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AE 640






ROLL # 120795

1. In this assignment, a cantilever beam is modeled using PATRAN / NASTRAN

software and loads are applied at free ends. Structural Analysis is carried out and
computed results are compared with Analytical results computed using Beam Theory.

Problem Specifications

2. A cantilever beam is chosen with dimensions 12 x 1 x 0.1. As PATRAN /

NASTRAN does not take any units, it was deemed necessary to keep all the values
consistent with one system, and hence, SI system of units was chosen for the purpose.
Beam was supposed to be made of isotropic material with E = 30e6 and Poisson’s ratio
of 0.3 (Material properties of Steel). Beam was loaded with a distributed load of 10
along free edge.

Strategy and Steps involved

3. In PATRAN /NASTRAN, a cantilever beam can be modeled using three


a) 1D element with specified cross-section

b) 2D element with specified depth
c) 3D element with complete geometry

4. For the purpose of this assignment, a 2D element approach was utilized. General
steps involved in the formulation and analysis of the problem are as follows:

a) Create Geometry. Geometry was created using Surface option under

geometry Tab. Vector <12 1 0> was entered in the Vector Coordinates List to
identify length 12 and width.

b) Define material properties. Material properties were entered using

Isotropic command under properties Tab. Values for steel, 30×106 as the Elastic
Modulus and 0.3 as the Poisson's Ratio, were entered.

c) Define physical properties. Also under properties Tab, physical

properties were defined using shell command in 2D properties section. Here,
thickness of 0.1 was specified for the structure.

d) Assign material and physical properties to the structure. These

defined properties were then assigned to structure using Application region
e) Create Boundary Conditions (B.Cs) and apply loads. Boundary
conditions were applied using Displacement Constraint command under the
Load/BCs tab. Input values were <0,0,0> for Translations (to prevent any
translational movement) and < ,0, > for Rotations (to prevent rotation in the y-
direction). Similarly for loads, distributed load was selected under Element
Uniform Section and values of <0,0,10> were input as edge distributed load.

f) Mesh the structure. Structure was meshed using surface meshers.

g) Run linear static analysis. Under the Analysis Tab, entire model
was selected and full run was carried out using NASTRAN solver. Results were
accessed using XDB command.

h) Analyze and plot results. Results were analyzed and plotted using
Fringe and Deformation plots. Stress tensors, Von Mises stresses and
translational displacements were also plotted and analyzed

i) Compare numerical and analytical results. As a final step, results

were compared with analytical results to verify the integrity of results.


5. A fringe plot of displacements is displayed in Figure 1. Maximum deflection at

free end is 1.51e+3. We see that displacement is in +ve direction as load applied
(<0,0,10>) was also in +ve z-direction.
6. Translational displacement graph is also depicted for displacement along the
length of the beam. Her x-axis moves from 0 to 12 as the length of the Cantilever Beam
and displacements are zero at fixed end to maximum at free end

7. Rotational displacement graph is also depicted for displacement along the length
of the beam.

8. Major Principal stress invariants are also plotted

9. Von mises stresses are also plotted.


10. After comparing results from analytical results, maximum stresses values and
maximum displacement values are tabulated below

Quantity Numerical Analytical Difference % Error

Max Stress 2.2869 2.304 0.0171 0.7%
Max Displacement 2.4 2.38 0.02 0.8%

11. Hence it can easily be concluded that results are very close to accurate and are
a very good Approximation.