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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Column base: Open section column


SHEAR LOADING
Summary
The objective of this study is verification of CBFEM IDEA RS software with component method.

Description of verified connection: open section steel column is anchored with anchor bolts to
concrete pad; the column is loaded by shear force that is transferred by anchor bolts to the concrete
foundation.

Inputs
Compressed plates are designed as maximal 3rd class to avoid stability problems.

The study was performed for parameters: concrete pad dimensions, concrete grade, anchor
dimensions, anchor steel grade.

Component method
Four components are examined: column web panel in shear, anchor bolts in shear, anchor bolts in
bearing and welds.
All components are designed according to EN 1993-1-8 [1] and ETAG 001 – Annex C [2].
Resistances related to concrete failure are designed according to European Technical Approval
Guidelines ETAG 001 Guideline for European Technical Approval of Metal Anchors for Use in Concrete
– Annex C: Design Methods for Anchorages. “Steel failure, shear load without lever arm”, “Steel failure,
shear load with lever arm”, “Concrete pry-out failure” and “Concrete edge failure” are relevant for
shear loading of anchor bolts.
Column web panel in shear
Component “Column web panel in shear” is designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.6.1.
Anchor bolts in shear
Component “Anchor bolts in shear” can be designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.2.
𝛼𝑣 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴
𝐹1,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2
𝛼𝑏𝑐 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑏 ∙ 𝐴𝑠
𝐹2,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀2
𝛼𝑏𝑐 = 0,44 − 0,0003 ∙ 𝑓𝑦𝑏

𝐹1,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑
𝐹𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = min { }
𝐹2,𝑣𝑏,𝑅𝑑

Eurocodes do not refer to steel resistance with lever arm, concrete resistances in shear loading and
interaction of shear and tension loading. Therefore, the ETAG 001 – Annex C – 5.2.3 is used.

Steel failure, shear load without lever arm


Steel failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear without lever arm is designed according to ETAG 001 –
Annex C – 5.2.3.2.

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Steel failure, shear load with lever arm


Steel failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear with lever arm is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex
C – 5.2.3.2.

Concrete pry-out failure


Concrete pry-out failure of anchor bolts loaded by shear is designed according to ETAG 001 – Annex C
– 5.2.3.3.

Concrete edge failure


Concrete edge failure caused by anchor bolts loaded by shear is designed according to ETAG 001 –
Annex C – 5.2.3.4.
Anchor bolts in bearing
Component “Anchor bolts in bearing” is designed according to EN 1993-1-8 – 6.2.2.

Fillet weld
The weld is closed around a cross-section of the column.

The thickness of the weld on the flanges is the same as the thickness of the weld on the web.

Shear force is transferred only by welds on the web and plastic stress distribution is considered.

Design of the weld is done according to EN 1993-1-8 – 4.5.3.2(6).

Partial safety factors in ETAG 001


ETAG 001 – Annex C uses different partial safety factors than Eurocodes. The safety factors are
explained below.

• Partial safety factor for steel failure


1,2
Tension loading: 𝛾𝑀𝑠 = 𝑓 ≥ 1,4
𝑦𝑘 ⁄𝑓𝑢𝑘

Shear loading:
1,0
𝛾𝑀𝑠 = ≥ 1,25 for 𝑓𝑢𝑘 ≤ 800 MPa and 𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘 ≤ 0,8
𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘

𝛾𝑀𝑠 = 1,5 for 𝑓𝑢𝑘 > 800 MPa or 𝑓𝑦𝑘 /𝑓𝑢𝑘 > 0,8

• Partial safety factor for concrete failure

𝛾𝑀𝑐 = 𝛾𝑐 ∙ 𝛾2
Tension loading:

𝛾2 = 1,0 for systems with high installation safety

𝛾2 = 1,2 for systems with normal installation safety

𝛾2 = 1,4 for systems with low but still acceptable installation safety

Shear loading: 𝛾2 = 1,0

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Anchorage example – Steel column HEB 300:


An example of component method design is shown on the anchorage of column section HEB 300 with
base plate anchored by four anchor bolts M20 steel grade 8.8 with length 400 mm to concrete pad
grade C20/25. The shear load is transferred via anchor bolts. The base plate dimensions are 500 x 500
x 25 mm. The concrete pad dimensions are 900 mm width, 900 mm length and 800 mm height. The
verification studies of components “Column web panel in shear”, “Anchor bolts in bearing” and
“Welds” are shown elsewhere. This study is focused on anchor bolts in shear.

According to ETAG 001 – Annex C three proofs are required:

1. Steel failure, shear load with lever arm


2. Concrete pry-out failure
3. Concrete edge failure
The approach in ETAG 001 assumes rigid base plate. The shear load acting on column is 𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 60 kN.

1. Steel failure, shear load with lever arm


The shear load is uniformly distributed over all anchor bolts, thus force acting on one bolt is
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 60
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = = = 15 kN
𝑛𝑏 4

Figure 1: Definition of lever arm [2]

𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑘 = 245 ∙ 800 = 196 kN


𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑠 196
𝑁𝑅𝑑,𝑠 = = = 156.8 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑠 1.25
𝜋 ∙ 𝑑3 𝜋 ∙ 203
𝑊𝑒𝑙 = = = 785 mm3
32 32
0
𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 1.2 ∙ 𝑊𝑒𝑙 ∙ 𝑓𝑢𝑘 = 1.2 ∙ 785 ∙ 800 = 0.754 kNm

0
𝑁𝐸𝑑 0
𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = 𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 ∙ (1 − ) = 0.754 ∙ (1 − ) = 0.754 kNm
𝑁𝑅𝑑,𝑠 156.8
20 25
𝑙 = 𝑎3 + 𝑒1 = + 30 + = 52.5 mm
2 2

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

𝛼𝑀 ∙ 𝑀𝑅𝑘,𝑠 2 ∙ 0.754 ∙ 106


𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑠 = = = 28.723 kN
𝑙 52.5
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑠 28.723
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 15 kN ≤ = = 22.979 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑠 1.25
𝑉 15
Utilization: 𝑉 𝐸𝑑 = 22.979 = 65.28 %
𝑅𝑑,𝑠

2. Concrete pry-out failure


The shear load is uniformly distributed over all anchor bolts. Concrete cone failure resistance is
calculated according to 5.2.2.3 and is shown elsewhere. All four anchors act as a group and have one
common cone.

𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐𝑝 = 𝑘 ∙ 𝑁𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 2 ∙ 186.224 = 372.448 kN


𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐𝑝 372.448
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 60 kN ≤ = = 248.299 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑐 1.5
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 60
Utilization: = 248.299 = 24.16 %
𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐𝑝

3. Concrete edge failure


The shear load acting on column is transferred by two anchor bolts only which are situated near the
edge in the direction of shear load.
0.5
𝑙𝑓 400 0.5
𝛼 = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.126
𝑐1 250

𝑑𝑛𝑜𝑚 0.2 20 0.2


𝛽 = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.1 ∙ ( ) = 0.060
𝑐1 250
𝛽
0
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑘1 ∙ 𝑑𝑛𝑜𝑚 𝛼 ∙ ℎ𝑒𝑓 ∙ √𝑓𝑐𝑘,𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 ∙ 𝑐11.5 = 1.7 ∙ 200.126 ∙ 4000.060 ∙ √25 ∙ 2501.5 = 70.207 kN

𝐴0𝑐,𝑉 = 4 ∙ 𝑐12 = 4.5 ∙ 2502 = 281250 mm2

𝐴𝑐,𝑉 = (370 + 160 + 370) ∙ 1.5 ∙ 250 = 337500 mm2


𝑐2 370
𝛹𝑠,𝑉 = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ = 0.7 + 0.3 ∙ = 0.996 ≤ 1.0
1.5 ∙ 𝑐1 1.5 ∙ 250

1.5 ∙ 𝑐1 1.5 ∙ 250


𝛹ℎ,𝑉 = √ =√ = 0.685 < 1.0 → 𝛹ℎ,𝑉 = 1.0
ℎ 800

1 1
𝛹𝛼,𝑉 = √ =√ = 1.0 ≥ 1.0
sin 𝛼𝑉 sin 0°
(cos 𝛼𝑉 )2 + ( ) (cos 0°)2 + ( )
2.5 2.5

1 1
𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑉 = = = 1.0 ≤ 1.0
1 + 2 ∙ 𝑒𝑉 1+2∙0
3 ∙ 𝑐1 3 ∙ 250
𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑉 = 1.2 … anchorage in cracked concrete with straight edge reinforcements

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

0
𝐴𝑐,𝑉
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 ∙ ∙ 𝛹𝑠,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹ℎ,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝛼,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝑒𝑐,𝑉 ∙ 𝛹𝑟𝑒,𝑉
𝐴0𝑐,𝑉
337500
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 = 70.207 ∙ ∙ 0.996 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.0 ∙ 1.2 = 101.050 kN
281250
𝑉𝑅𝑘,𝑐 101.050
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 = 60 kN ≤ = = 67.366 kN
𝛾𝑀𝑐 1.5
𝑉𝑐,𝐸𝑑 60
Utilization: = 67.366 = 89.07 %
𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

Results by CBFEM Idea RS software


Combination of the advantages of both finite element method and analytical component method.

Shell elements, special spring and contact elements are calibrated using characteristics according to
the component method.

Elastic-plastic stress-strain diagram is used for material of shell elements. Assessment is based on the
maximum strain given according to EN 1993-1-5 [3] by value of 5%.

Bolts are modelled using special spring elements and assessment is carried out according to standard
procedures described in EN 1993-1-8.

The concrete pad is modelled using Winkler subsoil model. The stiffness is uniform with the value:

 
 
k
Ec
  1
4 
Abp  h 
( 1   )    3 
Aref  2  d 

Ec Young’s modulus of elasticity


ν Poisson’s ratio
Abp Area under base plate
Aref Referential area
d Base plate width
h Concrete pad height

The following values for coefficient were used: Aref =10 m2; α1 =1.65; α2 = 0.5; α3 =0.3; α4 =1.0.

The Component based finite element method solution is shown on the example of the same anchorage
as shown in the analytical solution using component method:

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

In the CBFEM approach, the column and the base plate slightly deforms and the more accurate anchor
forces are used instead of simplified calculations of forces from above mentioned presumptions.

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Brno University of Technology Column base: Open section column

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Sensitivity study
Results of CBFEM Idea RS software were compared with the results of the component method. The
comparison was focused on capacity and determination of the critical component.

The study was performed for parameters: anchor diameter, concrete grade, concrete pad dimensions
and grout height. The column section was HEB 300 and the base plate had width and length 500 mm
and thickness 20 mm. The anchors were made of steel threaded rods M12, M20 and M30 grade 8.8.
The concrete pad was from grade C16/20, C25/30 and C35/45. The concrete pad height was for all
cases 800 mm and width and length was 200 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm larger than the dimensions of
the base plate. The grout material properties were assumed as insufficient and thus the shear force
was acting with the lever arm. The grout thicknesses were 20 mm, 40 mm and 60 mm. The parameters
are summarized in tab. 1. Welds were the same around the whole column section. The fillet welds had
the throat thickness a = 8 mm.
Table 1: Selected parameters

anchor diameter M12 M20 M30


concrete grade C16/20 C25/30 C35/45
concrete pad offset 200 mm 300 mm 400 mm
grout height 20 mm 40 mm 60 mm

The resistances determined by component method are in tab. 2. One parameter was changed and the
others were held constant at the middle value. Vc,Ed is the shear force acting on the column, VRd,s is the
steel resistance, shear load with lever arm, VRd,cp is the concrete pry-out resistance and VRd,c is the
concrete edge resistance. The resistance with utilization 100 % was the critical component that failed
first.
Table 2: Component method

Con. Grout
Anchor Con. Vc,Ed VRd,s utili- VRd,cp/4 utili- VRd,c/2 utili-
offset height
bolts grade [kN] [kN] zation [kN] zation [kN] zation
[mm] [mm]
M12 8.8 C25/30 300 40 18,61 4,65 100% 92,19 5% 36,49 26%
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 40 79,66 20,11 99% 92,19 22% 39,83 100%
M30 8.8 C25/30 300 40 85,60 62,64 34% 92,19 23% 42,80 100%
M20 8.8 C16/20 300 40 65,04 20,11 81% 75,28 22% 32,52 100%
M20 8.8 C35/45 300 40 80,42 20,11 100% 112,91 18% 48,78 82%
M20 8.8 C25/30 200 40 61,50 20,11 76% 68,00 23% 30,75 100%
M20 8.8 C25/30 400 40 80,42 20,11 100% 118,63 17% 49,75 81%
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 20 79,66 30,16 66% 92,19 22% 39,83 100%
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 60 60,32 15,08 100% 92,19 16% 39,83 76%

The model in Idea Connection was loaded by the shear force equal to VRd, which was determined from
the component method. The coefficient lowering the compressive strength of concrete due to grout
βj = 0.67. Note that the CBFEM obtains each bolt force with the effect of steel plate deformations and
each bolt is checked separately. There is only the most stressed bolt recorded into the tab. 3. Vc,Ed is
the shear force acting on the column, VEd is the shear force acting on the most stressed bolt, VRd,s is the
steel resistance, shear load with lever arm, VRd,cp is the concrete pry-out resistance recalculated on one
bolt and VRd,c is the concrete edge resistance for recalculated on one bolt.

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Table 3: CBFEM method

Con. Grout
Anchor Con. Vc,Ed VEd VRd,s VRd,cp VRd,c
offset height
bolts grade [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN] [kN]
[mm] [mm]
M12 8.8 C25/30 300 40 18,61 4,681 4,742 92,2 42,5
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 40 79,66 20,076 19,021 92,2 48,3
M30 8.8 C25/30 300 40 85,60 21,586 60,65 92,2 54,9
M20 8.8 C16/20 300 40 65,04 16,370 19,231 75,3 39,4
M20 8.8 C35/45 300 40 80,42 20,288 19,001 112,9 59,1
M20 8.8 C25/30 200 40 61,50 15,499 19,268 68,0 32,3
M20 8.8 C25/30 400 40 80,42 20,268 19,623 118,6 65,9
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 20 79,66 20,025 28,979 92,2 48,3
M20 8.8 C25/30 300 60 60,32 15,249 14,294 92,2 48,3

Reliability
Reliability of CBFEM software is provided in accordance with the strategy of EC considering partial
safety factors.
Material safety factors according to EN 1993-1-8 and ETAG 001 – Annex C are used for design resistance
of the connection.

120

100

80
CBFEM

60 VRd,s
VRd,cp

40 VRd,c

20

0
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00
Component method

Graph 1: Reliability graph

The red and blue dashed lines correspond to the 110 % and 90 % value of resistance from component
method, respectively. The black dashed line corresponds to the complete compliance of the results
from analytical solution using component method and from program Idea Connection. All the

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resistances are recalculate on one anchor bolt. The points above the red line have difference higher
than 10 % and are on the unsafe side. The results of steel shear resistance according to CBFEM are
slightly lower (by 3.76 % on average) because of the small tensional force in bolts, which is neglected
in the analytical solution. The results of concrete pry-out resistance are completely the same in both
approaches. The results of concrete edge resistance in CBFEM are higher (by 17 % on average) because
the program does not simplify the distribution of forces on bolts as in ETAG 001 – Annex C. This
simplification cannot be used generally for all types of anchorages. Thus, the results of concrete edge
resistance might lead to unsafe design but the program uses more sophisticated force distribution on
anchors and includes the tensional forces that are neglected in analytical solution.

Recapitulation
Verification studies confirmed the accuracy of the CBFEM IDEA RS software. Results of this software
were compared with the results of the component method recommended in EN 1993-1-8. Most of the
results differences are below 10 %, which is a generally acceptable value.

Reliability of CBFEM software is provided in accordance with the strategy of EC considering partial
safety factors.

References
[1] EN 1993-1-8. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-8: Design of joints.
[2] ETAG 001: Guideline for European Technical Approval of Metal Anchors for Use in Concrete –
Annex C: Design Methods for Anchorages. Brussels: EOTA, 2010.
[3] EN 1993-1-5. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-5: Plated structural elements.

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