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### Mapúa Institute of Technology

School of Civil Engineering and Environmental and Sanitary Engineering

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING FIELD MANUAL

## FIELD WORK NO. 2 TAPING ON LEVEL AND ON UNEVEN GROUND

Submitted By:

CE120-0F/A1

35. TAMBIS, Mikaella Patrice C.

2015121127

### Group No. 7 Chief of Party: SALAS, Reyna Eclipse

Date of Field Work: April 26, 2018

Date of Submission: May 03, 2018

SUBMITTED TO:

Professor: Engr. Angelique Mijares

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

• 1. What are the different sources of taping errors?

 • Personal Errors. • Temperature • Tension
• 2. Discus the different ways to lessen them or fully eliminate taping errors.

The Surveyors must mark the ground correctly to guide them and to form a

straight and consistent measuring. The weather has a great effect on this field work, be sure to choose an average

temperature. Ask someone to guide you when measuring a distance so that, it will lessen taping errors.

• 3. What is the total length of the course XY if the rear tape-man holds exactly holds 9 pebbles and

3 pins after measuring the course XY? Assume that one tape length is equivalent to 30m.

• 9 pebbles = 9 tallies

• 1 tally = 10

Total number of Tapelengths = 9(10)+3 = 93 Length of course = 93(30) = 2,790 m

CONCLUSION

In surveying, the distance between two points is understood to mean the horizontal distance, regardless of the relative elevation of two points. I learned that taping in a location with leveled and unleveled ground may acquire its distance using the skills of the surveyors and with the use of the tech- equipment. Taping is one of the basics that an engineer should know how to do properly. In our field work, we assumed that our tape meter can only measure a small distance. In order to measure a long distance, we set a mark every time we measure a limited distance. After we reached the point to be measure, we collected all the marks and counted it to identify the measurement. The field work aims to develop our

accuracy and skills in measuring, marking and reading measurements plus the speed in doing it. The second part is also the same but in this part, we assumed that the ground is uneven and we need to use plumb bobs

to get the horizontal distances. The accuracy was tested. It is always important to know if you’re still doing

good always keep in mind thatit must have a good outcome. Even if the ground is uneven, the data should be the same from the first reading. Every individuals must know how to measures distances between, it is necessary to have this knowledge for you to apply this principles in your daily living.

We notice some errors in this field work it’s the tension, personal errors and sagged. Tension, while a certain amount of tension is desirable to help offset the sag effect, it will also stretch the tape. Steel will still stretch to some degree if tension is applied. Personal errors are from incorrect of setting pins, holding and reading the equipment. Lastly the sag, when a tape is suspended from each end and not supported along its length, the weight of the chain causes it to sag and pull the two ends toward each other. I would recommend that when the tape is checked against a known distance; the applied tension should be controlled, personal errors are common but be sure to check the sets of the equipment before recording or setting the pins, lastly sagging, It is impossible to exert enough outward force to fully overcome the sag. For all measurements, adequate tension should be applied to minimize the effective shortening of the tape.

FIELD WORK NO. 2

FINAL DATA SHEET

TAPING ON LEVEL AND ON UNEVEN GROUND

DATE: April 26, 2018 TIME: 12:15PM

GROUP NO.: 7 LOCATION: Intra Walls

 A. TAPING ON LEVEL GROUND WEATHER: Sunny PROFESSOR: Engr. Mijares TRIAL LINE NUMBER OF NUMBER OF PARTIAL COMPUTED MEAN TALLY PINS TAPE DISTANCE DISTANCE LENGTH (M) (M) (M) 1 AB 3 0 30 30.0033 2 BA 3 0 30 3 AB 3 0.1 30.01 C. TAPING ON AN IRREGULAR GROUND TRIAL LINE NUMBER OF NUMBER OF PARTIAL COMPUTED MEAN TALLY PINS TAPE DISTANCE DISTANCE LENGTH (M) (M) (M) 1 AB 3 0 15 14.9933 2 BA 3 0.04 15.04 3 AB 2 4.94 14.94

B. COMPUTATION

Taping on Level Ground

No. of Tallies = 0

No. of Tape Lengths = (No. of Tallies) * 10 + No. of Pins

= 0 * 10 + 3

= 3

Computed Distance = (No. of Tape Lengths) * (Length of One Tape Length) * Partial Length of Tape

 AB = (3*10) + 0 = 30 m BA = (3*10) + 0 = 30 m AB = (3*10) + 0.01 = 30.01 m Mean Distance = 30+30+30.01 = 30.0033 m 3 C. COMPUTATION Taping on an Irregular Ground No. of Tallies = 0 No. of Tape Lengths = (No. of Tallies) * 10 + No. of Pins = 0 * 10 + 3 = 3 Length of Course AB = (No. of Tape Lengths) * (Length of One Tape Length) * Partial Length of Tape AB = (3*5) + 0 = 15 m BA = (3*5) + 0.4 = 15.4 m AB = (2*5) + 4.94 = 14.94 m Mean Distance = 15+15.4+14.94 = 15.1133 m 3
• A. PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATION

• 1. The professor assigns the accessible and unobstructed course to be measured by the student on a level ground by about 300-400paces.

• 2. The Chief of Party marks the end points by a chalk if it is on a pavement or by a 3’’ common wire nail (c.w nail) if it is on soft ground and designates it as end points A and B.

• 3. A range pole man holds the pole vertically and steadily during the entire taping procedure at B to keep the complete taping process aligned and straightened.

• 4. A 10-meter tape is stretched out on the ground on the straight path along A to B where the 0-end is held ahead. (Note: 0-end is nearer B than A). The rear tape man is responsible for giving the signal to the front tape man if his path is straight while the front tapeman is responsible to pull the tape taut once the tape is aligned already.

• 5. The front tapeman gets a pin and sticks it vertically in the ground exactly opposite the 0 meter

mark of tape.

• 6. Rear tapeman holds 1 pin and the rest of the pins (10 pins) are held by front tapeman.

• 7. Both the front and the rear tapeman lift simultaneously the tape and move forward along the line AB to measure the next tape length. By now the rear tape man holds 1 marking pin which signifies one tape length.

• 8. The procedure 4-6 is repeated to complete the next tape length measurement. Make sure that the rear tapeman pulls the pin before lifting the tape to move on the next tape length. The rear tapeman holds 2 marking pins to connote 2 tape lengths have been measured.

• 9. Repeat the same process until all the pins being held by the front tapeman have been used up which signifies one tally (1 tally=10 tape lengths). After a tally has been accomplished, the rear tapeman returns all the 10 pins to the front tapeman to proceed in measuring the length of the course. (it is suggested that the rear tapeman or the recorder tallies in the field computation sheet provided the number of one complete round) Note: One round is when all the ten pins are now being held by the rear tapeman).

• 10. Repeat the same procedure if more than one tally is needed.

• 11. Upon reaching point B the partial length must be measured accurately up to centimeters by the rear tapeman while the front tapeman is holding the 0-mark at B and both of them are holding the tape taut.

• 12. The number of small pebbles in the rear tapeman’s pocket now indicates the number of tallies made and the number of pins in his possession indicates the number of additional tapelenghts. This is recorded in the field computation sheet provided.

• 13. The course is measure back and forth to the complete the number of trials required by the

professor.