Técnica de Anderson

© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

Técnica de Anderson

© All Rights Reserved

- Why Square the Difference Instead of Taking the Absolute Value in Standard Deviation
- Design of Experiments
- 1-PROBABILITY THEORY
- Diffusion.gaussian.kernel
- Barbell Strategy by Nassim N. Taleb
- knn (3)
- Portfolio Design
- 203_2011_2_e
- Statistics Review
- Climate Normalsccl Mg 2011 Doc 10 Climatenormals1
- ch8_all_2nd
- I PT
- PM Pains
- Sampling
- Anderson Darling Test
- Democracy Uplift
- 2009-10-10_074007_Probability
- 8Power Comparisons
- 6Goodness of Fit Tests
- 2611-3504-1-PB

Anda di halaman 1dari 23

mmmmwmm

SUäFGRB,

BY

MICHAEL A. STEPHENS

OCTOBER 31, 1979

DAAG29-77-G-0031

FOR THE U.S. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE

for any purpose of the United States Government

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

STANFORD, CALIFORNIA

THE ANDERSON-DARLING STATISTIC

By

Michael A. Stephens

For the U.S. Army Research Office

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

STANFORD, CALIFORNIA

(NR-0U2-267) and issued as Technical Report No. 278.

The findings in this report are not to

be construed as an official Department

of the Army position, unless so

designated by other authorized documents.

THE AM3ERS0N-DARLING STATISTIC

1. Introduction.

The Anderson Darling Statistic is a member of the group of

entering into the distribution function. Thus for the normal distribution,

n^ ' n '

where the n values x,, xp, ..., x are assumed to be a random sample

l (iy \2y (ja.)

in ascending order. F (x) is then defined by

F (x) = 0 , x < x

n (1)

n (i) (i+l)

F (x) = 1 , x < X .

n (n)

Since F (x) gives the proportion of a random sample < x , one might expect

n

it to give a good estimate of F(x;ö), which is the probability of X less

natural to test whether the sample appears to come from F(xje) by using

Many statistics of this type have been proposed, the most famous, and

squared integral of the difference between the EDF and the distribution

tested:

J-c

n

member of W is the Cramer-von Mises statistic itself, W with

\|r(x) = 1.

The Anderson Darling statistic, the subject of this article, is

W with

\|r(x) = [{F(xje)}{l-F(x)e)}]_1

in the tail than do most of the EDF statistics. Since tests of fit are often

good power properties over a wide range of alternative distributions when

2. Computing Formula,

n

p

£ = -{ £ (2i-l)[ln z1 + ln(l-zn+1_i)]}/n-n . (2)

i=l

Note that since the x,. v are in ascending order, the z. will

The formula for z. above assumes that the tested distribution F(x;0)

2

this is the case we describe the situation as Case 0. The statistic A

was introduced by Anderson and Darling (1952, 195*0* and for Case 0 they

2

testxng purposes the upper tail of A will be used; large discrepancies

between the EDF and the tested distribution will indicate a bad fit.

sample sizes greater than 5« A table of percentage points is given in

2

Table 1. To make the goodness of fit test, A is calculated as in

the null hypotheses that random variable X has the distribution F(x;0)

2

is rejected at level a if A exceeds the appropriate percentage

2

The distribution of A for Case 0 is the same for all distributions

at step (a) and the values of z. are ordered values from a uniform distri-

2

bution with limits 0 and 1. A is therefore a function of ordered

special case can be found from the asymptotic theory of the EDF, or more

yn(z) =./n(Fn(z)-z) ,

modern treatment of the empirical process given by y (z) aee Durbin (1973a,

1973b). When 0 contains unknown components, the z. given by the transfor-

A

nation (a) above, when an estimate 0 replaces 0, will not be ordered uniform

2

random variables and the distribution theory of A , as for all other

2

distribution of A , and of other EDF statistics, will depend on n and

Fortunately, an important simplification occurs if unknown components

the distribution tested, but not on the specific values of the unknown

parameters. Thus for the test for the normal distribution, for example,

2

with unknown \x and cr , only one set of tables would be needed, of

2

to calculate the asymptotic theory for A and other EDF statistics,

and this has been done for the normal case and the exponential case by

Stephens (197^ 1976) and Durbin, Knott and Taylor (1975). Stephens,

these are functions of the statistic and of n which can be used with

only the asymptotic percentage points. Thus only one line of percent-

age points is needed to make the test. The technique is set out

below. Stephens (1977.? 1978) has also done similar distribution theory

to provide tests for the extreme value distribution (these can be used

for the Weibull distribution also) and for the logistic distribution.

Pettitt and Stephens (1976) have given tests for the Gamma distribution

with unknown scale parameter but known shape parameter. From all these

applies to A •

scale parameter.

5

maximum likelihood, for the modifications and asymptotic theory to hold.

estimated as above. The steps continue as follows:

A .

(a) Calculate z. = F(x,. y,d), i = l,...,n .

2

(b) Calculate A from the formula (2) above.

2

(c) Modify A by the formula in the appropriate table below, and

compare with the line of percentage points given.

It is worthwhile to set forth the practical details of these calcula-

tions, for each distribution separately.

6.1. Tests for the normal distribution. We here distinguish three cases:

_ 2

Case 1; The mean p. is unknown and is estimated by x, but cr is knownj

2 2 2

Case 2: The mean \i is known, and cr is estimated by Z. (x.-p.) /n(= s,, say);

Case 3'- Both parameters are unknown and are estimated by x and

2 — 2

s = L. (x. -x) /(n-l).

w. is found from

l

X / . \ —X X / . \ —p. X /. \ —X

w. = _iii— (vCaSe i).

/? w. = -A2J— (case

v 2): w. = -^d— v(Case 3);

1 cr 1 S^ " 1 S "

to the value w., found from tables or computer routines. The value of

2

A is then calculated as described in Section 2. To make the test use the

modification and percentage points given in Table 2, for the appropriate case.

Illustration. The following value of men's weights in pounds, first

of a test for normality: lk6, 15k, 158, l60, l6l, 162, 166, 170, 182,

195^ 236. The mean is 172 and the standard deviation 21K 95« For a test

for normality (Case 3), the values of w. begin w = (1^+8-172)/2^. 95 =

-O.962, and the corresponding z.. is, from tables,

0.168. When all

2

the z. have been found, the formula in Section 2 gives A = 0.9^7-

Now to make the test, the modification in Table 2 first gives

when this value is compared with the percentage points in Table 2, for Case 3>

the sample is seen to be significant at approximately the 1 percent level.

A

unknown positive constant. Maximum likelihood gives ß = x, so that z.

o

are found from z. = l-exp(-X/. \/x), i = l,...,n. A is calculated as

is compared with the percentage points in Table 3.

For the more general exponential distribution given by

F(x) = l-exp(-(x-Qi)/ß), x > OL} when both a and ß are unknown, a

situation to the case just described above. The distribution

y,. \ = x(-+-i \~x(-> ) is made, for i = 1,... ,n-lj the n-1 values

are

of Y(• \ then used to test that they come from Exp(yjß) as

7

6.3. Tests for the extreme value distribution. The distribution tested

a

Case 3: and ß are both unknown, and must be estimated.

equations:

ü d •*• d d d d d d

A A

Case 1, ß is known; then ß replaced ß in a. In case 2, oc is

ß = {£ y -Z y exp(-y /ß)}/n .

d d J J d

2

These are then used in F(x;0) to give z. and hence A . The

given in Table k.

6.h. Tests for the Weibull distribution. The distribution tested, in its

F(xje) = l-exp[-C(x^)/ß}7], (x>a), (3)

>-->>n-

step (a)) from the extreme value distribution with two unknown parameters,

with scale parameter ß' now known (Case 1 of Section 6.3); i'f Q! and

Section 6.3)

(Stephens, 1979):

9

Maximum likelihood estimates are given for Case 3 by the equations:

E ( )( J ) =

i ^"

ß T7 ^?s

l + exp{(Xi-a)/ß} "n

A

is needed, with ß replacing ß, and in Case 2 only the second

.A. A A A

z. = F[x,.y6)t the estimates a and ß are used in 0 as necessary,

2

and A is calculated from the formula (2). The modification to

6.6. Tests for the Gamma distribution with known shape parameter.

A. _ _

then estimated by ß = m/x, where x is the sample mean. Estimated

, A A A.

density f(mje) is f(mje) above with ß replaceing ß, and F(x;0)

zi are calculated from z. = F(x/. y6), and A calculated as in Section 2.

The modified form A , and tables of percentage points for A , are given

10

7. Power of the Anderson-Darling Statistic.

2

statistic A gives weight to observations in the tails of the

2

effect of giving less importance to these observations. A can

studies have been made, for example, on tests for the uniform distri-

l

k k

considered has distribution function F(x) = x or F(x) = l-(l-x) ,

0 < x < 1 with k > 0. These distributions produce points which are

the minimum valueat 0.5 and high values in either tail. There is

the EDF class are more suitable for alternatives which produce a cluster

11

to the EDF of the sample, and the z. values of Section 2 are super-

uniform i.e., more regular than a genuine uniform sample. Even with an

are for the Case 0 situation) see, e.g., tests for normality reported

2

observations in the tails, A appears overall to be an effective EDF

statistics also devised for testing for special distributions, e.g. the

(Shapiro and Wilk, 1965, 1972; Stephens, 197*+^ 1978). The statistic

2

A has the merit of being easy to calculate, and, using the modifica-

tions, easy to apply with only one line of percentage points for each

test situation.

8. Related Topics.

This article has been concerned with the use of A for testing

tables from which one can obtain the significance level p., i = l,...,k,

Pettitt (1976) has also given a two sample version of the Anderson-

Darling statistic; like the two sample versions of other EBF statistics,

comparisons with other two sample rank tests, which show that A

13

REFERENCES

Soc. A, 156-161.

variances. Unpublished.

Ik

Quesenberry, C. P. and Miller, F. L. (1977)- Power studies of some

15

UA

CM J- -=j- r^i -=t"

O v.o ir\ CO IOJ

o o\ ON OJ LT\

-H- CM

vo ^t ON -=fr

o ir\ CM Lf\ -=f

o C— l-O, H CM

roj H OJ

a •

o cu <;

•H OJ

•

H OJ o\

-p H LT\ o ce

CJ VD O CO c— O ON

c CU cu

CQ m ß CQ .H

£ O Ö

O •\ •H ° r!

H ''~*N -P H

H o Ü O CO

O

cu

CU

cu

OJ C- CO 5* as a

CH CQ O O CM CO 00 CJ K

CQ H 0

CQ nj •\ H OJ

CO O ß

•Ö P

CQ o Q »H

-P

ca

CU

-P

ß

G

-P

?!

1

ß

pi

P

cu

o

!H

LOi

o

OJ

OJ

CO"

O

CO

o

OJ

9

OJ

IfN

H

OJ

KN

a ?

o ti

a cu

CQ

fH fH CU

O •H CU ft

<H ?H -p CU cu

-P <u H OJ -P ,a

CQ

-P

CQ Ö

•d

o ON

ON

CO

5> CQ

cu ü

ß

•H

3 äft

H

H

O

H

-P a

CJ

•

a cu

•H

H

• CU

cu

Ö

o

•rl

Ö

CU

CD o OJ O H VO -P f>

KA

•H

Ü ß

•aÜ H

H CO

5> LT\

P3

^2

•H

-P CD o CQ •H

•Ö ß ft •H ?H CQ

ß cu CQ -P «\

CO Ü Ü !» CQ Ö

fc >? CU -p •H

CM cu H CQ •H O

ft a)

»\

O O H ft

•N -p •d OJ CO

H H cu

H

>>

•P

•H

-P

•d

CQ •a &

a

•H ß

O 4J

3 -p

o •d

CU

o

_H/ OJ

t~-

CM

c-

vo

KN

Ö Ö

5

EH

(1)

ft

Ü

t>3

gQ ft

XI

Lf\

OJ

-=J-

MD

• o• -* t-

OJ

•» o

CU

?H

& Clf a CU H cu

pi a fH u

•tf ft

•Ö fH o o ^—s

a cu

o <H =H OJ_

a <H

CQ CQ

Ö

+3 -P -P ir\ CQ

* CQ CQ CQ OJ CU .

< CU CU CU CQ "Ö

EH EH EH CM CO CU

* + O P

CQ < Ö CO •

^

"^-^_ CM ^ o

H OJ ro •tf IT\ Ol

(U t~ KA CU u

cS CU CU cu •H LT\ m A

H H H

?o ?O ^ a

-Ö rQ ,g •9 •rl Al CO o ß

0) CO CO CO TJ EH

•H EH EH EH ß « fi

<H £ O O

rA, r4 U 0) ?H

O CU o

H H H w. ^J^-. pti ,£! <*H

CU cu < <

•d II II

fH CU cu CU

O CU cu *-. *- •P

fe CQ CQ <ci < o

s

H OJ K>

0 CU CU

cu

CQ

a

o

CQ

co

o

8

H ü

-9

a o• a • •

EH a H OJ ir\

16

LTN -4

CJ NA

O UA

o •

• 0J

u~\ -4 O co o

o -4 H O H

o OJ C- NA o•

• • * •

OJ H -4 H

OA O 00 UA UA MD

H LT\ -4 NA O co

o OA VD O LTN MD &A

H NA H H NA

ö

CU UA H -4 t- H O OA

> CJ

o

OA LTN >- -4 co MD

CU UA CO CO OJ co t—

• a • • • • •

H OJ O H OJ

-p

UA

H t- t- MD o O

O NA Ö OJ t- UA -4 CDA MD

<4H CD o NA OJ t— O OJ MD

VD CJ

tQ fH H 0J O H OJ

CÖ a CD

o Pn

CQ •ri

P -p VD H OJ UA c- N- LTN NA

03 O •rl o O OJ NA UA OJ MD

0> CD Ö CÖ H

• O t— MD C0 D- UA

-P CO o •P • B * • • •

•H H H o H

?H -P PH

O Ö CJ 0)

<fH o 0) PH

•H co MD

CQ •P UA H

-P H OA

Ö Ö

•H •H o

a -P

CQ

•H

-P

CD •H .o MD

•H o H

SP

-p

PH

•P

CJ CO

a 2 CQ

•ö a> •H

CJ T3

PH MD O -4 ÜA NA MD

CD CJ UA NA MD C— H -4" 0J

-4- OJ t— O -4 MD O -4

PH CD

a0)

•H

• •

CQ H

•H

•P

CQ H d H

Ei cö P

O

-P

H ^

U O

Cü CD CD

P4 .0 H

-P -P

^ a

fn ?H MD

O O

<H •+H d

cö

CQ CQ

*< 's" "ö

-P

CQ

•P

CQ CD

"cT

""--^ ^ ÜA 00 ITA

fO H OJ

CU

EH

CD

EH •<d OJ

H

1

CQ

•H

?o ¥o ?

o

?

o

-4 £ ^rH

•

rH H^

1

MD

O

_H

•

0)

H H

CU

OJ

<

0J _

<

OJ

<d

d OJ _

<

0) •§ •3 II

•H EH EH II CD II II II

4H Ö

•H * O * * *^ *-.

<! s < < < «J

5

H OJ NA H OJ NA

CU tu CD CU CD CD

M CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ

CÖ CÖ CÖ cö cö CÖ

O o O o o O

•

• -4 UA

s

17

CD

-P

0)

äft

Ö

0) H KN CO C- OJ LTN KN CO o OJ H

H H LTN CO -4" OJ H o\ CO t— >- r-; LTN

•d <L)

> O D— VO VO VO VO LfA LTN LTN LTN LTN LTN

o d) H H H H

ra H rH H H H H H

H

0 0)

3= KN M Ox VO OJ J- O -Jr CO H

o CO

LT\

OJ

H

-=± CO

OJ

VO

LTV

KN OJ rH H O ON CO

0) -=*•

O -=t KN KN KN NA KN KN KN KN OJ OJ

Ö

H

•sd) • 9 • «

pi •EHs o H H H H H H H H H rH H

ö 0>

ft OJ H ON O O KN O VO H ON

CO 0) KN

W LTN H £— LT\ KN KN OJ H H O O co

H O OJ H H H H H H H H H o

•d H H H H H H H H H H H

-p

-p

•H ?H

d>

-P •d 0)

ft o

ON

CO

ON

LT\

-H- LT\ CO

OJ

ON LTN

H

H CO LTN

SO

ON

tu •H

ON ON 0\ &N ON ON & SN CO

VQ H ON ON

-£0)

Ö

ft o

ft

0) X

Q)

&

JH

w O

<iH

Ö

-P

W OJ KN -=3- vo CO o OJ O

OJ

g 0)

-p

H H

•H H

£ KN

Ö

O VO O

•H

-P VO

o Pi fH OJ OJ

X> Ö o

•H O Al o

^ •H 0)

0) -P •H a

•H CO

•H

O

d> d) •H H

+

•p

CO

3 OJ ..

I o

18

UNCLASSIFIED

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OP THIS PAGE (Whan Data Entered)

READ

REPORTi DOCUMENTATION

rccrure wuv-umcn i A nun PAGE

r«uc ~~T INSTRUCTIONS

BEFORE COMPLETING FORM

1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER

39

4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5- TYPE OF REPORT ft PERIOD COVERED

6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

9- PERFORM!»a 2SG.4NIZAT10N NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK

AREA 0. WORK UNIT NUMBERS

Department of Statistics P-IMJ:35_M

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 9!+3Q5

11. CONTROLLiNÜ omCZ NAME AND ADDRESS «2. REPORT DATE

U. S. Army Research Office OCTOBER 31, 1979

Post Office Box 12211 13. NUMBER OF PACES

Research Triansle Park. NC 2770Q 18

1*. MONITC??>-*G A-3SNCY NAME a AOORESSfi< dl tier eat tram Conteolllnt Otltce) IS. SECURITY CLASS, (ot thla report)

UNCLASSIFIED

IS«. OECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING

SCHEDULE

17. 0ISTR13U~!0* STATEMENT (ot the abstract entered In Block 20, It dtlterent from Report)

The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department

of the Army position, unless so designated by other authorized documents.

This report partially supported under Office of Naval Research Contract

N0001^-76-C-Ol+75 (NR-0U2-267) and issued as Technical Report No. 278.

19. KEY WORDS (Ccntbxie on tarerae alia it neceeaary and Identity by block number)

Goodness-of-Fit.

20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide it naceeemry and identity by block number)

S/N 0102- LF-054-660!

UNCLASSIFIED

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whan Data Bntarad)

UNCLASSIFIED

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whan Data Bntared)

BY

Michael A. Stephens

ABSTRACT

2

The Anderson-Darling statistic A is a goodness-of-fit statistic,

2

parameters must be estimated from the data. Furthermore, A can be

easily adapted so that only the asymptotic points are needed for testing

2

purposes. A also is easy to calculate, and has overall good power

2

properties. The report gives a review of A and tables for testing

and Weibull, and logisticj points are given also for testing any completely

#278/#.39

UNCLASSIFIED

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEfWften Data Enlerad)

- Why Square the Difference Instead of Taking the Absolute Value in Standard DeviationDiunggah olehIsrael Anido
- Design of ExperimentsDiunggah olehAnand Pratik
- 1-PROBABILITY THEORYDiunggah olehfazrenkamarudin
- Diffusion.gaussian.kernelDiunggah olehStefan R. Falk
- Barbell Strategy by Nassim N. TalebDiunggah olehAlex Miroshnychenko
- knn (3)Diunggah olehRadha Raman
- Portfolio DesignDiunggah olehSatish Kumar
- 203_2011_2_eDiunggah olehTshephang Marakalala
- Statistics ReviewDiunggah olehwintercold
- Climate Normalsccl Mg 2011 Doc 10 Climatenormals1Diunggah olehIvan Avramov
- ch8_all_2ndDiunggah olehAbd El-Hai Mohammed
- I PTDiunggah olehAnupam Saxena
- PM PainsDiunggah olehChocoChip
- SamplingDiunggah olehVinit Shah
- Anderson Darling TestDiunggah olehRMolina65
- Democracy UpliftDiunggah olehkhayat
- 2009-10-10_074007_ProbabilityDiunggah olehAthar Rizwan
- 8Power ComparisonsDiunggah olehProfesor Jorge
- 6Goodness of Fit TestsDiunggah olehProfesor Jorge
- 2611-3504-1-PBDiunggah olehIvan Espinoza Huamani
- Practical Geostatistics 2000Diunggah olehNguyễnĐứcNgọc
- Import and ExportDiunggah olehGobindKumar
- Engineering Probability and Statistics EstimationDiunggah olehCorazon Francisco Austria
- 15CN01 2Diunggah olehsaran
- AnswerDiunggah olehbettyggg
- Learning Spreadsheet Miller Chapter 2Diunggah olehMuhammad Asad
- LEAN SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT CHEAT SHEET.pdfDiunggah olehppaba30
- 5. IJAMSS- Estimation in the MultivariateonDiunggah olehiaset123
- A_DTestDiunggah olehjcamero
- Probability and StatisticsDiunggah olehrex

- E2412Diunggah olehthepadrino
- Mat_alumn_¿Cómo Ingreso a Una Videoconferencia Webex_.PptxDiunggah olehEver Saavedra
- LIMSDiunggah olehShamim Sarwar Pappu
- ATL_DeterminingFAMEinDiesel.pdfDiunggah olehthepadrino
- Highest Technology UsDiunggah olehthepadrino
- MM 449Diunggah olehthepadrino
- D95.pdfDiunggah olehthepadrino
- D7412Diunggah olehthepadrino
- D7596Diunggah olehthepadrino
- D7418Diunggah olehthepadrino
- Cmrp GuideDiunggah olehAli Hassan
- D95Diunggah olehthepadrino
- Cargadores de Ruedas Cat Specalog 992k Wheel LoaderDiunggah olehthepadrino
- FL356 Rev C FluidScan Q1100 Operator's GuideDiunggah olehthepadrino
- PV3010 V1.5 SpectroVisc Q3000 Series User's Guide TraducidoDiunggah olehthepadrino
- AK Grammar SelfcheckDiunggah olehthepadrino
- Oil Analysis TablesDiunggah olehthepadrino
- 4406_ParticulateFilter_ISO4406Diunggah olehthepadrino
- OkCNR IqgQK lPwsU 108SA 3 Pressure Relief ValveDiunggah olehthepadrino

- Inside the Mind of the SearcherDiunggah olehteilhard7
- China Pharmaceutical Regulation (3)Diunggah olehAccessChina
- Efficiency of Decision Trees in Predicting Student's Academic PerformanceDiunggah olehCS & IT
- PYC 2. the Process of Stress p. 327-333Diunggah olehektha_nankoomar91
- shakespeare lessonDiunggah olehapi-277300015
- Project Report Hero Moto CorpDiunggah olehJaswinder Singh
- Gusset PlatesDiunggah olehJason Garner
- CIPP bookDiunggah olehshamsukarim2009
- Principles of Least SquaresDiunggah olehRodger Millar Munthali
- PHY 442exp1.docxDiunggah olehanizaazmi
- deloitte repex paper without highlightDiunggah olehapi-332273659
- 118020Diunggah olehWael Aboud
- Influences of Science and Technology in SocietyDiunggah olehanreilegarde
- Vertical & Horizontal PermeameterDiunggah olehAdly Al-Saafin
- Potentiometric Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide at MnO2-Doped Carbon Paste ElectrodeDiunggah olehChuquiure L. Angel
- A Question of TrustDiunggah olehChiew Fui Yoon
- Socio Economic, Socio Political and Socio Emotional Variables Explaining School Bullying. a Country Wide Multilevel AnalysisDiunggah olehYairr Javier Rodriguezz
- A Study to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching regarding aerobic exercises and practice to maintain the blood glucose level among diabetes in crescent hospital, Alathur, Palakkad.Diunggah olehInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Personality TheoryDiunggah olehyashovardhan3singh
- Lise Den Brok, To Think to Dream to Do - Conclusion TranslationDiunggah olehlisedenbrok
- Numerical Simulation on the Combined Drawing Technology in Fabrication of Cylindrical Details From Sheet MetalDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- NHD PDFDiunggah olehDylan
- Phasebank 1 - Introducing WorkDiunggah olehAimi Syazana
- Afshari Et AlDiunggah olehTausif Ahmed
- CV KarenNingDiunggah olehNing IC Karen
- TG Filter Company Presentation_EN_2015Diunggah olehigor_sandulenko
- 1-s2.0-S1877705811055627-mainDiunggah olehYitea Seneshaw
- comm 2050 mid paper movieDiunggah olehapi-316637515
- As NZS 4787-2001 Timber - Assessment of Drying QualityDiunggah olehSAI Global - APAC
- CPB Seminar 2006 - P01 IntroductionDiunggah olehVo Haianh

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.