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A INTRODUCTION

The industrial sector is the sector that has a role in the national economy, which Carries
the role of> 20% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and Be Leading sectors of national
economy.
The government's attention to the progress of industry sectors contained Perpres
28/2008 on National Industrial Policy (KIN), which makes long-term Objectives Indonesia
tough industrial countries on tahun2025. KIN and RIPIN should be able to answer a wide
range of global challenges including increasing competition in the industrial sector
companies in the era of globalization.

NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Consequently Charged each company to further improve its competitiveness, in various


aspects of supporting; Where the factors that can support the increased competitiveness
is Energy Consumption;
The industrial sector in Indonesia, is committed to efficient use of energy, In the industrial
sector, energy-saving opportunities can be done at a power plant,
and facilities including the existing building on the industry;

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The industrial sector today is a sector that dominates the energy consumption in
Indonesia, where the portion reached 49.4 percent of the total national energy
consumption (Ministry of Energy, 2014). Within the industrial sector itself, there are some
industries are considered the most dense energy use, both of which are used as fuel, or
used as a raw material
Of the many fuel energy used by the industry industry, fuel (diesel fuel), electricity and
coal is a type of fuel that is most widely used. However, recent gas has become a type of
fuel that is increasingly being used by industry. But in getting the gas, the industry still
faces many obstacles in accessing the gas fuel.
Primary energy needs in the textile industry is the electrical energy. Given the electricity
supply to the textile industry currently only about 70 percent of the remaining 30 percent
use their own generator that runs on oil, coal and gas. BAU scenario was calculated with
the energy needs of the textile industry in 2025 amounted to 50.417 GWh. With the
acceleration scenario in which the target meet all the needs of fabric consumption in the
country, then in 2025, 252.955 GWh of energy required. This is because the proportion of
imported fabrics in Indonesia is still around 39 percent, and the growth of domestic fabric
consumption is quite high, at 17 percent per year.
This condition is followed by the population growth rate of 2.3 percent per year, and the
rapid changes of fashion trends. Furthermore, the acceleration scenario with efficiency,
one of the major issues is quite his old production machines used so that the textile
industry is relatively wasteful use of energy. Therefore, the calculation of the acceleration
scenario accompanied by efficiency measures and stressed the urgency to meet domestic
fabric consumption is also important efficiency by restructuring the machinery and energy
substitution.

B BASIC LAW
a. Law Number 30 Year 2007 concerning Energy;
Energy is very important for the improvement of economic activity and national
security, so that the energy management which includes the supply, utilization
and enterprise must be implemented in a fair, sustainable, rational, optimal, and
integrated.

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Article 3 of Law Number. 30 Year 2007 on energy explained that in order to
support national sustainable development and increase national energy security,
the energy management has several objectives:
 The achievement of independence in the management of energy;
 Ensuring the availability of domestic energy, from sources inside the country
and abroad;
 Ensuring the management of energy resources in an optimal, integrated, and
sustainable;
 Guarantee that energy efficiently in all sectors.
 Maintaining environmental sustainability;
Article 21, paragraph 1 (a) explains that the utilization of energy based on the
principles with :
 Optimize the entire potential energy resources;
 Consider aspects of technological, social, economic, conservation, and the
environment.
Article 21 paragraph 2 (two) explained that the utilization of new energy and
renewable energy shall be enhanced by the Government and the local
government in accordance with its authority.
b. Government Regulation 79 year of 2014 On the National Energy Policy;
KEN prepared as a guide to provide national direction of energy management, in
order to achieve energy independence and national energy security and to
support national sustainable development. Energy management policy is based
on principles of justice, sustainable, and environmentally-friendly in order to
create energy independence and national energy security. KEN implemented
until 2025 and 2050.
National Energy Policy prepared as a guideline for giving direction to accomplish
the National Energy Management Energy Independence and National Energy
Security to Support Sustainable Development.
Energy independence and resilience can be achieved by realizing:
i. Energy resources are not used as an export commodity in itself but as a
national development capital,
ii. Energy Management independence,
iii. Availability of Energy and Energy Resources fulfillment of the Interior,
iv. Management of Energy Resources in an optimal, integrated, and
sustainable,
v. Efficient utilization of energy in all sectors,

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vi. People's Access to Energy Fair and Equitable,
vii. Capacity Building Management Technologies, Industry Energy and
Homeland Energy Services Increasing Capacity For Self and Human
Resources,
viii. The creation of the Working field,
ix. Environmental Sustainability Maintaining Function
c. Presidential Regulation No. 1 Year 2014 on Guidelines for Preparation of General
Plan of National Energy;
d. Presidential Regulation No. 61 Year 2011 on the National Action Plan (NAP) for
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction
 The provisions of Article 2 point (2c) states that the RAN-GRK activity covers
the fields of Energy and Industry;
 The provisions of Article 3 (a) states that the RAN-GRK is a guideline for the
Ministry / Agency to do the planning, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation of GHG emission reduction action.
e. Presidential Regulation No. 71 Year 2011 on the Implementation of the National
Greenhouse Gas Inventory
 The provisions of Article 2 (a) states that the implementation of the National
GHG inventory aims to provide regular information on the level, status and
trends of changes in emissions and sinks of GHG, including carbon storage at
the national, provincial and district / city;
 The provisions of Article 3 point (3b) states that the GHG Inventory made on
emission sources and penyerapnya including carbon deposits on the
procurement and use of energy that includes them is Industry.
f. Instruction Of The President Of The Republic Of Indonesia number 1 years of 2006,
Regarding Supply And Use Biofuel (Biofuel) Other As Fuel.
g. Regulation Of The Minister Of Energy And Mineral Resources Republic Of
Indonesia Number 10 Of 2012 Concerning The Use Of Physical Activity Of New
And Renewable Energy

C APPROACH

Growth prospects for the textile industry will be better in the future because the market
demand in the country continues to increase and rising world consumption.

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National textile industry is the integration of upstream (up stream), namely industrial
manufacturing fiber and yarn spinning industry, between (mid stream) that is cloth-
making industry to downstream (down stream) that the apparel industry and other textile
goods.

Integrated Industrial Structure

The textile industry has the structure of an integrated industry from upstream to
downstream (Up-Stream, Mid-Stream, Down-Stream)

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The structure and characteristics of the textile industry in Indonesia

The types of Textile, Textile Factory in Indonesia in accordance with the "tree of textile
industry" can be broadly divided into:
a. spinning is the process of making yarn from raw materials cotton, or other materials
that can be used as a thread.
The machines are normally found in the production process Spinning as follows:
i. Blowing process, is the process of making polyester raw material in the
form of bales automatically using a machine. In general, the blowing
process consists of several stages:
 Opening.
 Cleaning.
 Mixing or blending.
 Microdust removal.
 Uniform feed to the carding machine.
 Recycling the waste.
The first process is the "opening" of the extraction / cabitan cotton (flock)
on a pile of cotton (bale). Shreds of cotton is forwarded to the process of
cleaning dirt (dry), then cotton stirred so homogeneous. In the process of
cleaning and stirring, appeared fine dust that comes from the cotton itself,
so it must be eliminated in the next process. Furthermore, cotton is clean
and almost homogeneous delivered to the carding machine for further
processing. While the droppings (waste) are sent to the machine to
separate filter that can still be processed into yarn and the lower classes
can no longer be processed for yarn.
ii. The process of carding, is a machine used to separate impurities remaining
from blowroom process followed by the separation of the individual fibers
of cotton, so that the majority become parallel. Carding process produces a
homogeneous thickness thin sheets which are then summed to form a
thick strand, continuous, twister called sliver.
iii. The process of combing, for certain kinds of cotton yarn through this
process before entering into the process of drawing. Combing process
consists of three namely lap sliver (sliver mixing and the formation lap), lap
ribbon (mixing, equalization and formation lap) and comber..

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iv. Drawing process, ie mixing, alignment, alignment and stretching on a sliver.
v. Roving process, is a machine used to stretch and giving a twist to the
roving and rolling rovings on bobbins.
vi. Ring machine frame, is a machine used to straighten the fibers, combines
results from several carding machines.
vii. Winding machine, is a machine used for memindahan yarn bobbins to a
greater or funnel. The goal is to get a long stretch of continuous
(continuous). Weft-winding bobbins involves moving to a smaller will fit
into the shuttle winder.
viii. Two machines for one (TFO), is a machine used in the process of doubling.
Besides, the products resulting from the winding machine, there is also
demand for yarns with special sizes, namely two threads or three threads
are combined into one for a particular purpose. These processes involve
two stages, namely stages "doubling" then followed by a process of
"twisting". Industrial thread named the process by the two for one (TFO).
a. Weaving is the process of weaving, yarn into cloth.
Machines used in the weaving process is as follows:
i. Warping machine, is a machine used in the initial process of making cloth
from thread by collecting them into beam yarn, before the yarn is
processed by using a sizing machine.
ii. Sizing machine and cooking, is a tool or machine used for applying wax to
the yarn so that the fiber yarn becomes smooth, so that further work on
weaving machines to be smooth. This refining process is done to facilitate
the process of produkasi on weaving machines. Sizing machine and cooking
consists of two units.
iii. Engine leasing, used to separate the threads, so that the next process to be
performed by the machine can be more smoothly reaching. The electrical
energy used this machine is smaller compared to other production
machines, because in this process rely more heavily on human labor.
iv. Reaching preparation, atau sering disebut dengan penyucukan adalah
suatu proses pengkodean yang dilakukan untuk menyesuaikan sistem
pengkodean pada saat proses pada mesin weaving.
v. Weaving machine, is a machine used to weave the yarns into fabrics
(weaving process).

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b. yeing is the process of dyeing cloth of woven material which is colorless be
colored fabrics.
The machines used in the dyeing process are:
i. Dyeing machine, is a machine used for immersion. In addition, there is also
a high pressure dyeing machine used to perform dyeing with high pressure.
ii. Dryer machine, is a machine used for the drying process after dyeing
fabrics.
iii. Stretcher process, a process of stretch fabric.
iv. Calendar machine, a machine used in the final stage of the work of dyeing,
which made the process of ironing by using this machine.
c. Garment is to make the process of sewing garments, such as shirts, pants and
others.
The machines used in the garment is:
i. Production machines in the cutting process are cutting machines, ie
machines for the process of cutting fabric according to a pattern that has
been made.
ii. Production machines in the sewing process is sewing machine (sewing).
iii. Production machines in the finishing process is cleaning (cleaning) and
ironing (board).

Based on the formulation process of the textile industry and textile products above, the
study is referred as follows:
1. The amount of electrical energy consumption and total cost required by industrial
processes subsector textile and textile product per year.
2. The amount of electrical energy consumption and total cost required by industrial
processes subsector textile and textile product per year.
C. 1 Harmony and Environmental Sustainability
Establishment or environmental sustainability (Sustainable Environment) is one of the
environmental science theories that discussed human capabilities, components abiotic, biotic
components, and the environment to maintain the quality of the physical environment
through sustainable development. Sustainable development is essentially a "development
that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations to
meet their needs" (Brundtland, 1987). Sustainable development according to a statement
from the World Summit in 2005 covers three aspects: economic, social, and environmental.

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These three aspects can not be separated from one another as together they pose a causal
relationship. Aspects which one will affect the other aspects. The relationship between
economic and social aspects are expected to create a relationship that is fair (equitable). The
relationship between economic and environmental aspects are expected to continue to run
(viable), while the relationship between social and environmental aims in order to survive
(bearable). These three aspects will create conditions (sustainable).

C. 2 Improved Electrical Energy Consumption


Development are closely linked to energy and public hoarse. Construction of multi-storey
buildings as one of the public services delivery facilities lead to increased consumption of
electrical energy. Electrical energy is one of many examples of energy used to meet
community needs. Electrical energy is an essential requirement of society so that with
increasing population will increase consumption of electrical energy. Based on the Indonesian
National Standard (SNI 03-6390-2000) on Energy Conservation Air System Administration in
Buildings, energy consumption is the energy used by buildings in a certain time period and a
multiplication between power and operating time. Examples of public building facilities that
require energy or electrical power to operate is an air conditioner or Air Conditioning (AC)
and lighting equipment in the form of light. AC and lights installed in public buildings on
average consume the amount of electrical energy that is large enough for a relatively long
operating time so that the operational costs to be incurred becomes expensive.

C. 3 Energy Efficiency and Cost


In order to reduce the consumption of energy in the industrial sector in particular subsector
of textiles and textile products is quite high then pursued. According to the International
Energy Agency, increasing energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and
transportation could reduce one third of world energy needs by 2050.
Efficiency is a concept that includes the notion of "fitness or power to Accomplish, or success
in accomplishing, the purpose intended" (Simpson & Weine, 1989). According to Patterson
(1996), energy efficiency more broadly defined as useful output (value added or kilogram of
product) per unit of energy input to the following formula:

Efficiency (e) = Useful Output

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Energy Input
Efficiency is one step in the implementation of energy conservation. Energy efficiency is a
general term that refers to the use of less energy to produce a number of useful service or
output the same. In view of the general public sometimes defined energy efficiency as well as
energy savings.

Figure 1 Theoretical Framework

C. 4 Energy Conservation Opportunity In Textile Industry


Energy conservation policies intended to increase the use of energy efficiently and rationally
without reducing the quantity of energy that is absolutely required. Energy conservation
efforts can be applied at all stages of use, ranging from the utilization of energy resources to
the final utilization, using efficient technologies and cultivate energy-saving lifestyle. DESDM
(2003) identified that the potential for energy conservation in all sectors have a huge
opportunity which is between 10% - 30%. These savings can be realized in an easy manner
with little or no cost. That way the savings that can be achieved about 10-15%, when using
investment, savings can reach 30%.

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Industrial sectors in addition to using electric energy also use steam energy for the production
process is a sector that has a lot of conservation efforts. Among the industry groups: pulp and
paper industry, oil refineries, textiles, sugar, fertilizer, and cement (Pape 1999; Saso and
Santoso 1999). Energy conservation can be achieved through the use of energy efficient
technologies in supply, both from renewable resources and nonrenewable resources and
applying the culture of energy saving in energy consumption. Implementation of energy
conservation include the planning, operation, and supervision in the use of energy. Obstacles
encountered in energy conservation, among others: the high investment costs, the culture is
still difficult to implement energy-saving, resource capabilities anusia still low so that
knowledge of efficient technology is still lacking, and support from the government in the
form of incentives for conservation efforts still lacking.
C. 5 Environmental Quality Standards
Energy use can have a negative impact on the environment in the form of emissions
pollutants and waste byproducts form. To reduce the negative impact of the Government
through the Minister of Environment No. KEP-13 / MENLH / 3/1995 issued emission standards
for power plants as in the following table:
Emission Standards for Power
Parameter Limit (mg / m3)
Valid from 2000
Total Particles 150
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) 750
Nitrogen Okside (NO2) 850
Opacity 20%

C. 6 Framework
Flow think consultants to solve problems and achieve goals pursued studies by defining the
unit of analysis or research subjects first. The research subjects include data on the value of
electric energy consumption and operating costs, technical specifications and data on new
renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as data on the industrial sector of
government policy subsector textile and textile products.
Based on the study of theory and frame of mind then produced the conceptual framework
The conceptual framework presented in Figure shows the relationship between the study
variables. The research variables consist of the provision / fulfillment of the final energy

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industry subsectors of the textile industry and textile products, the availability of final
electrical energy, the potential for renewable energy, new energy conversion technologies
and renewable energy capacity EBT final conversion result. Variables such research serves as a
problem-solving strategies so that the research study objectives can be achieved.

Figure 2 Framework Concepts

D. Work Implementation Methodology


This section describes the methodology that will be used to carry out this work. Referring
to the objectives, scope of work, and the expected outputs, approaches and
methodologies used in this work are schematically presented in Figure 3.

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Figure 3 Work Implementation Methodology

The principles of the approach used in this work as mentioned in the Terms of Reference
outlined each describes a field survey and mapping of potential energy potential energy
survey results.

Based on the study of the potential of selected survey locations with the potential to be
developed utilizing renewable energy for industrial subsector textile and textile products.
Potential analysis is based on secondary and primary data available. Based on the formula
recommended utilization patterns then formulated recommendations for the utilization of
renewable energy alternatives. To strengthen the base of support for the

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recommendation and to gain a more comprehensive input, then held an Internal Focus
Group disscussion. The study results were presented at the location selected and
discussed in the FGD.

D.1 Survey Data collection


Seen from the point of view of the type of data collected, the survey of alternative
electrical energy potential of renewable divided into two categories, namely:
1. The secondary data collection, and
2. The primary data collection.
Secondary data collection industry subsector textile industry and textile products.
Secondary data collection was conducted to identify existing conditions the use of EBT
subsector of the textile industry and textile products based on the data available in a
variety of government agencies such as the Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Energy, BPS,
PLN and other relevant agencies.
Based on secondary data information above, then performed the primary data collection
at the level of the textile industry sample. The initial step of primary data collection
activities are secondary data clarification.
To provide adequate information for the work of the feasibility study, a survey of potential
performed include:
1. The non-technical survey, and
2. The technical survey.
Non-technical survey carried out by almost the same method for each type of energy.
While the technical survey for each type of energy requires technical details are different.
Based on the allocation of time available for study and the potential availability of
sustainable energy conversion technology and the availability of convenient, visible and
does not affect the production process subsector of the textile industry and textile
products.

D.2 Scenario Calculation of Energy and Energy Mix In Textile Industry


a. Skenario Business as Usual

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 Assume textile production grew by an average growth in the last five years the
period 2010-2015, in which spinning (spinning) to grow 7.5 percent and weaving
(weaving) 6.9 percent.
 Considering the energy use in the textile production process is quite diverse and
highly dependent on the type of product being made, then the energy calculation
is limited to activities of spinning and weaving. The dominance of the production
from the spinning and weaving is currently about 70 percent of the national textile
industry.
 The energy intensity for spinning activities amounted to 9.59 gigajoules per ton or
2,664 kWh per ton, while weaving amounted to 33 gigajoules per ton, or 9167
kWh per Ton (DG EBTKE, KESDM, 2015).

b. Scenario Acceleration
 Scenario assumes acceleration Indonesia can meet all the needs of domestic
consumption of fabric and yarn from domestic production (self-sufficiency) target
is reached in 2025.
 The growth of domestic consumption of fabrics and yarns assumed by 17 percent
per year, an average consumption growth last 4 years 2012- 2015 period, in units
of currency (Ministry of Industry, 2016).
 The energy intensity for spinning activities amounted to 9.59 gigajoules per ton
(2,664 kWh per ton), while weaving amounted to 33 gigajoules per ton (9167 kWh
per Ton) [EBTKE-General of the Ministry of Energy, 2015].

c. Accompanied Acceleration Scenario Efficiency


 One of the main issues in the textile industry is quite his old production machines
used so relatively wasteful use of energy. In this scenario it is assumed
restructuring machining, so that the engine more efficient energy consumption.
Based on the evaluation of restructuring machining conducted by the Ministry of
Industry after machining restructuring program increased energy efficiency

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pengggunaan between 6-18 percent, or an average increase energy efficiency by
12 percent.
 The energy intensity for spinning activities amounted to 9.59 gigajoules per ton
(2,664 kWh per ton), while weaving amounted to 33 gigajoules per ton (9167 kWh
per Ton) [EBTKE-General of the Ministry of Energy, 2015].
 There was a shift in the proportion of energy sources / conversion:
 The use of the fuel, which is still 5 percent gradually reduced the proportion of 0.4
percent per year, so that by 2025 no longer uses fuel.
 The use of coal is currently at 15 percent gradually proportion increased 0.4
percent per year, so that in 2025 the proportion was 20 percent.
 The proportion of the use of natural gas would remain at 10 per se until 2025.
 The proportion of energy use remained at 70 percent until 2025.

E. NEW RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY


E.1 Water Energy (Mini / Micro)

These aspects are assessed on the technical aspects of development of MHP include:
 Hydrology,
 Geology and topography, and

 Alternatives lay-out of MHP system.


Measurement of hydrological conditions to obtain a picture of the potential power, water
quantity and quality. Determining the feasibility of hydrological measurements obtained
by conducting high water fall (height difference, or head), and measurements of water
discharge.
To determine the power potential Iistrik at a location required data on:
 Minimum flowing waterways / river;
 Discharge planning that can be used to MHP;

 Water discharge at the time of the flood; and

 Height of fall / height difference (head) is available.

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In the measurement of water discharge consultants dealing with the limitations of data
Automatic Water Level Recorder (AWLR) and the availability of time so that the discharge
measurements and water level throughout the year is not possible. Furthermore, to
ensure the availability of water throughout the year, the calculation of the potential
power of a location carried out in 80% of the measured water flow.
Head measurements can be performed using a topographic map, but the results are very
rude. Accurate measurement head is done in the field. Having obtained estimates Hgross
(gross head), then made the determination Hnetto (head net) related to the design of civil
buildings, where Hnetto measured from the high differences between the intake (inlet
water) by the end of the penstock (pipe rapidly). High measurement methods fall of water
is equal to the altitude measurement somewhere from point one (above) to another
point (bottom). In this PLTMH potential survey, conducted using a measurement head:
altimeter and GPS.
Water discharge measurements done in several ways, the most common and easy to do,
namely discharge measurements with a measurement method and the cross-sectional
area velocity flow of water or the method of the weir. For the first method, the main tool
used is current meters and gauges or buoys, stopwatch and meter.
Data speed of flow can be obtained by making measurements using current meter or
buoy. Water flow velocity measurements with current meter method is by direct reading
on display as part of the current meter propeller put into the water. While on a float
method, the speed of flow is obtained by placing a float on the water flow and record the
time (t) and distance (d) the travel of each buoy in seconds and meters.
Aspects of civil works (civil work) plays an important role in the development of micro-
hydro. Geological studies in micro-hydro development will provide valuable information
for planning the construction of civilian facilities. Information on natural conditions, the
state of soil and rock, as well as the movement of soil obtained from geological studies
will help in determining the best location for the construction of civilian facilities. In
addition, such information can help in planning and predicting the cost of construction as
well as maintenance.
Geological study, covering the collection of information about:

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 surface movement that may occur, such as: rock and soil surfaces that can move
when it was raining hard, the movement of water and mud,
 movement of soil subsurface that may occur, such as earthquakes or landslides,

 the type of rock, soil, and sand, and

 it is useful to design a suitable civil foundations, and material that matches the
condition.
Furthermore, a good topographic study will help us determine the best locations where
possible to get a high fall-out of water (head) is adequate. Circumstances described by the
contour of the land topographic maps are very helpful in making the basic layout micro-
hydro system. Topographic map consists of basic instructions scale maps and contour
lines.
The scale of the map is the ratio between the distance listed on the map with the distance
actually existing. Commonly used scale of 1: 50,000, 1: 10,000, 1: 5,000 and 1: 2,500. A
map with a scale of 1: 50,000 means that 1 centimeter on the map equals 500 meters in
its natural state.

E.2 Biofuel

Given the diversity of raw materials (upstream side) and the diversity of fuel and the end
user segmentation, the most important part that must be done in a technical feasibility
study of biofuels production are screening service. In conducting the identification and
screening of production, the study carried out from the beginning stages of cultivation,
processing of raw materials, manufacture, use, up to impact on the environment. The
purpose of this screening is to choose the production of the most techno-economically
viable.
Technical feasibility study aims to determine the selected technologies that will be
associated with the economic calculation of the biodiesel industry and pure plant oil from
all stages of the start stage of cultivation, processing of raw materials, manufacture, use,
up to impact on Iingkungan. In the study of technology, made with input from the data
identification and screening has been done. One of the expected outcomes of this study

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are important considerations that can be learned Iingkungan level EROEI (Energy Return
on Energy Invested) of the biofuel industry.
Vegetable oil crops. is a source of raw material for vegetable oil fuels industry. Therefore,
perkebununan vegetable oil crops is very important to the success of vegetable oil. In the
identification of tree plantations, vegetable oil, field surveys to determine the pattern of
exploitation and the plantation system that has been done by the community.

E.3 Biomass

Utilization of biomass are basically used to answer the question:


 appropriateness of the use of biomass in a location based on availability, and
 What type of technology to be used for certain types of biomass and the level of
availability.
Biomass is the name given to the remaining material from plants or animals such as
timber from forests, agricultural waste material as well as human and animal organic
Iimbah.
In terms of availability, feasibility of biomass utilization can be calculated by:
 calorific value per unit mass,
 the availability per unit of time that can be used for energy sources. In this case
there is a minimal scale or economies of scale mung kin sought, and

 distribution location and the possibilities of how it was collected in one location.

RAW MATERIALS BIOMASS IN INDONESIA


Indonesia as an agrarian country that still has a lot of fields and plantations would not be
difficult to obtain agricultural waste, especially waste from rice fields and palm oil
plantations. In this case, the oil palm is considered own sector and market themselves in
the utilization of wastes. But to waste rice and other plantations such as maize, sugar
cane and others would continue to be underutilized. For example, there are many found
the remains of burning paddy husk every post harvest, it shows that the waste from rice
less well utilized.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS, BIOGAS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID
WASTE
Potential biomass can also be seen from the value of the heat produced. The calorific
value or heat value can be produced from biomass can be used as a standard
classification in determining the type of raw materials that are given priority in utilization.
Assumptions calorific value (calorific value) and water content (moisture content) biomass
feedstocks are shown in the following table:

In addition, the system can also be election power plant technology of biomass, biogas
and municipal solid waste to be used as the basis for calculating the capacity of potential:
- Biomass
Direct combustion - stand-alone system atau cogeneration system dengan steam turbine
- Biogas
Anaerobic Digester Covered Lagoon (sistem penangkap Biogas/methane) dengan Gas
Engine (sistem pembakaran biogas)
- municipal solid waste
RDF Direct Combustion dengan steam turbine dan Landfill Gas (LFG) dengan Gas Engine

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E.4 Solar Energy

Utilization of renewable energy such as by harnessing solar radiation using solar cells as
converting solar energy into electrical energy that we are familiar with Solar Power Plant
(PLTS).
PLTS for planning the installation of the required housing data is the average solar
radiation so that the power generated maximal and in accordance with the systems
required. Data on average solar radiation for research areas that can be from BMKG.
Solar power generation is highly dependent on the sun, then the installation requires
power requirements such as:
a) The amount of power needed per day (Watt)
b) The amount of current generated panel (Ampere hour)
c) The number of battery units (Ampere hour)
So all three of these points, it can be given a mathematical equation
a) Total Usage
(ET) = Pload x n x duration of use
Where :
n = number of load / electronic equipment in use
Pload = power needed to be able to use the apparatus.
Duration of use = duration of use of equipment per day (in hours).
b) type of solar panel there are several types with different power generated.
However, in Indonesia used 120 Wp is 120 Wh per day with a forecast for 5 hours
maximum solar energy per day.

The number of panels in use =

c) Number of batteries

(Imax) =

Where :
Vs = battery (volt / ampere hour)

E.5 Wind

Wind is one of the new and renewable energy sources that can be developed and used
directly by the people to meet energy needs, especially in rural and remote areas. One
potential use of wind energy is to move the windmill / wind turbine. The windmill can

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drive a generator to produce electricity or can also move the water pump for pumping
groundwater. Based on data from the Directorate General of Electricity and Energy, the
wind power potential of about 3-5 m / sec (9287 MW), while the capacity is already
installed only about 0.5 MW.
Wind energy is one of the natural resources that we can get for free and can be found
anywhere with different capacities. In contrast to other energy sources, energy sources
that this one is not much cause interference because it does not emit exhaust gases or
the like which may cause pollution. However, the source of wind energy also has the
disadvantage that the initial investment is quite expensive and is also influenced by the
pattern of the wind.
Broadly speaking, the method used is to collect secondary and primary data. For more
details, the collection of primary data and secondary data will be described in more detail
as listed below.
Secondary data collection was done in order to get a picture of the object of study, so that
the location of the study and the scope of the areas to be observed can be estimated and
study activities can be done purposively.
secondary data
a) collecting wind data from the Meteorological and Geophysics Agency in West Java
Province;
b) collection of data from agencies / relevant technical agencies in the scope of the
Government of West Java province, such as the Department of Agriculture,
Infrastructure, Department of Energy and Mineral Resources;
c) Data collection districts / cities in West Java Province;
d) consultation activities to the relevant departments at the central level; and
e) Study of literature.
Primary data
The data consists of information and data relating to the wind gathered from observation
through field surveys. Wind speed measurements are performed in paddy fields using a
measuring instrument wind speed (anemometer) with a mast height of 10 m for 13
hours / day from 0600 hrs - 1900 hrs for three in a row.

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