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Elton Mayo, US

The Pygmalion Effect

Hawthorne Studies, 1924-1927
• How working environment affects employee • The improvement in employee performance
production. that results from raising a manager’s
• Best known for Lighting experiments at expectations about the employee’s
Western Electric; (no correlation found) performance.
• Studied fatigue and rest with 6 women/12 wks. • The Pygmalion Effect works when managers
- increased rest communicate high expectations to employees.
- lack of management coercion • Conversely, low manager expectations
- responsibility for production produces lower employee performance.
Increased Production by 20% even after Study
was completed!

Frank & Lilian Gilbreth, 1924

Walter Shewart, US
Marriage of Mgmt./Psychology
Statistical Control Techniques, 1931
• Development of Science of Ergonomics
• PDSA Cycle: Plan Do Study Act
• Study of Work Tasks for Productivity
• The cycle draws its structure from the notion that Improvement
constant evaluation of management practices -- as
well as the willingness of management to adopt and • Study of Processes and Development of
disregard unsupported ideas --are keys to the Control Charts (Frank died in 1924)
evolution of a successful enterprise • Psychology of Management, 1914, stressed the
• importance of adapting management processes to importance of human relations, recognition of
create profitable situations
differences, justice and happiness in the
• In order to aid a manager in making scientific,
efficient, economical decisions, he developed
workplace (Lilian not listed as author)
Statistical Process Control methods. • Assisted US government with conversion of
• Sampling at Various Points in Process adapted factories during WWII
during WWII

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Abrahm Maslow
A Theory of Human Motivation, 1943 Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
• Hierarchy of Needs
– Physiological: most pre-potent or strongest of
human needs when unsatisfied
– Safety, Love, Affection, and belongingness
– Esteem and Self-actualization higher needs
• Higher needs emerge as lower ones are
• Emerge in different order in different people
• A satisfied or gratified need is not a satisfier
of behavior