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How to make pipe spec. & what is basic need/data for that?

First, let's see if we can clarify which "pipe spec" you are talking about. You must realize
that the term "pipe spec" can be both general and specific at the same time.

Here is most U. S. Companies there might be as many as thirty Specifications that cover
piping related issues. There may be a "pipe spec" for:

 Piping Specification for Plant Layout and Design

 Piping Specification for Shop Fabrication

 Piping Specification for Field Fabrication and Installation

 Piping Specification for Hydrotesting of systems

 Piping Specification for Hot Insulation

 Piping Specification for Cold Insulation

 Piping Specification for Pre-Engineered Pipe Supports

 Piping Specification for Engineered Spring Supports

 Piping Specification for Line Class Material

 Piping Specification for Valve Purchasing

And the list goes on and on.

This is a partial list of some of the specific "pipe specs" that are found on most projects.
Included in this list is one that I think you are asking about.

I think you are asking about "Piping Specification for Line Class Material" or it may be called
"Piping Line Class Material Specification" or it may have some other combination of words
that mean the same thing. But it is a very specific "pipe spec" out of a very big family of
piping specifications.

Now to your question as it relates to "this" pipe spec.

How to make pipe spec?

"Piping Material Line Class Specification"

This document would have a cover sheet and a written section which would include the
- Document Title
- Document Control Number

- Table of Contents
- Statement of Purpose and or Function
- General Notes
- A listing of all the Codes that apply to the material included here-in
- A list of all the Line Classes with basic data such as Commodity, Material, Flange Rating,
- Each of the individual Line Class sheets (Based on Pressure/Temperature/Commodity)
- The common vent, drain, and other misc. connection details
- Branch Connection Tables (one or more as required)
- Name of Originator (Responsible person), Date created
- Name and date of checker
- Table of Approval for Issue, (Piping Department, Project, Client)
- Table of Issue History listing Revision, date, what was revised, by who, approval sign-off

All of this would then be issued as a single document.

The second part of your question

What is basic need/data for that?

Data Requirements

There are two sides to this question. There is the up-front data requirements needed to
produce the Line Class Specification. Then there is the output data or, what does each line
class need to include?

So, first what is required to start? You need, as a minimum the following information:

· A list of every commodity that will be a part of the project. This means the feed, all
products, all waste streams, all utilities and all additives.

· For each commodity, you need the complete chemistry including Toxic classifications and
reactions to changes in temperature. Here in the U.S.A. we have a document called a
"MSDS" (Material Safety Data Sheet). These have all the chemical, toxic, medical recovery
and other data about a chemical be it a gas, a liquid, a powder or a solid. If these are
available in your country, then get a copy for your records of the MSDS for each commodity.

· For each commodity, you need the maximum sustained operating pressure and

· For each you need to know of any short term or upset condition that may cause an
increase or decrease in pressure or temperature.

· For each commodity, you need to determine the corrosion rate for different (common or
special) pipe materials.

· For each commodity, you need to know the projected maximum and minimum pipe size
expected for the project.

· You need to know the location of the jobsite and the full twelve-month
weather/temperature profile.

When you have collected all this information then you need to spend a great deal of time
reading and studying so you can answer every question that will come up. Don't try to
memorize it just remember where to find the material on that issue.
This is just a start. Now you need to know what Piping Code will be the basis for the project.

Will the project governing Code be:

 ASME B31.1
 ASME B31.3

 Or some other Code?

Now the next thing you need to know is the Clients preferences and or restrictions. Things
like does the client want to use "Lapp-Joint Stub-End" flanges in certain systems. Does the
client want or not want certain types of valves (and why)? What about Weld-neck vs. Slip-
on flanges?

Next you need to know the "Design Life" of the plant. This means you need to know how
long the plant is supposed to last before it is shut down or starts to fall apart. This issue
determines the amount of corrosion allowance you will consider when selecting a wall

There is no doubt more that I have forgotten to include in this first pass. I will try to add
more as I remember. I also know that by posting this here on the piping designers web site
others will read it and add their wisdom.

The finished "Line Class" pipe spec.

Each of the individual Line Class sheet might be created as a spread sheet in a Microsoft
Excel Work Book. One spread sheet for each Line Class.

Across you might have the following column headers:

· Item

· Nominal Pipe Size (inches) or (Metric)

· Schedule (Wall Thickness)

· End Type

· Description (This is a simple description of a piping component not a full purchase


Vertically the first column (Item) will be divided into "Pipe", "Fittings", "Flanges", "Gaskets",
"Bolts" and "Valves"

With-in this column the "Fitting" section and the "Valve" section would be divided to cover
the various items normally required based on size.

"Fittings" would include:

 90 degree ELLs
 45 degree ELLs

 Straight TEEs

 Reducing TEEs

 Caps

 Unions

 Etc.

"Valves" would include:

 Gates
 Globe

 Check

 Ball

 Butterfly

 Etc.

Other information that needs to be included on a line class by line class basis includes.

 Basic Construction (2" and smaller Screwed/ 3" and Larger Flanged and Butt welded,
 Flange Rating (150# RF)

 Temperature Limits (Minus 50 degrees F to Plus 500 degrees

I know this is a lot to information to take in.

But do it the same way you would eat an elephant, one bite at a time.
Piping Material Selection Criteria

What are important elements and their properties to be considered while selecting a material in oil
and gas industry practices keeping in view each selection criteria for materials?

The selection criteria for materials:

• Pressure - Pressure is low, neutral (atmospheric) or high. On the low end of the pressure scale you
could have from just slightly below atmospheric all the way down to full vacuum. Full Vacuum or even
just a moderately low pressure can collapse pipe and other piping components. You must select a wall
thickness (or reinforcement Rings) to prevent the negative force of the low pressure. On the high end
of the pressure scale you must prevent the pipe and other components from failing and the system
turns into a bomb. Fracture failures do to high pressure can and does kill people in process plants. The
Design Pressure shall be used for all Wall thickness and Flange Rating calculations.
• Temperature - Above we discussed Pressure, now if you add Temperature to the mix you compound
the risk. A very low temperature even just -50 F (-45 C) and either a very low pressure or very high
pressure you have an even higher risk of component failure. On the other hand High to very high
Temperature can degrade the structural capabilities of the various piping components. Look at the
Flange Rating Chart. As the Temperature goes up the Pressure (Containment) rating goes down. The
Design Temperature shall be used for all Wall thickness and Flange rating calculations. The maximum
Operating Temperature shall be used for all Stress related Thermal expansion calculations.
• Commodity - What is it? A Gas (Vapor), a Liquid or a Slurry? The State of the commodity can have an
impact on the selection of Valve types, packing or Gasket materials.
• Corrosion - Is the commodity a highly corrosive fluid or gas? If so, How corrosive? What is the rate of
corrosion you must use in the calculation for "Plant Life"
• Erosion - Erosion can be caused at elbows by things like sand in a Concrete Slurry mix or by Air or Gas
bubbles in mixed (cavitation) flow. You would need to select an erosion resistant material or a
manner/method (Flanged Crosses with built-in wear plates) for changing directions that minimize
excessive erosion.
• Piping Code - ASME B31.1, B31.3, B31.8, etc all have different applications and have slightly different
criteria for certain things. So the applicable Code for the Project needs to be consulted.
• Toxic Risk - There are some commodities that are so toxic that you would not do the standard,
common everyday things. You would select all butt-welded construction where ever possible (Vessel
nozzle to pipe, pipe to valve, etc) to eliminate the possibility of leaks. You would also select "Bellow
Seal" valves so you do not run the risk of Stem leaks from packing failure.
• Purpose - The purpose of the line is important to the selection of material. The commodity in the line
may be a combination of Oil and Water but the line is an Underground Oily Water Sewer. That "Purpose
(or Function) makes a difference in the selection of material.