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TEKA. COMMISSION OF MOTORIZATION AND ENERGETICS IN AGRICULTURE – 2015, Vol. 15, No.

1, 83–88

Design of Digester Biogas Tank


Part 2: The Design Process of Digester Biogas Tank
Karol Tucki, Marek Klimkiewicz, Piotr Piątkowski

Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW

Received January 09.2015; accepted February 19.2015

Summary. The paper describes the design process of digester THE INITIAL DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
biogas tanks.The analysed issues include:the construction as- OF THE DESIGNED BIOGAS PLANT
sumptions related to construction of the biogas tank shell, design
of the roof, the thermal insulation, the selectionof inlet and outlet The analyzed design of a digester biogas tank shall
pipes used for the substrate transport. be intended for a biogas plant located on the premises of
Key words: biogas, calculation, project. an agricultural farm dealing with cattle production. The
farm shall, instead of storing it in a tank, use the manure
in the proposed digester biogas tank and process it into
INTRODUCTION biogas. It was assumed that the farm owned 200 animals.
The substrate for biogas production is cattle slurry. The
Fermentation tank is the central part of any biogas plant. operation of the biogas plant will be based on a single-stage
It is there that the input material (substrate) is broken down technology, mesophilic (35°C) utilizing wet fermentation.
and biogas is produced. In order to create a design for a fer- The fermentation chamber was designed as a vertical one
mentation chamber a number of assumptions must be made with a biogas tank in the form of a roof membrane [3, 6].
including the type and quantity of substrates used and the Sometimes other design philosophies for biogas tanks are
installation type. On the basis of the above-mentioned data, utilized, e.g. gas cushions [4].
it is necessary to assess the efficiency of a biogas energy
plant [9, 10]. A number of additional assumptions must also CALCULATION OF ENERGY YIELD
be made in relation to the finishing elements of the tank.
The digester biogas tanks may be manufactured from sheet Calculations of the quantity of methane produced and
metal, ferro-concrete, plastics. They are mostly cylindrical the energy yields were realized using the designed calculator
in shape, may be submerged in soil, free-standing or placed (Fig. 1).
horizontally on foundations [2].

Fig. 1. Calculation of biogas yield in the designed plant [own elaboration]


84 KAROL TUCKI, MAREK KLIMKIEWICZ, PIOTR PIĄTKOWSKI

DETERMINATION OF plant
LOAD VOLUME Chamber’s Volume load – BR Hydraulic Retention
Fig. 1. Calculation of biogas yield in the designed [own elaboration] volume – [m3] [kg d.o.m./m3/d] Time – HTR [d]
IN THE FERMENTATION TANK
700 11,2 70
Determination of load volume in the fermentation tank 750 10,5 75
When choosing the size of the fermentation chamber the
aim is not to achieve a total decomposition of the organic 800 9,8 80
When choosing the size of the fermentation chamber the aim is not to achieve850 a total 9,2 85
material in order to maximize biogas production. This would
decomposition ofrequire
the organic
a verymaterial in order
long storage to maximize
of substrate in thebiogas
chamberproduction.
and 900
This would 8,7 90
therefore the need for extremely large tanks [7]. In order to 950 8,3 95
require a very long storage of substrate in the chamber and therefore the need for extremely
1000 7,9 100
verify the resultant volume of the fermentation chamber it
arge tanks [Myczko 2011]. to
is necessary Indetermine
order to its verify
volume the loadresultant volume
parameter, of theSorce:
which fermentation
own elaboration
informs what quantity of dry organic mass highest
(d.o.m.) biogas
should production is achieved for the volume read at the crossing point of BR and
chamber it is necessary to determine its volume load parameter, which informs what quantity
be fed for every square meter of the chamber’s HTR volume.
lines.This
The graphOn the basis
shows that of results presented
a threshold in the
value for table (Table
rector's volume 1) is 300 m3. Above this
there
of dry organic mass (d.o.m.) should be fed for every square meter of the chamber's volume.
parameter is also used in order to estimate the optimal bio- was created a graph (Fig. 2) which presents the relation between
value the volume load decreases and the retention time increases. For the analyzed project the
This parameter is gas alsoproduction
used in order[1, to
11]. It is calculated
estimate the optimal using the following
biogas the volume load
production [Curkowskii in. and the hydraulic retention time. The highest
highest 3
biogas production is achieved for the volume read at the crossing poi
equation (1). optimal value was biogas
assumed at 250 m
production is.achieved for the volume read at the cross-
2009, Scholwin 2006]. It is calculated using the following equation (1).
ing point of BR and HTRgraph
HTR lines. The lines.shows that a threshold
The graph shows thatvalue for rector's volume is 300 m
a thresh-
𝑚𝑚 ∙𝑠𝑠.𝑚𝑚.𝑜𝑜.
𝐵𝐵𝑅𝑅 = 𝑉𝑉 , (1) (1) old value for
valuerector’s volume
the volume load is 300 mand
decreases 3
. Above this value
the retention the
time increases. For the analyz
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤.
volume load decreases
optimal andassumed
value was the retention
at 250 m3time
. increases. For
where: where: the analyzed project the optimal value was assumed at 250 m3.
𝐵𝐵𝑅𝑅 - volume load B [kg – volume load [kg d.o.m./m /d],
R d.o.m./m /d];
3 3

d.o.m. – content of dry organic mass in dry organic mass [%],


d.o.m. - content ofmdry organic of
– quantity mass in dry organic
substrate mass [%];
fed in a given time unit [kg/d],
V
m - quantity of substratewkf
– initial volume of fermentation
fed in a given time unit [kg/d]; chamber [m3].
Another parameter that should be taken into consid-
𝑉𝑉𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 - initial volume of fermentation chamber [m3].
eration when
Another parameter planning
that should the reactor’s
be taken size is thewhen
into consideration hydraulic
planning the reactor's
retention time. Its value determines the number of days
ze is the hydraulic retention time. Its value determines the number of days the substrate
the substrate should stay in the fermentation chamber to
hould stay in the fermentation chamber to in.
decompose [Curkowskii decompose
2009, Scholwin].[Curkowskii in. 2009, Scholwin]. It is
It is calculated
using the
alculated using the equation (2). equation (2).
𝑉𝑉𝑤𝑤𝑘𝑘𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = (2)
, (2) Fig. 2. Relation between volume load and hydraulic retention
𝑉𝑉
time [own elaboration]
here: where:
HRT – hydraulic
𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 - hydraulic retention retention time [days],
time [days]; Fig. 2.loadRelation
Vwkf – initial volume of fermentation chamberFig.[m2.3],Relation between volume
CALCULATION andbetween
hydraulic volume load andtime
retention
OF FERMENTATION
hydraulic
[ownretention time [own elaborat
elaboration]
3
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 - initial volume of fermentation chamber [m ];
V – volume of substrate [m3]. CHAMBER’S
CALCULATION VOLUME OF FERMENTATION CHAMBER’S VOLUME
- volume of substrateIn[m 3
order
]. to calculate the BR and HTR parameters, a few CALCULATION OF FERMENTATION CHAMBER’S VOLUME
variants of the fermentation chamber’s size should be con- The reactor’sThe volume was
reactor's volumecalculated using using
was calculated equation equation(3),(3), taking into consid
sidered. The value of BR and HTR were calculated The reactor's
using volume
taking was
intovolume calculated
consideration using
the equation
volume (3),
needed taking
for into
heating
needed for heating installation, stirrer and roof construction. consideration the
n order to calculateequations
the BR and (1)HTR parameters,
and (2). a few
Calculation variants
results wereofgiven
the fermentation
in the chamber'sstirrer and roof construction.
installation, 𝑀𝑀𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
volume needed for heating installation, stirrer and roof construction. 𝑉𝑉𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = ∙ 𝑇𝑇𝑟𝑟 ∙ 1,25 (3)
table below
ze should be considered. The (Table 1).BR and HTR were calculated using equations (1) and
value of
𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑀𝑀𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
where: 𝑉𝑉 ∙ 𝑇𝑇𝑟𝑟 ∙ 1,25 , (3) (3)
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 𝜌𝜌
2). Calculation results were given in the table below (Table 1).
Ta b l e 1 . Calculated HRT and BR values for different fermen-
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑀𝑀𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 - substrate mass stream [kg/d]; (volum

tation chambers where: where: 𝜌𝜌 - specific density of substrate [t/m3];


𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
Chamber’s Volume Hydraulic
load – BRfermentation Retention
𝑀𝑀𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠chambers – substrate
Msubstream
- substrate mass mass
𝑇𝑇𝑟𝑟[kg/d]; stream [kg/d], (volume load) (hydra
able 1. Calculated HRT and BR3 values for different - period of fermentation of substrate in the chamber [d];
volume – [m ] [kg d.o.m./m /d] 3
Time – HTR [d] ρsub – specific density3 of substrate [t/m ], 3
Chamber's volume - 𝑽𝑽𝒘𝒘𝒘𝒘𝒘𝒘 [m3] Volume load –3 BR Hydraulic Retention
𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 - specific density
Time – HTR [d] of substrate [t/m ];ratio forofthe
1.25 - volume accompanying equipment.
100 78,5
[kg d.o.m./m /d] 10 T – period of fermentation
r
substrate in the chamber [d],
(hydraulic retention time)
100 150 78,5
52,3 𝑇𝑇𝑟𝑟 1510
- period 1,25 – volume
of fermentation ratio for
of substrate accompanying
in the chamber [d]; equipment.
150 200 52,3
39,3 2015 The height/diameter
The height/diameter ratio should
ratio shouldbe:
be: 𝑑𝑑 = 2 ,, therefore
ℎ 1
therefore h h
==r. The chamber's volum
1.25 20 - volume ratio for the accompanying equipment.
200 250 39,3
31,4 25 r. The chamber’s volume, calculated on the basis of equation
on the basis of equation (3), was used in an equation for a cylinder volume. T
250 300 31,4
26,2 3025 (3), was used in an equation for a cylinder volume. There-
radius of the cylinder was calculated - r, which is, at the same time, the height o
300
350 26,2
22,4 30 fore, the radius of the ℎ cylinder was calculated – r, which is,
The35height/diameter
1
ratio should be: 𝑑𝑑 =
- h; and , therefore h = r.wasThe chamber's volume, calculated
350
400 22,4
19,6 4035 at the same time,next
thetheheight
2chamber's diameter
of the chambercalculated
– h; and- d.next
400
450 19,6
17,4 on 45 40
the the chamber’s
basis of equation (3), wasdiameter
used in was calculated
an equation for– ad.cylinder volume. Therefore, the
450 17,4 45
500 15,7 50
500 15,7 radius
50 of the cylinder was calculated - r, which is, at the same time, the height of the chamber
550 14,3 55 ASSUMPTIONS RELATED TO THE SHELL OF THE TANK
550
600 14,3
13,1 - h;60and
55 next the chamber's diameter was calculated - d.
600
650 13,1
12,1 6560 A steel construction was assumed, as steel tanks are
650 12,1 65 more resilient to biogas and substrate leakages in com-
700 11,2 70
750 10,5 75
800 9,8 80
850 9,2 85
900 8,7 90
950 8,3 95
y - distance from the upper edge of the shell (in case of a floating roof -
yyy --- distance distance
distance
liquid
from
from
from the the upper
the upper
upper edgeedge
edge of of the
of the shell
the shell (in
shell (in case
(in case
case of of
of aaa floating
floating roof
roof --- f
floating roof
liquid level)
liquid level) to
level) to level:
to level: 100
level: 100 mm
100 mm over
mm over the
over the bottom
the bottom edge
bottom edge of
edge of aaa dimensioned
of dimensioned sss
dimensioned
liquid
liquid
liquid
is level)
level)
level)to to level:
tolevel:
level:100 100
100mm mm
mmover over
over300 the
the bottom
thebottom
bottomcase edge
edge of
edge ofaaadimensioned
dimensioned
dimensionedsh ss
is connected
is connected via
connected via groove
via groove weld
groove weld or
weld or 300 mm
or 300 mm in
mm in case of
in case of aa band
of band connecte
band connecte
connecte
isis
is
[m];
connected
connected
connected via via groove
via groove
groove weld weld
weld or or 300
or 300
300 mm mm
mm in in case
in case
case of of
of aaa band
band connected
band connected
connecte
[m];
[m];
DESIGN OF DIGESTER [m];
[m];
[m];
C111 ---BIOGAS
C
C
corrosion
corrosion allowance
corrosion
TANK 85
allowance
allowance
[PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210];
C
CC corrosion
1 -corrosion
corrosion allowance
allowance
allowance [PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210];
𝛼𝛼1⊥1⊥- ---- should
𝛼𝛼
𝛼𝛼 should be
should be assumed
be assumed 𝛼𝛼
assumed 𝛼𝛼⊥
𝛼𝛼
=1
=1 [PN-B-03200];
⊥=1 [PN-B-03200];
[PN-B-03200];
parison to ferro-concrete chambers. The idea to use steel 𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼⊥⊥--–-should shouldbe
should
should beassumed
be
be assumed𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼=1
assumed
assumed

[PN-B-03200],
=1 [PN-B-03200];
𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾⊥𝑓𝑓⊥ - load coefficient ⊥⊥ [PN-B-03200];
=1
=1
[PN-B-03210];
⊥ [PN-B-03200];
prefabricated units is also supported by the fact that it 𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 -–load load coefficient
loadcoefficient [PN-B-03210];
coefficient[PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210],
𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓 ---load load coefficient
coefficient [PN-B-03210];
allows for quick and simple reactor production [8]. The 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓fn -–load pressure coefficient
load [PN-B-03210];
[PN-B-03210];
coefficient in
𝛾𝛾 - p
 ressure
pressure
𝛾𝛾 fn - pressure load coefficient in
load
load coefficient
coefficient ininthethegas
the
the gas
gas
gasareaarea
area
area
of
of
the
of of
thethe
the
tank
tank
tank
with
tankwith overpressure
with overpressure [P
overpressure [P
[P
designed tank may be delivered in a number of parts that 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾fnfnfn - -- pressure
with
pressure
pressure load
overpressure
load
load coefficient
coefficient
coefficient in
[PN-B-03210],
in
in the
the
the gas
gas
gas area
area
area of
of
of the
the
the tank
tank
tank with
with
with overpressure
overpressure
overpressure [P
[P
[P
n destruction
fn consequence coefficient for hazardous and flammable
flammable liquid
will be connected at the destination. The installation is 𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾nn --–- destruction destruction
destruction
destructionconsequenceconsequence
consequence
consequencecoefficientcoefficient
coefficient
coefficientfor for
for hazardous
hazardous
forhazardous
hazardousand and
and flammable
andflammable liquid
liquid
liquid
𝛾𝛾𝛾𝛾 n --destruction
destruction consequence
consequence coefficient
coefficient for
for hazardous
hazardous and
and flammable
flammable liquids
liquid
realized by connecting finished rings from bottom to top 𝑓𝑓 n𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
n - , 𝑓𝑓
flammable = steel
liquids design strenght,
[PN-B-03210], 250 MPa, value for St3SX steel
steel ch
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 -- ,, 𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑓𝑓𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steel design
= steel design strenght,
strenght, 250 250 MPa,MPa, value value for for St3SX
St3SX steel ch
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = ch
using hydraulic lifts. 𝑓𝑓 – - ,,  𝑓𝑓 =
steel steel
design design strenght,
strenght, 250 250
MPa, MPa,
value value
for St3SX for St3SX steel cho
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 -- , 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
03200];
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 =
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = steel
steel design
design strenght,
strenght, 250 250 MPa,MPa, value value for for St3SX
St3SX steel
steel choch
03200];
03200];
Due to lack of publicly available information on the design 03200]; steel chosen from [PN-B-03200],
03200];
03200]; 𝑤𝑤 --–weight
3
𝜌𝜌
of fermentation chambers for biogas plants, the thickness of 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐,,, 𝜌𝜌 𝜌𝜌
𝜌𝜌𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤 - weightweightby
weight bybyvolume
by volumeof
volume
volume ofofliquid
of liquid(stored)
liquid
liquid (stored)[kN/m
(stored)
(stored) [kN/m
[kN/m
[kN/m 33];
];
3 ];
3
],
𝜌𝜌 , 𝜌𝜌 - weight
𝜌𝜌𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤--weight
walls and the bottom of the tank are calculated using norm PN- 𝜌𝜌r𝜌𝜌𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐–𝑐𝑐-, ,𝜌𝜌tank's
tank’s weight
diameter by
by volume
byvolume
volume
in[mm].
[mm]. of
of liquid
ofliquid (stored)
liquid(stored)
(stored)[kN/m [kN/m
[kN/m ];]; 33 ];
r - tank's tank's diameter diameter
diameter in in
in [mm].
[mm].
B-03210 which covers construction of steel tanks for liquids. rrrr----tank's The shell
tank's
tank's diameter
diameter
diameter should in
in not be produced from sheets thick-
[mm].
in[mm].
[mm].
The
The shell
shell should
should not be
be produced
notperformed produced from
from sheets
sheets thicker
thicker than than 40 40 m m
According to the PN-B-03210 norm, the tank should con- er than The 40 mm shell[13,should
14]. The not be produced calculations,
from sheets afterthicker than 40 m
Ziółko The
The
The shell
shell
shell should
should
should not
not
not be
be
be produced
produced
produced from
from
from sheets
sheets
sheets thicker
thicker
thicker than
than
than 40
40
40 m
mm
Ziółko 1986].
sist of six bands of shell (Fig. 3) joined using groove welds. rounding
Ziółko 1986].
to fullThe
1986]. The
The
mm, performed
providedcalculations,
performed
performed
the following
calculations,
calculations,
after
after
after
rounding
thickness
rounding
rounding
for to to full
to full mm,
full mm, provi
mm, prov
provi
Ziółko
the
Ziółko
Ziółko rings 1986].
1986].(Table
1986]. The
The2).
The performed
performed
performed calculations,
calculations,
calculations, after
after
after rounding
rounding
rounding to
toto full
full
full mm,
mm,
mm, provi
provid
provi
thickness
thickness for for the
for the rings
the rings (Table
rings (Table
(Table 2). 2).
2).
thickness
thickness
thickness
thickness
Table 2. for
for
for the
the
the
Calculated rings
rings
rings (Table
(Table
(Table
thickness 2).
2).
2).
of individual rings
Ta
Table
Table b l e2. 2.2Calculated
. Calculatedthickness
Calculated thickness of
thickness ofindividual
of individualrings
individual rings
rings forforthethe
for
for the
the
tank's
tank’stank's shell
tank's shell [own
shell [own ela
[own ela
ela
Table
shell
Table
Table2.2.Calculated 2.
[own Calculated
elaboration]
Calculatedthickness thickness
thicknessof of individual
ofindividual
individualrings rings
ringsfor for
forthe the tank's
thetank's
tank'sshell shell [own
shell[own
[ownela ela
ela
Shell
Shell ring
ring Thickness
Thickness [mm] [mm]
Shell ring Shell
Thickness ring
[mm]Thickness [mm]
Shell
Shelltse1
Shell ring
ring
tse1ring Thickness
Thickness
Thickness [mm]
66 [mm]
[mm]
tse1 tse1
6 6
tse1
tse2
tse1
tse1
tse2 6666
tse2 tse2
6 6
tse2
tse3
tse2
tse2
tse3 6 66
6
tse3 tse3
6 6
tse3
tse3
tse3 6 66
tse4 6
tse5 5
tse6 5

The internal surface of the shell will be coated with epoxy


cover Breston CE100, which will serve as a chemical and
Fig. 3. Schematic construction of a reactor [PN-B-03210] anti-corrosion protection. In order to monitor all spills of
hazardous substances into the environment, the external sur-
The shell of the tank was divided into 6 equal bands. face of the shell will utilize a spill monitoring system Breston
According to the norm PN-B-03210, the shell of the tank MPV345 [breston.pl/zabezpieczenia-chemoodporne-stal.php].
should be produced from unalloyed steel. Therefore, the ma- The top ring will be capped with an angle section 100x100x7
terial chosen for production may be unalloyed steel St3SX manufactured from the same steel as the rest of the shell. The
chosen from the PN-B-03200 norm. Calculation of thick- thickness of the middle section of the tank’s bottom (tb2) was
ness
in millimetres, of of individual
individual bandsbandsof theconnected by groove welds
shell is established were
by selecting assumed
the largestonvalues
basis of  [PN-B-03210] and will be 5 mm and the
realized according to the PN-B-03210 norm and equations thickness of the ring connecting the middle part of the tank’s
obtained from:
(4) and (5). Thickness of steel sheets (ts,e), in millimetres, bottom with the tank’s shell (tb1) will be 6 mm.
in millimetres, of individual bands of the shell is established by selecting the largest values
- exploitation condition expressed
of individual bandsbyofequation
the shell(4): is established by selecting
obtained from: the largest values obtained (𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛from:
+𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓 𝜌𝜌𝐶𝐶 𝑦𝑦)𝛾𝛾𝑛𝑛 𝑟𝑟 ROOF OF THE DESIGNED TANK
– exploitation 𝑡𝑡𝑠𝑠,𝑒𝑒 =
condition expressed + 𝐶𝐶1 (4)
- exploitation condition expressed by equation (4): by equation (4):
𝑓𝑓𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝛼𝛼⊥
The covering of the tank will be a gas-tight membrane,
(𝛾𝛾 𝜌𝜌 +𝛾𝛾 𝜌𝜌 𝑦𝑦)𝛾𝛾 𝑟𝑟
𝑡𝑡𝑠𝑠,𝑒𝑒 =
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑛𝑛 𝑓𝑓 𝐶𝐶 𝑛𝑛
+ 𝐶𝐶1 , (4)
(4) which will serve as a biogas tank. In order to protect the gas
𝑓𝑓𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝛼𝛼⊥
- hydrostatic test condition expressed by equation (5): against weather conditions, the gas-tight membrane will be
– hydrostatic test condition expressed by equation (5): covered by an additional external membrane. Air will be
- hydrostatic test condition expressed by(𝛾𝛾equation (5): pumped between the two membranes. The basic character-
𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 +𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓 𝜌𝜌𝑤𝑤 𝑦𝑦)𝛾𝛾𝑛𝑛 𝑟𝑟
𝑡𝑡𝑠𝑠,𝑒𝑒 = 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 , (5)
(5) istics of the two membranes are presented in Table 3.
𝑓𝑓 𝛼𝛼 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 ⊥

where: where: (𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 +𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓 𝜌𝜌𝑤𝑤 𝑦𝑦)𝛾𝛾𝑛𝑛 𝑟𝑟 Ta b l e 3 . Parameters of roof membranes [www.czystaenergia.pl]
𝑡𝑡𝑠𝑠,𝑒𝑒 = (5)
𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 - computational ρn –overpressure
computational in overpressure
𝑓𝑓𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑in
the gas space
𝛼𝛼⊥the gas space of the tank
of the tank with a fixed roof or weight (own) Polyester – internal PVC – external
where: with a fixed roof or weight (own) of a floating roof di- Parameter load-bearing layer covering layer
of a floating roofvideddivided by tank’s
by the the tank's cross-section
cross-section areaarea
(with(with a tank
a tank withwithUnit
fixed roof with
weight 900 g/m2 900 g/m2
𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 - computational overpressure in the gas space of the tank with a fixed roof or weight (own)
hydrostatic test fixed
𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 =0),roof
withwith hydrostatic
exploitation test =0),𝜌𝜌with
conditions exploitation
𝑛𝑛 = 100 [kPa]; Maximal tearing
4700 N/5cm 4200 N/5cm
of a floating roof divided by
conditions = the
100tank's
[kPa],cross-section area (with a tank withstrength fixed roof with
y - distance from the upper edge of the shell (in case of a floating roof - from the maximal
hydrostatic ytest
– d𝜌𝜌istance from the upper edge of the shell (in case of Maximal puncture 4500 N/5cm
𝑛𝑛 =0), with exploitation conditions 𝜌𝜌𝑛𝑛 = 100 [kPa]; 4000 N/5cm
liquid level) to a floating
level: 100roof
mm–over fromthe
thebottom
maximal edge of alevel)
liquid dimensioned
to level: shell band, when it
strength
y - distance from the 100 upper edge the
mm over of the shelledge(in case of a floating roofshell- from
Gasthe maximal < 200 (cm3/(m2 d < 450 (cm3/(m2
permeability
is connected via groove weld or bottom 300 mm in case of a dimensioned
of a band connected via end-jointing
band, when it is connected via groove weld or 300 mm (Methane) bar) d bar)
liquid level) to level: 100 mm over the bottom edge of a dimensioned shell band, when it
[m]; in case of a band connected via end-jointing [m]; Fire rating DIN
B1
is connectedC1via groove weld
– corrosion allowance mm in case of a band connected 4102
or 300[PN-B-03210], via end-jointing
C1 - corrosion allowance [PN-B-03210];
[m];
𝛼𝛼⊥ - should be assumed 𝛼𝛼⊥ =1 [PN-B-03200];
C corrosion allowance [PN-B-03210];
𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓1 -- load coefficient [PN-B-03210];
𝛼𝛼⊥ - should be assumed 𝛼𝛼⊥ =1 [PN-B-03200];
𝛾𝛾fn - pressure load coefficient in the gas area of the tank with overpressure [PN-B-03210];
𝛾𝛾𝑓𝑓 - load coefficient [PN-B-03210];
𝛾𝛾n - destruction consequence coefficient for hazardous and flammable liquids [PN-B-03210];
86 KAROL TUCKI, MAREK KLIMKIEWICZ, PIOTR PIĄTKOWSKI
A - pipe's cross-section area [m2];
V - substrate flow speed [m/s], [Gradziuk 2003].
Both membranes will be attached to the angle section A – pipe’s cross-section area [m2],
topping the tank, between the internal membrane and the V – substrate flow speed [m/s], [5].
applied angle section there will be a seal of foamed DailyEPDM
substrate flow Daily substrate
Q was flowusing
calculated Q wasequation
calculated using equation (8):
(8):
rubber [www.essentracomponents.pl]. The capacity of the
𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
gas membrane should be from ¼ to 2 daily biogas yields. Q = 𝑞𝑞 , (8) (8)
The project assumes that the biogas tank with the part of the
fermentation chamber not filled with substrate where: will be able where:
to hold ½ of a daily biogas production. Annual production of M
Msub - substrate mass – substrate mass stream [kg/d],
sub stream [kg/d];
biogas read from the calculator is about 87 178.18 m3/y and q – density of 3substrate [kg/m3].
q - density of substrate [kg/m ].
the operating
of the biogas plant time ofa the
is 8000 hours biogas
year, plant is333
i.e. about 8000 hours
days. a year,
The On the
dailyi.e.production basis of calculations the value of Q was achieved
of biogas
about 333 days. The
3 daily production of biogas will therefore at 10 [m3/d], i.e. 0.00016 [m3/s]. When substituting and trans-
will therefore be about 262 m3 . According to the literature sources [Szlachta 2006] biogas
be about 262 m . According to the literature sources On [12]
the basis
bio- offorming
calculations
equationthe(7),
value of Q was
the target pipe’sachieved [m3/d],
at 10area
cross-section was i.e. 0.00016 [m
3

tanks are designed to store


gas tanks are ¼ to 2 daily
designed biogas
to store ¼ toproduction.
2 daily biogasTheproduction.
project assumes that theNext,
calculated. tankafter using the equation for an area of a cir-
When substituting and transforming equation (7), the target pipe's cross-section area w
The project assumes that the tank should be able to hold ½ cle, the
should be able to hold ½ of the daily biogas production. Part of the gas is going to fill the part pipe’s diameter was calculated. From catalogue [6]
of the daily biogas production. Part of the gas iscalculated.
going to fillNext, afterofusing
a pipe thesteel
stainless equation for an with
was chosen areasimilar
of a circle,
internalthe
di-pipe's diameter w
of the tank not filled with substrate.
the part of the tank not filled with substrate. calculated. From ameter of 57 mm
catalogue [6] and thickness
a pipe of 2 mm.steel
of stainless It waswas
assumed
chosen thatwith similar inter
The height of
The height of the membrane the membrane
dome dome was
was established established
using system ofusing
equationsthe substrate
(6). The will
first be fed from the tank using identical pipe.
diameter of 57 mm and thickness of 2 mm. It was assumed that the substrate will be fed fro
system of equations (6). The first equation covers the volume
equation covers the volume of a hemispherical bowl and the second is the equation for the
of a hemispherical bowl and the second is the the tank using
equation for identical pipe.
radius of the hemispherical bowl's base.
the radius of the hemispherical bowl’s base: CONCLUSIONS
π
𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = πh2 R − 3 h3
{ , (6)
(6) The optimal volumeCONCLUSION
of a fermentation chamber is im-
𝑟𝑟𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = √(2𝑅𝑅 − ℎ)ℎ pacted by a number of factors such as: volume load, hydrau-
where: lic retention time and the coefficient of the space required
where:
Vmw – volume of internal membrane that stores gas [mThe 3
], optimal
by thevolume of a fermentation chamber is impacted by a number of fact
technical equipment. The construction elements have,
3
𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 - volume ofh internal
– heightmembrane that stores
of the internal gas [mthat
membrane ]; stores gasas:
such above
volumetoload,
a large extent, retention
hydraulic been determined.
time and the coefficient of the space required by
the tank [m],
h - height of the internal membrane that stores gas above the tank [m]; equipment. The construction elements have,and
technical The realization of full calculations to adetailed selection
large extent, been determined.
rmw – internal diameter of the angle section to which the of elements requires knowledge of many disciplines such
rmw - internal diameter of the angle
membrane section to
is attached which the membrane
[m], is attachedas:
The realization [m];
of full calculations
thermal andliquid
engineering, detailed selectionorof
mechanics elementsand
mechanics requires knowledge
R - diameter of Rthe – sphere
diameter
outofofthe sphere
which theout of which the
hemispherical hemispherical
bowl [m]. mechanics
is cutdisciplines
many of materials.
such as: thermal engineering, liquid mechanics or mechanics and mechan
bowl is cut [m].
of materials.
Tank's thermal insulation
TANK’S THERMAL INSULATION REFERENCES
The selected insulation material is a mat of mineral REFERENCES glass wool, 10 mm thick, with
The selected insulation material is a mat of mineral glass 1. Curkowski A., Mroczkowski P., Oniszk-Popław-
2
thermal transmittance
wool, 10 of mm
0.044 W/mwith
thick, , which will transmittance
thermal be glued to [1]the
of shell
0.044 using SPRAY-KON
Curkowski A., Mroczkowski
ska A., WiśniewskiP., G.,Oniszk-Popławska A., Wiśniewski
2009: Biogaz rolniczy – produk- G., 2009: Biog
S202 glue. TheW/m whichwill
willbebeadditionally
glued to thecovered
shell using
withSPRAY-KON cja steel
i wykorzystanie, Mazowiecka AgencjaAgencja
Energetyczna.
2
insulation
, a trapezoidal profiled
rolniczy – produkcja sheet
i wykorzystanie, Mazowiecka Energetyczna. Warszaw
S202 glue. The insulation will be additionally covered with Warszawa.
FLOLINE 40, a trapezoidal
which will protect
profiledthe
steeltank against
sheet FLOLINE weather
40, conditions.
[2] will The
whichCurkowski 2. sheet will be
A., Oniszk-Popławska
Curkowski A., Wiśniewski
A., Oniszk-Popławska G., 2011:
A., Wiśniewski G., Mała biogazow
connected to theprotect the tank
channel against
sections weather
using sheetconditions. The sheet
metal screws. Bothwill be sections
channel
rolnicza 2011: and
z lokalnym Mała biogazownia rolnicza
the
zagospodarowaniem z lokalnym
ciepła zagospo-
odpadowego i masy pofermentacyjn
connected to the channel sections using sheet
screws will be selected using the software in which the project will be
metal screws.
created
darowaniem
(e.g. Autodesk
ciepła odpadowego i masy pofermentacyj-
FundacjaInstytutnarzeczEkorozwoju, Warszawa.
Both channel sections and the screws will be selected using nej. FundacjaInstytutnarzeczEkorozwoju, Warszawa.
Inventor 2014).the software in which the project will be created [3] Fischer 3.
(e.g. Auto­ T., Fischer
Krieg A.,T., 2002:
Krieg Projektowanie i budowa i budowa
A., 2002: Projektowanie biogazowni, Krieg Fisc
desk Inventor 2014). GmbH, Germany.biogazowni, Krieg& Fischer GmbH, Germany.
4. Fleszar J., Kalinowska K., 2013: Rodzaje zbiorników
Selection of pipes to feed and remove the
SELECTION OFsubstrate
PIPES TO FEED do magazynowania biogazu stosowanych w biogazow-
AND REMOVE THE SUBSTRATE niach. TechnikaRolniczaOgrodniczaiLeśna. Nr 2, 20-22.
The substrate (cattle slurry) will be pumped to the tank via a feeder pipe 5. located
Gradziuk aboveP. i inni., 2003: Biopaliwa, Wydawnictwo
The substrate (cattle slurry) will be pumped to the tank
the fluid level. The slurry will be pumped from the fermentation tank to a post-fermentation Wieś Jutra, 54-58.
via a feeder pipe located above the fluid level. The slurry 6. Kowalska A., 2011: Recruiting and using agricultural
tank via an exitwill
pipebe
located
pumped in the middle
from part of the lower
the fermentation tankring of the chamber. biogas,
to a post-fer- The diameter
TEKA Kom. Mot. Energ. Roln, Lublin, Vol. 11c,
of the pipe was mentation
calculatedtankaftervia
theanconversion
exit pipe located in the(7).
of equation middle part of 118-125.
the lower ring of the chamber. The diameter of the pipe was 7. Myczko A., Myczko R., Kołodziejczyk T., Goli-
calculated after the conversion Q =ofA∙ 𝑉𝑉 (7) (7):
equation mowska R., Lenarczyk J., Janas Z., Kliber A., Kar-
where: łowski J., Dolska M., 2011: Budowa i eksploatacja
Q = A·V,  (7) biogazowni rolniczych. InstytutTechnologiczno-Przy-
Q - daily substrate flow [m3/s];
rodniczy, Warszawa-Poznań.
where: 8. Piekarczyk M., Michałowski T., Kowalczyk D.,
Q – daily substrate flow [m3/s], 2014: Przykłady projektowania stalowych konstrukcji
DESIGN OF DIGESTER BIOGAS TANK 87

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konstrukcyjne odnoszące się do budowy płaszcza zbiornika bio-
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