and the closest routes from the major center considered to all
other major centers inside the bufferzone were also found out, see Fig 6.17. Likewise it was
repeated for all the 28centers. The roads coming in these closest paths were given priority for
widening activities, Preventive maintenance and other routine maintenance works.

Fig 6.17 BufferZones & Closest path around Koduvally

82
Based on the rankings values, a thematic map was made to show the priority rank for
maintenance of the stretch. For an available fund per maintenance works, the total length of
road that can be maintained with that fund was calculated, and the road network was made in
to different cluster priority groups. Stretches for maintenance where hence find out using the
priority. In Fig 6.18 a four level cluster prioritisation of MDR’s in Calicut.

Fig 6.18 BufferZones & Closest path around Koduvally


6.1.6 BBD Overlay Design

Benkelman Beam Deflection analysis is used to evaluate the strengthening


requirement of existing flexible road pavements. Performance of flexible pavements is
closely related to the elastic deflection of pavement under the wheel loads. The deformation
or elastic deflection under a given load depends upon subgrade soil type, its moisture content
and compaction, the thickness and quality of the pavement courses, drainage conditions,
pavement surface temperature etc.
In Fig 6.19 the road stretch from Arayadathupalam to Eranhipalam of Calicut Mini-
Bypass is taken for illustration. Apart from the input given through the GUI, the other
required data have been taken directly from corresponding Microsoft Access Database. The
methodology adopted for the calculation where as given by IRC: 81-1997.

83
Fig 6.19 BBD Overlay design-output
6.1.7 Overlay Cost Calculation
It is necessary to know the overlay cost of a selected stretch, for various combinations
of over lay materials. This GUI provides the user a flexible and friendly overlay cost
calculation method.
In Fig 6.20 the road stretch from Kunnamangalam to Augustianmuzhi (MDR No 2) is
taken for illustration. Apart from the input given through the GUI, the other required data
have been taken directly from corresponding Microsoft Access Database.
The result from Overlay cost calculator is not written to any access table it is only to
try and see the rate for various combination as needed. The rates entered are the prevailing
PWD rates. For more reliable calculation we had to update the rates periodically.

84
Fig 6.20 Overlay cost calculation -output

6.1.8 Other Outputs


The important other types of outputs are Charts and Reports. There are already so
many customised commands for GeoMedia available in the internet. Among them is one for
making chart from the data window entries which can be either an attribute or a dissected
value using GeoMedia analysis tools. Fig 6.21 shows the window for this command.

Fig 6.21 Customised Window for chart output

85
Area of Cracks (%)
Area of Ravelling (%)

0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5

0
1
2
3
4

0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
6250 6250
6300 6300
6350 6350
6400 6400
6450 6450
6500 6500
6550 6550
6600 6600
6650 6650
6700 6700
6750 6750
6800 6800
6850 6850
6900 6900
6950 6950
7000 7000
7050 7050
7100 7100
7150 7150
7200 7200
7250 7250
7300 7300
7350 7350
7400 7400
7450 7450

Cracks

86
7500 7500
7550 7550
7600 7600
Ravelling

7650 7650

Chainage (m)

Chainage (m)
7700

(Arayedathupalam-Eranjipalam)
7700
7750 7750
7800 7800
7850 7850
7900
(Arayedathupalam-Eranjipalam)

7900
7950 7950
8000 8000
8050 8050
8100 8100
8150 8150
8200 8200
8250 8250
8300 8300
8350

Fig 6.23 Bar Chart showing Crack details along the stretch
8350
Fig 6.22 Bar Chart showing Raveling details along the stretch

8400 8400
8450 8450
8500 8500
8550 8550
8600 8600
8650 8650
8700 8700
8750 8750
8800 8800
Area of Patchwork (%)
Area of Potholes (%)

0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
6250 6250
6300 6300
6350 6350
6400 6400
6450 6450
6500 6500
6550 6550
6600 6600
6650 6650
6700 6700
6750 6750
6800 6800
6850 6850
6900 6900
6950 6950
7000 7000
7050 7050
7100 7100
7150 7150
7200 7200
7250 7250
7300 7300
7350 7350
7400 7400
7450 7450

87
7500 7500
Potholes

7550

Patchwork
7550
7600 7600
7650 7650

Chainage (m)
Chainage (m)
7700 7700
7750 7750
(Arayedathupalam-Eranjipalam)

7800 7800

(Arayedathupalam-Eranjipalam)
7850 7850
7900 7900
7950 7950
8000 8000
8050 8050
8100 8100
8150 8150
8200 8200
8250 8250
8300 8300
8350 8350
8400
Fig 6.24 Bar Chart showing Potholes details along the stretch

Fig 6.25 Bar Chart showing Patchwork details along the stretch
8400 8450
8450 8500
8500 8550
8550 8600
8600 8650
8650 8700
8700 8750
8750 8800
8800
Figures 6.22 to 6.25 shows the various out puts from the attribute of the road stretch
from Arayadathupalam to Eranhipalam of Calicut Mini-Bypass. Likewise we can get outputs
in various forms of graphs 2D’s or 3D’s.
All the PMMA results can be directly given for printing and can be made in the form
of a report, which will be very useful for the decision makers to come across a conclusion.

6.2 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter gives a brief review about the outputs and other results of GPMMS.
Important functions of GeoMedia like Thematic Mapping and PMMA Analysis were also
briefly discussed. Besides this a brief description about the output features are also included.

88
Chapter 7
CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS & SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK

7.0 GENERAL
This chapter contains the important features like summary, conclusions, limitations &
scope of future work.
7.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A Pavement Maintenance & Management System for a the whole of Kozhikode


District was developed using Intergraph’s GeoMedia Professional, GeoMedia Transportation
Manager 5.2 version and GeoMedia Pavement Maintenance & Management Assistant.

?? Road Network as well as Water bodies and Rail of whole Kozhikode District were
digitised.
?? Prepared map can be used as the base map for all present and future analysis like LRS
and Dynamic Segmentation.
?? Database was created with all the available details of the road network like Inventory
data, Construction data, Traffic data, Condition data, etc.
?? A plug-in software, GPMMA which contains user-friendly menus has been developed
to present PMMS results to justify the decisions made.
?? This work shows that a PMMS which is based on the direct integration between
PMMA and GeoMedia Professional can be used to facilitate the decision making
process for managing pavements.
?? The Management System developed is capable of handling a large network, and
hence it can even be used at the network level.
?? A centralized Calicut district PMMS data collection should be initiated involving all
the Sub-Divisions in Calicut.
?? The results of the present study can be used for the selection of type and thickness of
material for overlay on different subgrade soil economically without sacrificing the
safety of the road structure.
?? The VOC per year can be calculated, the program is capable of prediction of
appropriate period for strengthening and life cycle of .different alternatives and
choosing the best alternative for which the total transportation cost is the least.

89
?? The Net Present values (NPV) of benefits for the three strategies considered were
found out and the most economic one for various design life period was selected.
?? The best time for Preventive maintenance as well as for Regular maintenance was
also found out by optimizing the NPV of the corresponding benefits.
?? Thematic maps, Charts and Reports for various useful attributes were developed for
further decision making.

7.2 LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE OF FURTHER WORK


The present study is an essential requirement for project planning and budget
allocation.
Comprehensive data is not available for all stretches; even this data is not available
with the Public Works Departments. The data available is also spread over a number of
organisations.
As a scope of future work Data Entry forms can be published over internet and can be
get filled from those various organisations from there office itself. These data can be
retrieved at a later time.
In this study an attempt is made to give some of the methods for setting priority of the
projects for maintenance and rehabilitation. These methods can be still be improved by
combining subjective aspects with objective information more effectively by adopting goal
programming and Monrovian decisions process analytical hierarchy techniques.
The plug-in software developed for PMMS analysis is in the first phase. More
functions as well as modification for the present work can be made based on the needs.
The data collected was old for most of the stretches and only one time data per stretch
was available for analysis.
7.3 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter gives a brief review about the Summary and other conclusions of
GPMMS. The limitation and the scope of future work were also included in this chapter.

90
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