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Cover Page

EML 4905 Senior Design Project

A B.S. THESIS
PREPARED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

2016 SHELL ECO-MARATHON


Final Report

Evelyn Mojica
Kaira Sanchez
Santiago Norena

Advisor: Dr. Andres Tremante

April 17th, 2016

This B.S. thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements in EML 4905.
The contents represent the opinion of the authors and not the Department of
Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
Ethics Statement and Signatures

The work submitted in this B.S. thesis is solely prepared by a team consisting of Evelyn Mojica,
Kaira Sanchez, and Santiago Norena and it is original. Excerpts from others’ work have been
clearly identified, their work acknowledged within the text and listed in the list of references. All
of the engineering drawings, computer programs, formulations, design work, prototype
development and testing reported in this document are also original and prepared by the same team
of students.

Evelyn Mojica Kaira Sanchez Santiago Norena


Team Leader Team Member Team Member

Dr. Andres Tremante


Faculty Advisor

II
Table of Contents
Cover Page .................................................................................................................................................... I
Ethics Statement and Signatures ............................................................................................................... II
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................................... III
List of Figures............................................................................................................................................ VII
List of Tables .............................................................................................................................................. IX
Abstract........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Problem Statement............................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Motivation.......................................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Literature Survey .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.3.1 Rules and Regulations ............................................................................................................... 2
1.3.2 Energy Sources ........................................................................................................................... 3
1.3.3 Internal Combustion Engine ..................................................................................................... 3
1.3.4 Hydrogen Fuel Cell .................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.5 Battery Electric .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Survey of Related Standards .......................................................................................................... 12
1.4.1 Standards for Battery Electric Vehicles ................................................................................. 12
1.4.2 Standards for Battery Electric Vehicles ................................................................................. 13
1.5 Discussion......................................................................................................................................... 14
2. Project Formulation.......................................................................................................................... 14
2.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 14
2.2 Project Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 15
2.3 Design Specification ........................................................................................................................ 15
2.3.1 Steering Specifications ............................................................................................................. 16
2.3.2 General Vehicle Specifications ................................................................................................ 16
2.3.3 Electrical/Energy System ........................................................................................................ 18
2.4 Constraints and Other Considerations ......................................................................................... 20
2.4.1 Logo Specifications .................................................................................................................. 20
2.4.2 Emergency Shut Down Mechanism........................................................................................ 20
2.4.3 Propulsion and Energy Storage System Isolation ................................................................. 21
2.4.4 Fire Extinguisher Specifications ............................................................................................. 22
2.4.5 Safety Harness Specifications ................................................................................................. 22
2.4.6 Other Specifications ................................................................................................................. 23
III
2.5 Addressing Global Design .............................................................................................................. 24
2.6 Discussion......................................................................................................................................... 24
3. Project Management ......................................................................................................................... 25
3.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 25
3.2 Breakdown of Work in Specific Tasks .......................................................................................... 25
3.3 Gantt Chart for the Optimization of Work and Timeline........................................................... 27
4. Design Alternatives ........................................................................................................................... 29
4.1 Overview of Conceptual Designs Developed................................................................................. 29
4.2 Body Design Alternative 1 .............................................................................................................. 29
4.3 Body Design Alternative 2 .............................................................................................................. 30
4.4 Body Design Alternative 3 .............................................................................................................. 31
4.5 Body Design Alternative 4 .............................................................................................................. 32
4.6 Proposed Body Design .................................................................................................................... 33
4.7 Proposed Steering Design ............................................................................................................... 35
4.8 Feasibility Assessment .................................................................................................................... 38
4.9 Integration of Global Design Elements ......................................................................................... 39
4.10 Discussion....................................................................................................................................... 39
5. Engineering Design and Analysis .................................................................................................... 40
5.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 40
5.2 Kinematic Analysis of the System.................................................................................................. 40
5.3 Dynamic Analysis of the System .................................................................................................... 42
5.4 Structural Design ............................................................................................................................ 43
5.5 Force Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 45
5.6 Stress Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 46
5.7 Deflection Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 47
5.8 Airflow Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 48
5.9 Material Selection ........................................................................................................................... 52
5.10 Electric Motor Selection ............................................................................................................... 53
5.10.1 Electric Motor Alternative 1 ................................................................................................. 53
5.10.2 Electric Motor Alternative 2 ................................................................................................. 54
5.10.3 Electric Motor Alternative 3 ................................................................................................. 55
5.10.4 Electric Motor Chosen ........................................................................................................... 55
5.11 Battery Selection ........................................................................................................................... 56
5.12 Motor Controller Selection .......................................................................................................... 57
IV
5.12.1 Controller Specifications ....................................................................................................... 58
5.12.2 Energy System ........................................................................................................................ 59
5.12.3 Controller Communication ................................................................................................... 62
5.12.4 Speed Controller Implementation ........................................................................................ 66
5.12.5 Controller Box ........................................................................................................................ 69
5.13 Electrical Components Selection ................................................................................................. 72
5.13.1 Controller Box ........................................................................................................................ 72
5.13.2 Fuse Box .................................................................................................................................. 74
5.13.3 Propulsion System .................................................................................................................. 75
5.14 Design Overview............................................................................................................................ 76
5.15 Cost Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 77
5.16 Discussion....................................................................................................................................... 79
6. Prototype Construction .................................................................................................................... 80
6.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 80
6.2 Description of Prototype ................................................................................................................. 80
6.3 Prototype Design ............................................................................................................................. 80
6.4 Parts List .......................................................................................................................................... 83
6.5 Construction .................................................................................................................................... 84
6.6 Prototype Cost Analysis ................................................................................................................. 84
6.7 Discussion......................................................................................................................................... 86
7. Testing and Evaluation ..................................................................................................................... 86
7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 86
7.2 Design/Description of Experiments ............................................................................................... 86
7.2.1 Vehicle Body ............................................................................................................................. 86
7.2.2 Steering System ........................................................................................................................ 87
7.2.3 Braking System ........................................................................................................................ 87
7.2.4 Battery Electric Motor............................................................................................................. 87
7.2.5 Implementation of Code .......................................................................................................... 88
7.3 Test Results and Data ..................................................................................................................... 93
7.3.1 Vehicle Body ............................................................................................................................. 93
7.3.2 Steering System ........................................................................................................................ 94
7.3.3 Battery and Motor ................................................................................................................... 95
7.3.4 Debugging the Code ................................................................................................................. 98
7.3.5 Braking System ...................................................................................................................... 100
V
7.4 Improvement of the Design .......................................................................................................... 100
7.5 Discussion....................................................................................................................................... 101
8.1 Health and Safety .......................................................................................................................... 101
8.2 Assembly and Disassembly........................................................................................................... 102
8.3 Maintenance of the System........................................................................................................... 103
8.3.1 Regular Maintenance ............................................................................................................. 104
8.3.2 Brake Maintenance ................................................................................................................ 104
8.3.3 Major Maintenance................................................................................................................ 105
8.4 Environmental Impact and Sustainability .................................................................................. 105
8.5 Risk Assessment ............................................................................................................................ 106
9. Design Experience ........................................................................................................................... 107
9.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 107
9.2 Standards Used in Project ............................................................................................................ 108
9.3 Contemporary Issues .................................................................................................................... 109
9.4 Impact of Design in a Global and Societal Context ................................................................... 110
9.5 Professional and Ethical Responsibility ...................................................................................... 111
9.5.1 ASME Code of Ethics ............................................................................................................ 111
9.6 Life-Long Learning Experience ................................................................................................... 112
9.7 Discussion....................................................................................................................................... 113
10. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 113
10.1 Conclusion and Discussion ......................................................................................................... 113
10.2 Evaluation of Intangible Experiences ....................................................................................... 114
10.3 Future Work ................................................................................................................................ 115
11. References .................................................................................................................................... 116
12. Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 117
12.1 Appendix A – Engineering Drawings ........................................................................................ 117
12.2 Appendix B – User’s Manual ..................................................................................................... 119
12.2.1 User’s Manual in English .................................................................................................... 119
12.2.2 User’s Manual in Spanish.................................................................................................... 122
12.2.3 User’s Manual in Dutch....................................................................................................... 125
12.3 Appendix D – Detailed Raw Calculations and Analysis .......................................................... 129
12.4 Appendix E – Project Photo Album .......................................................................................... 130

VI
List of Figures
Figure 1: Thermodynamic Representation of an Internal Combustion Engine ............................................ 4
Figure 2: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Schematic ...................................................................................................... 6
Figure 3: Work Breakdown Structure (General)......................................................................................... 25
Figure 4: Work Breakdown Structure (Topic Selection) ............................................................................ 25
Figure 5: Work Breakdown Structure (Body Design) ................................................................................ 26
Figure 6: Work Breakdown Structure (Motor, Steering and Handling) ..................................................... 26
Figure 7: Work Breakdown Structure (Manufacturing/Build, Testing/Validation, and Optimization) ...... 26
Figure 8: Gantt Chart .................................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 9: Timeline....................................................................................................................................... 27
Figure 10: Body Design Alternative 1 ........................................................................................................ 29
Figure 11: Body Design Alternative 2 ........................................................................................................ 30
Figure 12: Body Design Alternative 3 ........................................................................................................ 31
Figure 13: Body Design Alternative 4 ........................................................................................................ 32
Figure 14: Preliminary Body and Chassis Setup Displaying Chassis Fitting Inside Body Perfectly ......... 33
Figure 15: Preliminary Body and Chassis Setup Displaying No Issues or Interferences. .......................... 34
Figure 16: Body and Chassis Displaying the Design Closer to the Final Vehicle Design.......................... 34
Figure 17: Go Kart Steering Schematic ...................................................................................................... 35
Figure 18: Steering Design Implemented Successfully into the Final Vehicle Design .............................. 37
Figure 19: Side View of Steering Design in the Final Vehicle Design....................................................... 37
Figure 20: Vehicle's 180 Degrees of Visibility for the Driver .................................................................... 38
Figure 21: Kinematic Analysis of Vehicle Assembly (Front and Back, Respectively) via SolidWorks .... 41
Figure 22: Body and Chassis Assembled Displaying the Success of the Kinematic Analysis ................... 41
Figure 23: Front Lexan Windshield Being Riveted On .............................................................................. 44
Figure 24: Force Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks ....................................................................... 45
Figure 25: Stress Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks ....................................................................... 46
Figure 26: Deflection Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks ............................................................... 47
Figure 27: Airfoil Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 48
Figure 28: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 1 ................................................................................. 49
Figure 29: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 2 ................................................................................. 50
Figure 30: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 3 ................................................................................. 50
Figure 31: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 4 ................................................................................. 51
Figure 32: Electric Motor Alternative 1 ...................................................................................................... 53
Figure 33: Electric Motor Alternative 2 ...................................................................................................... 54
Figure 34: Electric Motor Alternative 3 ...................................................................................................... 55
Figure 35: VPower 48V Battery Modeled in SolidWorks .......................................................................... 57
Figure 36: The DRV8301 Board with the C2000 Piccolo F28035 ............................................................. 59
Figure 37: Motor Controller without Sensors ............................................................................................. 60
Figure 38: Motor Controller Using Hall Sensors ........................................................................................ 61
Figure 39: General Layout of Motor Controller ......................................................................................... 62
Figure 40: Gate Driver IC Diagram ............................................................................................................ 63
Figure 41: Commutation in BLDC Motors ................................................................................................. 64
VII
Figure 42: N-Channel Switching Mosfets Diagram ................................................................................... 65
Figure 43: Micro Soldering a Wire into Pin Location #65 ......................................................................... 67
Figure 44: Model of Steering Wheel with Throttle Fixture via SolidWorks .............................................. 69
Figure 45: SolidWorks Modeling of the Controller Box ............................................................................ 70
Figure 46: Centerline Isometric View of Controller Box via SolidWorks ................................................. 71
Figure 47: 3D-Printed Controller Box ........................................................................................................ 71
Figure 48: Diagram of Connections between Battery and Motor Controller .............................................. 73
Figure 49: SolidWorks Modeling of the Fuse Box ..................................................................................... 74
Figure 50: 3D-Printed Fuse Box ................................................................................................................. 75
Figure 51: Propulsion System Diagram ...................................................................................................... 76
Figure 52: Styrofoam Mold Sanded and Ready for Fiber Glass Layup ...................................................... 81
Figure 53: Fiber Glass Layup of Top Layer ............................................................................................... 81
Figure 54: Fiber Glass Shell Sanded and Placed on Chassis ...................................................................... 82
Figure 55: Bulkhead with Electrical Components and Steering Assembly ................................................ 83
Figure 56: Personal Protection Equipment and Well Ventilated Area ....................................................... 84
Figure 57: Wooden Testing Mount ............................................................................................................. 88
Figure 58: GUI Layout................................................................................................................................ 89
Figure 59: GUI Layout (Cont'd) ................................................................................................................. 90
Figure 60: Target Configuration Window .................................................................................................. 92
Figure 61: CCS Edit Window ..................................................................................................................... 93
Figure 62: Current of Motor Plot ................................................................................................................ 95
Figure 63: Motor Rotational Speed Graph .................................................................................................. 96
Figure 64: Motor Voltage over Time Plot .................................................................................................. 96
Figure 65: Force of Motor vs. Required Force ......................................................................................... 129

VIII
List of Tables
Table 1: Tensile Property Limits of Aluminum 6061-T6 ........................................................................... 13
Table 2: Breakdown of Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 28
Table 3: Track Width and Wheel Base Dimensions ................................................................................... 36
Table 4: Mechanical Properties of Lexan ................................................................................................... 44
Table 5: Carbon Fiber Properties ................................................................................................................ 52
Table 6: Fiber Glass Properties ................................................................................................................... 52
Table 7: AW Electric Bicycle Motor Kit .................................................................................................... 53
Table 8: Aosom Rear Wheel Motor Kit ...................................................................................................... 54
Table 9: Currie Technologies Direct Drive Electric Motor & Rear Wheel Assembly ............................... 55
Table 10: Power and Current Analysis ....................................................................................................... 56
Table 11: Results of Output Signal Testing ................................................................................................ 68
Table 12: Cost Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 78
Table 13: Parts List ..................................................................................................................................... 83
Table 14: Prototype Cost Analysis.............................................................................................................. 85
Table 15: Motor Running with No Load .................................................................................................... 97

IX
Abstract

The Shell Eco-Marathon Americas competition was an opportunity seized to be able to

engineer an electric vehicle to compete against others in its class from universities all over the

Americas. Being an engineer not only entails understanding difficult concepts but also applying

those concepts to new ideas and innovations that will propel society forward. With the high

dependency on fossil fuel use in the United States (US), engineering electric vehicles are one of

the important energy alternatives to be considered. In addition, to aid in the transition for internal

combustion engines to electric vehicles, engineers must prove that this energy alternative is

capable of performing above expectations up to and including winning racing competitions.

Entering this competition required careful consideration of many factors including, but not limited

to: electric motor and battery cell specifications, material types, weight distribution, and

aerodynamic profile.

1. Introduction

1.1 Problem Statement

As a country, the US is highly dependent on energy produced mainly from fossil fuels.

Being the largest petroleum consumer, the US consumed 18.6 million barrels of petroleum

products per day in 2012 alone. The atmosphere absorbs tons of greenhouse gases naturally, but

due to annual increases in greenhouse gas emissions it is trapping up to 25 percent more of the

sun’s radiation and is becoming more absorbent each year. This is a result of the constant increase

of fossil fuel usage. One of the greatest challenges future engineers will need to face is how to

cope with the increase of damaging effects caused by fossil fuel use. Technological advances must

be made in every industry to combat this issue. As such, alternative energy methods in all kinds of

applications are being used. One of these applications is the use of electric engines in vehicles.

1
Electric motor vehicles can perform well for everyday use and have been used in other applications

successfully. Making innovative changes such as these will aid in forward thinking towards a less

fossil fuel dependent era.

1.2 Motivation

The Shell Eco-Marathon Americas competition allows for the opportunity to improve and

optimize upon existing concepts in the electric vehicle sector. It is an excellent opportunity for

students to apply their engineering knowledge and existing skills to the design and manufacturing

of an energy efficient vehicle, and to acquire new skills in the process. Students creating different

design alternatives that include different material selections, body shapes, stress and strain

analyses and other important factors make for the ultimate engineering experience. Above all, the

ability to represent Florida International University (FIU) and collaborate with a group of fellow

student engineers to innovate and compete makes for a rewarding journey.

1.3 Literature Survey

1.3.1 Rules and Regulations

The Shell Eco-Marathon organizers have provided a 2016 Official Rule Book that

thoroughly describes all vehicle design considerations, safety guidelines, driving rules, required

documentation, and process mandates to follow until the date of competition. It is vital for the FIU

team to scrutinize all details in the rules handbook in order to comply and be able to participate in

the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon Americas competition. This document does not provide all content

found in the rule book, however, the main regulations that pertain to the battery electric prototype

vehicle design will be outlined in this document in sections 2.3, and 2.4.

2
1.3.2 Energy Sources

There are many factors to consider when selecting the best energy source for a motor. The

Shell Eco-Marathon rule book clearly states that competitors have the option of designing a vehicle

using the following options:

(a) Internal Combustion

i. Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia)/Shell Nitrogen Enriched (US) Gasoline

ii. Shell FuelSave Diesel (Europe)/Shell Diesel (Asia and US)

iii. Ethanol E100 (100% Ethanol)

iv. Shell Gas to Liquid (100% GtL)

v. CNG (Pure Methane)

(b) Electric Mobility

i. Hydrogen

ii. Battery Electric1

In this project it is vital to first consider which option is the most energy efficient. Another

important factor is whether the chosen option is viable based on various constraints. After

efficiency, simplicity is key.

1.3.3 Internal Combustion Engine

An internal combustion engine is a mechanism that uses heat in order to produce

mechanical power. As a result, it is considered a heat engine. At the most fundamental level from

a thermodynamic perspective, it is a system that takes heat from a hot reservoir at a high

temperature, uses this heat to output mechanical power and then any unused or wasted heat exits

the system through a colder reservoir at a lower temperature in accordance with the second law of

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

3
thermodynamics (no engine is perfect). Figure 1 illustrates this phenomenon for an easier

understanding.

Figure 1: Thermodynamic Representation of an Internal Combustion Engine

In order to generate heat for the hot reservoir that produces power, fuel or an energy source

are needed. For an internal combustion engine, the fuel is usually gasoline which is a refined oil

product. Other types of fuel can be used such as diesel and ethanol. Fuel contains the chemical

energy that will be converted to heat via combustion for the hot reservoir. Combustion requires

the following three ingredients: Oxygen, fuel, and high temperatures. Modern internal combustion

engines use a piston cylinder configuration to produce mechanical energy. In the piston-cylinder

assembly of a combustion engine, there is atmospheric oxygen and a fuel mixture that enters the

cylinder. To produce heat, the combustion cycle is started with a spark that ignites the fuel in the

cylinder. Ignition will unleash the chemical energy stored in the fuel releasing carbon based gases

and water vapor. Linking the fact that pistons can convert thermal energy into mechanical energy

and how combustion is a satisfactory source of heat energy, internal combustion engines can be

seen as clever mechanisms combining these two observations into a world changing application.

Internal combustion engines have several advantages. They are relatively light for the

amount of power they produce. They are also very responsive and supply energy on demand. The

4
only problem is that they can be considered heavy since they are mostly made of metals to handle

the high temperatures produced from rapid combustion cycles. Additionally, they are very

expensive to design or purchase depending on how good the engine is.

In terms of safety, for use in small cars with limited safety features, they can overheat if

not looked after carefully. Overheating can cause engine fires or injury to those who are near the

engine. Aside from temperature and heating issues, they are notorious for producing carbon

monoxide gases which are incredibly dangerous when inhaled. Care should be taken when dealing

with internal combustion engines of any shape or size.

From an environmental standpoint, combustion engines release carbon dioxide gases

which may not be as dangerous as carbon monoxide gases, but are a major component of the

greenhouse gases which can be found in the Earth’s atmosphere. The US Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) has made strides in improving the environmental impact of gasoline engines, but

the increase of cars on the road each year has offset this increase in engine cleanliness.

When engines are maintained correctly and fail safes are used, combustion engines can

prove to be very powerful and effective systems for producing energy. Internal combustion engines

will be used for quite some time until other forms of energy generation devices can be created with

the same power and efficiency. Until now, these engines have changed the world since the early

20th century.

1.3.4 Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Most cars on the roads today use an internal combustion engine to burn petroleum based

fuel, generate heat, and push pistons up and down to drive the transmission and the wheels. Electric

cars work in an entirely different way. Instead of an engine, they rely on batteries that feed electric

5
power to battery electric motors that drive the wheels directly. Hybrid cars have both internal

combustion engines and electric motors and can switch between the two to suit driving conditions.

Hydrogen fuel cells are a bit like a mixture between an internal combustion engine and

battery electric motor. Like a combustion engine, they produce power by using fuel from a tank.

The fuel is pressurized hydrogen gas rather than gasoline or diesel. But, unlike a combustion

engine, a fuel cell doesn’t ignite the hydrogen; instead, it is fused chemically with oxygen from

the air to make water. In this process, electricity is released and this is used to power an electric

motor that can propel a vehicle forward. The only waste product of a hydrogen fuel cell is water.

The reaction that takes place within fuel cells is called an electrochemical reaction. The

reaction involves two chemicals joining together, while electricity is produced as the reaction runs

its course. A fuel cell has three key parts similar to those in a battery. As shown in Figure 2, it has

a positively charged terminal (shown in red), a negatively charged terminal (shown in blue), and a

separating chemical, called an electrolyte (shown in yellow), in between the two keeping them

apart.

Figure 2: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Schematic

6
From Figure 2, here are the steps on how a hydrogen fuel cell creates electricity from hydrogen:

1. Hydrogen gas from the tank (shown as red dots) feeds down a pipe to the positive terminal.

Hydrogen is highly flammable and explosive, so the tank needs to be pressurized.

2. Oxygen from the air (shown as light blue dots) comes down a second pipe to the negative

terminal.

3. The positive terminal is made of platinum, a metal catalyst designed to speed up the reaction

that happens inside the fuel cell. When atoms of hydrogen gas react with the catalyst, they split

up into hydrogen ions (which are protons) and electrons (shown as black dots).

4. The protons, being positively charged, are attracted to the negative terminal and travel through

the electrolyte to get to it. The electrolyte is a thin membrane made of a special polymer film

that only allows the protons to pass through.

5. The electrons flow through the outer circuit which powers the electric motor.

6. At the negative terminal, the protons and electrons will recombine with oxygen from the air in

a chemical reaction that produces water. The water will escape the fuel cell as a liquid or steam.

Hydrogen energy has many advantages that benefit both the driver and the ecosystem.

Hydrogen is a great source of energy as it is readily available. While it may take some work to

access, there is no element in the universe as abundant as hydrogen. Moreover, when hydrogen is

burned it leaves almost no harmful byproducts. Hydrogen is non-toxic, which makes it a rarity

among fuel sources. Nuclear energy, coal, and gasoline are all either toxic or found in hazardous

environments. This makes hydrogen ideal for use in a number of ways that other fuel sources can’t

compete against.

Hydrogen energy is also very powerful and very efficient. In fact, hydrogen is three times

as powerful as gasoline and similar fossil fuels. Hydrogen energy is a very efficient fuel source

7
when compared to other traditional sources of energy, and can produce more energy per pound of

fuel. This emphasizes that a car loaded with hydrogen fuel will go much farther than one using the

same amount of a traditional source of energy. Unlike non-renewable sources of energy, hydrogen

energy can be produced on demand. All that is needed is energy to break the water molecules to

separate the hydrogen from the oxygen.

Although hydrogen is being used to power some hybrid cars, it is not a viable source of

fuel. Hydrogen requires a lot of work to free it form other elements and is very rare to come across

on its own. Thus, it is expensive and time-consuming to produce. Hydrogen is also difficult to

move around. While oil can be sent through pipelines and coal can be carried in the back of dump

trucks, the super light hydrogen is hard to transport in large quantities. As expensive as hydrogen

is to produce and transport, it becomes even more expensive when you consider trying to use it to

replace gasoline. There is no existing infrastructure in place to accommodate hydrogen as a fuel

source for the average motorist.

Hydrogen is a very powerful source of fuel. However, it is highly flammable and caution

is needed when handling it. Though hydrogen energy is renewable and has minimal environmental

impacts, other non-renewable sources like coal, oil and natural gas are still needed to separate

hydrogen from oxygen. Dependency on fossil fuels can be reduced by using hydrogen, but in turn

fossil fuels are need to produce hydrogen fuel. This dilemma makes hydrogen fuel a bitter sweet

alternative energy source.

1.3.5 Battery Electric

Battery electric vehicles use electricity in a battery pack to power an electric motor and

turn the wheels. When depleted, the batteries are recharged using grid electricity, either from a

8
wall socket or a charging unit. Since they don’t run on gasoline or diesel, and are powered entirely

by electricity, battery electric cars and trucks are considered all-electric vehicles.

All cars, such as gas, electric, hydrogen, or any other “fuel”, are essentially energy

conversion devices: they turn potential (stored) energy into kinetic (movement) energy. In a

conventional car, the energy is stored in a chemical form, locked inside the gas that fills the tank.

The energy is released by a chemical reaction inside the engine in which the hydrocarbons

molecules in gasoline burn with the oxygen molecules in the air to release heat. The heat, or

ignition, pushes the pistons that make the wheels turn. Electric cars also use stored chemical

energy, though they release it electromechanically. This form of energy has no combustion, as

electrons flow from their slowly discharging batteries to power the motor. Battery electric does

not burn any fuel, produce any air pollution from the tailpipe, and has no emissions.

The demand for electric vehicles has surged in recent years. In the beginning, some of the

biggest challenges electric vehicles faced were that they were for short ranged trips, they lacked

recharging infrastructures, and they had a higher initial cost. Greenhouse emissions became a far

worse issue as scientists predicted that the planet is required to reduce emissions by 50-85 percent

by 2050 to maintain an average temperature of 2-2.4 percent above the pre-industrial era2. The

search on Google for the terms “electric car”, “electric vehicle”, and “electric mobility” has risen

and has taken a high peak in 20103. Many countries around the world have taken drastic steps in

enforcing their laws and creating varies regulations for the purpose of reducing carbon emissions.

Vehicles have been one of the biggest producers of greenhouse emissions, therefore the biggest

sought after energy source for vehicles has been battery electric. The most popular hybrid electric

2
Lucena, Samuel E. De. “A Survey on Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology.” Electric Vehicles: The Benefits and
Barriers. 2011.
3 Christian, Hanke. "Socio-Economic Aspects of Electric Vehicles: A Literature Review." Evolutionary Paths towards the

Mobility Patterns of the Future Lecture Notes in Mobility. 2013.

9
vehicle that made an effect in the market, in 2010, was the Toyota Prius2. However, the Prius still

carried many of the recharging infrastructure issues. In 2009, the German federal government

published the National Development Plan for Electric Mobility, which states that Germany will

bring 1 million electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles by the year 20203. Ever since the mandate,

many countries across Europe have taken actions in order to meet similar mandates. In 2012, Tesla

launched the Model S, the world’s first premium electric sedan that is 100% electric. Today many

other automotive industries have followed releasing battery electric vehicles that are functional

and the companies are investing more money into the electric mobility industry.

Electric cars are green cars, in which the term refers to zero-emission vehicles that release

zero grams of carbon dioxide emissions per mile. Effectively, they do not cause any pollution

during operation. Electric cars are considerably more efficient than gasoline cars because electric

motors are inherently more efficient (about 80 percent) than internal combustion engines (about

30 percent for the engine alone). The combustion engine wastes a high proportion of the fuel they

burn as unusable heat. Hybrid cars achieve their higher efficiency and fuel economy largely by

switching from gasoline power to electric power whenever it is favorable, such as sitting in heavy

traffic. Where a typical car (a four-cylinder, 1.8L Honda Civic) driven by gasoline might achieve

31 miles per gallon (MPG), its equivalent hybrid (four-cylinder, 1.5L) manages a far more

impressive 45 MPG combined. In addition, not all the energy from an electric motor is wasted.

With regenerative brakes, the energy regenerates every time one stops at a light. The car’s electric

motor becomes a generator so when the brakes are engaged, the car slows down and kinetic energy

is converted into electricity that recharges the battery.

2
Lucena, Samuel E. De. “A Survey on Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology.” Electric Vehicles: The Benefits and
Barriers. 2011.
3
Christian, Hanke. "Socio-Economic Aspects of Electric Vehicles: A Literature Review." Evolutionary Paths towards the
Mobility Patterns of the Future Lecture Notes in Mobility. 2013.

10
In addition, the maintenance of electric cars is less of a hassle, because electric cars are

generally simpler than gasoline cars. Electric cars cost about a third less than internal combustion

engine vehicles to maintain. An electric motor is simpler than a gasoline engine with far less parts

to wear out. Without a transmission or gearbox, the car is easier to maintain. Even the brakes last

longer, since regenerative braking means one needs to use conventional (frictional) brake pads.

One of the major issues of a battery electric vehicle is its battery. Despite their

environmental and economic drawbacks, a tank of gasoline can carry far more energy than

batteries in kilograms. Additionally, electric cars can take half an hour to an entire night to recharge

fully, then only be able to go a short distance compared to combustion engine vehicles. A gas tank

is relatively compact and inexpensive, while the batteries are expensive, bulky, and heavy and may

take up room needed for other things.

Convenience is also an issue for electric battery cars. While driving with a gas engine, one

is never too far from a gas station to refuel and drive again toward one’s destination, but charging

stations are minimal around the city to charge an electric car. According to the US Census Bureau,

they revealed that there are 121,446 gas stations across the US. By comparison, according to the

Alternative Fuel Data Center, there are 21,597 electric charging stations in the US. While it is true

that one can charge the car at home or at work, sometimes it is beneficial to charge up when driving

on the road for longer distances. In the future, with the help of on-board solar panels, future electric

cars could go more than 300 miles on a single charge.

The chosen energy source for the prototype vehicle was chosen to be battery electric. The

reasoning behind this is because of costs and logistics. Many factors were carefully taken into

consideration in order to meet all deadlines and prevent manufacturing obstacles. In order to make

a well-functioning and efficient enough vehicle as part of the competition goals, efficiency of

11
energy used was first analyzed. Research on internal combustion and hydrogen fuel cell showed

that these energy sources are much less efficient than battery electric. In addition, the time it takes

to manufacture and put together an internal combustion or hydrogen fuel cell motor is much longer

and requires a greater level of understanding. This would generate many complications along the

process. The greatest challenge in the battery electric vehicle is the programming skills required

for the motor.

1.4 Survey of Related Standards

Every innovation begins with standards that need to be followed during the design,

manufacturing, and optimization process of a product. The Shell Eco-Marathon competition holds

their own standards for vehicle designs to promote safety as well as keep the competition regulated

for fairness. Prototype vehicles hold several regulations in different categories, this report focuses

on battery electric motor vehicles. This section will review related industry standards, such as those

created by organizations such as the American society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). All vehicles must pass a safety and technical

inspection prior to entering the track. If the vehicle does not comply, it will not be allowed on the

track for either the practice runs or the main competition. This section as well as sections 2.3, and

2.4 outlines all of these regulations and standards that must be adhered to. These standards and

regulations are to be followed not only for competition entry, but also for the health and safety of

the team participants and others involved.

1.4.1 Standards for Battery Electric Vehicles

Industry standards that exist for battery electric vehicles can be found on the International

Organization for Standardization (ISO)4 website. It can be found in the standards catalogue under

4
"Standards Catalogue: ICS 43.120: Electric Road Vehicles." International Organization for Standardization. ISO, 2016.

12
ICS 43.120. These standards include safety specifications for the on-board rechargeable energy

storage system, vehicle operational safety, protection against electrical shock, and post-crash

electrical safety. The standards are put in place to address health and safety concerns as they pertain

to battery electric vehicles. These existing standards are subject to change as the battery electric

vehicle sector is still being developed. Gaps in this industry are identified and standards developed

to address any issues or concerns as they may arise.

1.4.2 Standards for Battery Electric Vehicles

Standards used for the design of the prototype vehicle involve the material chosen for the

vehicle chassis, which is Aluminum 6061-T6. Aluminum 6061-T6 is standardized by the

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)5 under the designation B308/B308M. This

standard includes tensile limits for the aluminum alloy which will be taken into consideration,

displayed in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Tensile Property Limits of Aluminum 6061-T6

Elongations in 50 mm applies to sheet-type specimens machined into materials of 12.5 mm

in thickness. Elongations in 4D [5D or ] applies to round test samples produced from

thicknesses over 6.30 mm. The variables A and D are cross-sectional area of the sample and

diameter, respectively.

5 "Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy 6061-T6 Standard Structural Profiles." USAEC-RDT Standards. ASTM, 2010.

13
1.5 Discussion

Fossil fuels are used to produce most of the energy used by the United States, though its

use comes with consequences. Greenhouse gas emissions are a product of burning fossil fuels and

the increase in usage has made the atmosphere absorb 25 percent of the sun’s radiation. The

trapped emissions cause damaging effects to the environment, thus, engineers must learn how to

cope with the effects and lessen the impact of energy demands by using alternative sources.

Electric engines are an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines, and the Shell Eco-

marathon competition gives contending students the chance to improve on existing ideas while

proving the capabilities of the alternative engines. The history of electric motor vehicles shows

continuous optimizations of each component of the vehicle to help improve the performance of

the electric motor. These enhancements and innovations should be used to define any future design

alternatives, as well as optimize the advances of the electric motor. In addition, the standards set

by Shell for the competition need to be reviewed and satisfied to create a competition worthy

vehicle.

2. Project Formulation

2.1 Overview

Shell Eco-Marathon tasks students with engineering a battery electric vehicle to enter into

the competition in Detroit, Michigan (MI). A team of 6 engineering students was divided into two

groups of 3 students each. These two groups are to divide responsibilities, while working together,

to design and manufacture the competition vehicle. Objectives are identified and are made to

closely adhere to all competition rules, regulations, and specific requirements that are closely

looked at to ensure admittance into the competition.

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2.2 Project Objectives

The main objective is to design and manufacture a battery electric vehicle that can travel

the farthest while using the least amount of energy. As the team is split into two groups, the

objectives of each group are different, although there may be some overlapping components. The

tasks for this initiative have been divided as follows: interior body (chassis/framework), exterior

body (“shell”), wheels, braking, steering/handling, and engine components.

This team is tasked with the vehicle’s exterior body design and manufacturing (also known

as the “shell”), steering/handling, and the engine/energy components. These objectives include but

are not limited to various design alternatives, material selection, motor specifications, battery cell

capabilities, cost analysis, manufacturing, testing, and more. The two groups are to work together

to ensure that the design of the vehicle will accommodate the components designed by the other

team. In addition, both teams are to ensure that all rules and regulations set forth by Shell are

adhered to accordingly. The team is to verify that all components of the vehicle are to standard

and validate that the vehicle is in safe operating conditions; a thorough inspection will be

completed. Any corrections that may be needed are to be documented in detail.

2.3 Design Specification

Entering into the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon competition involves engineering an energy

efficient vehicle that can travel the longest distance using the least amount of energy. In the pursuit

of that, however, there are rules and regulations that must be followed. These regulations allow for

constraints that must be followed throughout the design process to yield a product that will not

only be safe, but also admissible in competition.

The competition allows for different fuel sources to be chosen. Among these choices are

the hydrogen fuel cell, diesel, and battery electric vehicle. This section will focus on the battery

15
electric vehicle design specifications and constraints as they pertain to the vehicle body, steering,

handling, and engine/energy components. Other specifications and constraints will also be

outlined, as applicable, in the sections that follow.

2.3.1 Steering Specifications

For the competition, only front wheel steering is permitted and the vehicle must have a

turning radius of 8 meters or less. The turning radius is defined as “the distance between the center

of the circle and the external wheel of the vehicle.”1 The external wheels must have the ability to

follow a 90 degree arc of 8 meter radius in both directions. Joy stick operation of the steering is

not permitted, however, other electrically operated indirect steering systems are permitted. These

are permitted if they are operated by a steering wheel, rotary potentiometer, or similar. If this type

of steering system is chosen, the vehicle should automatically revert to the straight ahead position

in the event that the steering wheel is released by the driver or if electrical failure occurs.

2.3.2 General Vehicle Specifications

The specifications in this subsection are listed in Article 25 and 39 of the 2016 Official

Rules Chapter I manual of the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon and pertain to the general design of the

prototype vehicle. The regulations that will be focused on are summarized and listed below:

1. Prototype vehicles must have three or four running wheels that are in continuous contact

with the track.

2. All vehicle propulsion needs to be created only using the friction between the track and the

wheels of the vehicle.

3. Aerodynamic appendages that adjust or change shape with the wind during the motion of

the vehicle are forbidden.

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

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4. Any external appendages that may cause harm to other participants are not allowed. Sharp

points must be made of foam or deformable material, and need to have a radius of 5 cm or

greater.

5. Panels on the body must be stiff enough not to change shape with the wind.

6. The interior of the vehicle must be absent of any objects that can harm the driver during

collisions.

7. Windows are recommended to be made of polycarbonate, or any other material that does

not fragment into sharp shards.

8. Covers on the energy compartment need to provide easy access for quick inspection.

9. All components of the drive train must be confined within the body cover.

10. All objects must be secured safely in the vehicle. Bungee cords and other elastic material

cannot be used to secure heavy objects.

11. Vehicles must contain solid floors and rigid frames that keeps the driver from coming into

contact with the ground.

12. Prototype vehicles need to be fully covered.

13. A 15mm hole must be provided in the body of the vehicle for installation of telemetry

equipment.

14. While running the sound level of the vehicle should not exceed 90 dBA 4 meters from the

vehicle. If this sound level is surpassed, the team will be allowed to fix the issue for a

certain amount of time.

15. Dimensions of the vehicle must not exceed the measurements listed below:

a. Maximum height should be less than 100 cm.

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b. Maximum width should be at least 50 cm. This is measured between the midpoints

of the outermost wheels at the ground.

c. Ratio between maximum height divided by maximum track width needs to be less

than 1.25.

d. Wheelbase should be at least 100 cm.

e. Maximum total vehicle width cannot exceed 130 cm.

f. Maximum total length cannot exceed 350 cm.

g. Maximum vehicle weight, not including the driver, should be 140 kg.

h. All of the body dimensions listed cannot be achieved with design singularities. For

example, ‘stuck-on’ appendages or cut-outs1.

2.3.3 Electrical/Energy System

The nominal and maximum voltage on board any vehicle at any given time must not exceed

48 and 60 volts (V), respectively. The propulsion battery is the only on-board battery that is

allowed. Since lithium based batteries will be used a battery management system (BMS) tailored

to this type of battery must be installed to control and protect the battery against risk of fire. The

BMS provides cell balancing and over-voltage protection during off-track charging. This system

must automatically isolate the battery if any of the specified parameters are met or exceeded. The

maximum capacity allowed for the lithium based battery is 1000 watt-hour (Wh). Protection for

this battery whether it is charging inside or outside of the vehicle must be provided. In addition,

the battery must be equipped with a metal tray placed under the battery to prevent it from burning

through the vehicle body in the event of a fire or other scenario. All batteries and super capacitors,

if any, must be protected against short circuits. This may be done through the use of fuses or a

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

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circuit breaker. Automatic reclosing circuit breakers are not permitted. Short circuit protection

devices must be located on the positive conductor and as close as possible to the battery or super

capacitor itself. The rating of the short circuit protection device must be such that the battery or

super capacitor will be able to supply enough short circuit current at all times to open the device.

Both the positive and negative circuits of the propulsion battery or super capacitors must be

electrically isolated from the vehicle frame. All vehicle electrical circuits must be protected against

electrical overload by using individual circuit fuses or through setting current limits within an

electric controller.

A super capacitor is to be used if the powertrain is to have an embedded electric storage

device. Other types of electric storage devices are not permitted. In addition, only one electric

storage device is allowed and up to two electric motors can be used. The electric motors may be

purchased, purchased and modified, or purpose-built, however, the motor controller must be

purpose-built. A joule meter must also be placed between the battery and motor controller to

measure the vehicle’s propulsion energy consumption and must not be accessible by the driver.

The accessory battery provides for all allowed electrical needs such as safety devices and

must maintain a negative ground. The accessory battery is not allowed to power compressors,

blowers, engine cooling systems or motors. These components must be powered by the fuel cell

or super capacitor. All wiring associated with the accessory battery circuit must be clearly

distinguishable from the propulsion system by physical isolation or the use of different wire colors.

All electrical/electronic enclosures must be made of transparent material or at least have a

transparent cover to allow the technical inspectors to view the contents. A fuse must be installed

on the positive terminal of the fuel cell stack or super capacitor pack. For a fuel cell stack the

melting current of the fuse must be less than the active area of one cell of the stack. For a super

19
capacitor, the fuse rating must be less than or equal to the maximum usable power divided by the

rated voltage1.

2.4 Constraints and Other Considerations

2.4.1 Logo Specifications

Per competition guidelines, 10 cm must be left free on all four sides of the Shell logo, all

other logos must be smaller than the Shell logo which is 20 x 21.5 cm. The maximum allotted area

for sponsor stickers is 400 cm2. In addition, logos belonging to tobacco and alcohol companies

are prohibited. Logos of other energy companies and direct competitors to event sponsors require

prior written approval for their use1.

2.4.2 Emergency Shut Down Mechanism

An emergency shut down mechanism must be in place for every vehicle entering into the

competition. Its purpose is to shut down the propulsion system of the vehicle. This mechanism

must physically isolate the propulsion battery from the vehicle’s electrical system. The use of

power controllers or other logic systems for this purpose are prohibited. Relays are a good

alternative and if a relay is to be used it must be a normally open contact type6. This means that at

its initial state the relay is open, causing zero functionality from the propulsion system until an

electrical current is applied to the contacts that will cause the relay to close and allow for operation

of the propulsion system.

The vehicle must have both an external and an internal emergency shut down mechanism.

The internal mechanism is for use by the driver and the external mechanism must be permanently

installed to a non-detachable surface on the rear of the vehicle body. This rear shut down

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.
1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.
6
"How Relays Work - Relay Diagrams and Relay Definitions." How Relays Work.

20
mechanism must also be clearly marked by a red arrow on a white background with measurements

of at least 10 cm long and 3 cm wide at the widest point. The emergency shut down mechanism

for the battery electric vehicle must be in the form of a latching red push button.

In addition to the emergency shut down mechanism all vehicles must also be equipped with

a dead man’s safety device, also known as operator presence control. This device is used in the

event that the driver becomes incapacitated, the vehicle’s propulsion power will automatically

become disengaged. Normally the device consists of a spring loaded hand operated accelerator or

foot pedal lever, however an electric switch can be used. If an electric switch is used it must be

located on the steering wheel and the driver must directly engage the switch at all times while

driving1.

2.4.3 Propulsion and Energy Storage System Isolation

The propulsion and energy storage system used by the prototype vehicle creates many risks

for the driver. These risks involve the driver coming into contact with any liquids, flames, or smoke

during fuel leaks or fires that may occur in the energy storage system. To protect the driver,

regulations were created in Article 27 of the 2016 Official Rules Chapter I Shell Eco-Marathon

manual. These standards focus on the bulkhead of the vehicle. The bulkhead must permanently

and completely separate the driver’s compartment from the propulsion and energy storage systems.

Thus, all components of the system need to be mounted behind the bulkhead. Moreover, the

bulkhead’s material needs to be fire retardant with its construction. No gaps or holes should be

present between the bulkhead and the energy compartment. Any gaps must be sealed with

aluminum tape or metal/aluminum sheeting. If holes are needed to pass wires between

compartments, the wires need to be protected from damage or chafing with the use of a grommet

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

21
or similar protective devices. In addition, the energy compartment should be easy to access from

the outside for inspection purposes1.

2.4.4 Fire Extinguisher Specifications

Each vehicle must also have an onboard extinguisher type ABC or BC. The minimum

extinguishing capacity is of 1 kg, it must be full and have a manufacturing expiry date or

manufactured within the past 3 years. Any extinguisher that is past the expiration date that has

been re-inspected and tagged with an official date of recertification will be accepted. A plumbed-

in extinguisher may be located in the engine compartment and it must discharge into the engine

compartment. Any triggering systems must be located in the cockpit and operable by the driver in

normal driving position. A handheld extinguisher must be located in the cockpit that the driver can

access once having exited from the vehicle. This extinguisher must be mounted so as to prevent

movement during vehicle operation1.

2.4.5 Safety Harness Specifications

For the safety harness, there are several regulations that need to be accounted for. These

standards are available in Article 29 of the 2016 Official Rules Chapter I manual. The regulations

start by stating that the belts need to be fitted to the driver’s seat with at least five different

mounting points to secure the driver and prevent any motion of the driver’s torso. For the harness,

each belt should be firmly attached the main structure of the vehicle and the harness must contain

a single buckle. In addition, the buckle must withstand 1.5 times the weight of the driver to pass

inspection. If there is slack, the belt should be adjusted with the length adjuster which needs to be

located close to the connection point. The crotch strap should be mounted behind the chest line

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.
1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

22
and the topmost straps need to have an angle of 10°, at least, below the shoulder line. As usual,

during motion the driver must wear the safety harness at all times1.

2.4.6 Other Specifications

Other specification as outlined in the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon rules and regulations

include the sound level, horn, vehicle access, exhaust system of the vehicle, and more. The sound

level must not exceed 90 dBA when measured 4 meters away from the vehicle. The exhaust gases

must be released outside of the vehicle body and the exhaust pipes must not extend past the rear

or the sides of the vehicle body. In addition, all vehicles are to comply with reasonable

environmental standards such as the amount of smoke and smell emitted. Each vehicle must be

equipped with an electric horn mounted towards the front of the vehicle so that it is effectively

audible to others when used. The horn must emit a sound greater than 85 dBA when measured 4

meters horizontally from the vehicle. It must also have a high tone pitch equal or greater than 420

Hertz. In addition, the driver of the vehicle must be able to exit the vehicle in less than 10 seconds

unassisted. To facilitate this the opening for the cockpit must be sufficiently large and the driving

position must be designed to allow for easy extraction of the driver by emergency personnel, if

necessary. The cockpit opening may be enclosed completely or partly by use of hinged, detachable

or folding doors. The release mechanism of the cockpit door must be easily accessible by the driver

inside of the cockpit and on the outside it must be clearly marked by a red arrow. Opening or

closing of the cockpit door must not require any tools.

When the driver is positioned, the helmet should be 5 cm below the roll bar and their

visibility must be unimpaired. The driver must have access to a direct arc of visibility ahead and

to 90 degrees on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle without the use of any optical or

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

23
electronic devices. The vehicle must be equipped with a rear-view mirror on each side of the

vehicle, each with a minimum surface area of 25 cm2 and cannot be replaced by an electronic

device. All parts of the drive train are to be within the confines of the body cover. Proper ventilation

for the driver inside of the vehicle is to be provided at all times. The driver’s clothing is to be of

fire retardant material and a helmet suitable for motor sport activities is to be worn at all times1.

2.5 Addressing Global Design

This project allows for involved students to learn how an energy efficient vehicle can be

improved upon and contribute to a decline in greenhouse gas emissions. It also allows for an in-

depth comprehension as to why other fuel alternatives, such as the hydrogen fuel cell, are not a

viable alternative in the automotive industry as of yet; primarily due to safety concerns. However,

in having to design and develop an energy efficient vehicle, one is able to analyze different

alternatives and assess their feasibility and safety as well as determine whether or not it aids in

reducing greenhouse gas emission, thus addressing global environmental concerns.

2.6 Discussion

The design process is very intensive. Other than choosing different alternatives all

constraints and specifications must be taken into account. As in any activity, risks are always

present. By controlling and recognizing the risks one can guarantee the well-being of the driver

and of the surrounding people during the marathon. This sections in conjunction with section 1.4

outlined all constraints/standards/specifications that are to be met. This will allow for the

manufacturing phase to go smoothly without having to spend excess time on rework. In addition,

all members need to be aware of all of these items to ensure accountability and that all regulations

as they pertain to certain aspects of the vehicle are being successfully met.

1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

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3. Project Management

3.1 Overview

All projects require some sort of project management. This is especially true for large scale

projects. In building a full scale vehicle and with having involvement from two separate teams,

managing each aspect of the project will ensure positive outcomes and timely completion. Each

team divides the objectives assigned to them into specific tasks that need to be done to ensure

successful completion of their portion of the project. In addition to dividing the work into specific

tasks, the team also assigns deadlines to each task and communicates these to the other team.

Communication is essential in this project as both teams need to work together to ensure that there

are no complications with any overlapping components and that each team delivers their portion

of the work in a timely manner. Deviation from the deadlines may be considered on a case by case

basis, however, deadline extensions will affect the progress of both teams.

3.2 Breakdown of Work in Specific Tasks

Figure 3: Work Breakdown Structure (General)

Figure 4: Work Breakdown Structure (Topic Selection)

25
Figure 5: Work Breakdown Structure (Body Design)

Figure 6: Work Breakdown Structure (Motor, Steering and Handling)

Figure 7: Work Breakdown Structure (Manufacturing/Build, Testing/Validation, and Optimization)

26
3.3 Gantt Chart for the Optimization of Work and Timeline

Figure 8: Gantt Chart

Figure 9: Timeline

27
3.4 Breakdown of Responsibilities among Team Members
Table 2: Breakdown of Responsibilities

3.5 Commercialization of the Final Product

The final product will not be commercialized. The vehicle will compete in Detroit, MI on

April 2016 and will be returned thereafter to the Eco Engineering Club at FIU, College of

Engineering and Computing. The vehicle will be made available to future students who would like

to optimize the existing design and enter it into future competitions.

3.6 Discussion

Proper project management is critical for the successful completion of any project;

particularly for projects of this magnitude. The breakdown of work into specific tasks helps

members know which target areas need to be addressed to fully complete a specific section. An

accurate and realistic timeline is also of upmost importance. Adhering to said timeline is crucial

in being able to complete the project with sufficient time left over to focus on testing and

optimization.

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4. Design Alternatives

4.1 Overview of Conceptual Designs Developed

Four different designs for the vehicle’s exterior body were developed. These designs were

made taking into consideration driver safety, feasibility, stability, and other factors. In addition,

these designs are developed in collaboration with the other team. This is due to the fact that the

other team has to design the chassis/framework to fit properly within the body and vice-versa.

With input from all six members, the three design alternatives described in the following sections

were developed. For the same reason, the final design was also chosen with the input from all six

members. In addition, the steering and handling components of the vehicle were chosen to best fit

the design. Lastly, the battery electric motor, battery, motor controller, and electrical components

with their specifications will also be outlined, however, in sections 5.10 through 5.13.

4.2 Body Design Alternative 1

Figure 10: Body Design Alternative 1

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By taking into consideration all the design constraints the first design above was made.

Input from all 6 team members as well as utilization of the chassis designed was used to develop

the initial body design as seen in figure 10. This design was a general overlap of the chassis that

was utilized for preliminary dimensions and preliminary airflow analysis. Other design alternatives

were created due to further optimization of this initial model. Results of an airflow analysis of this

design can be found in section 5.8.

4.3 Body Design Alternative 2

Figure 11: Body Design Alternative 2

By optimizing design alternative one the design above was made. During airflow analysis,

described in detail in section 5.8, the sharp edges of alternative one created too much turbulent

flow at the rear of the vehicle. Smoothing the edges optimized the design by greatly reducing the

turbulent flow that was seen at the rear. This follows general concepts of airfoil analysis, which

emphasizes the need of optimization to create the most aerodynamic shape. Aerodynamic shapes

have rounded or smooth edges, which are essential in order to reduce turbulent flow. Following

30
this, fillets were applied to design one to make design alternative two. Results of an airflow

analysis of this design can be found in section 5.8.

4.4 Body Design Alternative 3

Figure 12: Body Design Alternative 3

The design shown in figure 12 is was the result of further optimization based on design

alternative two. The airflow analysis of this design can be found in section 5.8. This design did

exceptionally well during the analysis compared to the initial two designs. Although this is a

favorable design, further analysis showed that it presented issues when assembled with the chassis

as the chassis did not fit well inside the shape. Thus, a fourth alternative was developed.

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4.5 Body Design Alternative 4

Figure 13: Body Design Alternative 4

This final design is satisfactory as it can be flawlessly assembled to the chassis designed

and it also has a favorable aerodynamic profile. Continuous research was done on airfoil analysis

which led to this final design. Airflow simulations of this design will be discussed in section 5.8.

All designs were developed taking into consideration a three-wheel design; one wheel in

the rear and two in the front. The largest part of the vehicle is at the rear where the engine and

battery management system are housed. The driver’s weight should be at approximately the center

of gravity of the vehicle, while still allowing sufficient room for the pedals, steering, and other

components. These components are to be installed at the front of the vehicle. Measurements of the

potential driver were also taken into consideration in the process of creating this design.

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4.6 Proposed Body Design

Design alternative four was chosen as the final design to be built for the competition. The

design was chosen by taking into considerations the feasibility assessment as well as the input

from all six members participating in the competition. Many factors that were looked into were

the load distribution of the design, material specifications, driver comfort, airfoil analysis, and

feasibility of build. The main factor that convinced the team to choose this design was the airflow

analysis using SolidWorks Simulation as shown in section 5.8. All altercations to the geometrical

shape of the body using the airfoil theory on lowering drag were tested by use of the simulation

software. Using information of the behavior of air around the body, design alternative four was

indeed the most aerodynamic as predicted. Figures 14 through 16 display the success of the design.

Figure 14: Preliminary Body and Chassis Setup Displaying Chassis Fitting Inside Body Perfectly

33
Figure 15: Preliminary Body and Chassis Setup Displaying No Issues or Interferences.

Figure 16: Body and Chassis Displaying the Design Closer to the Final Vehicle Design

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4.7 Proposed Steering Design

Choosing the steering design involved consideration of the regulations set for by the Shell

Eco-Marathon competition. Electric steering is not allowed and the turning radius of the vehicle

should be a maximum of 8 meters. In addition, the vehicle should be able to follow a 90 degree

arc. The steering design chosen is similar the type that can be found on go karts. It is comprised of

a steering wheel, steering shaft, tie rods, and spindles. The wheels chosen are installed on the

spindles, the tie rods are attached to the spindles and steering shaft. It is a fully mechanical system

that allows for movement of the tires when the steering wheel is moved to the left or right. Figure

17 shows a schematic of the parts that the steering system is comprised of. The spindles used to

mount the front wheels are welded onto the chassis and the body design chosen was modeled

around this entire system to ensure no interference. An analysis of the spindles can be found in

sections 5.5 through 5.7. Figure 18 and 19 displays the steering design successfully implemented

into the final vehicle design.

Figure 17: Go Kart Steering Schematic

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To abide by competition regulations, the turning radius of the vehicle should not exceed 8

meters. This was ensured by calculating the minimum steering angle needed to meet this

requirement. Equations 1 and 2 shown below were used to calculate this angle. If the vehicle was

modeled utilizing the allowable minimum track width (w) and wheel base (l) measurements, as

seen in Table 7, the minimum steering angle would be 7.414 degrees. Utilizing the measurements

of the actual vehicle designed, the minimum steering angle is 14.83 degrees. This means that as

the track width and wheel base increase, so does the minimum steering angle required to ensure

that the vehicle can maintain a maximum turning radius of 8 meters.

Table 3: Track Width and Wheel Base Dimensions

𝑤 𝑙 0.76 𝑚 1.95 𝑚
Turning Radius (r) = 8 m = + = + (1)
2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑙 1.95 𝑚
𝜃 = sin−1 [ 𝑤 ] = sin −1
[ ] = 14.83 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑠 (2)
(𝑟 − 2 ) 0.76 𝑚
(8 𝑚 − 2 )

36
Figure 18: Steering Design Implemented Successfully into the Final Vehicle Design

Figure 19: Side View of Steering Design in the Final Vehicle Design

37
4.8 Feasibility Assessment

All four body design alternatives that were made were taken into consideration, however,

design four has the best aerodynamic efficiency and can promise the best results in competition.

This design resulted in the best airflow analysis proved by using airflow simulations on

SolidWorks. In addition, the design chosen allowed for a clear cut out of the vehicle’s windows

ensuring the required 180 degrees of visibility for the driver, as required by the Shell Eco-Marathon

Regulations. The vehicle’s 180 degrees of visibility can be seen in Figure 20. Fabrication of all

designs was also taken into consideration and the last design is the most feasible alternative.

Selecting a motor with an attached wheel is the best option for the design of the vehicle.

This saves many additional costs that would have been included if the motor was bought separately

and two wheels at the rear end of the body were used instead. After careful analysis of all logistics

a hub motor from a bicycle motor kit is the best option. This will aid in the manufacturing of the

car by the competition deadline. There are other possible options for more efficient motors,

however due to cost constraints, a kit is optimal. A deeper analysis of motor selection can be found

in section 5.10.

Figure 20: Vehicle's 180 Degrees of Visibility for the Driver

38
4.9 Integration of Global Design Elements

There are many global design elements that were considered in order to come up with a

final body design and motor. Understanding the behavior of air around the surface of the body was

based off of its geometrical shape. The shape is dependent on the position of the motor, the battery,

and the driver to be able to find the most optimal center of gravity. The selection of the motor with

higher weight can alter the total weight of the car, which affects the center of gravity and requires

the driver to be positioned closer to the front of the car for better balancing of the total weight of

the car as it is moving. All these element modifications when selecting the different components

clearly affect the final design of the body

4.10 Discussion

Any good design evolves from a combination of several ideas. More than one design is

developed to have several options to choose from, and so that a comparison and feasibility

assessment between multiple designs can be conducted. From these steps, the most feasible

alternative can be narrowed down and chosen. Input from all team members regardless of what

component they are working on is critical in the successful selection of a design. In addition,

consulting with seasoned engineers and skilled laborers also played an important role in choosing

different components of the vehicle. Seeking input from all team members as well as professionals

allowed for a reduction in conflicts that may have arisen.

39
5. Engineering Design and Analysis

5.1 Overview

Once the design has been chosen several other components come into play. Some of these

components include structural analysis, stress and force analysis, material selection, and

component selection. Different analysis can be made on the system using programs such as

SolidWorks to be able to determine if the chosen design is structurally sound. This also involves

testing several scenarios using different materials that are being considered. The result of these

analysis will streamline the decision making process in being able to select the best materials for

the design chosen, and if issues with the design are present, it allows sufficient proof to justify

redesigning the existing model.

5.2 Kinematic Analysis of the System

Various components of the vehicle were rendered using SolidWorks. This was done to

ensure that all parts would fit together seamlessly when assembled. In creating a SolidWorks

assembly with the parts designed, any imperfections or overlapping features can be detected and

addressed. It is crucial that this is process is completed in the design phase prior to beginning the

manufacturing phase for the parts involved. Even though this process may be tedious and slightly

time consuming, ultimately it saves money, time, and resources. If these issues exist and they are

not discovered and addressed prior to manufacturing, components such as the Styrofoam mold,

where the fiberglass body would be created upon, would not fit over the chassis and a secondary

mold would need to be made. In analyzing other components such as the steering, it was discovered

that a foot pedal for the throttle would not be ideal as it would cause interference with the tie rods

that make up part of the steering assembly. Figure 21 shows an example of what the SolidWorks

40
assembly looks like. In this example the chassis in assembled inside of the vehicle body and

inspected to ensure that it fits properly.

Figure 21: Kinematic Analysis of Vehicle Assembly (Front and Back, Respectively) via SolidWorks

Figure 22: Body and Chassis Assembled Displaying the Success of the Kinematic Analysis

41
5.3 Dynamic Analysis of the System

A dynamic analysis of the system was performed for both mechanical and electrical

components. The electrical components such as the horns, safety switches, and motor were tested

to ensure functionality of the entire system. For the motor this was initially done with the controller

basic controller. Due to competition guidelines, a controller must be programmed by the team. As

such, as the microcontroller was coded accordingly, tests were conducted in real-time to analyze

the performance of the system and be able to identify and address any possible errors found in the

code. As for the mechanical components, the dynamic analysis aided in ensuring that all parts and

assemblies would function properly when in use. Items such as the steering were tested in real-

time to ensure that the angle and orientation of the steering shaft was correct for optimum

performance. The analysis of this system led to the discovery that extra washers and larger screws

needed to be used to reduce or eliminate any play or “wiggle room” found in the joints of the

steering assembly. In addition, the placement of the steering shaft was modified to improve driver

operation of the steering mechanism.

While mounted onto the vehicle, the battery electric motor was analyzed while the car was

raised on car jacks. With this set up, the motor was tested with no load. Using a tachometer, the

motor shows a generation of 459 revolutions per minute (RPM) at a distance (D) of 2.167 feet.

Utilizing Equation 3 below, the maximum speed the car can achieve is 35.5 miles per hour (MPH)

when no load is applied.

60 ∙ 𝐷 ∙ 𝜋 ∙ 𝑅𝑃𝑀 60 ∙ 2.167 ∙ 𝜋 ∙ 459


𝑀𝑃𝐻 = = = 35.5 𝑀𝑃𝐻 (3)
5280 5280

The car must achieve an average speed of 15 MPH to qualify to compete in the Shell Eco-Marathon

competition. More testing will be conducted with loads applied to determine whether the vehicle

will achieve the required speed.


42
5.4 Structural Design

The vehicle body is not analyzed structurally as the fiberglass shell used for the vehicle

body is not meant to withstand a force of 700 N. The chassis is the vehicle component that was

designed to withstand maximum forces to ensure driver safety. Although the body was not

designed to support maximum loads, it was designed for optimum aerodynamic performance as

discussed in previous sections. The results of the airflow analysis of the body can be found in

section 5.8.

The vehicle windows chosen were of polycarbonate material; better known as Lexan. This

material was chosen due to its ability to withstand impact, and when it breaks it does not break

into sharp shards. This small detail is of upmost importance for the safety of the driver and others

in the event that a window does break. The mechanical properties of Lexan are shown in Table 47.

The ultimate tensile stress at break for the Lexan window is listed by the manufacturer as 70 mega

pascals (MPa). After calculating the maximum stress that the window will experience during

normal use, it is determined that it is unlikely, even under extreme loading scenarios that the Lexan

window will fail. This is determined because the actual stress the window will experience during

normal operating conditions is less than the maximum stress the window can withstand. The actual

stress of the Lexan window was determined to be 13.56 kilo pascals (KPa) when a 700 N force is

applied on an 8” x 10” (0.0516 m2) sheet of Lexan, which is the smallest size used. As the size of

the Lexan sheet used increases, the total stress the window experiences when a 700 N load is

applied decreases. In addition, when the factor of safety (FOS) for the window is calculated,

utilizing the relationship seen in Equation 48 it is determined that the window will not fail because

7
"Lexan 9030 Product Datasheet." Theplasticshop.co.uk. GE
8
"Factor of Safety FOS Review." FOS Review. Engineers Edge.

43
the factor of safety is well over 1.0. It is calculated to be 5162. Figure 23 displays the Lexan

windshield being riveted onto the front of the body.

Table 4: Mechanical Properties of Lexan

𝑆𝑚 = 𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠


𝑆𝑚
𝑆𝑤 = 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 {𝑆𝑤 = 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 (𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑒𝑙 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠) (4)
𝑓𝑠
𝑓𝑠 = 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 (𝐹𝑂𝑆)

𝑆𝑚 70 × 106
𝑓𝑠 = = = 5162.24
𝑆𝑤 13.56 × 103

Figure 23: Front Lexan Windshield Being Riveted On

44
5.5 Force Analysis

In the steering structure, the cast steel spindles are the usual failure for any go kart steering

in the industry. The spindles will endure the most force out of all the components in the steering,

as they are placed at the left and right extremes and are directly in contact with the wheels. With

these facts, the spindle was a main component that needed to be modeled and tested in order to

analyze the reliability of the steering components. The left spindle was modeled in SolidWorks

and placed under a load of 700 newtons (N) in the –y direction, as shown in the Figure 24 below.

This load is extreme as it should only have about 400 N of force being applied due to the

distribution between the two spindles in the steering mechanism.

Figure 24: Force Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks

45
As shown, the spindle passed under extreme conditions. The FOS of the spindle was the

main criteria tested for the force analysis. In the diagram, the minimum FOS is 2.6 which is above

the desired FOS of 1 that is used to determine if an object is safe under a specific load. These

results simulate that the spindle will not fail during normal operations and are favorable as they

prove the reliability of our steering design.

5.6 Stress Analysis

For the spindles of the steering design, Von Mises yield criteria were calculated using

SolidWorks Simulation software. The left spindle was modeled and placed under a load of 700 N

in the –y direction, as shown in Figure 25 below. Von Mises values are used to find if a design

will fail when a load is applied to a ductile object. As seen in Figure 25, the red colored areas are

the places the spindle can fail, however, the red color is very small compared to the overall green

and blue colors. The green and blue means that the spindle will not fail under the 700 N load. With

these results, it can be derived that the spindle will not fail due to any stresses during operation.

Figure 25: Stress Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks

46
5.7 Deflection Analysis

Lastly, the left spindle was modeled in SolidWorks to find the resultant displacement of

the spindle under 700 N load in the –y direction. The resultant displacement will determine how

much the spindle will deflect because of the load applied to it. If there is too large of a deflection,

the spindle is approximated to fail under such a load. As shown in Figure 26 below, the spindle is

red, or in the danger zone, at the tip. This is not surprising as a cantilever beam will display the

same type of deflection under a load. The farthest point, or tip, is experiencing the most

deformation as it is the weakest point of the spindle. Although this section of the spindle is red,

the rest of the spindle displays an array of green and blue, illustrating that the spindle will not

deform enough to fail during normal operations. As stated before 700 N is an extreme load used

to test the limits of the spindle in SolidWorks. The actual load around 400 N will definitely not

cause the spindle to fail due to drastic deformation.

Figure 26: Deflection Analysis on Left Spindle via SolidWorks

47
5.8 Airflow Analysis

To make the final body design of the vehicle it was essential to consider the airfoil. When

the car is moving the impact of airflow on the vehicle body has a great effect on the motion of the

vehicle based on the geometry of the outside body. These effects can increase the drag of the car

resulting in the car needing more power to move at desired speeds. This is one of the biggest factors

that need to be taken into consideration for the Shell Eco-Marathon competition. Making the body

of the car the most aerodynamic is perhaps one of the most important obstacles to overcome to use

the least amount of energy and win the competition.

Figure 27: Airfoil Analysis

48
Figure 27 shows how different geometrical shapes can alter the drag of the car. It is vital

to remove any possible turbulent flows in the air that is caused by shape of the body. The top figure

is the most ideal shape as the round edges cause the airflow to travel smoothly as a laminar flow.

The second shape has sharp edges that cause wakes and turbulence in the air. This results in an

increase in drag force. Another body design to avoid is when the angle at the rear is too steep. This

space allows wakes to generate around the rear surface of the body and causes an increase in drag.

An airflow analysis of all body designs was done to aid in the selection process.

SolidWorks was used for all simulations and are depicted in Figures 28 through 31 below. All

designs were analyzed at a velocity of 15 MPH.

Figure 28: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 1

49
Figure 29: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 2

Figure 30: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 3

50
Figure 31: Airflow Analysis of Design Alternative 4

All modifications made to the body of the vehicle using airfoil analysis can be clearly

observed from the figures above. Design alternative one has the very big wakes and turbulence at

the rear section of the body because of the steep angle from the highest point of the car to the lower

end of the tail. The modifications done to develop design alternative two improved the

aerodynamic profile of the body, however, the velocity throughout the profile is on the lower end

of the scale which is not optimal. The final two designs of the body had the best aerodynamic

shape by allowing the airflow to move the fastest and preventing any turbulence in the air along

the surface of the body. Although the last two designs have an optimal aerodynamic profile,

alternative four was chosen as it allowed for all components to be assembled without conflict.

51
5.9 Material Selection

Materials were chosen on the basis of safety, manufacturability, cost, weight, and other

factors. For the body, materials such as carbon composite molding, steel, and aluminum sheeting

were researched as feasible alternatives. Due to the added weight and other factors it was decided

that aluminum and steel would not be used for the body of the vehicle. Carbon composite molding

offered a lightweight alternative. As such, fiber glass and carbon fiber were compared in the

material selection process. These two materials were chosen for comparison as they are similar in

weight. As seen in Table 5 and 6, both carbon fiber and fiber glass have a high tensile strength,

however, fiber glass is slightly more flexible due to the lower tensile modulus. Due to the lower

tensile modulus, it is able to bend and take more strain without breaking. In terms of cost, the cost

of fiber glass is considerably less than that of carbon fiber. For the vehicle body the carbon fiber

would cost over $1,700 whereas fiber glass would only cost $150. As such, fiber glass was chosen

as the material for the body due to its material properties and cost effectiveness.

Table 5: Carbon Fiber Properties

Table 6: Fiber Glass Properties

52
5.10 Electric Motor Selection

There are many factors that need to be taken into account in order to successfully select a

motor that will utilize the least amount of energy. The motor has to be able to draw the least amount

of current and have enough power to move the vehicle at a sufficient velocity. However, there are

many other factors that need to be analyzed before selecting the correct motor. When selecting a

motor at lower currents, it is extremely important to determine whether it will have sufficient

power to move the weight of the vehicle body to the desired speeds. The weight of the battery the

motor uses as well as the weight of the motor itself is also an important factor to account for. This

is due to the fact that these components will be part of the interior body and will be adding to the

overall weight of the vehicle.

5.10.1 Electric Motor Alternative 1

Table 7: AW Electric Bicycle Motor Kit

Figure 32: Electric Motor Alternative 1

Different alternatives for the electric motor were needed to compare which option would

provide optimal performance and increased efficiency. In pursuit of these and other goals, motor

alternative one was found and is pictured in Figure 32. Table 7 lists the specifications of the motor

such as motor type, power, voltage and efficiency. One thing of value with this alternative is that

53
the kit includes a motorized 26 inch wheel, motor controller, thumb throttle, power break lever,

and wire harness. The technical specifications of the 3 motor alternatives will be compared in

section 5.10.5.

5.10.2 Electric Motor Alternative 2

Table 8: Aosom Rear Wheel Motor Kit

Figure 33: Electric Motor Alternative 2

The second electric motor alternative is pictured in Figure 33. The motor specifications are

listed in Table 8. This motor in comparison to the first alternative has increased power, voltage,

and top speed; while the efficiency and weight of the motor remain the same. This kit includes

two-hand brakes, throttle speed controller, battery bag, controller, and a 26-inch wheel.

54
5.10.3 Electric Motor Alternative 3

Table 9: Currie Technologies Direct Drive Electric

Motor & Rear Wheel Assembly

Figure 34: Electric Motor Alternative 3

The third electric motor alternative is pictured in Figure 34 with its technical specifications

listed in Table 9. This motor is different from the first two alternatives because it is a direct drive

system, whereas the others were geared systems. The power, voltage, and weight of the motor are

less than the other motors and although it may reach higher speeds, the efficiency of the motor is

approximately 10 percent less than the other options. This kit includes the motor and the wheel

only.

5.10.4 Electric Motor Chosen

Using the relationship of power to voltage times current as shown in Equation 5 below, the

amount of current that each motor will draw from the battery can be determined. The instantaneous

electrical power to the motor:

(𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟) = (𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒) × (𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡) → 𝑃 = 𝑉 × 𝐼 (5)

Using Table 10 the motor alternatives are compared in terms of the amount of current each

one uses at maximum velocity. The 500-Watt motor that requires a 36 V battery will use 14 Amp-

55
hours. It is expected that the vehicle will only operate at a top speed of 15 MPH, however, the

motor needs to be chosen taking into consideration the vehicle weight so that it can reach the

expected top speed.

Table 10: Power and Current Analysis

After further analysis of the three proposed motor alternatives, the second alternative was chosen.

This option was chosen as the best alternative as it has a greater amount of power, 1000 W vs. 500

W, and would allow for the vehicle to travel faster in competition. The weight difference between

the 500 W and 1000 W motor was negligible in comparison to the power output and its ability to

reach higher speeds

5.11 Battery Selection

The selections of batteries allowed in the Shell Eco-Marathon competition were a narrow

bunch. Lead-acid batteries were immediately crossed out from the options due to their high weight

and unsafe nature. Lithium based batteries were the primary option due to their safety and low

weight. Based on competition requirements, the maximum capacity of any lithium-based battery

used in any propulsion energy class vehicle is 1,000 Wh. Lithium Polymer was the first option,

however, they are very costly when having this amount of power. In addition, all these options that

have a BMS system included were outside the country which would take months to ship. It was

concluded that the best option was to use a lithium-ion battery by VPower products. It has the

capacity to provide 48 V and 20 amp-hours, which would fit competition requirement at exactly

56
1,000 Wh. This option came with a battery charging bag as well as a charger. Below is a

representation of the battery that was created for the assembly of the vehicle.

Figure 35: VPower 48V Battery Modeled in SolidWorks

5.12 Motor Controller Selection

Due to the rules set forth by Shell Eco-Marathon after 2014, all battery electric motor

competitors were not allowed to use the pre-flashed controller that came with the motor. Therefore

a motor controller that best suited the project was vital to the completion of this project. There are

two options given by the organizers of the competition. The first one is to select a single-printed

board of similar applications that would sustain all power requirements of the battery and motor.

The second option was to design and manufacture PCB board that would control the motor. This

option, however, was out of the question because it would require years of electrical and computer

software experience as well as a substantial amount of time; approximately over a year. It was

necessary to simplify all variables and minimize any possible problems to be able to accomplish

the ultimate goal of having a vehicle that runs efficiently for the competition.

57
The first step in selecting the right motor controller was to find a controller that will match

all motor requirements. These were a three phase BLDC motor that can run over 48 V and 20.84

amps (A). A margin of safety of at least 25 percent was necessary to maintain a working controller

that would not overload or get damage with current overshoots. The best option for this application

was found by using the RV8301-HC-C2-KIT sold by Texas Instruments. This component included

a microcontroller card that can be used for similar applications and well the connect gate switch

IC that would control the three-phases of the motor. However, one of the biggest tasks would be

to program the motor for this type of application.

5.12.1 Controller Specifications

The three phase BLDC Motor Kit with DRV8301 and Piccolo MCU was the best-suited

option for the competition. It is rated for 60 V and 82.5 A, which satisfies the 25 percent margin

of safety to the components based on the maximum voltage and amperage that the battery will

provide. The DRV8301 is the gate drive IC that controls up to six N-channel mosfets that are

embedded in the board. It has two current shunt amplifiers to provide accurate current to the motor.

This device has an internal buck converter to power the entire board as well as the microcontroller

card. The board provides overcurrent protection (OCP), power and ground under-voltage

protection (UVLO), ground under-voltage lockout (OVLO), over-temperature warning/shutdown

(OTW/OTS), and programmable dead time control (DTC). The controller card is the C2000

Piccolo F28035. It is the green component connected to the controller slot of the DRV8301 board

as depicted in the model below in Figure 36.

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Figure 36: The DRV8301 Board with the C2000 Piccolo F28035

5.12.2 Energy System

A diagram was made to represent how the controller is connected to the motor, electrical

components, and the battery. The diagrams are a schematic that represents all of these connections

as well as the pin on the board that was implemented for speed control. For coding purposes, there

were two options that could be have been incorporated to control the motor. Both representations

are shown below Figure 37 and 38, sensor-less and with sensors, respectively. The most common

type of sensors for BLDC motor applications are hall sensors, used to allow the controller to know

the position of the rotor for each phase. Normally, it is better to control a motor with high loads

and variable speeds using sensors. However by using Texas Instruments technology, sensors can

be removed and a motor with loads and variable speeds can be controlled more efficiently using

Field Orientated Commutation (FOC) or Back Electro-Magnetic Commutation (BEMF).

59
Figure 37: Motor Controller without Sensors

60
Figure 38: Motor Controller Using Hall Sensors

61
5.12.3 Controller Communication

Understanding of the motor controller communication within is essential to validate that

the controller will work for this type of three phase BLDC motor application. More importantly,

in order to write a functioning code for this controller, a deep understanding of how all sub-

components communicate with each other is a requirement. Figure 39 below depicts the general

layout of the motor controller.

Figure 39: General Layout of Motor Controller

The gate drive IC chip is vital to controlling a three phase BLDC motor. Each phase of the

motor (A, B, and C) is controlled by each of the three half-bridge drivers. Each half-bridge driver

controls two N-channel mosfets, a high pass (GH) and a low pass (GL). The gate driver also has

two current amplifying sensors with current offsets to send ADC signals back to the control card.

62
This component can also provide the microcontroller with any sensing of error and has SPI control

capabilities. A diagram depicting the schematic of a gate driver IC is shown in Figure 40.

Figure 40: Gate Driver IC Diagram

The N-channel mosfets are also an essential piece in controlling three phase motors. A

diagram of the schematic of an N-Channel switching mosfet can be found in Figure 42. Each phase

is assigned to two transistors, a high pass and a low pass. Each transistor is set to make

commutations to the motor, this is when it turns on and off in a pattern to allow current to pass

through the corresponding phase. For example, if the motor has phases A, B, and C, when phase

A is on, phase B is off, and phase C is just turning on. Then phase A is off, phase B is just turning

63
on, and phase C is fully on. This is how rotation in BLDC motors occur. The N-channel mosfets

are the method of energizing and de-energizing the coils on the rotor while it is running.

Controllers for permanent-magnet brushless motors know when to turn the electromagnets (in the

stator) on and off with perfect timing. For motors with sensors, the controller senses the “back

EMF” (Electro Magnetic Force) in the motor to see when one of the magnets is passing by a hall-

sensor. Since these are three-phase motors (all the coils in the stator are assigned into three groups

of coils), there are three hall sensors in a common brushless motor. Each of the three hall sensors

has three legs (nine legs total), and a three-phase motor has five hall wires. This is because one

wire provides a positive to all three of the sensors, one wire provides the ground/negative to all

three sensors, and then the three remaining wires are for the on/off signals (one signal wire for

each sensor). This layout is depicted in Figure 41 below.

Figure 41: Commutation in BLDC Motors

As explained before, in order to control a BLDC motor the rotational sequence position

and speed needs to be calculated to apply the correct current phase sequence (commutation) to the

motor windings at just the right time. Simply said, sensor-less BLDC means the motor’s position

and speed is determined without purpose built sensors, however, the motor’s sequence position is

sensed using the back EMF signal coming from one of the motor’s coils that is not currently

64
receiving power. When this back EMF signal crosses zero voltage the microcontroller can

calculate the rotational speed and then when to switch to the next power sequence. Normally for

speed control using sensors is better, however with Texas Instruments’ BLDC InstaSpin, speed

control can be achieved with smooth signal steps.

Figure 42: N-Channel Switching Mosfets Diagram

65
5.12.4 Speed Controller Implementation

To control speed with a throttle, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) is necessary. An ADC

pin converts a voltage value normally of two 5 V to digital value. The corresponding digital value

is determined by the resolution of the conversion pin. The analog-to-digital conversion provided

by the C2000 Piccolo as a resolution of 12 bits. This value of resolution can vary depending on

the microcontroller. The DRV8301 board provides the three available ADC pins that connect to

the control card. Unfortunately these three ADC are connected to the corresponding ADC channels

that have already been used by the base code to sense phases A, B, and C. As a result an alternative

was sought. At first the only option was to do the ADC conversion on a separate microcontroller

like an Arduino, convert it to a CAN-BUS interface and make communication with the motor

controller board as a CAN-BUS interface to connect both microcontrollers. This would take a lot

of research and time and create possible bugs in the code. As a result a more drastic option was

utilized. It was observed from the schematics that the control card had one available pin (ADC-

A4) that had no access from the board but did make contact with the controller slot. To complete

the overall objective of having a running vehicle by competition it was decided that micro

soldering a wire into the exact pin location #65 would allow access to using ADC-A4. Below are

some pictures that depict the entire manufacturing process that was performed to successfully

accomplish speed control using the ADC readings.

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Figure 43: Micro Soldering a Wire into Pin Location #65

The throttle that controls speed has a three-wire connection. One wire (green or red) is used

as an input of 5 V, another is the ground (black), and the third wire (white) is the output that is

used for the signal back to the controller of 1 V to 4 V. Unfortunately the pins that perform analog-

to-digital conversion on the microcontroller could only read up to 3.3 V, which means the throttle

should be powered to a limit lower than the 5 V input connection in order to signal back a lower

67
voltage. To properly implement into the code ADC results from the throttle, it was very important

to find the exact voltage value that the throttle will signal back to the controller when the throttle

loaded spring is at initial position and at highest positioning angle. The initial position of the spring

is when the car is not moving and the highest positioning angle is when the car moves at maximum

velocity. To obtain these values, a controlled power supply was connected to the throttle. Since

this type of throttle usually draws very little current, to make sure that the throttle that would be

used on the car will not be damaged, all needed values were first found using a testing throttle with

similar standard specifications. Table 11 displays the results found.

Table 11: Results of Output Signal Testing

Testing Throttle
Voltage Current
Input
3.3 0.006

Min. Max.
Output (signal)
0.84 2.58
Vehicle Throttle
Voltage Current
Input
3.3 0.009

Min. Max.
Output (signal)
0.85 2.58

Using the power supply, the input wire was set at 3.3 V, since this is the voltage that the

user power access pin on the control board will provide. The output wire was connected to a multi-

meter. The minimum and maximum output voltage values were relatively the same for both the

testing throttle and the actual performing throttle. The throttle that would be used was found to

draw about 3 mA more, however this is negligible. Using these values, the step size and digital

values on the code can be found which will be explained in section 7.

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To properly mount the throttle on the steering wheel of the car, a fixture was manufactured.

Speed control by the driver was decide to work best for comfort and practicality by vertically

placing a shaft fixture behind the steering wheel to hold the throttle in place, as shown in Figure

44. This way the driver could have full speed control of the vehicle by only having to move one

finger. The throttle fixture that was manufactured is pictured on the right of Figure 44.

Figure 44: Model of Steering Wheel with Throttle Fixture via SolidWorks

The fixture was first made using modeling software to visualize how the throttle mount

should be mounted. Afterwards, all dimensions were found and a one-inch diameter cylinder piece

of aluminum was cut down on a lathe machine to fit the dimensions on throttle, which was about

7/8 of an inch. A cutting depth step size of about 0.010 inches was used for this application.

Aluminum was used to create a fixture that was both light and strong.

5.12.5 Controller Box

In order to properly mount the main motor controller inside the vehicle, a controller box

was required. Based on all options, using a 3D-printer with PLA plastic filament was the best

option to make a viable box that will hold the controller. The controller box was specially designed

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with certain features to prevent the controller from overheating, such as air vents along the sides

and the bottom of the box. A main hole was also added to the box to allow all wiring to be

connected through one single opening. The general layout of the controller box was created and

modeled in SolidWorks as shown in Figure 45. The left picture is the isometric view of the box,

and the right picture is the top view of the box while it is holding the motor controller.

Figure 45: SolidWorks Modeling of the Controller Box

By using the assembly of the diagram above, an offset of space was created on the box to

allow all wiring to pass along this space. On the bottom of the box, six holes were created to fit all

the #4-40 screws that hold the controller in place inside the bulkhead of the vehicle. As required

by competition rules, complete visibility access was required. Thus, an insert for a Lexan plastic

was made at the top of the box, as illustrated below in a centerline isometric view of the box

assembly, Figure 46. Figure 47 is the 3D-printed controller box, completely manufactured and

displaying the Lexan plastic at the top with the opening for wires on the side. The 3D-printed

controller box is successful in protecting and holding the controller perfectly in place with

complete visibility of the inner contents.

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Figure 46: Centerline Isometric View of Controller Box via SolidWorks

Figure 47: 3D-Printed Controller Box

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5.13 Electrical Components Selection

There are many electrical additions that must be included for this vehicle. The car must

have electrical horns, an emergency push button latching switch, a toggle switch, and fuses. All

the power for these components are supplied by the same battery that powers the motor. In order

to successfully make all the connections, converters and relays were necessary since components

like the horns and switches will be damaged when connected to a 48 V DC.

5.13.1 Controller Box

The diagram/schematic below shows all the electrical connections that were implemented

for the vehicle. As shown, all these connections are made between the battery and the motor

controller. The positive connection of the battery splits in parallel for three main connections. The

first one is for the horns. The horns are rated for 12 V, therefore a converter is needed to be

connected with a relay since they draw very little current. A 10-amp fuse was connected first to

protect the converter. The second connection in parallel from the battery is used to pass all current

and voltage to the controller. Since most of the current from the battery will pass through this

connection, a 30-amp fuse was connected at the beginning of this connection to prevent overshoot

damage at initial startup of the car that could destroy any component. The third connection that is

connected from the battery in parallel is to power the switches that will be connected to the relay.

The purpose of the relay is to use these switches without damaging them, since these types of

switches normally will not sustain more than 10-amps or less. A separate converter was connected

first powering the switching side of the relay, because this side is rated for less voltage and draws

very little amperage. A 10-amp fuse was connected at the beginning of this connection to protect

the converter. All ground connections, as illustrated, are connected to the same ground, which

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connects back to the controller. These connections were tested before making final vehicle

implementations.

Figure 48: Diagram of Connections between Battery and Motor Controller

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5.13.2 Fuse Box

The purpose of adding fuses to the vehicle is to keep all main components in the vehicle

safe if there are any current spikes, which is common in such systems. It is common for the fuses

to require replacement at any time while testing the vehicle when it is completed or during the

competition. A fuse box was made to have easy replacement access, as well as to keep the fuses

in the same location. Just like the controller box, it was decided that 3D-printing the fuse box was

the most feasible choice. The box was made to allow up to 5 fuses of different sizes to be connected

(in case future design changes warrant them), wiring access at all angles, and has mounting holes.

Below, in Figure 49, is the modeling of the fuse box in SolidWorks. This box will be 3D-printed

using ABS filament. Figure 50 displays the 3D-printed fuse box containing the fuses for the

electrical components. The fuse box is successful at holding and protecting the fuses needed for

the prototype battery electric vehicle design.

Figure 49: SolidWorks Modeling of the Fuse Box

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Figure 50: 3D-Printed Fuse Box

5.13.3 Propulsion System

Before making all the connections it was necessary to approximate the locations of all the

main electrical components. The main items include the controller, battery, motor, fuse box, and

other auxiliary components. This step must be done before integration and validation. Using the

propulsion system diagram, Figure 51, allowed a much clearer picture of the design as a whole. It

helped determine the size of the bulkhead needed to fit each component comfortably and neatly

before the manufacturing of the body and selection of the location of the bulkhead.

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Figure 51: Propulsion System Diagram

5.14 Design Overview

The designs outlined in this report includes the body, steering and motor components. The

body was chosen due to its aerodynamic profile that would reduce turbulent flow and drag.

Feasibility of assembly was also an important factor that was taken into consideration when

choosing the final body design. The results of the airflow analysis can be seen in section 5.8. The

go kart type steering was chosen as it is the best mechanical steering element for the intended

design. Finally, the 1000 W motor was chosen as it would give the vehicle the initial thrust it needs

to achieve higher speeds during competition.

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5.15 Cost Analysis

Before a product is manufactured and sold, a cost analysis must be made to ensure that the

product is not too expensive for its selling price or application. This involves product evaluation,

material selection, and material analysis. As seen in previous sections, the selected material for the

prototype’s vehicle body is fiber glass. Other material alternatives that were considered were steel,

aluminum, and carbon fiber. Each material was analyzed and compared. Factors that were

reviewed included each material’s factor of safety, ability to hold its shape at 15 MPH, weight,

cost and manufacturability. The material properties and cost effectiveness of fiber glass made it

the optimal choice. Carbon fiber sheeting would have also been a feasible alternative for the body,

however, carbon fiber is much more expensive and would cause the team to exceed the current

competition budget.

Several other items were researched to find viable options for the overall prototype vehicle.

These include: tires, batteries, steering wheels, driver seats, wiring cables, and personal protection

equipment. Each item was compared to others in their respective categories and the safest, most

reliable and most effective materials were chosen. The current materials list and their cost are listed

below in Table 13. The table shows the quantity needed of each item or service and their respective

total cost. The estimated cost for this project including travel and shipping of the vehicle is

approximately $6,053. The cost analysis is subject to change.

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Table 12: Cost Analysis

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5.16 Discussion

Once several designs are developed research and simulations are conducted accordingly to

narrow down which design is the best alternative. Some factors that are analyzed are cost,

manufacturability, material properties and aerodynamics. Material properties and aerodynamics

play a very important role in this particular application as the safety of the driver and others at the

competition is of upmost importance. Although cost of parts and equipment must also be taken

into consideration depending on the budget, cutting corners because of increased cost is never an

option as it would compromise the safety of others. All materials chosen were done so ensuring

that the budget was not exceeded and that the safety of others is not jeopardized.

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6. Prototype Construction

6.1 Overview

The next step in the process once the chosen designs are finalized and a cost analysis

compiled is to begin building the prototype. Some projects permit the build of an initial prototype

to be tested and optimized to then build the final working model to be used. In this case an initial

prototype is not feasible due to cost of parts and time constraints. When the prototype is meant to

be the final product, one must proceed with even more caution to ensure that every decision and/or

change made along the way does not compromise health and safety and that it still adheres to the

functionality of the proposed design.

6.2 Description of Prototype

The vehicle prototype will consist of a rigid body made out of fiber glass with clear Lexan

windows mounted in the front and sides to ensure that the driver has 180 degree of visibility. It

will also have two 20 inch tires in the front and one 26 inch tire in the rear. The wheels will be

mounted to the aluminum chassis and movement will be achieved by mechanical means using a

go kart steering system. The motor component will be found in the bulkhead behind the driver.

Vehicle will possess several safety features such as, two emergency shut down switches, a dead

man’s switch on the steering column, fire extinguisher, and an electric horn. In addition, the

prototype will have side view mirrors and a five point safety harness.

6.3 Prototype Design

The vehicle body can be seen as a shell that will be assembled to the chassis to make the

vehicle whole. This will be achieved by initially making a mold of the designed body. The mold

will be made out of Styrofoam material and the desired shape will be achieved using a hot wire

cutter. The hot wire device will cut into the Styrofoam material as directed by the user, thus

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leaving behind a mold in the shape of the intended vehicle body. The mold is sanded down as

needed to obtain a smooth surface, as shown in Figure 52. Fiber glass sheets are then laid on the

Styrofoam mold with resin and hardener and left to set, Figure 53. Once the fiber glass has set

the Styrofoam material is removed; leaving a fiberglass shell as the final product. The resin on

the fiber glass shell is sanded as needed (Figure 54), painted, and assembled to the chassis.

Figure 52: Styrofoam Mold Sanded and Ready for Fiber Glass Layup

Figure 53: Fiber Glass Layup of Top Layer

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Figure 54: Fiber Glass Shell Sanded and Placed on Chassis

The steering system as described in section 4.7 is assembled to the chassis and tested to

ensure proper mechanical movement. The spindle is welded to the chassis, tie rods are connected

to the spindles, steering shaft is connected to tie rods, and the wheels are mounted on the spindle

axle. Due to the type of wheel used, the axle where the wheel is to be mounted on requires further

modification. The axle is attached to the spindle. The axle has a 0.75 inch diameter whereas the

bore in the wheel hub has a 0.591 inch diameter. Due to this difference in diameter the axle had to

be modified using a mill to reduce the diameter from 0.75 inches to the required 0.591 inch

diameter. This axle is then threaded to match the thread of the nut being used to secure the wheel

in place on the axle. The battery electric motor is attached to the rear wheel and it will be inside

the bulkhead of the prototype vehicle along with the battery and motor controller. The bulkhead is

located behind the driver and is completely blocked off so as to prevent outside interference. Figure

55 displays the bulkhead with the electrical components on the left, behind the driver’s seat, and

the steering components assembled on the right.

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Figure 55: Bulkhead with Electrical Components and Steering Assembly

6.4 Parts List

The parts list for the battery electric prototype vehicle is shown in Table 14. The list

encompasses all items needed including the wheels, brakes, aluminum pipes, and more. The parts

list is subject to change.

Table 13: Parts List

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6.5 Construction

Construction of the prototype was done in a safe environment at all times. Whether

welding, cutting, painting or testing, maximum safety protocols were always adhered to. All work

was done in a well-lit and ventilated environment. For completing the fiberglass layup of the body,

proper safety equipment such as respirators were used at all times and the application of any

substances with strong chemical smell were done in an open, well ventilated area.

Figure 56: Personal Protection Equipment and Well Ventilated Area

6.6 Prototype Cost Analysis

The approximate cost in parts for the prototype is approximately $3,008. The breakdown

of this cost can be seen in detail in Table 15. This cost analysis does not include taxes, shipping,

or any labor costs that may be incurred. The cost analysis is subject to change.

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Table 14: Prototype Cost Analysis

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6.7 Discussion

When constructing any kind of project a detailed parts list must be compiled to ensure that

all required parts are denoted on the list. In addition, a cost must be associated with each part. This

cost analysis becomes what one uses to ensure that all parts needed can be purchased within the

proposed budget. This is also used to determine whether or not the given budget is reasonable or

whether an increase in funds needs to be requested. Maintaining the cost analysis up to date is

critical in the successful construction of the prototype to ensure that the project does not go beyond

budgetary constraints at any point in time.

7. Testing and Evaluation

7.1 Overview

With anything that is being designed there must be a testing and evaluation period. For a

project of this magnitude there were several components that required testing, evaluation, and for

some, modifications were also required. This process is essential in making sure that all vehicle

components are working at optimum conditions and that the driver safety and security is not

compromised.

7.2 Design/Description of Experiments

7.2.1 Vehicle Body

The vehicle body was tested and evaluated utilizing the three dimensional rendering

program, SolidWorks. When body designs were developed a 3D assembly was made of the body

and the chassis. This was done to ensure that these components did not overlap; the chassis needed

to fit completely inside of the body structure. Once the vehicle body was manufactured tests were

performed to ensure that the driver would have optimum visibility by placing windows and testing

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the driver’s ability to see objects or people placed at 30 degree intervals until it was determined

that a total visibility of 180 degrees was achieved. In addition, the driver was timed in their ability

to exit the vehicle in under 10 seconds

7.2.2 Steering System

The steering system was tested to ensure that the linkages would hold while the vehicle

was in motion and that there were no loose joints that would cause the steering to malfunction. In

addition, an 8 meter radius was traced and the vehicle was tested to ensure that it would meet the

required 8 meter (or less) turning radius.

7.2.3 Braking System

The vehicle is equipped with 3 Shimano hydraulic brakes; 2 for the front and 1 for the rear.

These brakes must pass an inspection where the vehicle is placed on a 20 degree decline. The front

and rear brakes must hold the vehicle stationary on the ramp when actuated individually. To test

the brakes a ramp was created using wood and placed at a 20 degree angle. The vehicle was placed

on this ramp and each braking system was tested individually to determine whether it would pass

the technical inspection at competition.

7.2.4 Battery Electric Motor

To test the motor while connected to the controller and battery, a testing environment was

developed. A wooden fixture was made to mount the shaft of the motor at both ends and allow

rotation of the wheel. To reinforce the fixture, an aluminum flat plate was added at each end of the

mount, depicted in Figure 57. These plates were designed to prevent any vibrations in the shaft of

the wheel and allow steady rotation.

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Figure 57: Wooden Testing Mount

To test the motor mounted on the vehicle, the battery electric motor was initially tested

with no load. This was done by raising the vehicle using jack stands and recording the rotational

speed the motor was producing. This output rotational speed is used to calculate the miles per hour

achieved. This is done to ensure that the vehicle is capable of reaching speeds higher than what is

required without load. This test is repeated with the vehicle on a flat level surface with all

components installed. This is referred to as the load test.

7.2.5 Implementation of Code

There are numerous steps that need to be taken in order to successfully connect the motor

to the controller before flashing any code in the controller. The first step in using the DRV-8301

motor control board to test the motor using the GUI. If the user is using Windows 10, it is important

to allow a trusted signature connection in the device manager by following steps that can be found

online. All connections from the battery and the motor should be made before powering up the

device. This information can be found in the controller reference guides. Once this is completed,

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the battery can be turned on to power the device and then the USB connection from the controller

to the laptop can be done. If all steps are completed in the same order, and once the GUI software

is opened on the computer, there should be successful a connection to the controller. The layout of

the GUI software can be seen in Figures 58 and 59.

Figure 58: GUI Layout

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Figure 59: GUI Layout (Cont'd)

The GUI is a vital step in order to set the motor parameters in the code as well as understand

the code. In the main tab of the GUI, main of the main motor parameters can be set up like speed

control, flux threshold, and turning on and off the motor. There are three graphs on this main tab.

The red graph represents flux waveform, the green graph represents back-EMF waveform, and the

blue graph represents current waveform. Using these graphs the right value for voltage threshold

can be found if a sensor-less code is to be used. This is very important in order to have

commutations of the phases at the exact timing and allow maximum motor performance. In the

settings tab, there are other features that can be altered if the motor runs using just current to only

control toque, or just speed, or both. These are the gain knobs. For this motor these can be neglected

because the code will be set to perform using voltage, or the duty cycle mode. However it is

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important to set the motor poles to 48. This will only change the RPM reading in the main tab of

the GUI.

Once a good understanding of the GUI is obtained, the coding can begin. For this device,

it recommended to use the latest version of the compiler. Texas Instruments provides a

downloadable version of Code Composer Version 6 online. It is also important to have all the

developments kits that TI provides by installing Controlsuite software that is included with the

controller. Before coding, a successful connection with the controller has to be made when using

the Code Composer. Following the steps below can complete this connection once the compiler is

open:

1. Click on the tab “View”

2. Click on “Target Configurations”

3. Right click on “Projects”

4. Set the filename as “xds100-f28035.ccxml”

5. Make sure to keep the default location

6. Click Finish

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Figure 60: Target Configuration Window

Once these steps are completed the window will automatically open a new tab to select the

right board that is been used. At this point follow the steps below:

1. In the connection box, make sure to use “Texas Instruments XDS100v1 USB Debug

Probe”

2. In the board or device box, search “28035”

3. Make sure to check the box next to “TMS320F28035”

4. Test connection to make sure it is successful

5. Click “Save” in the save configurations

6. Close the tab

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Figure 61: CCS Edit Window

Make sure the board is on and the USB is connected when making these configurations. If

all steps were completed correctly, the control board can now be flashed and debugged. To start

any code, some development kits can be imported to the compiler. There are different codes that

can be used will be closest to this type of application. If it is still not working, more information

can be found using the guides that come with the controller or by asking questions to experts on

this device on the TI community website.

7.3 Test Results and Data

7.3.1 Vehicle Body

The body was created and assembled to the chassis in the same manner that it was simulated

on SolidWorks. This proved successful as all vehicle components and the driver fit comfortably

inside of the vehicle. Additional openings that were created in the body were to accommodate

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driver visibility, entry/exit of the vehicle, steering system, and rear wheel. Creating the windows

of the body also proved successful with the test that was performed. After the openings were cut

and the Lexan windows permanently attached the driver’s visibility was double checked at 30

degree intervals for a total of 180 degrees of visibility and rear view windows were installed to

further improve visibility. The driver fits comfortably and securely in the vehicle and can still exit

the vehicle in under 10 seconds.

7.3.2 Steering System

After installing the mechanical steering system it was noticed that although the linkages

held, there was a lot of play in the system where the joints were held together. The solution to this

issue was to purchase shoulder screws that would fit precisely and hold the steering joints together

with minimal clearance or “wiggle” room. In addition, Locktite thread locker or star washers were

used to ensure that the joints would not loosen due to vibrations when the vehicle is in motion.

The first attempt at testing that the vehicle met the 8 meter (or less) turning radius requirement

failed. The turning radius was slightly over 8 meters and required adjustments to meet this criteria.

The solution was to lower the front wheels by raising the front of the chassis. Steel brackets were

made to place between the chassis and the spindles. Carbon steel has an ultimate tensile strength

of 400 - 550 MPa.9 Assuming a load of 1112 Newtons, the stress applied to these brackets is of

approximately 229.8 KPa. As such, these brackets were chosen due to their ability to withstand

more than the expected load it will experience during operation. These brackets have 3 hole

openings that enable them to be mounted to the chassis utilizing the top 2 holes and the spindle is

attached to the brackets utilizing the bottom 2 holes. With this set up the wheels are securely

9 "A36 Steel." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

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lowered from where they were originally placed. The test was repeated and the turning radius is

below the 8 meter requirement.

7.3.3 Battery and Motor

Various parameters were recorded to test motor performance and the time it would take for

the lithium-ion battery to charge and discharge. For first experiment the motor was connected to

the battery for eight hours using the maximum speed as set on the throttle without any load, on the

wooden testing mount. During this time, the voltage, current, and RPM of the motor were recorded

every twenty minutes into Table 15.

Figure 62: Current of Motor Plot

Using the graph above it can be observed that the motor will draw more current when the

battery is fully charged. However, the voltage reaches its rated value of 48 volts, the current

stabilizes at about 1.5 amps. If the motor was running with some load this value with be higher

since current is directly proportional to toque.

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Figure 63: Motor Rotational Speed Graph

Figure 64: Motor Voltage over Time Plot

By observing the voltage and rotational speed graphs, a similar correlation can be seen in

both parameters over time. There is a linear decrease in voltage as well as there is for rotational

speed of the motor. Initially, voltage is at about 51.51 volts and every 20 minutes it decreases by

0.4 volts to 1 volt. Rotational speed is initially 455 rpm and decreases every 20 minutes by about

one to three revolutions. From this information it be concluded the as voltage decreases, there is

an effect in rotational speed. Hence, as the motor runs over time, both parameters constantly

decrease steadily throughout the eight hours. The slope of the voltage graphs represents the time

battery takes to discharge while having no load, which is about 0.015 volts per minutes. This value

of discharge would increase if the battery were connected to the motor while having a load.

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The second experiment was implemented while the motor was mounted onto the vehicle.

The vehicle was tested with no load as described in section 7.2.4. The output rotational speed was

459 RPM. This was used to find that the car without load is achieving a top speed of 35.5 MPH.

The equations used to calculate this result can be seen below. This result is favorable because

without load the vehicle is travelling well over the required average speed of 15 MPH. It is

predicted that with the load of the vehicle and all its components the vehicle will be able to travel

at the required average speed.

Table 15: Motor Running with No Load

Time (Minutes) Current (Amps) Voltage (Volts) Rotational Speed (RPM)

0 2 51.51 455.0
20 1.9 51.00 454.5
40 1.8 50.61 452.5
60 1.8 50.23 450.0
80 1.8 49.93 447.0
100 1.7 49.60 444.4
120 1.7 49.30 442.0
140 1.7 49.02 439.7
160 1.7 48.68 436.5
180 1.6 48.34 434.0
200 1.6 48.05 431.5
220 1.6 47.72 428.5
240 1.5 47.44 426.6
260 1.5 47.20 424.3
280 1.5 47.02 422.8
300 1.5 46.81 420.9
320 1.5 46.67 419.2
340 1.5 46.47 417.5
360 1.5 46.25 416.2
380 1.5 46.05 414.2
400 1.5 45.80 412.2
420 1.5 45.58 410.4
440 1.4 45.33 408.2
460 1.4 45.04 405.9
480 1.4 44.80 403.5

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7.3.4 Debugging the Code

The complete code that was flashed on the microcontroller to control the speed of the motor

is an adjusted version to a development kit code with similar applications that Texas Instruments

offers with the device. After numerous testing, in order to complete the objective at task it was

decided that the best working option was to base the code from was the GUI version. Below are

some of the altercations in code that were made in order to control the speed of the code with an

attached throttle. Some of these values were found for the GUI software.

The REFVOLTS variable was set as a global variable at the beginning of the code to be

called later in the code. As can be seen below, two float variables were initialized at the beginning

of the interrupt along with other variables that the code already used for ADC purposes.

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An important step allowing the ADC pin that will receive the signal voltage from the

throttle is by clicking CTRL and selecting the ADC_MACRO_INIT (). Inside this library three

vital lines need to be added to turn on the correct channel has to be selected for ADC-A4, which

is channel 4. The other two lines under that are the number of bits assigned to that pin, and clock

speed. These values can be copied from other similar ADC pins that were already used.

The main code that allows speed control by using the throttle is shown below in the

beginning of lines 900. Once the conversion resolution of the pin was found, the step size was

found by dividing 3.3 by 4095. This value was multiplied by the receiving ADC signal value. Then

in order to have a value that starts at a value of zero, the reference voltage from the assigned global

value was subtracted. The function that control speed is between zero and one. Therefore the ADC

value was normalized by been divided by itself. It was set to only obtain an 89% velocity; hence

it was divided by a larger value of 1.9203 instead. The normalized speed was then placed inside

the speed reference function as shown in line 921 below.

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7.3.5 Braking System

The vehicle was placed on the 20 degree ramp and tested utilizing mechanical brakes and

160 mm brake rotors. This set up was unsuccessful in passing the test. Both front and rear brakes

failed to keep the vehicle stationary on the ramp when actuated individually. The mechanical

brakes were changed to hydraulic brakes and tested again. Although the hydraulic brakes

performed better than the mechanical brakes, they did not pass the test. The 160 mm brake rotors

were then replaced with 180 mm brake rotors. Utilizing these rotors and the hydraulic brakes the

car was put to the test once more. This time, the brakes passed the test. Both front and rear brakes

hold the vehicle stationary on a 20 degree decline when actuated individually.

7.4 Improvement of the Design

This vehicle can be improved in the future by adding solar panels as a secondary source of

energy. This will allow for an even further decreased dependence on fossil fuels as the charging

of the lithium ion battery required an electrical outlet. With the addition of solar panels the battery

can receive charge through solar power and reduce the amount of time it needs to be charged

utilizing a conventional electrical outlet. Also, the steering system can be changed to an electrical

system and a suspension can be added for increased stability and driver comfort. Finally,

regenerative braking is another improvement that can be made to the existing design. Regenerative

brakes allow for energy to be recovered when the brakes are applied to slow the vehicle down. Its

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kinetic energy is converted to usable energy that can be used immediately or stored to be used at

a later time. This improvement would greatly increase the overall efficiency of the vehicle and

extend the life of the braking system.10

7.5 Discussion

Testing and evaluation is a key component of all design in the engineering industry. A

product cannot be sold if it has not been tested for its reliability or safety. If a product is dangerous

and not caught before it is mass produced and sold, the company can be sued for endangering the

public and lose their business completely. In addition, testing a design allows for further

optimizations that can make the idea for efficient and feasible. Through testing, the fourth body

alternative design was found to be a successful choice as the shape passed the airflow analyses

with ease. The body also fit perfectly around the chassis with no interferences. The steering

assembly held multiple constraints but they were all fixed through testing and evaluation. The last

steering design has become full proof and is already working well on the final prototype battery

electric vehicle design. The battery and motor are doing exceptionally well during the evaluations

with no load, but further testing is needed to evaluate its efficiency with loads added on.

8. Design Considerations

8.1 Health and Safety

With anything that is designed and manufactured for use, health and safety is a major

concern. Engineers are tasked with innovating while still protecting “public health, safety, and

welfare.”11 With this in mind, the regulations set forth by Shell were outlined as seen in section

10 "Regenerative Brake." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.


11
"NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers." Code of Ethics. NSPE, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

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2.3, with the purpose of having a quick reference to use while designing and moving forward with

manufacturing and testing. These regulations are in place to ensure the safety of not only the team

members involved, but also of the organizers who will be testing and looking over vehicle

components and other competition participants as well as audience members. The health and safety

of all those directly and indirectly involved matters and is paramount to all else.

Following with health and safety regulations includes adding proper ventilation inside of

the vehicle so as to avoid heat exhaustion to the driver and adding a fully functional operator

presence control and emergency shut off switch. This will allow for the propulsion system to be

safely shut off to prevent fire or other hazardous events in case of an emergency situation or driver

incapacitation. It also entails ensuring that all wiring is correct and does not pose a fire hazard and

being properly equipped so that in case of an emergency one can contain the damage and eliminate

any harm to others. All regulations and design considerations were chosen and developed with

health and safety in mind. While there isn’t a 100% guarantee that an emergency will not occur,

one can take precautions and be prepared in the event of accidents, such as collisions, to ensure

that the driver and other participants are not in harm’s way. Examples of this are the readily

available fire extinguishers, emergency shut off mechanisms, quick release cockpit latch, and

more.

8.2 Assembly and Disassembly

The prototype vehicle includes a fiber glass shell that is attached to the aluminum chassis

in two halves. The bottom and top halves of the body are securely riveted and the chassis is

attached to the bottom half through the use of u-brackets. Lexan window are mounted to the top

half of the body, allowing the driver a 90 degree view on both sides. A hatch is also made on the

top half of the body to serve as an entry/exit way into the vehicle. This hatch will serve as access

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to the prototype interior. A go kart steering system is attached to the chassis allowing mechanical

movement of the two 20 inch tires mounted to the front of the chassis on the spindle axle with

locking nuts. The larger 26 inch tire is mounted to the back of the chassis in the bulkhead with the

motor components. Side view mirrors are mounted on the outside of the front of the fiber glass

body by bolts. Lastly, the battery and its BMS system are held in the bulkhead on top of a metal

plate to prevent the battery from burning through the body of the vehicle in the unlikely event of

a battery fire. All vehicle components are designed for easy access as well as the ability to easily

assemble and disassemble components in the event that repairs or maintenance is required.

8.3 Maintenance of the System

Maintenance is an important aspect of design considerations as it allows the car to perform

at its optimum level throughout its life span. In this section, maintenance of each component of

the vehicle will be addressed. The upkeep of the prototype will be similar to the maintenance

performed on standard automobiles. For the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon, all components of the

vehicle must be fully functional and safely maintained to ensure safe operating conditions. Any

hazardous or low efficiency components must be removed and replaced to keep the car’s

performance ideal for the competition. Each team member is assigned to check, maintain, and test

their components before the trial runs and competition.

Each system of the prototype is monitored individually. The steering system must be

checked before and after each trial to ensure the safety of the driver. Any loosening of the system

was monitored and fixed by a simple tightening of the bolts that held it together. The brake system

and battery management systems are two major components that will be described in their

respective subsection.

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8.3.1 Regular Maintenance

Regular maintenance in the prototype battery electric vehicle involves the tires, motor and

battery. The air pressures of the three tires are monitored and maintained at their recommended

levels to ensure the tires perform exceptionally throughout their life spans. Tires that are not

monitored can lose their ideal shapes and cause more drag and resistance to the prototype’s

movement. The motor must be tested before each run to ensure optimum performance. Any

irregularities found are addressed accordingly. Finally, the 48 V battery must always be charged,

checked and ready before each trial. The battery requires about six hours for it to fully charge from

zero charge; this time must be taken into account before each trial run of the car. As the main

power source, the battery cannot be missing any charge as it allows each trial to be done at the

vehicle’s highest potential. In addition, as the horn is attached to the accessory battery, the team

needs to check that this battery is in good condition and that it allows for the horn to reach the

required 75 decibels without issues.

8.3.2 Brake Maintenance

For the hydraulic bicycle disk brakes there are some aspects that must be addressed: the

fluid that will be used and how the wires will be adjusted. Mineral oil or DOT are two types of

fluids that can be used in hydraulic brakes and using the wrong kind can weaken the performance

of the brake system. Mineral oil is the proper fluid for the brakes chosen. If DOT was used instead,

the braking distance can be increased and the brake levers can be much harder to press. The fluid

level of each brake must be maintained and monitored to ensure the full potential and safety of the

braking system. Calibration is not needed for these hydraulic brakes because of the system being

sealed from any external disturbances that can cause them damage. However, after long periods of

use, the capacity of the hydraulic brakes should be checked to ensure they are still performing at

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their highest potential. In addition, any disk build up or dust that falls in between the disc and pads

should be cleaned off before any runs. The major maintenance of the brakes will be addressed in

the next subsection.

8.3.3 Major Maintenance

The controller and brake pads are considered the major maintenance features of the

prototype vehicle. The controller was custom made to control the variable speeds of the motor. To

test the component, the rear of the vehicle must be lifted in order to test for the variation in speeds.

As the car is held in place, different speed levels need to be chosen to check the controller’s

performance and precision. Any inaccuracies found are then fixed before any test runs. In addition,

as the emergency shut down switches are wired to the controller, the team needs to constantly

ensure that these devices are fully functional without interference. It is vital that any errors are

caught and addressed to ensure the safe performance of the vehicle.

In the braking system, the rotor and calipers of the brakes should always be checked. After

continuous use these components may wear over time, causing a decrease in their performance.

Any wear can cause the disk brake to underperform. In addition, the brake pads may need to be

changed. Checking for these issues avoids any issues during future use.

8.4 Environmental Impact and Sustainability

The 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon battery electric prototype vehicle is specifically designed to

be eco-friendly. Running on electricity, the vehicle creates no pollution or carbon footprint; which

helps promote the manufacturing of more electric vehicles. More research in these types of

vehicles will help promote a healthier and better future. The Shell Eco-Marathon was created to

promote research in energy efficient vehicles and to promote the use of alternative energy

resources. Gasoline creates carbon dioxide fumes that cause climate change due to the

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overabundance of it in the atmosphere. By reducing the use of gasoline, the negative impact that

the transportation sector has on the environment can be reduced.

Moreover, the design of the vehicle also makes for a more energy efficient vehicle. In

choosing an aluminum chassis and fiber glass aerodynamic body, the vehicle is light weight and

does not create much drag which is caused by an increase in turbulent flow. This allows for greater

efficiency of the motor which will use less energy to put the car into motion. The less energy used

the farther the car can go with one full charge of the 48 V battery. The lithium ion battery chosen

is an environmentally friendly choice, which is emphasized by its continuous use in every day

electronics. Also, when compared to nickel, cobalt, and lead acid batteries, lithium batteries charge

more efficiently.

Lastly, the hydraulic braking system chosen for the vehicle helps promote the environment

by replacing rubber brakes. Rubber pads grind rubber excess onto roads which harms the

environment because of their chemical properties. For the hydraulic brakes, a fine sand is grinded

off and onto the roads. This sand’s chemical properties are not as harmful to the environment or

anyone’s health. Another factor is that the hydraulic brakes stop the vehicle more efficiently than

rubber brakes. This fact allows less energy to be used and less wear on the vehicle itself.

8.5 Risk Assessment

Incomplete maintenance can be disastrous for the vehicle and even the safety of the driver

and crew. Every component of the system needs to be checked, maintained and tested to ensure

performance at optimum levels. One component breaking or malfunctioning can cost the team the

whole competition, as well as put the driver and spectators at risk of harm. Maintenance of each

part of the vehicle is also crucial as all items were purchased using limited financial resources; if

one were to fail, the financial resources may not be readily available and time required to purchase

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a new part may be insufficient. In addition, not maintaining the components will not allow the

vehicle to run utilizing its highest capabilities. A risk assessment can help target key components

that require the most attention in order to increase the vehicles life span and performance during

the competition.

Every engineer must be able to solve a problem, while taking into account the risks that

can occur during any situation. For the Shell Eco-Marathon, the bulkhead of the vehicle must be

separated from the driver by a fire retardant wall unit. If any failure were to occur, the driver will

be able to have enough time to safely exit the vehicle with no injuries. Failures that cause fires

may include overheating of the battery or motor, and short circuiting. In addition, any buckling or

fractures at the points where the load is sustained can cause the vehicle to become unusable and

disqualified during the competition. Assessing the strength of the chassis prevents this issue, as

well as maintains the safety of the driver throughout the runs. Brake failure can also occur from

overheating and vibrations from each run. All of these risks must be taken into account during the

maintenance of the prototype vehicle to prevent any hazardous or inefficient performance of the

car.

9. Design Experience

9.1 Overview

The design experience for the team revolves around software and instruments used as aids

during the design and analysis of the parts of the vehicle. Throughout the project the team created

designs for each part of the prototype battery electric vehicle and modeled some on SolidWorks.

Designing involves solving a problem using innovation and experience, which all engineers

encounter during the duration of their profession. In addition, aesthetics is a large component of

designing as each design should be functional, practical, and look good.

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This project is the third time FIU has participated in the Shell Eco-Marathon competition,

thus, the team was able to observe the design of past projects and optimize them to remove any

faults that may have occurred. Refining past designs and creating new and innovative strategies

allows FIU to improve each year in the competition, which hopefully leads to a winning vehicle

design. Also, observing part vehicles removes many trial and error situations which revolves

around starting from scratch. Obstacles occur consistently throughout the project, but creating

solutions with innovative thought and software modeling allows the team to surpass the

expectations of failure and manufacture a vehicle that can hold its own during the Shell Eco-

Marathon. No matter the issue, the team always participated in collaborative solution design.

9.2 Standards Used in Project

The standards used throughout the project include the industry standards provided by the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)4 for battery electric vehicles and the

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)5 for Aluminum 6061-T6. In addition, the

standards set by the competition in the Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules1 were followed

religiously. The battery electric vehicle standards provided by ISO were used for safety

specifications of the on-board rechargeable energy storage system, protection against electrical

shock, vehicle operational safety, and post-crash electrical safety. The Aluminum 6061-T6

standards provided by ASME were used for the tensile limits of this material that was chosen for

the chassis, the critical structure of the prototype vehicle. These specifications were used to

optimize the safety of the vehicle. More information on these standards were provided previously

in section 1.4.

4
"Standards Catalogue: ICS 43.120: Electric Road Vehicles." International Organization for Standardization. ISO, 2016.
5
"Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy 6061-T6 Standard Structural Profiles." USAEC-RDT Standards, ASTM, 2010.
1
Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official Rules. Shell Global, 2016.

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The regulation details provided by the competition in the Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official

Rules can be found in section 2.3 and 2.4. These rules need to be followed at all aspects of the

design of the prototype battery electric vehicle to be able to qualify to participate during the 2016

Shell Eco-Marathon Americas competition. Before the competition, the vehicle must pass ten

technical inspections that include testing the strength of the driver’s seat belt, testing the strength

of the brakes, checking the visibility of the driver, checking the dimensions of the vehicle, etc.

Each inspection is done to ensure that the safety and precision of the vehicle was enough to

compete during the competition.

9.3 Contemporary Issues

The US consumes millions of gasoline barrels daily which creates large emissions of

carbon dioxide that becomes trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is known as a

greenhouse gas as it traps heat from the sun and makes the Earth warmer throughout the years. Car

emissions is a large contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions which is why alternative energy

sources are sought after. The Shell Eco-Marathon was made to motivate innovation of vehicles

that use less or alternative energy. The less gas used is better for the environment. However, an

alternative energy source is better for the environment. This is the motivation of the team to pursue

the creation of a prototype battery electric vehicle which is the newest category in the Shell Eco-

Marathon. Electric vehicles have become more popular throughout the years as they promote a

greener future with technology that makes it just as good as vehicles that use gasoline. By

optimizing on existing concepts, the team aims to create a design that can be incorporated in

making automobiles even better.

As fossil fuels deplete, replacing internal combustion engines with battery electric can help

the environment and the economy flourish. Creating a prototype battery electric vehicle will help

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motivate the development of future battery electric vehicles. Pursuing this direction leads to a

better tomorrow.

9.4 Impact of Design in a Global and Societal Context

Engineering aims to create things that are more efficient and effective for the world

globally and individually. Today, oil is the main source of energy for the automotive industry,

however, it creates damaging emissions for the atmosphere. Alternative energy sources are being

researched daily to combat the large emissions and battery electric is one of them. The team has

chosen to improve upon the battery electric concept with the belief that it is the energy source of

the future. Recharging stations are now being created throughout the US and in several other parts

of the world for battery electric vehicles. Some are free to use depending on the company you have

purchased the vehicle from. More and more stations are being built throughout the year, showing

an increase in interest of the battery electric cars.

The design of the prototype vehicle is a combination of ideas from everyday cars and

bicycles. It was created with the intention of making an energy efficient vehicle that goes the

longest distance using the least amount of energy. The moral intentions of the Shell Eco-Marathon

was to motivate innovation and technology for a better tomorrow. It brings students together to

share their designs and concepts, and help other teams improve on their designs for the next

competition. As a competitor, it is essential for FIU to continually enhance the vehicle designs

each consecutive year to keep up with the innovations that are occurring in the automobile industry

globally. For example, the aerodynamic design of the body helps the vehicle create less drag as it

moves forward. The less drag on the car means that the motor can work less for the same amount

of distance. Every small improvement helps the vehicle become more efficient and effective.

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9.5 Professional and Ethical Responsibility

To be a professional engineer there are certain codes that all engineers must follow. These

codes are addressed and detailed in the ASME Code of Ethics. It is the engineer’s responsibility

to produce solutions to problems that are morally sound and safe for the public. As a team

consisting of mechanical engineers, it is the team’s responsibility to follow the code of ethics while

creating the prototype battery electric vehicle. Ethical and professional responsibilities help keep

the integrity of the team members making them more trustworthy and honest to the public and

each other. In addition, a high integrity and work ethic improves the motivation and dedication of

the team, which can be seen throughout the creation of the prototype vehicle. Following the codes

allows the team to gain recognition by other engineers in present and future situations when the

project is revisited and our report is used to describe all of the hard work that went into creating

an innovative design.

Fairness is a large part in being a team as each member needs to be treated equally

throughout the project. This entitles that each member must work diligently and at the same pace

as the others. In addition, it entitles that each member must participate in the same amount of work

as the others, and that not one member is forced to do more work than they should. Regardless of

the level of experience of each member, everyone’s ideas and opinions are useful and should not

be disregarded. Each member must demonstrate a level of professionalism throughout the building

and design of the prototype vehicle.

9.5.1 ASME Code of Ethics

Our obligations for this project include the following:

2.1 (Code of Ethics for Engineers): Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and

welfare of the public. Because risk of fire is always a present issue when operating a battery electric

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or other type of vehicle, the driver will have to be separated from the battery and motor

compartment by a bulkhead and will wear a flame retardant suit. Furthermore, a fire extinguisher

will be present inside of the vehicle and the proper equipment will be used to handle any incident.

3.6 (Code of Ethics for Engineers): Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or

advancement or Professional engagements by untruthfully criticizing other engineers, or by other

improper or questionable methods.

3.9 (Code of Ethics for Engineers): Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to

those to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary interests of others. All students

who participate in this endeavor will be recognized for their work.

9.6 Life-Long Learning Experience

Life-long learning is a concept of engineering that FIU focuses on. It involves the idea that

learning never stops, it is continuous and will occur at every aspect of an engineer’s career. FIU

motivates students to be open minded to all aspects, and allow themselves to learn what they can

as much as they can. The more knowledge one has, the more effective they are as an engineer for

any company and industry. Senior projects hold this concept diligently as it involves the teams

researching and gaining real life experience throughout the creation of their product prototypes.

The projects reenact a real life engineering issue that needs a solution. With this, the future

engineers can put all the knowledge they have gained to use. For the prototype battery electric

vehicle, the team needed to research the automotive component and the energy component. Each

member gained knowledge on each component of the car as they designed and manufactures every

part from scratch, while the energy component helped the team gain knowledge on energy

efficiency. With this competition, engineering students improve on their current skills and gain

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new ones while developing their own understanding of engineering concepts. These skills help

each member develop as an engineer and as an individual.

9.7 Discussion

The Shell Eco-Marathon teaches the team many things that can help them individually and

professionally in the future. It motivates each team member to learn new concepts while improving

on their current knowledge and skills. It also helps the students see the importance of standards

and codes that each engineer must follow to be successful as professional engineers in the

engineering industry. Throughout the project the biggest engineering concept was design

alternatives. As the team manufactures the vehicle, issues become apparent and quick solutions

need to be created. Designing quickly yet innovatively is a skill that is highly sought after in

engineers. Also, the team worked collaboratively to fix each issue that arises which motivates team

work and integrity between each individual. These skills are required for a successful profession

in the engineering industry, and this project is the perfect learning platform.

The goal was to create a prototype vehicle that used the least amount of energy to move

the longest distance. As the design improved and was manufactured, the true aspects of the senior

design came forth. It was not only a project, but a learning experience for each future engineer.

All engineering concepts were addressed and each member played a key role in the creation of the

prototype. FIU is an institution that motivates life-long learning and professional improvement of

their engineering students to help lead the community to a brighter future.

10. Conclusion

10.1 Conclusion and Discussion

Any project can be a new experience for students in the engineering degrees, however, the

experience from this project alone is memorable. The purpose of this project was to create a

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prototype battery electric vehicle that can go the longest distance while using the least amount of

energy. This vehicle will be entered in the 2016 Shell Eco-Marathon Americas competition in

Detroit, MI on April 22, 2016. The design of the vehicle was following the ideals of making a light

weight, feasible, cost effective and energy efficient vehicle that will be able to compete in the

marathon. The FIU Shell Eco-Marathon team consist of six undergraduate mechanical engineering

students that each hold an ambition to innovate and optimize existing concepts. With this ambition,

the team chose to compete in the battery electric section, with limited prior knowledge in electrical

engineering. The three students working on this report were tasked with the body design, the

electric motor components and the steering and handling of the vehicle.

Through thorough analyses using SolidWorks and collaborative brainstorming, the vehicle

design described in section 6 was chosen and manufactured into a rigid and durable battery electric

vehicle that has surpassed the expectations of mentors and advisors. All testing has pointed to a

design that will not fail during normal operations and a design that will qualify to participate during

the Shell Eco-Marathon. The successful completion of the prototype during a limited timeline was

an ambitious goal, but obtainable. Now, the true results of all the hard work will be displayed

during the competition. Even if the prototype vehicle does not place, the vehicle will be left for

the Eco Engineering Club at FIU for future generations of determined engineering students to

optimize on the design and aim for better and more efficient designs.

10.2 Evaluation of Intangible Experiences

Engineering a vehicle of this magnitude from scratch is quite an endeavor. In the process

many experiences are of great value. This project enabled its members to evaluate their own

technical skills and target areas that needed improvement. The ability to learn and teach new skills

that will continue to be useful post-graduation is a valuable experience. The Eco Engineering Club

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was started to gauge student interest and get more students involved in hands on engineering

applications such as the manufacturing of this vehicle. With over 20 active members it is

astounding to see the number of people that show up to help with manufacturing, assembly, and

testing of the vehicle. This project was more than a learning experience for the senior design team

members. It involved teaching others new skills that they can use in their future projects and

reaching out to younger students in the community. Through the Eco Engineering Club, seven (7)

Engineers on Wheels visits were successfully completed. The process that went into designing and

developing this vehicle was explained local middle and high school students. Some were interested

in STEM already, others had never considered a future in STEM. The ability to be able to reach

out to a future generation of engineers and show them the endless possibilities that exist in

engineering is priceless.

10.3 Future Work

The battery electric car developed will be left for the use of the members of the Eco

Engineering Club at FIU. The vehicle can be optimized further for future competitions or other

endeavors. Optimizations can include an electrical steering system, regenerative braking, and

addition of solar panels as a secondary source of alternative energy. Other changes can be made to

the vehicle such as converting the energy system from battery electric to hydrogen fuel cell.

Whatever route is chosen one thing is certain, the vehicle generated from this endeavor can be

passed on to others for further engineering and learning.

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11. References

1. Eco-Marathon, Shell. “2016 Official Rules Chapter I.” Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 Official

Rules. Shell Global, 2016. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

2. Lucena, Samuel E. De. "A Survey on Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Technology." Electric Vehicles: The Benefits and Barriers. N.p., 2011. Web. 20 Dec. 2015.

3. Christian, Hanke. "Socio-Economic Aspects of Electric Vehicles: A Literature Review."

Evolutionary Paths towards the Mobility Patterns of the Future Lecture Notes in Mobility.

N.p., 2013. Web. 20 Dec. 2015

4. "Standards Catalogue: ICS 43.120: Electric Road Vehicles." International Organization for

Standardization. ISO, 2016. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

5. "Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy 6061-T6 Standard Structural Profiles."

USAEC-RDT Standards. ASTM, 2010. Web. 20 Dec. 2015.

6. "How Relays Work - Relay Diagrams and Relay Definitions." How Relays Work. N.p., n.d.

Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

7. "Lexan 9030 Product Datasheet." Theplasticshop.co.uk. GE, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2016.

8. "Factor of Safety FOS Review." FOS Review. Engineers Edge, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2016.

9. "A36 Steel." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.

10. "Regenerative Brake." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

11. "NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers." Code of Ethics. NSPE, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

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12. Appendices

12.1 Appendix A – Engineering Drawings

Midsection of Body

Rear of Body

Front of Body

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Overall Dimensions of Body

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12.2 Appendix B – User’s Manual

12.2.1 User’s Manual in English

General Information

The body of the vehicle was made utilizing fiber glass. This carbon composite was used

due to its low cost and favorable material specifications. This material allowed for a lightweight

vehicle that would securely encompass all components to include the aluminum chassis. Although

carbon fiber would have been another feasible alternative, fiber glass was chosen instead due to

its low cost when compared to carbon fiber. The chassis was developed utilizing 6061 aluminum

capable of withstanding at least 700 N of force while still being able to maintain a lightweight yet

secure design.

Vehicle Description

The first priority is driver safety. All components were designed with this in mind. As such,

the vehicle was equipped with hydraulic front and rear brakes. The vehicle was capable of stopping

utilizing either braking system or both at the same time. The vehicle design consists of a 3 wheel

design; 2 wheels for the front and 1 for the rear. The vehicle is equipped with a mechanical steering

system similar to that which can be found in go karts. The general dimensions of the vehicle and

other specifications are as follows:

Length: 104 inches

Width: 39.25 inches

Height: 37 inches

Front Tire size: 20 inches

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Rear Tire Size: 26 inches

Motor and Specs:

DC Brushless Electric Bike Motor

Power: 1000 W

Voltage: 48 V

Battery and Specs:

Lithium Ion Battery

Voltage: 48 V

Current: 20 Amps

Vehicle Design

The body of the vehicle was designed utilizing SolidWorks. All of the rules and regulations

given by Shell were adhered to in designing a competition ready vehicle that would not be

disqualified. The vehicle body was designed large enough to be able to comfortably and safely

hold 1 person as well as all of the other vehicle components while still staying within the

competition design constraints. Vehicle components include: aluminum chassis, 5 point safety

harness, LiPo battery, rear and front wheels, seat, horns, steering system, and microcontroller. In

addition, windows were added to the vehicle body so that the driver would have visibility of 180

degrees. These windows are made of a polycarbonate (Lexan) material due to its ability to

withstand loads and not break into sharp shards when damaged.

Body Manufacturing

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The vehicle body was manufactured by first making a Styrofoam mold. This mold was

created utilizing a hot wire technique that involves cutting layers of Styrofoam with a heated

nichrome wire. These layers are then put together with epoxy and sanded down so that it resembles

the desired shape based on the SolidWorks design. After the Styrofoam mold is ready it is covered

in release film where the fiberglass cloths will be laid upon. The fiberglass cloth is cut to size based

on the size of the mold. The first layer is placed on top of the mold and mixed epoxy resin with

hardener is applied to the first layer till the fiberglass material is completely covered. This process

is repeated a second and even third or fourth time to produce a stable outer body structure. Once

the final layer has been finished a layer of release film is placed over the entirety of the mold which

is now covered with fiberglass. The fiberglass was left to cure using a vacuum bagging technique.

The entire mold is placed inside of a vacuum bag. A hose is tightly fit to the bag and attached to a

vacuum line. The mold is left under vacuum overnight. The following day the fiberglass layers

have cured and the structure can be removed from the mold. This process was repeated to achieve

the top and bottom halves of the vehicle body. Once the mold has been removed the sanding

process begins. The sanding process involves starting with a coarse grit and moving up to a finer

grit. This process produces a smooth outer surface that can be painted. Any

Holes that were produced due to excessive sanding were patched with any leftover

fiberglass cloths on the inside of the structure. Once sanding was complete the window openings

as well as the hatch utilized for motor and driver access to the vehicle were cut. Cutting holes into

the fiberglass body caused the structure to weaken. As such, the structure was reinforced by

utilizing aluminum flat bar. The windows were permanently installed using epoxy and the driver

and motor hatch of the vehicle were secured in place by use of aluminum flat bar and velcro.

Battery Electric Motor

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The battery electric motor was an ongoing project in itself. It consisted of purchasing an

adequate microcontroller to program and run the electric bike motor with. This involved coding

the microcontroller. The programming language used was C. As the microcontroller was coded

the motor was tested to ensure that it was operating as intended.

12.2.2 User’s Manual in Spanish

Información General

El cuerpo de el vehículo fue hecho utilizando fibra de vidrio. Este compuesto de carbono

fue utilizado debido a sus características favorables y costo reducido. Éste material permite obtener

un vehículo ligero que puede cubrir seguramente todos los componentes del vehículo, incluyendo

el chasis de aluminio. Aunque la fibra de carbono también hubiese sido una buena alternativa, la

fibra de vidrio fue elegida por su costo reducido en comparación a la fibra de carbono. El chasis

fue hecho utilizando aluminio 6061 con la capacidad de aguantar por lo menos 700 N de fuerza

aún mantienendo un diseño seguro y ligero.

Descripción de el Vehículo

La primera prioridad es el bienestar del chofer. Todos los componentes del vehículo fueron

diseñado con esto en mente. Como tal, el vehículo fue equipado con frenos hidráulicos para la

parte delantera y la parte trasera. El vehículo es capaz de parar utilizando los frenos de alante o los

de atrás y también utilizando ambos juntos. El vehículo consiste de un diseño de 3 ruedas; 2 ruedas

delanteras y una rueda trasera. El vehículo está equipado con un sistema de dirección mecánica

como las que se encuentran en los carros tipo "go kart". Las dimensiones generales del vehículos

y otras especificaciones son las siguientes:

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Longitud: 104 pulgadas

Anchura: 39.25 pulgadas

Altura: 37 pulgadas

Tamaño de Gomas Delanteras: 20 pulgadas

Tamaño de Goma Trasera: 26 pulgadas

Motor y Especificaciones:

Motor de Bicicleta Eléctrica (DC) sin Escobillas

Poder: 1000 vatios

Voltaje: 48 voltios

Batería y Especificaciones:

Batería de Iones de Litio

Voltaje: 48 voltios

Corriente: 20 amperios

Diseño de el Vehículo

El cuerpo de el vehículo fue diseñado utilizando SolidWorks. Todas las reglas y

regulaciones que fueron dadas por Shell fueron cumplidas en el proceso de diseñar un vehículo

que estuviera listo para competir sin riesgo de ser descalificado. El cuerpo de el vehículo fue

diseñado lo suficientemente grande para que todos los componentes cupieran y que una persona

pudiera conducir seguro(a) y cómodamente. Los componentes de el vehículo incluyen: chasis de

aluminio, cinturón de seguridad de 5 puntos, batería, asiento, sistema de conducir, y un

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microcontrolador. En adición, las ventanas fueron agregadas al cuerpo de el vehículo para que el

chofer tuviera una visibilidad de 180 grados. Estas ventanas fueron elegidas de un material

conocido como policarbonato (Lexan) por su habilidad de resistir carga y cuando se rompe no se

rompe en pedazos agudos.

Fabricación de el Cuerpo

El cuerpo de el vehículo fue fabricado primero haciendo un molde de espuma de

poliestireno. El molde fue creado utilizando una técnica de alambre caliente. Esta técnica involucra

cortar piezas de el poliestireno con un alambre de nicromo caliente. Las piezas después se unen

con epoxy y se le da lija para darle la forma adecuada al molde basado en el diseño de SolidWorks.

Después que el molde esté listo se cubre con un plástico ensima del cual se le aplica las fibras de

vidrio. La fibra de vidrio se corta al tamaño adecuado basado en el tamaño de el molde. Se le pone

la primera capa al molde y la resina mezclada se le aplica hasta que el material esté completamente

cubierto. Éste proceso se repite de dos a tres veces más, aún hasta cuatro veces si es necesario,

para producir una estructura estable para el cuerpo de el vehículo. Cuando la última capa se haya

terminado se le aplica una capa de plástico que cubre el molde completo. El molde con las capas

de fibra de vidrio se deja bajo aspiración hasta que endurezca. Para lograr esto el molde completo

se pone dentro de una bolsa de plástico a la cual se le adhiere una manguera que va conectada a la

aspiradora. El molde se deja bajo aspiración hasta el siguiente día. Al siguiente día las capas de

fibra de vidrio han endurecido y la estructura se puede quitar de el molde. Este procesó fue repetido

para adquirir la parte de arriba y de abajo de el Cuerpo de el vehículo. Cuando la estructura se

quita de el molde se le puede empezar a dar lija. Se le empieza a dar lija con lija de papel gruesa y

progresando a una lija de papel mas fina. Este proceso produce una superficie exterior ideal para

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pintar. Cualquier hueco que se haya producido por causa de lijar demasiado un área se tapó con un

parche de fibra de vidrio en la parte de adentro de la estructura. Cuando se terminó de dar lija se

le cortaron las aperturas para las ventanas, para acceso al motor, y para acceso de entrada y salida

del chofer. Haberle cortado huecos causó que la estructura de el vehículo se debilitara. Como tal,

piezas de aluminio fueron utilizadas para reforzar la estructura. Las ventanas fueron instaladas

permanentemente utilizando epoxy y las puertas de acceso al vehículo y al motor fueron

aseguradas utilizando aluminio y velcro.

Motor de Batería Eléctrico

El motor de batería eléctrico por si solo fue un projecto constante. Consistió de comprar un

microcontrolador adecuado para programarlo y poder correr el motor electrico con el. Esto

involucró tener que codificar el microcontrolador. Este se programó utilizando el lenguaje C.

Cuando se terminaba de programar el microcontrolador se probaba el motor para asegurarse que

este funccionando como es debido.

12.2.3 User’s Manual in Dutch

Gebruikers Aanwijzingen

Algemene informatie

De carrosserie van het voertuig was gemaakt uit glasvezel. Deze koolstof composiet werd

gebruikt vanwege de lage kosten en gunstige materiaalspecificaties. Dit materiaal resulteerde

in een lichtgewicht voertuig die veilig alle componenten zou omvatten, waaronder het aluminium

chassis. Hoewel koolstofvezel een bruikbaar alternatief zou zijn geweest, was glasvezel in plaats

gekozen vanwege de lage kosten in vergelijking met koolstofvezel. Het chassis is ontwikkeld met

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behulp van 6061 aluminium die in staat is om een lichtgewicht maar toch veilig ontwerp te

behouden onder ten minste 700 N van geweld.

Omschrijving van het voertuig

De eerste prioriteit is veiligheid van de bestuurder. Alle componenten zijn ontworpen met

dit in gedachten. Daarom is het voertuig uitgerust met hydraulische voor en achter remmen. Het

voertuig kon tot stilstand komen door gebruik te maken van de remmen in het individueel of beiden

tegelijkertijd. Het ontwerp bestaat uit een 3-wiel ontwerp; 2 wielen vooraan en 1 voor de

achterzijde. Het voertuig is uitgerust met een mechanische besturing systeem vergelijkbaar met

die van go karts. De algemene afmetingen van het voertuig en andere specificaties zijn als volgt:

Lengte: 104 duim

Breedte: 39.25 duim

Hoogte: 37 duim

Maat voorbanden: 20 duim

Bandenmaat achter: 26 duim

Motor en Specificaties:

DC borstelloze elektrische fiets Motor

Vermogen: 1000 W

Voltage: 48 V

Accu en specificaties:

Lithium Ion batterij

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Voltage: 48 V

Ampèrage: 20 Ampère

Voertuig Ontwerp

De carrosserie van het voertuig is ontworpen met behulp van SolidWorks. Alle regels en

voorschriften van Shell werden nageleefd in het ontwerpen van een wedstrijd klaar voertuig die

niet zou worden gediskwalificeerd. De carrosserie is ontworpen om groot genoeg te zijn om 1

persoon en alle andere componenten te omvatten, rekening houdend met de voorschriften voor het

ontwerp. Voertuigonderdelen omvat: aluminium chassis, 5 punt veiligheidsgordel, LiPo batterij,

achter- en voorwielen, stoel, tuuter, stuurinrichting, en microcontroller. Daarnaast werden ramen

toegevoegd aan het voertuiglichaam, zodat de bestuurder zicht van 180 graden heeft. Deze ramen

zijn gemaakt uit een polycarbonaat (Lexaan) materiaal vanwege het vermogen om ladingen te

weerstaan en niet te breken in scherpe scherven bij beschadiging.

Carrosserie Fabricage

De carrosserie is vervaardigd door eerst een piepschuim mal te vormen. Deze vorm werd

gemaakt met behulp van een hete draad techniek waar lagen piepschuim worden gesneden met een

verwarmde nichroom draad. Deze lagen worden vervolgens in elkaar gezet met epoxy en

geschuurd zodat het de gewenste vorm op de SolidWorks ontwerp lijkt. Na de piepschuim mal

klaar is, wordt het bedekt met film waarop de glasvezel doeken zullen worden gelegd. De

glasvezeldoek wordt op maat gesneden op basis van de grootte van de mal. De eerste laag wordt

bovenop de mal geplaatst en gemengd met epoxyhars wordt toegepast op de eerste laag tot de

glasvezelmateriaal geheel is bedekt. Dit proces wordt een tweede of zelfs derde of vierde keer

herhaald om een stabiele omhulsel te creëren. Zodra de laatste laag is afgewerkt, wordt een

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afgiftelaag over het geheel van de mal geplaatst die nu bedekt is met glasvezel. De glasvezel werd

verhard met een vacuümtechniek. De gehele mal wordt geplaatst in een vacuümzak. Een slang

wordt strak aangesloten aan de zak en verbonden met een vacuümleiding. De mal wordt voor een

avond gelaten onder vacuüm. De volgende dag is de glasvezel uitgehard en de structuur kan

worden verwijderd. Deze werkwijze werd herhaald om de bovenste en onderste helften van de

voertuigcarrosserie te realiseren. Zodra de mal is verwijderd kan het schuurproces beginnen. Het

schuurproces begint met grove zandpapier en wekt naar een steeds fijner zandpapier toe. Dit proces

levert een glad buitenoppervlak waarop kan worden geverfd.

Gaten die zijn geproduceerd door overmatig schuren werden opgelapt met overgebleven

glasvezel doeken aan de binnenzijde van het structuur. Zodra schuren was voltooid werden de

raamopeningen en het luik, gebruikt voor motor en bestuurder toegang, gesneden. Snijden van

gaten in het glasvezel lichaam veroorzaakt een verzwakking van het structuur. Als zodanig werd

het structuur versterkt door het gebruik van aluminium platen. De ramen waren permanent

geïnstalleerd met behulp van epoxy en de bestuurder en de motor luik van het voertuig werden in

plaats gehouden door het gebruik van aluminium platen en klittenband.

Elektrische Motor

De motor was een lopend project op zich. Het bestond uit de aankoop van een adequate

microcontroller om te programmeren en de motor mee te draaien. Dit omvat het coderen van de

microcontroller. De programmeertaal was C. Terwijl de microcontroller gecodeerd werd, werd de

motor getest om te verzekeren dat het werkte zoals gepland.

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12.3 Appendix D – Detailed Raw Calculations and Analysis

Figure 65: Force of Motor vs. Required Force

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12.4 Appendix E – Project Photo Album

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