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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Column base: Open section column


TENSION AND SHEAR LOADING
Summary
The objective of this study is verification of CBFEM IDEA RS software with component method.

Description of verified connection: open section steel column is anchored with four anchor bolts to
concrete pad; the column is loaded by tension and shear forces.

Inputs
Compressed plates are designed as maximal 3rd class to avoid stability problems.
The study was performed for parameters: dimensions of concrete pad, concrete grade, anchor
dimensions, anchor steel grade.

Component method
Five components are examined: column web panel in shear, anchor bolts in tension, anchor bolts in
shear, anchor bolts in bearing and welds.
All components are designed according to EN 1993-1-8 [1] and ETAG 001 – Annex C [2].

Resistances related to concrete failure are designed according to European Technical Approval
Guidelines ETAG 001 Guideline for European Technical Approval of Metal Anchors for Use in Concrete
– Annex C: Design Methods for Anchorages. “Steel failure”, “Pull-out failure”, “Concrete cone failure”
and “Splitting failure” are relevant for tension loading. “Steel failure, shear load without lever arm”,
“Steel failure, shear load with lever arm”, “Concrete pry-out failure” and “Concrete edge failure” are
relevant for shear loading of anchor bolts.
Column web panel in shear
Component “Column web panel in shear” is designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.6.1.
Base plate in bending under tension
Component “Base plate in bending under tension” is designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.6.11.

Anchor bolts in tension


Component “Anchor bolts in tension” is designed in the software according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.6.12.

• Tension resistance:
𝑘2 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴𝑠
𝐹𝑡,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2
• Punching shear resistance:
0.6 ∙ 𝜋 ∙ 𝑑𝑚 ∙ 𝑡𝑝 ∙ 𝑓𝑢
𝐵𝑝,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2

Steel failure
Eurocodes do not refer sufficiently to concrete resistances in tension loading and interaction of shear
and tension loading. Therefore, the ETAG 001 – Annex C – 5.2.2.2 is used in this study for hand
calculations of steel failure mode for consistency. Software uses the standard Eurocode assessment.

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Pull-out failure
Pull-out failure of anchor bolts loaded by tension is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C –
5.2.2.3. This failure mode is dependent on anchor type. It is presumed that the resistance will be
provided by manufacturer.

Concrete cone failure


Concrete cone failure of anchor bolts loaded by tension is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C
– 5.2.2.4.

Splitting failure
Splitting failure of anchor bolts loaded by tension is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C – 5.2.2.5
Splitting failure due to installation and 5.2.2.6 Splitting failure due to loading. This failure mode is
relevant for anchorage to thin concrete columns or beams and is dependent on anchor type.
Anchor bolts in shear
Component “Anchor bolts in shear” can be designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.2.
𝛼𝑣 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴
𝐹1,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2
𝛼𝑏𝑐 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴𝑠
𝐹2,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2
𝛼𝑏𝑐 = 0,44 − 0,0003 ∙ 𝑓𝑦𝑏

𝐹1,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑
𝐹𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = min { }
𝐹2,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑

Eurocodes do not refer to steel resistance with lever arm, concrete resistances in shear loading and
interaction of shear and tension loading. Therefore, ETAG 001 – Annex C – 5.2.3 is used.

Steel failure, shear load without lever arm


Steel failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear without lever arm is designed according to ETAG 001 –
Annex C – 5.2.3.2.

Steel failure, shear load with lever arm


Steel failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear with lever arm is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex
C – 5.2.3.2.

Concrete pry-out failure


Concrete pry-out failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C
– 5.2.3.3.

Concrete edge failure


Concrete edge failure caused by anchor bolts loaded by shear is designed according to ETAG 001 –
Annex C – 5.2.3.4.

Resistance to combined tension and shear loads


Resistance to combined tension and shear loads is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C – 5.2.4.

(𝛽𝑁 )𝛼 + (𝛽𝑉 )𝛼 ≤ 1.0

𝛼 = 2.0 if NRd and VRd are governed by steel failure

𝛼 = 1.5 for all other failure modes

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Anchor bolts in bearing


Component “Anchor bolts in bearing” is designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.2.

Fillet weld
The weld is closed around a cross-section of the column.

The thickness of the weld on the flanges is the same as the thickness of the weld on the web.
Shear force is transferred only by welds on the web and plastic stress distribution is considered.

Design of the weld is done according to EN 1993-1-8 – 4.5.3.2(6).

Partial safety factors in ETAG 001


ETAG 001 – Annex C uses different partial safety factors than Eurocodes. The safety factors are
explained below.

• Partial safety factor for steel failure


1,2
Tension loading: 𝛾𝑀𝑠 = 𝑓 ≥ 1,4
𝑦𝑘 ⁄𝑓𝑢𝑘

Shear loading:
1,0
𝛾𝑀𝑠 = ≥ 1,25 for 𝑓𝑢𝑘 ≤ 800 MPa and 𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘 ≤ 0,8
𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘

𝛾𝑀𝑠 = 1,5 for 𝑓𝑢𝑘 > 800 MPa or 𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘 > 0,8

• Partial safety factor for concrete failure

𝛾𝑀𝑐 = 𝛾𝑐 ∙ 𝛾2
Tension loading:

𝛾2 = 1,0 for systems with high installation safety

𝛾2 = 1,2 for systems with normal installation safety

𝛾2 = 1,4 for systems with low but still acceptable installation safety

Shear loading: 𝛾2 = 1,0

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Anchorage example – column HEB 300


An example of component method design is shown on the anchorage of column steel section HEB 300
with base plate anchored by four anchor bolts M20 8.8 with effective length 400 mm to concrete pad
from concrete grade C20/25. The shear load is transferred via anchor bolts. The base plate dimensions
are 500 x 500 x 25 mm. The concrete pad dimensions are 900 mm width, 900 mm length and 800 mm
height. The verification studies of components “Column web panel in shear”, “Base plate in bending
under tension”, “Anchor bolts in bearing” and “Welds” are shown elsewhere. This study is focused on
anchor bolts in tension and shear.

According to ETAG 001 – Annex C four proofs are required for tension loading:

1. Steel failure
2. Pull-out failure
3. Concrete cone failure
4. Splitting failure

According to ETAG 001 – Annex C three proofs are required for shear loading:
5. Steel failure, shear load with lever arm
6. Concrete pry-out failure
7. Concrete edge failure
Additionally the tension and shear load interaction has to be taken into account:
8. Resistance to combined tension and shear loads

The approach in ETAG 001 assumes rigid base plate. The tension and shear loads acting on column are
𝑁𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 40 kN and 𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 40 kN, respectively.

1. Steel failure
The tension load is uniformly distributed over all anchor bolts, thus force acting on one bolt is
𝑁𝑐,𝐸𝑑 40
𝑁𝐸𝑑 = = = 10 kN
𝑛𝑏 4
𝑛𝑏 … number of bolts

𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑘 = 245 ∙ 800 = 196 kN


𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 196
𝑁𝐸𝑑 = 10 kN ≤ = = 130.667 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑠 1.25
𝑁 10
Utilization: 𝑁 𝐸𝑑 = 130.667 = 7.65 %
𝑅𝑑,𝑠

Alternatively, the tension resistance according to EN 1993-1-8 can be determined:


𝑘2 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴 0.9 ∙ 800 ∙ 245
𝐹𝑡,𝑅𝑑 = 0.85 ∙ = 0.85 ∙ = 119.952 kN
𝛾𝑀2 1.25
𝑁𝐸𝑑 = 10 kN ≤ 𝐹𝑡,𝑅𝑑 = 119.952 kN
𝑁 10
Utilization: 𝐹 𝐸𝑑 = 119.952 = 8.34 %
𝑡,𝑅𝑑

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

2. Pull-out failure

Sufficient pull-out resistance of anchor bolts loaded by tension is guaranteed by manufacturer.

3. Concrete cone failure

Anchor bolts are close to each other, group of anchors have one common concrete cone.
𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 370
∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 = ∙ 400 = 246.7 mm
′ 𝑐𝑐𝑟,𝑁 1.5 ∙ 400
ℎ𝑒𝑓 = max = 246.7 mm
𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 400
∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 = ∙ 400 = 133.3 mm
{ 𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁 3 ∙ 400 }


ℎ𝑒𝑓 246.7
𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁 = ∙ 𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁 = ∙ 3 ∙ 400 = 740 mm
ℎ𝑒𝑓 400
′ ′
𝑐𝑐𝑟,𝑁 = 0.5 ∙ 𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁 = 0.5 ∙ 740.1 = 370 mm
0 ′ 1.5
𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑘1 ∙ √𝑓𝑐𝑘,𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 ∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 = 7.2 ∙ √25 ∙ 246.71.5 = 139.47 kN

𝐴𝑐,𝑁 = (160 + 370 + 370) ∙ (400 + 250 + 250) = 810000 mm2


2
𝐴0𝑐,𝑁 = 𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁

= 7402 = 547600 mm2
𝑐 250
𝛹𝑠,𝑁 = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ ′ = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ = 0.903 ≤ 1
𝑐𝑐𝑟,𝑁 370
ℎ𝑒𝑓
𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑁 = 0.5 + = 1.734 > 1 → 𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑁 = 1
200
1 1
𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑁 = 𝑒𝑁 = =1≤1
1+2∙ ′ 0
𝑠𝑐𝑟,𝑁 1 + 2 ∙
740

0
𝐴𝑐,𝑁 810000
𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 ∙ 0 ∙ 𝛹𝑠,𝑁 ∙ 𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑁 ∙ 𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑁 = 139.47 ∙ 547600 ∙ 0.903 ∙ 1 ∙ 1 = 186.224 kN
𝐴𝑐,𝑁
𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 186.224
𝑁𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 40 kN ≤ = = 103.458 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑐 1.8
𝑁 40
Utilization: 𝑁𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 103.458 = 38.66 %
𝑅𝑑,𝑐

4. Splitting failure

Splitting failure will not occur; the edge distance is in all directions 𝑐 ≤ 𝑐𝑐𝑟,𝑠𝑝 and the concrete pad
height is ℎ ≥ 2 ∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 .

5. Steel failure, shear load with lever arm

The shear load is uniformly distributed over all anchor bolts, thus force acting on one bolt is
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 40
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = = = 10 kN
𝑛𝑏 4

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Figure 1: Definition of lever arm [2]

𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑘 = 245 ∙ 800 = 196 kN


𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 196
𝑁𝑅𝑑,𝑠 = = = 156.8 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑠 1.25
𝜋 ∙ 𝑑3 𝜋 ∙ 203
𝑊𝑒𝑙 = = = 785 mm3
32 32
0
𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 1.2 ∙ 𝑊𝑒𝑙 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑘 = 1.2 ∙ 785 ∙ 800 = 0.754 kNm

0
𝑁𝐸𝑑 10
𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 ∙ (1 − ) = 0.754 ∙ (1 − ) = 0.706 kNm
𝑁𝑅𝑑,𝑠 156.8
20 25
𝑙 = 𝑎3 + 𝑒1 = + 30 + = 52.5 mm
2 2
𝛼𝑀 ∙ 𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 2 ∙ 0.706 ∙ 106
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = = = 26.891 kN
𝑙 52.5
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑠 26.891
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 10 kN ≤ = = 21.513 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑠 1.25
𝑉 10
Utilization: 𝑉 𝐸𝑑 = 21.513 = 46.48 %
𝑅𝑑,𝑠

6. Concrete pry-out failure


The shear load is uniformly distributed over all anchor bolts. Concrete cone failure resistance is
calculated according to 5.2.2.3 and is shown in point 3. All four anchors act as a group and have one
common cone.

𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐𝑝 = 𝑘 ∙ 𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 2 ∙ 186.224 = 372.448 kN


𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐𝑝 372.448
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 40 kN ≤ = = 248.299 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑐 1.5
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 40
Utilization: = 248.299 = 16.11 %
𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐𝑝

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

7. Concrete edge failure

The shear load acting on column is transferred by two anchor bolts only which are situated near the
edge in the direction of shear load.
0.5
𝑙𝑓 400 0.5
𝛼 = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.126
𝑐1 250

𝑑𝑛𝑜𝑚 0.2 20 0.2


𝛽 = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.060
𝑐1 250
𝛽
0
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑘1 ∙ 𝑑𝑛𝑜𝑚 𝛼 ∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 ∙ √𝑓𝑐𝑘,𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 ∙ 𝑐11.5 = 1.7 ∙ 200.126 ∙ 4000.060 ∙ √25 ∙ 2501.5 = 70.207 kN

𝐴0𝑐,𝑉 = 4 ∙ 𝑐12 = 4.5 ∙ 2502 = 281250 mm2

𝐴𝑐,𝑉 = (370 + 160 + 370) ∙ 1.5 ∙ 250 = 337500 mm2


𝑐2 370
𝛹𝑠,𝑉 = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ = 0.996 ≤ 1.0
1.5 ∙ 𝑐1 1.5 ∙ 250

1.5 ∙ 𝑐1 1.5 ∙ 250


𝛹ℎ,𝑉 = √ =√ = 0.685 < 1.0 → 𝛹ℎ,𝑉 = 1.0
ℎ 800

1 1
𝛹𝛼,𝑉 = √ =√ = 1.0 ≥ 1.0
sin 𝛼𝑉 sin 0°
(cos 𝛼𝑉 )2 + ( ) (cos 0°)2 + ( )
2.5 2.5

1 1
𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑉 = = = 1.0 ≤ 1.0
1 + 2 ∙ 𝑒𝑉 1+2∙0
3 ∙ 𝑐1 3 ∙ 250
𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑉 = 1.0 … anchorage in cracked concrete without edge reinforcements or stirrups

0
𝐴𝑐,𝑉
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 ∙ ∙ 𝛹𝑠,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹ℎ,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝛼,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑉
𝐴0𝑐,𝑉
337500
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 70.207 ∙ ∙ 0.996 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.0 = 84.208 kN
281250
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 84.208
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 40 kN ≤ = = 56.138 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑐 1.5
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 40
Utilization: = 56.138 = 71.25 %
𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐

8. Resistance to combined tension and shear load

(𝛽𝑁 )𝛼 + (𝛽𝑉 )𝛼 = 0.3871.5 + 0.7131.5 = 0.842 ≤ 1

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

0.8

0.6
βV

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
βN

Graph 1: Resistance to combined tension and shear

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Results by CBFEM Idea RS software


Combination of the advantages of both finite element method and analytical component method.

Shell elements, special spring and contact elements are calibrated using characteristics according to
the component method.

Elastic-plastic stress-strain diagram is used for material of shell elements. Assessment is based on the
maximum strain given according to EN 1993-1-5 [3] by value of 5%.

Bolts are modelled using special spring elements and assessment is carried out according to standard
procedures described in EN 1993-1-8.

The concrete pad is modelled using Winkler subsoil model. The stiffness is uniform with the value:

 
 
k
Ec
  1
4 
Abp  h 
( 1   )    3 
Aref  2  d 

Ec Young’s modulus of elasticity


ν Poisson’s ratio
Abp Area under base plate
Aref Referential area
d Base plate width
h Concrete pad height

The following values for coefficient were used: Aref =10 m2; α1 =1.65; α2 = 0.5; α3 =0.3; α4 =1.0.

The Component based finite element method solution is shown on the example of the same anchorage
as shown in the analytical solution using component method:

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

In the CBFEM approach, the column and the base plate slightly deforms and the more accurate anchor
forces are used instead of simplified calculations of forces from above mentioned presumptions.

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Sensitivity study
Results of CBFEM Idea RS software were compared with the results of the component method. The
comparison was focused on capacity and determination of the critical component.

The study was performed for parameters: anchor diameter, anchor steel grade concrete grade and
dimensions of concrete pad. The column was HEB 300 and the base plate had width and length 500 mm
and thickness 25 mm. The anchors were made of steel threaded rods M12, M20 and M30 grade 4.6,
6.8 and 8.8. The concrete pad was from grade C16/20, C25/30 and C35/45. The concrete pad height
was for all cases 800 mm and width and length was 200 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm larger than the
dimensions of the base plate. The grout material properties were assumed as insufficient and thus the
shear force was acting with the lever arm. The grout thickness was 30 mm. The parameters are
summarized in tab. 1. Welds were the same around the whole column section. The fillet welds had the
throat thickness a = 8 mm. Systems with normal installation safety are used and thus the partial safety
factor γ2 =1.2.
Table 1: Selected parameters

anchor diameter M12 M20 M30


anchor steel grade 4.6 6.8 8.8
concrete grade C16/20 C25/30 C35/45
concrete pad offset 200 mm 300 mm 400 mm

The resistances determined by component method are in tab. 2. The column was loaded by tension
force Nc,Ed = 40 kN and shear force Vc,Ed = 40 kN. One parameter was changed and the others were held
constant at the middle value. Values in table are recalculated on one anchor bolt. Ft,Rd is steel tension
resistance according to EN 1993-1-8. Following resistances are according to ETAG. NRd,s is steel tension
resistance, NRd,c concrete cone resistance, VRd,s is the steel resistance, shear load with lever arm, VRd,cp
is the concrete pry-out resistance and VRd,c is the concrete edge resistance.
Table 2: Component method

Con.
Anchor Con. Ft,Rd NRd,s NRd,c/4 VRd,s VRd,cp/4 VRd,c/2
offset Interaction
bolts grade [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN]
[mm]
M12 6.8 C25/30 300 30,95 33,72 38,41 3,03 92,19 36,49 1095,36%
M20 6.8 C25/30 300 89,96 98,00 38,41 15,77 92,19 39,83 63,79%
M30 6.8 C25/30 300 206,00 224,40 38,41 51,13 92,19 42,80 45,23%
M20 4.6 C25/30 300 59,98 49,00 38,41 7,15 92,19 39,83 178,63%
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 119,95 130,67 38,41 21,51 92,19 39,83 48,86%
M20 6.8 C16/20 300 89,96 98,00 31,37 15,77 75,28 32,52 68,51%
M20 6.8 C35/45 300 89,96 98,00 47,05 15,77 112,91 48,78 60,30%
M20 6.8 C25/30 200 89,96 98,00 28,33 15,77 68,00 30,75 73,43%
M20 6.8 C25/30 400 89,96 98,00 49,43 15,77 118,63 49,75 59,60%

The model in Idea Connection was loaded by tension force Nc,Ed = 40 kN and shear force Vc,Ed = 40 kN.
The coefficient lowering the compressive strength of concrete due to grout βj = 0.67. Note that the
CBFEM obtains each bolt force with the effect of steel plate deformations and each bolt is checked
separately. There is only the most stressed bolt recorded into tab. 3. NEd is the tension force acting on
the most stressed bolt, VEd the shear force acting on the most stressed bolt, Ft,Rd the steel resistance in

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tension, NRd,c the concrete cone resistance, VRd,s the steel resistance, shear load with lever arm, VRd,cp
the concrete pry-out resistance recalculated on one bolt and VRd,c is the concrete edge resistance for
recalculated on one bolt.
Table 3: CBFEM method

Con.
Anchor Con. NEd VEd Ft,Rd NRd,c VRd,s VRd,cp VRd,c
offset Interaction
bolts grade [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN]
[mm]
M12 6.8 C25/30 300 11,80 10,51 30,85 38,41 2,61 92,20 42,50 1630,00%
M20 6.8 C25/30 300 11,80 11,14 89,96 38,41 15,16 92,20 48,30 80,00%
M30 6.8 C25/30 300 11,83 12,04 206,00 38,41 50,31 92,20 54,90 28,80%
M20 4.6 C25/30 300 11,79 10,87 59,98 38,41 9,42 92,20 48,30 231,10%
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 11,80 11,34 119,95 38,41 20,90 92,20 48,30 57,00%
M20 6.8 C16/20 300 11,81 11,14 89,96 31,37 15,16 75,30 39,40 86,20%
M20 6.8 C35/45 300 11,79 11,13 89,96 47,05 15,16 112,90 59,10 75,40%
M20 6.8 C25/30 200 11,80 11,14 89,96 28,33 15,16 68,00 32,30 89,80%
M20 6.8 C25/30 400 11,80 11,14 89,96 49,43 15,16 118,60 65,90 74,60%

Reliability
Reliability of CBFEM software is provided in accordance with the strategy of EC considering partial
safety factors.
Material safety factors according to EN 1993-1-8 and ETAG 001 – Annex C are used for design resistance
of the connection.

120.00

100.00

80.00
Idea Connection

VRd,s [kN]
NRd,c [kN]
60.00
Ft,Rd [kN]
VRd,cp [kN]
40.00 VRd,c [kN]
Interaction

20.00

0.00
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00
ETAG 001 - Annex C

Graph 2: Reliability graph

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

The red and blue dashed lines correspond to the 110 % and 90 % value of resistance from component
method, respectively. The black dashed line corresponds to the complete compliance of the results of
analytical solution using component method and of Idea Connection software. All the resistances are
recalculated on one anchor bolt. The points above the red line have difference higher than 10 % and
are on the unsafe side. The results of Ft,Rd, NRd,c and VRd,cp shows perfect compliance. The program does
not simplify the distribution of forces on bolts as in ETAG 001 – Annex C. Thus, the tension and shear
forces from Idea Connection software acting on bolts are in average by 18 % and 11.6 % higher than
from analytical solution, respectively. The values of VRd,s, the steel resistance, shear load with lever
arm, differ by few percent, because the tension force in the software is higher. The results of concrete
edge resistance in CBFEM are higher (by 21 % on average) because the program does not distribute
the shear force only over the anchor bolts situated near the concrete edge. This simplification cannot
be used generally for all types of anchorages. Thus, the results of concrete edge resistance might lead
to unsafe design but the program uses more sophisticated force distribution on anchors and includes
the tensional forces that are neglected in analytical solution. The most important resistance to
combined tension and shear loads are in average by 20 % more conservative in Idea Connection
software.

Recapitulation
Verification studies confirmed the accuracy of the CBFEM IDEA RS software. Results of this software
were compared with the results of the component method recommended in EN 1993-1-8. Most of the
results differences are below 10 %, which is a generally acceptable value.

Reliability of CBFEM software is provided in accordance with the strategy of EC considering partial
safety factors.

References
[1] EN 1993-1-8. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-8: Design of joints.
[2] ETAG 001: Guideline for European Technical Approval of Metal Anchors for Use in Concrete –
Annex C: Design Methods for Anchorages. Brussels: EOTA, 2010.
[3] EN 1993-1-5. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-5: Plated structural elements.

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