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REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION

CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY REGULATION (CASR)

PART 61
LICENSING OF PILOTS AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS
LAMPIRAN PERATURAN MENTERI PERHUBUNGAN
NOMOR : PM 50 Tahun 2016
TANGGAL : 3 Mei 2016

CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY REGULATIONS


(C.A.S.R.)

PART 61
AMANDMENT 4

LICENSING OF PILOTS AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS

REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION
Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

PART 61
LICENSING OF PILOTS AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................ i
SUBPART A - GENERAL ................................................................................................ A-1
61.2 Licensing of Foreign Pilots and Flight Instructors Outside the Republic of
Indonesia........................................................................................................ A-1
61.3 Requirements for Licenses, Ratings, and Authorizations ............................... A-1
61.5 Licenses and Ratings Issued Under This Part ................................................ A-2
61.7 Language Proficiency Requirements ............................................................. A-4
61.13 Application and Qualification .......................................................................... A-4
61.15 Offenses Involving Alcohol or Drugs............................................................... A-5
61.16 Refusal to Submit to an Alcohol Test or to Furnish Test Results .................... A-5
61.17 Temporary License ......................................................................................... A-6
61.19 Duration of pilot and Flight Instructor Licenses ............................................... A-6
61.21 Duration of Category II Pilot Authorization ...................................................... A-6
61.23 Duration of Medical Certificates...................................................................... A-7
61.25 Change of Name ............................................................................................ A-7
61.27 Voluntary Surrender or Exchange of License ................................................. A-7
61.29 Replacement of Lost or Destroyed License .................................................... A-7
61.31 General Limitations .......................................................................................... A-8
61.33 Tests: General Procedure ........................................................................... A-10
61.35 Written tests: Prerequisites and passing grades.......................................... A-10
61.37 Written Tests: Cheating or other Unauthorized Conduct .............................. A-11
61.39 Prerequisites for Flight Tests ........................................................................ A-11
61.41 Flight Instruction Received from Flight Instructors Not Licensed by DGAC
..................................................................................................................... A-11
61.43 Flight tests : General procedures................................................................ A-12
61.45 Flight Tests: Required Aircraft and Equipment ............................................. A-12
61.47 Flight Test: Status of DGAC Inspectors and Designated Examiners ............ A-13
61.49 Retesting After Failure .................................................................................. A-14
61.51 Pilot logbooks. .............................................................................................. A-14
61.53 Operations during Medical Deficiency .......................................................... A-15
61.55 Second Command Qualifications ................................................................. A-16
61.56 Flight Review ................................................................................................ A-17
61.57 Recent Flight Experience: Pilot In Command ............................................... A-17
61.58 Pilot in Command Proficiency check: Operation of Aircraft Requiring More
Than One Pilot ............................................................................................. A-18
61.59 Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration of Applications, Licenses, ..... A-20
61.60 Change of Address....................................................................................... A-20
SUBPART B - AIRCRAFT RATINGS AND SPECIAL LICENSES.................................... B-1
61.63 Additional aircraft ratings ( other than Airline Transport Pilot). ...................... B-1

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61.65Instrument Rating Requirements................................................................... B-2


61.67Category II Pilot Authorization Requirements................................................ B-4
61.69Glider towing: Experience and Instruction Requirements ............................. B-5
61.71Graduates of approved flying schools: Special rules. .................................... B-6
61.73Military Pilots or Former Military Pilots: Special Rules................................... B-6
61.75Pilot License Issued on Basis of a Foreign Pilot License .............................. B-9
61.77Special Purpose Pilot License: Operation Of Indonesia-Registered Civil
Airplanes Leased By A Person Not An Indonesia Citizen ............................ B-10
SUBPART C - STUDENT AND SPORT PILOTS ............................................................. C-1
61.83 Eligibility Requirements : Students Pilots ...................................................... C-1
61.85 Application: Student Pilots ............................................................................ C-1
61.87 Solo Flight Requirements For Student Pilots................................................. C-1
61.89 General Limitations: Student Pilots ............................................................... C-4
61.91 Aircraft Limitations For Student Pilots : Pilot In Command ............................ C-5
61.93 Cross-Country Flight Requirements (For Student And Sport Pilots
Seeking Private Pilot Certification) ................................................................ C-5
61.95 Operations In Class B Airspace And At Airports Located Within Class B
Airspace: Student Pilots ................................................................................ C-7
61.96 Eligibility Requirements: Sport Pilots............................................................. C-7
61.97 Aeronautical Knowledge: Sport Pilots ........................................................... C-8
61.98 Flight Proficiency : Sport Pilot ....................................................................... C-8
61.99 Airplane Rating : Aeronautical Experience For Sport Pilots ........................... C-9
61.100 Rotorcraft Rating : Aeronautical Experience For Sport Pilots ...................... C-10
61.101 Sporting Pilot Privileges And Limitations ..................................................... C-11
SUBPART D - PRIVATE PILOTS .................................................................................... D-1
61.103 Eligibility Requirements: General. ................................................................. D-1
61.105 Aeronautical Knowledge ............................................................................... D-1
61.107 Flight Proficiency........................................................................................... D-3
61.109 Airplane Rating; Aeronautical Experience..................................................... D-5
61.111 Cross - Country Flights: Pilot Based On Small Islands.................................. D-5
61.113 Rotorcraft Rating: Aeronautical Experience ................................................. D-6
61.115 Glider Rating: Aeronautical Experience ........................................................ D-7
61.117 Lighter-Than-Air Rating: Aeronautical Experience ........................................ D-7
61.118 Private Pilot Privileges And Limitations : Pilot In Command .......................... D-8
61.119 Free balloon Rating: Limitations .................................................................... D-8
61.120 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Second in Command of Aircraft
Requiring More Than One Required Pilot ..................................................... D-8
SUBPART E - COMMERCIAL PILOTS ........................................................................... E-1
61.123 Eligibility Requirements: General .................................................................. E-1
61.125 Aeronautical Knowledge ............................................................................... E-1
61.127 Flight Proficiency........................................................................................... E-3
61.129 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Experience..................................................... E-5
61.131 Helicopter Ratings: Aeronautical Experience ............................................... E-5
61.133 [Reserved]..................................................................................................... E-6
61.137 Free balloon Rating: Aeronautical Experience .............................................. E-6
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61.139 Commercial Pilot Privileges And Limitations : General.................................. E-7


61.141 Airship And Free Balloon Ratings : Limitations ............................................. E-7
SUBPART F - AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOTS ................................................................F-1
61.153 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Knowledge .......................................................F-1
61.155 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Experience......................................................F-3
61.157 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Skill .................................................................F-4
61.159 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Knowledge ...................................................F-5
61.161 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Experience ..................................................F-5
61.163 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Skill ..............................................................F-6
61.165 Additional Category Ratings ...........................................................................F-6
61.167 Tests ..............................................................................................................F-7
61.169 Instruction in Air Transportation Service.........................................................F-7
61.171 General Privileges and Limitations ..................................................................F-7
SUBPART G - FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS LICENSES APPROPRIATE TO AIRPLANES
AND HELICOPTERS ........................................................................................ G-1
61.183 Eligibility Requirements: General .................................................................. G-1
61.185 Aeronautical Knowledge ............................................................................... G-1
61.187 Flight Proficiency........................................................................................... G-2
61.189 Flight instructor records ................................................................................. G-2
61.191 Additional Flight Instructor Ratings................................................................ G-3
61.193 Flight instructor authorizations ...................................................................... G-3
61.195 Flight instructor limitations. ............................................................................ G-4
61.197 Renewal of Flight Instructor Licenses............................................................ G-5
61.199 Expired Flight Instructor Licenses and ratings. .............................................. G-5
APPENDIX A - PRACTICAL TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRPLANE AIRLINE
TRANSPORT PILOT LICENSES AND ASSOCIATED CLASS AND TYPE
RATINGS ................................................................................................... App.A-1
APPENDIX B - PRACTICAL TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR HELICOPTER AIRLINE
TRANSPORT PILOT LICENSES WITH A HELICOPTER CLASS RATING
AND ASSOCIATED TYPE RATINGS ........................................................ App.B-1
APPENDIX C – LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE ............................... App.C-1

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SUBPART A - GENERAL

61.1 Applicability

(a) This part prescribes the requirements for issuing pilot and Flight Instructor
Licenses and Ratings, the conditions under which those licenses and ratings are
necessary, and the privileges and limitations of those licenses and ratings.

(b) Except as provided in Part 61.71, an applicant for a license or rating must meet
the requirements of this part.

61.2 Licensing of Foreign Pilots and Flight Instructors Outside the Republic
of Indonesia.

A person who is not an Indonesian citizen shall be issued a license under this part
(other than under Part 61.75 or Part 61.77), outside the Republic of Indonesia, only
when the Director General finds that the pilot license is needed for the operation of an
Indonesian registered civil aircraft or finds that the Flight Instructor License is needed
for the training of students who are citizens of the Republic of Indonesia.

61.3 Requirements for Licenses, Ratings, and Authorizations

(a) Pilot license. No person may act as pilot in command or in any other capacity as a
required pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft of Indonesia registry unless he
has in his personal possession a current pilot license issued to him under this part.
However, when the aircraft is operated within a foreign country a current pilot
license issued by the country in which the aircraft is operated may be used.

(b) Pilot license : Foreign aircraft. No person may, within the Republic of Indonesia,
act as pilot in command or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight
crewmember of a civil aircraft of foreign registry unless he has in his personal
possession a current pilot license issued to him under this part, or a pilot license
issued to him or validated for him by the country in which the aircraft is registered.

(c) Medical certificate. Except for free balloon pilots piloting balloons and glider pilots
piloting gliders, no person may act as pilot in command or in any other capacity as
a required pilot flight crewmember of an aircraft under a license issued to him
under this part, unless he has in his personal possession an appropriate, current
medical certificate issued under Part 67 of the CASRs. However, when the
aircraft is operated within a foreign country with a current pilot license issued by
that foreign country, evidence of current medical qualification for that foreign
license, issued by that foreign country, may be used. In the case of a pilot license
issued on the basis of a foreign pilot license under Part 61.75, evidence of current
medical qualification accepted for the issued of that foreign license is used in place
of a medical certificate.

(d) Flight Instructor License. Except for lighter – than – air flight instruction in lighter –
than – air aircraft, and for instruction in air transportation service given by the
holder of an Airplane Transport Pilot License under Part 61.169, no person other
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than the holder of a Flight Instructor License issued by the Director General with
an appropriate rating on that license may-
(1) Give any of the flight instruction required to qualify for a solo flight, solo cross
country flight, or for the issue of a pilot or Flight Instructor License or rating;
(2) Endorse a pilot logbook to show that he has given any flight instruction; or
(3) Endorse a student pilot license or logbook for solo operating privileges.
(e) Instrument rating. No person may act as pilot in command or co-pilot of a civil
aircraft under instrument flight rules, or in weather conditions less than the
minimums prescribed for VFR flight unless;
(1) In the case of an airplane, he holds an instrument rating or an airline
transport pilot license with an airplane rating on it;
(2) In the case of a helicopter, he holds a helicopter instrument rating or an
airline transport pilot license with helicopter category and a helicopter class
rating;
(3) In the case of a glider, he holds an instrument rating (airplane) or an airline
transport pilot license with an airplane category rating; or
(4) In the case of an airship, he holds a commercial pilot license with lighter-than
– air category and airship class ratings.
(f) Category II pilot authorization.
(1) No person may act as pilot in command of a civil aircraft in a Category II
operation unless he holds a current Category II pilot authorization for that
type aircraft or, in the case of a civil aircraft of foreign registry, he is
authorized by the country of registry to act as pilot in command of that aircraft
in category II operation.
(2) No person may act as second in command of a civil aircraft in a Category II
operation unless he holds a current appropriate instrument rating or an
appropriate airline transport pilot license or, in the case of a civil aircraft of
foreign registry, he is authorized by the country of registry to act as second in
command of that aircraft in category II operations.
This paragraph does not apply to operations conducted by the holder of a
certificate issued under Parts 121 and 135 of the CASRs.
(g) Inspection of license. Each person who holds a pilot license, Flight Instructor
License, medical certificate, authorization, or license required by this part shall
present it for inspection upon the request of the Director General or his authorized
representative.

61.5 Licenses and Ratings Issued Under This Part

(a) The following licenses are issued under this part:


(1) Pilot Licenses;
(i) Student pilot.
(ii) Sport pilot.
(iii) Private pilot.
(iv) Commercial pilot.
(v) Airline transport pilot
(2) Flight Instructor Licenses;
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(b) The following ratings are placed on pilot licenses (other than student pilot) where
applicable:
(1) Aircraft category ratings:
(i) Airplane
(ii) Rotorcraft
(iii) Glider
(iv) Lighter-than-air
(2) Airplane class ratings;
(i) Single engine land
(ii) Multiengine land
(iii) Multiengine land
(iv) Multiengine Sea
(3) Rotorcraft class ratings;
(i) Helicopter
(ii) Gyroplane
(4) Lighter-than-air class ratings
(i) Airship
(ii) Free ballon
(5) Aircraft type ratings;
(i) Large aircraft, other than lighter-than-air
(ii) Small turbojet powered aircraft
(iii) Helicopters for operations requiring an airline transport pilot license
(iv) Other aircraft type ratings specified by the Director General through
aircraft type license procedures
(6) Instrument rating (on private and commercial pilot license only):
(i) Instrument Airplanes
(ii) Instrument Helicopter

(c) The following ratings are placed on Flight Instructor Licenses where applicable:
(1) Aircraft category ratings:
(i) Airplane
(ii) Rotorcraft
(iii) Glider
(2) Airplane class ratings;
(i) Single engine
(ii) Multiengine
(3) Rotorcraft class ratings;
(i) Helicopter
(ii) Gyroplane
(4) Instrument rating (on private and commercial pilot license only):
(i) Instrument Airplanes
(ii) Instrument Helicopter

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61.7 Language Proficiency Requirements


(a) Airplane and helicopter pilots who engage in international air navigation or operating
in airspace serviced by foreign air traffic service provider shall demonstrate the
ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony
communications according to English Language Proficiency Rating Scale required
by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), as prescribed in Appendix C.

(b) The language proficiency of airplane and helicopter pilots who demonstrate
proficiency below the expert Level (Level 6) shall be formally evaluated at intervals
in accordance with an individual’s demonstrated proficiency level, as follows:
(1) Those demonstrating language proficiency at the Operational Level (Level 4)
should be evaluated at least every three years; and
(2) Those demonstrating language proficiency at the extended level (Level 5)
should be evaluated at least once every 6 (six) years.

61.9 [Reserved]

61.11 Expired Pilot Licenses and Reissuance

(a) No person who holds an expired pilot license or rating may exercise the privileges
of that pilot license or rating.

(b) A private or commercial pilot license or a special purpose pilot license, issued on
the basis of a foreign pilot license, expires on the expiration date stated thereon.
A license without an expiration date is issued to the holder of the expired license
only if he meets the requirements of Part 61.75 for the issue of a pilot license
based on a foreign license.

61.13 Application and Qualification

(a) An application for a license and rating or for an additional rating under this part is
made on a from and in a manner prescribed by the Director General. Each
applicant must show evidence that the application fee, prescribed by ministerial
decree, has been paid.

(b) An applicant who meets the requirements of this part is entitled to an appropriate
pilot license with aircraft ratings. Additional aircraft category, class, type and other
ratings, for which the applicant is qualified, may be added to his license. However,
the Director General may refuse to issue licenses to person who are not citizens of
the Republic of Indonesia and who do not reside in the Republic of Indonesia.

(c) An applicant for a pilot license who holds a medical certificate under Part 67.19 of
the CASRs with special limitations on it, but who meets all other requirement for
that pilot license, may be issued a pilot license containing such operating
limitations as the Director General determines are necessary because of the
applicant’s medical deficiency.

(d) A Category II pilot authorization is issued as a part of the applicant’s instrument


rating or airline transport pilot license. Upon original issue the authorization
contains a limitation for Category II operation of 1,600 feet RVR and a 150-foot
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decision height. This limitation is removed when the holder shows that since the
beginning of the sixth preceding calendar month he has made three Category II
ILS approaches to a landing under actual or simulated instrument conditions with a
150 – foot decision height.

(e) Unless Authorized by the Director General


(1) A person whose pilot license is suspended may not apply for any pilot or a
Flight Instructor License or any rating during the period of suspension; and
(2) A person whose Flight Instructor License is suspended may not apply for any
rating to be added to that license during the period of suspension

(3) Unless the Order of revocation provides otherwise.

(4) A person whose pilot license is revoked may not apply for any pilot or Flight
Instructor License or rating for 1 year after the date of revocation; and
(5) A person whose Flight Instructor License is revoked may not apply for any
Flight Instructor License for 1 year after date of revocation.

61.15 Offenses Involving Alcohol or Drugs

(a) A conviction for the violation of any national law relating to the growing, processing
manufacture, sale, disposition, transportation, or import of narcotics, drugs,
marihuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances is grounds for-
(1) Denial of an application for any license or rating issued under this part for a
period of up to 1 year after the date of final conviction; or
(2) Suspension or revocation of any license or rating issued under this part.

(b) The commission of an act prohibited by Part 91.17 (a) or Part 91.19(a) of the
CASRs is grounds for
(1) Denial of an application for any license or rating issued under this part for a
period of up to 1 year after the date of that act; or
(2) Suspension or revocation of any license or rating issued under this part.

61.16 Refusal to Submit to an Alcohol Test or to Furnish Test Results

(a) A refusal to submit to a test to indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the
blood, when requested by a law enforcement officer in accordance with Part 91.17
(c) of the CASRs, or a refusal to furnish or authorize the release of the test results
requested by the Director General in accordance with Part 91.17 (c) or (d) of the
CASRs, is grounds for-
(1) Denial of an application for any license or rating issued under this part for a
period of up to 1 year after the date of that refusal; or
(2) Suspension or revocation of any license or rating issued under this part.

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61.17 Temporary License

(a) A temporary pilot or Flight Instructor License, or a rating, effective for a period of
not more than 30 days, may be issued to a qualified applicant pending a review of
his qualifications and the issuance of a permanent license or rating by the Director
General. The permanent license or rating is issued to an applicant found qualified
and a denial thereof is issued to an applicant found not qualified.

(b) A temporary license issued under Paragraph (a) of this Part expires.
(1) At the end of the expiration date stated thereon; or
(2) Upon receipt by the applicant, of
(i) The license or rating sought; or
(ii) Notice that the license or rating sought is denied

61.19 Duration of pilot and Flight Instructor Licenses

(a) Pilot licenses. Any pilot license (other than a student pilot license) issued under
this part is issued with no expiration date. However, the holder of a pilot license
issued on the basis of a foreign pilot license may exercise the privileges of that
license only while the foreign pilot license on which that license is based is
effective.

(b) General. The holder of a license with an expiration date may not, after that date,
exercise the privileges of that license. However, a pilot license bearing an
expiration date, issued within the period of one year before the effective date of
this part of the CASRs, may be exchanged for a new pilot license without an
expiration date if presented to the Directorate of Air Communications (DGAC) for
renewal before the expiration date of the original license.

(c) Student pilot license. A student pilot license expires at the end of the 24th calendar
month after the month in which the license is issued.

(d) Flight Instructor License. A Flight Instructor License


(1) Is effective only while the holder has a current pilot license and a medical
certificate appropriate to the pilot privileges being exercised; and
(2) Expires at the end of the 24th calendar month after the month the license was
last issued or renewed.

(e) Surrender, suspension, or revocation. Any pilot license or Flight Instructor License
issued under this part ceases to be effective if it is surrendered, suspended, or
revoked.

(f) Return of license. The holder of any license issued this part that is suspended or
revoked shall, upon the Director General’s request, return it to the Director
General.

61.21 Duration of Category II Pilot Authorization

A category II pilot authorization expires at the end of the sixth calendar month after the
authorization was last issued or renewed. Upon passing a practical test it is renewed
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for each type aircraft for which an authorization is held. However, an authorization for
any particular type aircraft for which an authorization is held will not be renewed to
extend beyond the end of the 12th calendar month after the practical test was passed in
that type aircraft. If the holder of the authorization passes the practical test for a
renewal in the calendar month before the authorization expires, he is considered to
have passed it during the month the authorization expired.

61.23 Duration of Medical Certificates

(a) A first-class medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of-
(1) The sixth calendar month after the month of the date of examination shown
on the certificate, for operations requiring an airline transport pilot license;
(2) The sixth calendar month after the month of the date of examination shown
on the certificate, for operations requiring a commercial pilot license; and
(3) The 12th calendar month after the month of the date of examination shown
on the certificate, for operations requiring a private, sporting, or student pilot
license.

(b) A second-class medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of _
(1) The 12th calendar month after the month of the date examination shown on
the certificate, for operations requiring, a private, sport, or student pilot
license.

61.25 Change of Name

An application for the change of a name on a license issued under this part must be
accompanied by the applicant’s current license and a copy of the marriage license,
court order, or other document verifying the change, and a check giro or post wesel for
the cost of the revised license, payable to the DGAC. The accompanying documents
will be returned to the applicant after inspection.

61.27 Voluntary Surrender or Exchange of License

The holder of a license issued under this part may voluntary surrender it for
cancellation, or for the issue of a license of lower grade, or another license with specific
ratings deleted. If he so requests, he must include the following signed statement or its
equivalent:

“This request is made for my own reasons, with full knowledge that my (insert name of
license or rating, as appropriate) may not be reissued to me unless I again pass the
tests prescribed for its issue.”

61.29 Replacement of Lost or Destroyed License

(a) An application for the replacement of a lost or destroyed license issued under this
part is to be made to the DGAC, Directorate of Airworthiness Certification.
(1) State the name of the person to whom the license was issued, the permanent
mailing address, date and place of birth of the license holder, and any
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available information regarding the grade, number, and date of issue of the
license, and the rating on it; and
(2) Be accompanied by a check giro or post wesel for the cost of the
replacement license, payable to the DGAC.
(3) Police report from the local police office

(b) An application for the replacement of a lost or destroyed medical certificate shall
be made by letter to the DGAC, Aviation Medical Center, accompanied by a
receipt for the cost of the replacement license, payable to the DGAC.

(c) A person who has lost a license issued under this part, or a medical certificate
issued under part 67 of the CASRs, or both, may obtain a facsimile message (fax)
from the DGAC confirming that it was issued. The fax may be carried as a license
for a period not to exceed 60 days pending his receipt of the duplicate license
under Paragraph (a) of (b) of this Part, unless he has been notified that the
license has been suspended or revoked. The request for such a fax may be
made by letter or fax, including the date upon which a duplicate license was
previously requested, if a request has been made, and a check giro or post wesel
for the cost of the duplicate license. The request for a fax license is sent to the
office listed in Paragraph (a) or (b) of this Part, as appropriate. However, a
request for both license and medical certificates at the same time must be sent to
the office prescribed in Paragraph (a) of this Part.

61.31 General Limitations

(a) Type ratings required. No person may act as pilot in command or second in
command or Co-pilot of any of the following aircraft unless he holds a type rating:

(1) Each type of aircraft certificated for operation with a minimum crew of at
least two pilots
(2) A large aircraft (except lighter-than-air)
(3) A helicopter, for operations requiring an airline transport pilot license.
(4) A turbojet powered airplane.
(5) Other aircraft specified by the Director General through aircraft type
certificate procedures.

(b) Category and class rating: Carrying another person or operating for compensation
or hire. Unless he holds a category and class rating for that aircraft, a person may
not act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is carrying another person or is
operated for compensation or hire. In addition, he may not act as pilot in
command of that aircraft for compensation or hire.

(c) Category and class rating: other operations. No person may act as pilot in
command of an aircraft in solo flight in operation not subject to Paragraph (c) of
this Part, unless he meets at least one of the following:
(1) He holds a category and class rating appropriate to that aircraft.
(2) He has received flight instruction in the pilot operations required by this part,
appropriate to the category and class of aircraft for first solo, given to him by
a licensed flight instructor who found him competent to solo that category and

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class of aircraft and has so endorsed his pilot logbook.

(d) High performance airplanes. A person holding a private or commercial pilot


license may not act as pilot in command of an airplane that has more than 200
horsepower, or that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable
propeller, unless he has received flight instruction from an authorized flight
instructor who has certified in his logbook that he is competent to pilot an
airplane that has more than 200 horsepower, or that has a retractable landing
gear, flaps, and a controllable propeller, as the case may be. However, this
instruction is not required if he has logged flight time as pilot in command in high
performance airplanes before the effective date of this part of the CASRs.

(e) High Altitude airplanes.


(1) Except as provided in Paragraph (f) (2) of this Part, no person
may act as pilot in command of a pressurized airplane that has a service
ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000
feet MSL unless that person has completed the ground and flight training
specified in Paragraphs (f) (1) (I) and (ii) of this Part and has received a
logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor
certifying satisfactory completion of the training. The training shall consist of:
(i) Ground training that includes instruction on high altitude aerodynamics
and meteorology; respiration; effects, symptons, and causes of hypoxia
and any other high altitude sicknesses; duration of consciousness
without supple-mental oxygen; effects of prolonged usage of
supplemental oxygen; causes and effects of gas expansion and gas
bubble formations; preventive measures for eliminating gas expansion,
gas bubble formations, and high altitude sicknesses; physical
phenomena and incidents of decompression; and any other
physiological aspects of high altitude flight; and
(ii) Flight training in an airplane, or in a simulator that meets the
requirement of Part 121.407 of the CASRs, and which is representative
of an airplane as described in Paragraph (f) (1) of this Part. This
training shall include normal cruise flight operations while operating
above 25,000 feet MSL; the proper emergency procedures for
simulated rapid decompression without actually depressurizing the
airplane; and emergency descent procedures;
(2) The training required in Paragraph (f) (1) of this Part is not required if a
person can document accomplishment of any of the following in an
airplane, or in a simulator that meets the requirements of Part 121.407 of
this Part, and that is representative of an airplane described in Paragraph
(f) (1) of this Part;
(i) Served as pilot in command prior to the effective date of this part of the
CASRs
(ii) Completed a pilot proficiency check for a pilot license or rating
conducted by the DGAC prior to the effective date of this part of the
CASRs.
(iii) Completed an official pilot in command check by an approved check
pilot for the military services of the Republic of Indonesia; or
(iv) Completed a pilot in command proficiency check under Parts 12, 125,
or 135 conducted by the DGAC or by a DGAC approved check pilot.

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(f) Tailwheel Airplanes. No person may act as pilot in command of a tailwheel


airplane unless that pilot has received flight instruction from an authorized flight
instructor who has found the pilot competent to operate a tailwheel airplane and
has made a one time endorsement so stating in the pilot’s logbook. The
endorsement must certify that the pilot is competent in normal and crosswind
takeoffs and landings, wheel landings unless the manufacturer has recommended
against such landings, and go-around procedures. This endorsement is not
required if a pilot has logged flight time as pilot in command of tailwheel
airplanes before the effective date of this part of the CASRs.

(g) Exception. This Part does not require a class rating for gliders, or category and
class ratings for aircraft that are not type certificated as airplane, helicopter, or
lighter-than-air aircraft. In addition, the rating limitations of this Part do not apply
to:
(1) The holder of a student pilot license;
(2) The holder of a sport pilot license when operating under the provisions of
Part 61.101 (f), (g), and (h).
(3) The holder of a pilot license when operating an aircraft under the authority of
an experimental or provisional type license;
(4) An applicant when taking a flight test given by the Director General; or
(5) The holder of a pilot license with a lighter-than-air category rating when
operating a hot air ballon without an airborne heater.

61.33 Tests: General Procedure

Tests prescribed by or under this part are given at times and places, and by persons,
designated by the Director General.

61.35 Written tests: Prerequisites and passing grades.

(a) An applicant for a written test must-


(1) Show that he has satisfactorily completed the ground instruction course
required by this part for the license or rating sought;
(2) Present as personal identification a license, driver’s license, Kartu Tanda
Penduduk (KTP), or other officially-approved document; and
(3) Present a birth certificate or other official document showing that he meets
the age requirement prescribed in this part for the license sought not later
than 2 years from the date of application for the test.

(b) The minimum passing grade is specified by the Director General on each written
test sheet or booklet furnished to the applicant. This Part does not apply to the
written test for an airline transport pilot license or a rating associated with that
license.

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61.37 Written Tests: Cheating or other Unauthorized Conduct

(a) Excep as authorized by the Director General, no person may:


(1) Copy, or intentionally remove, a written test under this part;
(2) Give to another, or receive from another, any part or copy of that test;
(3) Give help on that test to, or receive help on that test from, any person during
the period that test is being given;
(4) Take any part of that test on behalf of another person;
(5) Use any material or aid during the period that test is being given; or
(6) Internationally cause, assist, or participate in any act prohibited by this
paragraph.

(b) No person whom the Director General finds to have committed an act
prohibited by Paragraph (a) of this Part is eligible for any airman or ground
instructor license or rating, or to take any test thereof, under the CASRs for a
period of 1 year after the date of that act. In addition, the commission of that
act is a basis for suspending or revoking any airman or ground instructor
license or rating held by that person.

61.39 Prerequisites for Flight Tests

(a) To be eligible for a flight test for a license, or an aircraft type, or instrument rating
issued under this part, the applicant must:
(1) Have passed any required written test since the beginning of the 24th
calendar month before the month in which he takes the flight test;
(2) Have the applicable instruction and aeronautical experience prescribed in
this part;
(3) Hold a current medical certificate appropriate to the license he seeks or, in
the case of a rating to be added to his pilot license, at least a second-class
medical certificate issued since the beginning of the 12th calendar month
before the month in which he takes the flight test;
(4) Except for a flight test for an airline transport pilot license, meet the age
requirement for the issuance of the license or rating he seeks; and

(5) Have a written statement from an appropriately licensed flight instructor


certifying that he has give the applicant flight instruction in preparation for the
flight test within 60 days preceding the date of application, and finds him
competent to pass the test. However, an applicant need not have this written
statement if he holds a foreign pilot license issued by a contracting State to
the Convention on International Civil Aviation that authorizes at least the pilot
privileges of the license sought by him.

61.41 Flight Instruction Received from Flight Instructors Not Licensed by


DGAC

Flight instruction may be credited toward the requirements for a pilot license or rating
issued under this part if it is received from :
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(a) An Armed Force (ABRI) of either the Republic of Indonesia or a foreign contracting
State to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in a program for training
military pilots; or

(b) A flight instructor who is authorized to give that flight instruction by the licensing
authority of a foreign contracting State to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation and the flight instruction is given outside the Republic of Indonesia.

61.43 Flight tests : General procedures.

(a) The ability of an applicant for a private or commercial pilot license, or for an aircraft
or instrument rating on that license to perform the required pilot operations is
based on the following :
(1) Executing procedures and maneuvers within the aircraft’s performance
capabilities and limitations, including use of the aircraft’s systems.
(2) Executing emergency procedures and maneuvers appropriate to the aircraft.
(3) Piloting the aircraft with smoothness and accuracy
(4) Exercising judgement
(5) Applying his aeronautical knowledge
(6) Showing that he is the master of the aircraft, with the successful outcome of
a procedure or maneuver never seriously in doubt.

(b) If the applicant fails any of the required pilot operations in accordance with the
applicable provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, the applicant fails the flight
test. The applicant is not eligible for the license or rating sought until he passes
any pilot operations he has failed.

(c) The examiner or the applicant may discontinue the test at any time when the
failure of a required pilot operation makes the applicant ineligible for the license or
rating sought. If the test is discontinued the applicant is entitled to credit for only
those entire pilot operations that he has successfully performed.

61.45 Flight Tests: Required Aircraft and Equipment

(a) General. An applicant for a license or rating under this part must furnish, for each
flight test that he is required to take, an appropriate aircraft of Indonesian registry
that has a current standard or limited airworthiness certificate. However, the
applicant may, at the discretion of the DGAC inspector or designated airmen
conducting the test, furnish an aircraft of Indonesia Registry that has a current
airworthiness certificate other than standard or limited, an aircraft of foreign
registry that is properly licensed by the country of registry, or a military aircraft in
an operational status if its use is allowed by an appropriate military authority.

(b) Required equipment (other than controls). Aircraft furnished for a flight test must
have
(1) The equipment for each pilot operation required for the flight test
(2) No prescribed operating limitation that prohibit any pilot operation required on

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the test;
(3) Pilot seats with adequate visibility for each pilot to operate the aircraft safely,
except as provided in paragraph (d) of this Part; and
(4) Cockpit and outside visibility adequate to evaluate the performance of the
applicant, where an additional jump sat is provided for the examiner.

(c) Required controls. An aircraft (other lighter-than–air) furnished under Paragraph


(a) of this Part for any pilot flight test must have engine power control and flight
controls that are easily reached and operable in a normal manner by both pilots,
unless after considering all the factors, the examiner determines that the flight test
can be conducted safely without them. However, an aircraft having other controls
such as nose wheel steering, brakes, switches, fuel selectors, and engine air flow
controls that are not easily reached and operable in a normal manner by both
pilots may be used, if more than one pilot is required under its airworthiness
certificate, or if the examiner determines that the flight can be conducted safely.

(d) Simulated instrument flight equipment. An applicant for any flight test involving
flight maneuvers solely by reference to instruments must furnish equipment
satisfactory to the examiner that excludes the visual reference of the applicant
outside of the aircraft.

(e) Aircraft with single controls. At the discretion of the examiner, an aircraft furnished
under Paragraph (a) of this Part for a flight test may, in the cases listed below,
have a single set of controls. In such cases, the examiner determines the
competence of the applicant by observation from the ground or from another
aircraft.
(1) A flight test for addition of a class or type rating, not involving demonstration
of instrument skills, to private or commercial pilot license.
(2) A flight test in a single place gyroplane for-
(i) A private pilot license with a rotorcraft category rating and gyroplane
class rating, in which case the license bears the limitation “rotorcraf
single place gyroplane only”, or
(ii) Addition of a helicopter category rating and gyroplane class rating to a
pilot license, in which case a license higher than a private pilot license
bears the limitation “helicopter single place gyroplane, private pilot
privileges, only”

The limitations prescribed by this subparagraph may be removed if the holder of


the license passes the appropriate flight test in a gyroplane with two pilot stations
or otherwise passes the appropriate flight test for a rotorcraft category rating.

61.47 Flight Test: Status of DGAC Inspectors and Designated Examiners

A DGAC inspector or designated examiner conducts the flight test of an applicant for a
pilot license or rating for the purpose of observing the applicant’s ability to perform
satisfactorily the procedures and maneuvers on the flight test. The inspector or
examiner is not pilot in command of the aircraft during the flight test unless he acts as
the PIC for the flight, or a portion of the flight, by prior arrangement with the applicant or
other person who would otherwise act as a pilot in command.

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61.49 Retesting After Failure

(a) An applicant for a written or practical test who fails that test may not apply for
retesting until 30 days after the date the test was failed. However, in the case of a
first failure, the applicant may apply for retesting before the 30 days have expired
provided the applicant presents a logbook or training record endorsement from an
authorized instructor who has given the applicant remedial instruction and finds
the applicant competent to pass the test.

(b) An applicant for a flight instructor license with an airplane category rating, or for a
Flight Instructor License with a glider category rating, who has failed the practical
test due to deficiencies of knowledge or skill relating to stall awareness, spin entry,
spins, or spin recovery techniques must, during the retest, satisfactorily
demonstrate both knowledge and skill in these areas in an aircraft of the
appropriate category that is certificated for spins.

61.51 Pilot logbooks.

(a) The aeronautical training and experience used to meet the requirements for a
license or rating, or the recent experience requirements of this part must be shown
by a reliable record. The logging of other flight time is not required.

(b) Logbook entries. Each pilot shall enter the following information for each flight or
lesson logged:
(1) General.
(i) Date
(ii) Total time of flight
(iii) Place, or points of departure and arrival
(iv) Type and identification of aircraft.
(2) Type of pilot experience or training
(i) Pilot in command or solo
(ii) Second in command
(iii) Flight instruction received from an authorized flight instructor
(iv) Instrument flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor
(v) Pilot ground trainer instruction
(vi) Participating crew (lighter-than-air).
(vii) Other pilot time
(3) Conditions of flight
(i) Day or night
(ii) Actual instrument
(iii) Simulated instrument conditions.

(c) Logging of pilot time


(1) Solo flight time. A pilot may log as solo flight time only that flight time when
he is the sole occupant of the aircraft. However, a student pilot may also log
as solo flight time that time during which he acts as the pilot in command of
an airship requiring more than one flight crewmember.
(2) Pilot in command flight time.

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(i) A sport, private, or commercial pilot may log as pilot in command time
only that flight time during which that pilot:
(A) Is the sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft for which the
pilot is rated; or
(B) When the pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft; or
(C) Except for a sport pilot, when acting as pilot in command of an
aircraft on which more than one pilot is required under
1) The type certification of the aircraft, or
2) The regulations under which the flight is conducted
(ii) An airline transport pilot may log as pilot in command time all of the
flight time during which he acts as a flight instructor
(iii) A licensed flight instructor may log as pilot in command time all flight
time during which he acts as a flight instructor
(3) Second in command flight time. A pilot may log as second in command time
all flight time during which he acts as second in command of an aircraft on
which more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the
aircraft, or the regulations under which the flight is conducted.
(4) Instrument flight time. A pilot may log as instrument flight time only that time
during which he operates the aircraft solely by reference to instruments,
under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions. Each entry must
include the place and type of each instrument flight. An instrument flight
instructor may log as instrument time that time during which he acts as
instrument flight instructor in actual instrument weather conditions.
(5) Instrument time. All time logged as flight instruction, instrument flight
instruction, pilot ground trainer instruction, or ground instruction time must be
certified by the appropriately rated and licensed instruction from whom it was
received.

(d) Presentation of logbook


(1) A pilot must present his logbook ( or other record required by this Part) for
inspection upon reasonable request by the Director General or his authorized
representative.
(2) A student pilot must carry his logbook (or other record required by this Part)
with him on solo cross-country flights, as evidence of the required instructor
clearances and endorsements.
(3) A sport pilot must carry his logbook that has the required instructor
endorsement on all solo flights.
(i) In excess of 50 nautical miles from an airport at which instruction was
received;
(ii) In airspace in which communication with air traffic control is required;
(iii) Between sunset and sunrise; and
(iv) In an aircraft for which the pilot is not rated.

61.53 Operations during Medical Deficiency

No person may act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot
flight crewmmember while he has a know n medical deficiency, or increase of a known
medical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the requirements for his current
medical certificate.

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61.55 Second Command Qualifications

(a) Except as provided in Paragraph (d) of this Part, no person may serve as second
in command of an aircraft type licensed for more than one required pilot flight
crewmember unless that person holds-
(1) At least a current private pilot license with appropriate category and class
rating;
(2) An appropriate instrument rating in the case of flight under IFR.

(b) Except as provided in Paragraph (d) of this Part, no person may serve as second
in command of an aircraft type licensed for more than one required pilot flight
crewmember unless, since the beginning of the 12th calender month before the
month in which the pilot serves, the pilot has, with respect to that type of aircraft;
(1) Become familiar with all information concerning the aircraft’s powerplant,
major components and systems, major appliances, performance and
limitations, standard and emergency operating procedures, and the contents
of the approved aircraft flight manual or approved flight manual material,
placards and markings.
(2) Except as provided in Paragraph (e) of this Part, performed and logged;
(i) Three take off and three landings to a full stop in the aircraft as the sole
manipulator of the flight controls; and
(ii) Engine out procedures and maneuvering with an engine out while
executing the duties of a pilot in command. For airplanes, this
requirement may be satisfied in a simulator acceptable to the Director
General.

For the purpose of meeting the requirements of Paragraph (b)(2) of this Part, a
person may act as second in command of a flight under day VFR or day IFR, if no
person or property, other than as necessary for the operation, are carried.

(c) If a pilot complies with the requirements in Paragraph (b)(2) of this Part in the
calendar month before, or the calendar month after, the month in which
compliance with those requirements is due, he is considered to have complied
with them in the month they are due.

(d) This Part does not apply if a pilot:


(1) Meets the pilot in command proficiency check requirements of Part 121,125,
or 135 of the CASRs;
(2) Is designated as the second in command of an aircraft operated under the
provisions of part 121,125, or 135 of the CASRs; or
(3) Is designated as the second in command of an aircraft for the purpose of
receiving flight training by this Part and no passenger or cargo are carried on
that aircraft
(e) The holder of a commercial or airline transport pilot license with appropriate
category and class rating need not meet the requirements of Paragraph (b)(2) of
this Part for the conduct of ferry flights, aircraft flight test, or airborne equipment
evaluation, if no persons or property other than as necessary for the operations
are carried.
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61.56 Flight Review

(a) A flight review consist of a minimum of 1 hour of flight instruction and 1 hour of
ground instruction. The review must include.
(1) A review of the current general operating and flight rules of Part 91 of the
CASRs; and
(2) A review of those maneuvers and procedures which, at the discretion of the
person giving the review, are necessary for the pilot to demonstrate the safe
exercise of the privileges of the pilot license.

(b) Glider pilots may substitute a minimum of three instructional flights in a glider,
each of which includes a 360 degree turn, in lieu of the 1 hours of flight instruction
required in Paragraph (a) of this Part.
(c) Except as provided in Paragraph (d) and (e) of this Part, no person may, after six
months from the effective date of this part of the CASRs, act as pilot in command
of an aircraft unless, since the beginning of the 24th calendar month before the
month in which that pilot acts as pilot in command, that person has-
(1) Accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated
by an appropriately rated instructor licensed under this part or other person
designated by the Director General
(2) A logbook endorsed by the person who gave the review certifying that the
person who gave the review certifying that the person has satisfactorily
completed the review.

(d) A person who has, within the period specified in Paragraph (c) of this Part,
satisfactorily completed a pilot proficiency check conducted by the DGAC, a
designated examiner, a DGAC-approved check pilot, or a Republic of Indonesia
Armed Force (ABRI) check pilot, for a pilot license, rating, or operating privilege,
need not accomplish the flight review required by this Part.

(e) A person who holds a current Flight Instructor License who has, within the period
specified in Paragraph (c) of this Part, satisfactorily completed a renewal of a
Flight Instructor License under the prevision of Part 61.197 (c), need not
accomplish the 1 hour of ground instruction specified in Subparagraph (a)(1) of
this Part.

(f) The requirements of this Part may be accomplish in combination with the
requirements of Part 61.57 and other applicable recency requirements at the
discretion of the instructor.

61.57 Recent Flight Experience: Pilot In Command

(a) General experience. No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft


carrying passengers, nor of an aircraft certificated for more than one required pilot
flight crewmember, unless within the preceding 90 days, he has made three take
offs and three landings as the sole manipulator of the flight controls in an aircraft of
the same category and class and, if a type rating is required, of the same type. If
the aircraft is a tailwheel airplane, the landings must have been made to as full
stop in a tailwheel airplane. For the purpose of meeting the requirements of the
paragraph, a person may act as pilot in command of a flight under day VFR or day

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IFR if no person or property other than as necessary for his compliance


thereunder, are carried. This paragraph does not apply to operations requiring an
airline transport pilot license, or to operations conducted under Part 135 of the
CASRs.

(b) Night experience. No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying
passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour
before sunrise (as published in the Air Almanac) unless, within the preceding 90
days, he has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during
that period in the category and class of aircraft to be used. This paragraph does
not apply to operations requiring an airline transport pilot license.

(c) Instrument experience.


(1) Recent IFR experience. No pilot may act as pilot in command under IFR, nor
in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR, unless he
has, within the past 6 calendar months
(i) In the case of an aircraft other than a glider, logged at least 6 hours of
instrument time under actual or simulated IFR conditions, at least 3 of
which were in flight in the category of aircraft involved, including at least
six instrument approaches, or passed an instrument competency check
in the category of aircraft involved.
(ii) In the case of a glider, logged at least 3 hours of instrument time, at
least half of which were in a glider or an airplane. If a passenger is
carried in the glider, at least 3 hours of instrument flight time must have
been in gliders.
(2) Instrument competency check. A pilot who does not meet the recent
instrument experience requirements of Paragraph (e)(1) of this Part during
the prescribed time or 6 calendar months thereafter may not serve as pilot in
command under IFR, nor in weather conditions less than the minimums
prescribed for VFR, until he passes an instrument competency check in the
category of aircraft involved, given by DGAC inspector, a member of an
Armed Force (ABRI) of the Republic of Indonesia authorized to conduct flight
tests, a DGAC-approved check pilot, or a licensed instrument flight instructor.
The Director General may authorize the conduct of part or all of this check in
a pilot ground trainer equiped for instruments or an aircraft simulator.

61.58 Pilot in Command Proficiency check: Operation of Aircraft Requiring


More Than One Pilot

(a) No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is type certificated
for more than one required pilot crewmember unless the proficiency checks or
flight checks prescribed in Paragraph (b) and (c) of this Part are satisfactorily
completed.

(b) Since the beginning of the 12th calendar month before the month in which a person
acts as pilot in command or co-pilot of an aircraft that is type certificated for more
than one required pilot crewmember he must have completed one the following:
(1) For an airplane - a proficiency or flight check given to him by a DGAC
inspector or designated examiner in either an airplane that is type
certificated for more than one required pilot crewmember, or in a approved
simulator. A proficiency or flight check given in a approved simulator shall
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include at least those maneuvers and procedures (set forth by the DGAC)
which may be performed in a simulator or training device.
(2) For other aircraft - a proficiency or flight check in aircraft that is type
certificated for more than one required pilot crewmember given to him by a
DGAC inspector or designated examiner which includes those maneuvers
and procedures required for the original issuance of a type rating for the
aircraft used in the check.
(3) A pilot in command proficiency check given to him in accordance with the
provisions for that check under Parts 121, 125, or 135 of the CASRs.
(4) A flight test required for an aircraft type rating.
(5) An initial or periodic flight check for the purpose of the issuance of a
designated examiner or DGAC-approved checks pilot designation.
(6) A military proficiency check required for pilot in command and instrument
privileges in an aircraft which the military requires to be operated by more
than one pilot.

(c) Except as provided in Paragraph (d) of this Part, since the beginning of the 24th
calendar month before the month in which a person acts as pilot in command of an
aircraft that is type certificated for more than one required pilot crewmember he
must have completed one of the following proficiency or flight checks in the
particular type aircraft in which he is to serve as pilot in command:
(1) A proficiency check of flight check given to him by a DGAC inspector or a
designated examiner which includes the maneuvers, procedures, and
standards required for the original issuance of a type rating for the aircraft
used in the check.
(2) A pilot in command proficiency check given to him in accordance with the
provisions for that check under Parts 121,123, or 135 of the CASRs.
(3) A flight test required for an aircraft type rating.
(4) An initial or periodic flight check for the purpose of the issuance of a
designated examiner or DGAC-approved checks pilot designation.
(5) A military proficiency check required for pilot in command and instrument
privileges in an aircraft which the military requires to be operated by more
than one pilot.

(d) For airplanes, the maneuvers and procedures required for the checks and test
prescribed in Paragraphs (c) (1),(2),(4), and (5) of this Part, and Paragraph (c)(3)of
this Part in the case of type ratings obtained in conjunction with a Part 121 training
program may be performed in a simulator or training device if:
(1) The maneuver or procedure can be performed in a simulator or training
device as set forth by the DGAC; and
(2) The simulator or training device is one that is approved for the particular
maneuver or procedure.

(e) For the purpose of meeting the proficiency check requirements of Paragraphs (b)
and (c) of this Part, a person may act as pilot in command of a flight under day
VFR or day IFR if no persons or property, other than as necessary for compliance
with those paragraphs, are carried.

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(f) If a pilot takes the proficiency check required by Paragraph (a) of this Part in the
calendar month before, or the calendar month after, the month in which it is due,
he is considered to have taken it in the month it is due.

61.59 Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration of Applications, Licenses,


Logbooks, Reports, or Records

(a) No person may make or cause to be made;


(1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false statement on any application for a license
rating, or duplicate thereof, issued under this part;
(2) Any fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any logbook, record, or report
that is required to be kept, made, or used, to show compliance with any
requirement for the issuance, or exercise of the privileges, of any license or
rating under this part.
(3) Any reproduction, for fraudulent purpose, of any license or rating under this
part; or
(4) Any alteration of any license or rating under this part.

(b) The commission by any person of an act prohibited under Paragraph (a) of this
Part is a basis for suspending or revoking any pilot or ground instructor license or
rating held by that person.

61.60 Change of Address

The holder of a pilot or Flight Instructor License who has made a change in his
permanent mailing adress may not after 30 days from the date he moved, exercise the
privileges of his license unless he has notified in writing the DGAC of his new address.

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SUBPART B - AIRCRAFT RATINGS AND SPECIAL LICENSES

61.61 Applicability.

This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of additional aircraft ratings
after a pilot or instructor license is issued, and the requirements and limitations for
special pilot licenses and ratings issued by the Director General.

61.63 Additional aircraft ratings ( other than Airline Transport Pilot).

(a) General. To be eligible for an aircraft rating after his license is issued to him an
applicant must meet the requirements of Paragraphs (b) through (d) of this Part,
as appropriate to the rating sought.

(b) Category rating. An applicant for a category rating to be added on his pilot license
must meet the requirements of this part for the issued of the pilot license
appropriate to the privileges for which the category rating is sought. However, the
holder of a category rating for powered aircraft is required to take a written test for
the addition of a category rating on his pilot license.

(c) Class rating. An applicant for an aircraft class rating to be added on his pilot
license must
(1) Present a logbook record certified by an authorized flight instructor showing
that the applicant has received flight instruction in the class of aircraft for
which a rating is sought and has been found competent in the pilot
operations appropriate to the pilot license to which his category rating
applies; and
(2) Pass a flight test appropriate to his pilot license and applicable to the aircraft
category and class rating sought.

A person who holds a lighter-than-air category rating with a free balloon class
rating, who seeks an airship class rating, must meet the requirements of
Paragraph (b) of this Part as though seeking a lighter-than-air category rating.

(d) Type rating. An applicant for a type rating to be added on his pilot license must
meet the following requirements:
(1) He must hold, or concurrently obtain, an instrument rating appropriate to the
aircraft for which a type rating is sought.
(2) He must pass a flight test showing competence in pilot operations
appropriate to the pilot certificate he holds and to the type rating sought.
(3) He must pass a flight test showing competence in pilot operations under
instrument flight rules in an aircraft of the type for which the type rating is
sought or, in the case of a single pilot station airplane, meet the requirements
of Paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this Section, whichever is applicable.
(i) The applicant must have met the requirements of this paragraph in a
multiengine airplane for which a type rating is required.
(ii) if he does not meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of
this section, he must meet the requirements of this subparagraph in
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either a single or multiengine airplane, and have the recent


instrument experience set forth in Section 61.57 (e), when he applies
for the flight test under Paragraph (d) (2) of this part.
(4) An applicant who does not meet the requirements of Paragraph (d)(1) and (3)
of this part may obtain a type rating limited to “VFR only”. Upon meeting
these instrument requirements or the requirements of part 61.73 (e)(2),
the “VFR only”, limitation may be removed for the particular type of
aircraft in which competence is shown.
(5) When an instrument rating is issued to the holder of one or more type ratings,
the type ratings on the amended certificate bear the limitation described in
Paragraph (d)(4) of this section for each airplane type rating for which he has
not shown his instrument competency under this paragraph.
(6) After six months from the effective date of this part of the CASRs, an
applicant for a type rating to be added to a pilot certificate must
(i) Have completed ground and flight training on the maneuvers and
procedures required by the DGAC of this part that is appropriate to the
airplane for which a type rating is sought, and received an endorsement
from an authorized instructor in the person’s logbook or training records
certifying satisfactory completion of the training; or
(ii) For a pilot employee of a Part 121 or Part 135 certificate holder, have
completed the certificate holder’s approved ground and flight training
that is appropriate to the airplane for which a rating is sought.

61.65 Instrument Rating Requirements

(a) General. To be eligible for an instrument rating (airplane) or an instrument rating


(helicopter), an applicant must:
(1) Hold at least a current private pilot license with an aircraft rating appropriate
to the instrument rating sought;
(2) Be able to read, speak, and understand the English language; and
(3) Comply with the applicable requirements of this Part.

(b) Ground instruction. An applicant for the written test for an instrument rating must
have received ground instruction in at least the following areas of aeronautical
knowledge appropriate to the rating sought.
(1) The regulations of the CASRs that apply to flight under IFR conditions and
the IFR air traffic system and procedures;
(2) Dead reckoning appropriate to IFR navigation, IFR navigation by radio aids
using the VOR, ADF, and ILS systems, and the use of IFR charts and
instrument approach plates;
(3) The procurement and use of aviation weather reports and forecast, and the
elements of forecasting weather trends on the basis of that information and
personal observation of weather conditions; and
(4) The safe and efficient operation of airplanes or helicopters, as appropriate,
under instrument weather conditions
(5) Human performance and limitations relevant to instrument flight in airplanes
or rotorcraft, as appropriate.
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(c) Flight instruction and skill – airplanes. An applicant for the flight test for an
instrument rating (airplane) must present a logbook record certified by an
authorized flight instructor showing that he has received instrument flight
instruction in an airplane in the following pilot operations, and has been found
competent in each of them
(1) Control and accurate maneuvering of an airplane solely by reference to
instruments.
(2) IFR navigation by the use of the VOR and ADF systems, including
compliance with air traffic control instructions and procedures.
(3) Instrument approaches to published minimums using the VOR, ADF, and ILS
systems (instruction in the use of the ADF and ILS may be received in an
instrument ground trainer and instruction in the use of the ILS glide slope
may be received in an airborne ILS simulator).
(4) Cross-country flying in simulated or actual IFR conditions, on airways or as
routed by ILS approaches at different airports.
(5) Simulated emergencies, including the recovery from unusual altitudes,
equipment or instrument malfunctions, loss of communications, and engine
out emergencies if a multiengine airplane is used, and missed approach
procedure.

(d) Instrument instruction and skill – (helicopter). An applicant for the flight test for an
instrument rating (helicopter) must preset a logbook record certified to by an
authorized flight instructor showing that he has received instrument flight
instruction in a helicopter in the following pilot operations, and has been found
competent in each of them:
(1) The control and accurate maneuvering of a helicopter solely by reference to
instruments.
(2) IFR navigation by the use of the VOR and ADF systems, including
compliance with air traffic instructions and procedures.
(3) Instrument approaches to published minimums using the VOR, ADF, and ILS
system (instruction in the use of the ADF and ILS may be received in an
instrument ground trainer, and instruction in the use of the ILS glide slope
may be received in an airborne ILS simulator).
(4) Cross-country flying under simulated or actual IFR conditions, on airways or
as routed by ATC, including one flight of at least 100 nautical miles, including
VOR, ADF, and ILS approaches at different airports.
(5) Simulated IFR emergencies, including equipment malfunctions, missed
approach procedures, and deviations to unplanned alternates.

(e) Flight experience. An appliance for an instrument rating must have at least the
following flight time as a pilot:
(1) A total of 125 hours of pilot flight time, of which 50 hours are as pilot in
command in cross-country flight in a powered aircraft with other than a
student pilot license. Each cross-country flight must have a landing at a point
more than 50 nautical miles from the original departure point.

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(2) 40 hours of simulated or actual instrument time, of which not more than 20
hours may be instrument instruction by an authorized instructor in an
instrument ground trainer acceptable to the Director General.
(3) 15 hours of instrument flight instruction by an authorized flight instructor,
including at least 5 hours in an airplane or a helicopter, as appropriate.

(f) Written test. An applicant for an instrument rating must pass a written test
appropriate to the instrument rating sought on the subjects in which ground
instruction is required by Paragraph (b) of this Part.

(g) Practical test. An applicant for an instrument rating must pass a flight test in an
airplane or a helicopter, as appropriate. The test must include instrument flight
procedures selected by the inspector conducting the test to determine the
applicant’s ability to perform competently the IFR operations on which instruction
is required by Paragraph (c) or (d) of this Part.

61.67 Category II Pilot Authorization Requirements

(a) General. An applicant for a category II pilot authorization must hold-


(1) A pilot license with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot license;
and
(2) A type rating for the aircraft type.

(b) Experience requirements. Except for the holder of an airline transport pilot
license, an applicant for a Category II authorization must have at least
(1) 50 hours of night flight time under VFR conditions as pilot in command;
(2) 75 hours of instrument time under actual or simulated conditions that may
include 25 hours in a synthetic trainer; and
(3) 250 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot in command.

Night flight and instrument flight time used to meet the requirements of Paragraphs
(b) (1) and (2) of this Part may also be used to meet the requirements of
Paragraph (b)(3) of this Part.

(c) Practical test required.


(1) The practical test must be passed by
(i) An applicant for issue or renewal of an authorization; and
(ii) An applicant for the addition of another type aircraft to his authorization.
(2) To be eligible for the practical test an applicant must meet the requirements
of Paragraph (a) of this Part and, if he has not passed a practical test since
the beginning of the twelfth calendar month before the test, he must meet the
following recent experience requirements:
(i) The requirements of Part 61.57(e)
(ii) At least six ILS approaches since the beginning of the sixth calendar
month before the test. These approaches must be under actual or
simulated instrument flight conditions down to the minimum landing
altitude for the ILS approach in the type aircraft in which the flight test is
to be conducted. However, the approaches need not be conducted
down to the decision heights authorized for Category II operations. At
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least three of these approaches must have been conducted manually,


without the use of an approach coupler.

The flight time acquired in meeting the requirements of Paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this
Part may be used to meet the requirements of Paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this Part.

(d) Practical test procedures. The practical test consist of two phases:
(1) Phase I - Oral operational test. The applicant must demonstrate his
knowledge of the following:
(i) Required landing distance
(ii) Recognition of the decision height.
(iii) Missed approach procedures and techniques utilizing computed or fixed
attitude guidance display.
(iv) RVR, its use and limitation .
(v) Use of visual clues, their availability or limitations, and altitude at which
they are normally discernible at reduced RVR readings.
(vi) Procedures and techniques related to transition from non-visual to
visual flight during a final approach under reduced RVR.
(vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal windshear.
(viii) Characteristics and limitations of the ILS and runway lighting system.
(ix) Characteristics and limitations of the flight Director General system,
auto approach coupler (including split axis type if equipped), auto
throttle system (if equipped), and other required Category II equipment.
(x) Assigned duties of the second in command during Category II
approaches
(xi) Instrument and equipment failure warning systems.
(2) Phase II – flight test. The flight test must be taken in an aircraft that meets
the requirements of Part 91 of the CASRs for Category II operations. The
test consist of at least two ILS approaches to 100 feet including at least one
landing and one missed approach. All approaches must be made with the
approved flight control guidance system. However, if an approved automatic
approach coupler is installed, at least one approach must be made manually.
In the case of a multiengine aircraft that has performance capability to
execute a missed approach with an engine out, the missed approach must
be executed with one engine set in idle or zero thrust position before
reaching the middle marker. The required flight maneuvers must be
performed solely by reference to instruments and in coordination with a
second in command who holds a class rating and, in the case of a large
aircraft or a small turbojet aircraft, a type rating for that aircraft.

61.69 Glider towing: Experience and Instruction Requirements

No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider unless he meet the
following requirements:

(a) He holds a current pilot license (other than a student or sport pilot license) issued
under this part.

(b) He has an endorsement in his pilot logbook from a person authorized to give flight
instruction in gliders, certifying that he has received ground and flight instruction in
gliders and is familiar with the techniques and procedures essential to the safe
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towing of gliders, including airspeed limitations, emergency procedures, signals


used, and maximum angles of bank.

(c) He has made and entered in his pilot logbook:


(1) At least three flights as sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft towing a
glider while accompanied by a pilot who has met the requirements of this
Part and made and logged at least 10 flights as pilot in command of an
aircraft towing a glider; or
(2) At least three flights as sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft
simulating glider towing flight procedures (while accompanied by a pilot who
meets the requirements of this Part), and at least three flights as pilot or
observer in a glider being towed by an aircraft.

(d) If he the holds only a private pilot license he must have had, and entered in his
pilot logbook at least
(1) 100 hours of pilot flight time in powered aircraft; or
(2) 200 total hours of pilot flight time in powered or other aircraft.

(e) Within the preceding 12 calendar months he has;


(1) Made at least three actual or simulated glider tows while accompanied by a
qualified pilot who meets the requirements of this Part; or
(2) Made at least three flights as pilot in command of a glider towed by an
aircraft.

61.71 Graduates of approved flying schools: Special rules.

(a) A graduate of a flying school that is certificated under Part 141 of the CASRs is
considered to meet the applicable aeronautical experience requirements of this
part if he presents an appropriate graduation certificate within 60 days after the
date he is graduated. However, if he applies for a flight test for an instrument
rating he must hold a commercial pilot license, or hold a private pilot license and
meet the requirements of Part 61.65 (e)(10) and 61.123 (except Paragraph (d) and
(e) thereof ). In addition, if he applies for a Flight Instructor License he must hold a
commercial pilot license.

(b) An applicant for a license or rating under this part is considered to meet the
aeronautical knowledge and skill requirements, or both, applicable to that license
or rating if the applicant applies within 90 days after graduation from an
appropriate course given by a pilot school that is certificated under Part 141 of the
CASRs and is authorized to test applicants on aeronautical knowledge or skill, or
both.

61.73 Military Pilots or Former Military Pilots: Special Rules

(a) General. A rated military pilot or former rated military pilot who applies for a
private or commercial pilot license, or an aircraft or instrument rating, is entitled to
that license with appropriate ratings or to the addition of a rating on the pilot
license he holds, if he meets the applicable requirements of this Part. This Part
does not apply to a military pilot or former military pilot who has been removed
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from flying status for lack of proficiency or because of disciplinary action involving
aircraft operations.

(b) Military pilots on active flying status within the preceding 12 calendar months. A
rated military pilot or former rated military pilot who has been on active flying
status within the 12 calendar month before he applies must pass a written test on
the parts of the CASRs relating to pilot privileges and limitations, air traffic and
general operating rules, and accident reporting rules. In addition, he must present
documents showing that he meets the requirements of Paragraph (d) of this Part
for at least one aircraft rating, and that he is, or was at any time since the
beginning of the twelfth calendar month before the month in which he applies:
(1) A rated military pilot on active flying status in an Armed Force (ABRI) of the
Republic of Indonesia; or
(2) A rated military pilot of an armed force of a foreign contracting State to the
Convention on International Civil Aviation, assigned to pilot duties (other than
flight training) with an armed force the Republic of Indonesia who holds, at
the time he applies, a current civil pilot license issued by that foreign State
authorizing at least the privileges of the pilot license he seeks.

(c) Military pilots not on active flying status within previous 12 calendar months. A
rated military pilot or former military pilot who has not been on active flying status
within the 12 calendar months before he applies must pass the appropriate written
and flight tests prescribed in this part for the license or rating he seeks. In
addition, he must show that he holds a DGAC medical certificate appropriate to
the pilot license he seeks and present documents showing that he was, before the
beginning of the twelfth calendar month before the month in which he applies, a
rated military pilot as prescribed by either Paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this part.

(d) Aircraft ratings: Other than airplane category and type. An applicant for a
category, class, or type rating (other than airplane category and type rating) to
be added on the pilot license he holds, or for which he has applied, is issued that
rating if he presents documentary evidence showing one of the following:
(1) That he has passed an official Republic of Indonesia military checkout as
pilot in command of aircraft of the category, class, or type for which he seeks
a rating since the beginning of the twelfth calendar month before the month in
which he applies.
(2) That he has had at least 10 hours of flight time serving as pilot in command
of aircraft of the category, class, or type for which he seeks a rating since the
beginning of the twelfth calendar month before the month in which he applies
and previously has had an official Republic of Indonesia military checkout as
pilot in command of that aircraft.
(3) That he has met the requirements of Paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this Part, has
had an official Republic of Indonesia military checkout in the category of
aircraft for which he seeks a rating, and that he passes a DGAC flight test
appropriate to that category and the class or type rating he seeks. To be
eligible for that flight test, he must have a written statement from an
authorized flight instructor, made not more than 60 days before he applies for
the flight test, certifying that he is competent to pass the test. A type rating is
issued only for aircraft types that the Director has certificated for civil
operations. Any rating placed on an airline transport pilot license is limited to
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Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

commercial pilot privileges.


(e) Airplane category and type ratings.
(1) An applicant for a commercial pilot license with an airplane category rating,
or an applicant for the addition of an airplane category rating on his
commercial pilot license, must hold an airplane instrument rating, or his
license is endorsed with the following limitation: “Not valid for the carriage of
passengers or property for hire in airplane on cross-country flights of more
than 50 nautical miles, or at night.”
(2) An applicant for a private or commercial pilot license with an airplane type
rating, or for the addition of an airplane type rating on his private or
commercial pilot license who holds an instrument rating (airplanes), must
present documentary evidence showing that he has demonstrated instrument
competency in the type of airplane for which the type rating is sought, or
his license is endorsed with the following limitation: ”VFR only.”

(f) Instrument rating. An applicant for an airplane instrument rating or a helicopter


instrument rating to be added on the pilot license he holds, or for which he has
applied, is entitled to that rating if he has, within the 12 calendar months preceding
the month in which he applies, satisfactorily accomplished an instrument flight
check of a Republic of Indonesia Armed Force (ABRI) in an aircraft of the category
for which he seeks the instrument rating and is authorized to conduct IFR flights
on airways. A helicopter instrument rating added on an airline transport pilot
license is limited to commercial pilot privileges.

(g) Evidentiary documents. The following documents are satisfactory evidence for the
purposes indicated:
(1) To show that the applicant is a member of the Armed Forces(ABRI), an
official identification card issued to the applicant by an armed force may be
used.
(2) To show the applicant’s discharge or release from an armed force, or his
former membership in an armed force, an original or a copy of a certificate of
discharge or release may be used.
(3) To show current or previous status as a rated military pilot on flying status
with a Republic of Indonesia Armed Force, one of the following may be used;
(i) An official Republic of Indonesia Armed force order to flight duty as a
military pilot.
(ii) An official Republic of Indonesia Armed Force form or logbook showing
military pilot status.
(iii) An official order showing that the applicant graduated form a Republic
of Indonesia Military pilot school and is rated as a military pilot.
(4) To show flight time in military aircraft as a member of a Republic of Indonesia
Armed Force, an appropriate Republic of Indonesia Armed Force form or
summary of it, or a certified Republic of Indonesia military logbook may be
used.
(5) To show pilot in command status, an official Republic of Indonesia Armed
Force record of a military checkout as pilot in command, may be used
(6) To show instrument pilot qualification, a current instrument card issued by a
Republic of Indonesia Armed force, or an official record of the satisfactory
completion of an instrument flight check within 12 calendar months preceding
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the month of the application may be used.

61.75 Pilot License Issued on Basis of a Foreign Pilot License

(a) Purpose. The holder of a current private, commercial or airline transport pilot
license issued by a foreign contracting State to the convention on International
Civil Aviation may apply for a pilot license under this Part authorizing him to act as
a pilot of a civil aircraft of Indonesian registry.

(b) License issued. A pilot license is issued to an applicant under this Part, specifying
the number and State of issuance of the foreign pilot license on which it is based.
An applicant who holds a foreign private pilot license is issued a private pilot
license, and an applicant who holds a foreign commercial or airline transport pilot
license is issued a commercial pilot license, if-
(1) He meets the requirements of this Part;
(2) His foreign pilot license does not contain an endorsement that he has not met
all of the standards of ICAO for that license; and
(3) He does not hold a Republic of Indonesia pilot license of private pilot grade
or higher.
(4) There is a document from the issuing authority verifying the authenticity and
validity of the foreign pilot license.

(c) Limitation on licenses used as basis for a Republic of Indonesia license. Only one
foreign pilot license may be used as a basis for issuing a pilot license under this
Part.

(d) Aircraft ratings issued. Aircraft ratings listed on the applicant’s foreign pilot
license, in addition to any issued after testing under the provisions of this part, are
placed on the applicant’s pilot license.

(e) Instrument rating issued. An instrument rating is issued to an applicant if


(1) His foreign pilot license authorizes instrument privileges; and
(2) Within 24 calendar months preceding the month in which he makes
application for a license, he passed a test on the instrument flight rules in
Subpart B of Part 91 of the CASRs, including the related procedures for the
operation of the aircraft under instrument flight rules.

(f) Medical standards and certification. An applicant must submit evidence that he
currently meets the medical standards for the foreign pilot license on which the
application for a license under this Part is based. A current medical certificate
issued under Part 67 of the CASRs is accepted as evidence that the applicant
meets those standards. However, a medical certificate issued under part 67 of the
CASRs is not evidence that the applicant meets those standards outside the
Republic of Indonesia, unless the State that issued the applicant’s foreign pilot
license also accepts that medical certificate as evidence of meeting the medical
standards for his foreign pilot license.

(g) Limitations placed on pilot license.

(1) If the applicant cannot read, speak, and understand the English language,
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Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

the Director General places any limitation on the license that he considers
necessary for safety.
(2) A license issued under this Part is not valid for agricultural aircraft operations,
or the operation of an aircraft in which persons or property are carried for
compensation or hire. This limitation is also placed on the license.

(h) Operating privileges and limitations. The holder of a pilot license issued under this
Part may act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of Indonesia registry in accordance with
the pilot privileges authorized by the foreign pilot license on which that license is
based, subject to the limitations of this part and any additional limitations placed
on his license by the Director General. He is subject to these limitations while he
is acting as a pilot of the aircraft within or outside the Republic of Indonesia.
However, he may not act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a
required pilot flight crewmember, of a civil aircraft of Indonesia registry that is
carrying persons or property for compensation or hire

(i) Flight Instructor License. A pilot license issued under this Part does not satisfy
any of the requirements of this part for the issuance of a Flight Instructor License.

(j) Foreign Pilot License Validation. The holder of a current private, commercial or
airline transport pilot issued by a foreign contracting state to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation may have its license validated for the purpose of
operating an Indonesian registered civil aircraft under the following conditions :

(1) The originality of the license is confirmed by the issuing authority prior to
the issuance of validation

(2) The validity period of the validation is only for 1 (one) year after the date of
its issuance or as long as the original medical certificate remain valid. The
validity may be extended when the Director finds it to be necessary, but in
any case it can be extended only once for a maximum period of 1 (one)
year.

(3) A foreign pilot license may be used only once as basis for issuing a
validation under this Part.

(4) The original validation document or paper , bearing all the the privileges
granted and its limitations, shall be carried with the original license while
performing duties.

61.77 Special Purpose Pilot License: Operation Of Indonesia-Registered Civil


Airplanes Leased By A Person Not An Indonesia Citizen

(a) General. The holder of a current foreign pilot license or license issued by a foreign
contracting State to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, who meets the
requirements of this Part, may hold a special purpose pilot license authorizing the
holder to perform pilot duties on a civil airplane of Indonesia registry, leased to a
person not a citizen of the Republic of Indonesia, carrying persons or property for
compensation or hire. Special purpose pilot licenses are issued under this Part
only for airplane types that can have a maximum passenger seating configuration
(not including any flight crewmember seat) of more than 30 seats or
a maximum payload capacity (as defined in Part 135.2(e) of the CASRs) of more
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than 7,500 pounds.

(b) Eligibility. To be eligible for the issuance or renewal of a license under this Part,
an applicant or a representative or the applicant must present the following to the
Director General:
(1) A current foreign pilot license, issued by the aeronautical authority of a
foreign contracting State to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, or
a facsimile acceptable to the Director General. The license must authorize
the applicant to perform the pilot duties to be authorized by a license issued
under this Part on the same airplane type as the leased airplane.
(2) A current certification by the lessee of the airplane;
(i) Stating that the applicant is employed by the lessee;
(ii) Specifying the airplane type on which the applicant will perform pilot
duties; and
(iii) Stating that the applicant has received ground and flight instruction
which qualifies the applicant to perform the duties to be assigned on the
airplane.
(3) Documentation showing that the applicant has not reached the age of 60 and
that the applicant currently meets the medical standards for the foreign pilot
license required by Paragraph (b)(1) of this Part, except that a Republic of
Indonesia medical certificate issued under part 67 of the CASRs is not
evidence that the applicant meets those standards unless the State which
issued the applicant’s foreign pilot license accepts a Republic of Indonesia
medical certificate as evidence of medical fitness for a pilot license.

(c) Privileges. The holder of a special purpose pilot license issued under this Part
may exercise the same privileges as those shown on the license specified in
Paragraph (b)(1) of this Part, subject to the limitation specified in this Part. The
license holder is not subject to the requirements of Part 61.55, 61.57, and 61.58 of
this part.

(d) Limitations. Each license issued under this Part is subject to the following
limitations:
(1) It is valid only:
(i) For flight between foreign countries or for flights in foreign air
commerce;
(ii) While it and the foreign pilot license required by Paragraph (b)(1) of this
Part are in the license holder’s personal possession and are current;
(iii) While the license holder is employed by the person to whom the
airplane described in the certification required by Paragraph (b)(2) of
this Part is leased;
(iv) While the license holder is performing pilot duties on the Indonesian-
registered civil airplanes described in the certification required by
Paragraph (b)(2) of this Part;
(v) While the medical documentation required by Paragraph (b)(3) of this
Part is in the license holder’s personal possession and is currently valid;
and
(vi) While the license holder is under 60 years of age.
(2) Each license issued under this Part contains the following:
(i) The name of the person to whom the Indonesia-registered civil aircraft
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is leased.
(ii) The type of aircraft.
(iii) The limitation: ” Issued under, and subject to, Part 61.77 of the Civil
Aviation Safety Regulations.”
(iv) The limitation:” Subject to the privileges and limitations shown on the
holder’s foreign pilot license or license.”
(3) Any additional limitations placed on the license which the Director considers
necessary.

(e) Termination. Each special purpose pilot license issued under this Part terminates
(1) When the lease agreement for the airplane described in the certification
required by Paragraph (b)(2) of this Part terminates;
(2) When the foreign pilot license, or the medical documentation, required by
Paragraph (b) of this Part is suspended, revoked, or no longer valid;
(3) When the license holder reaches the age of 60; or
(4) After 24 calendar months after the month in which the special purpose pilot
license was issued.

(f) Surrender of license. The license holder shall surrender the special purpose pilot
license to the Director General within 7 days after the date it terminates.

(g) Renewal. The license holder may have the license renewed by complying with the
requirements of Paragraph (b) of this Part at the time of application for renewal.

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SUBPART C - STUDENT AND SPORT PILOTS

61.81 Applicability: Student Pilots

This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of student pilot and sport pilot
licenses and ratings, the conditions under which those licenses and ratings are
necessary, and the general operating rules and limitations for the holders of those
licenses and ratings.

61.83 Eligibility Requirements : Students Pilots

To be eligible for a student pilot license, a person must :

(a) Be at least 16 years of age, or at least 14 years of age for a student pilot license
limited to the operation of a glider or free balloon ;

(b) Be able to read, speak, and understand the English language, or have such
operating limitations placed on his pilot license as are necessary for the safe
operation of aircraft, to be removed when he shows that he can read, speak and
understand the English language ; and

(c) Hold at least a current second-class medical certificate issued under Part 67 of the
CASRs or, in the case of glider or free balloons operations, certify that he has no
known medical defect that makes him unable to pilot a glider or a free balloon.

61.85 Application: Student Pilots

An application for a student pilot license is to be made on a form and in a manner


prescribed by the Director and is submitted to -

(a) An aviation medical examiner when applying for a DGAC medical certificate in the
Republic of Indonesia; or

(b) A DGAC inspector or designated examiner, accompanied by a current DGAC


medical certificate, or in the case of an application for a glider or free balloon pilot
license, it may be accompanied by a certification by the applicant that he has no
known medical defect that makes him unable to pilot a glider or free balloon.

61.87 Solo Flight Requirements For Student Pilots

(a) General. A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless that
student meets the requirements of this Part. The term “solo flight”, as used in this
subpart, means that flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of
the aircraft, or that flight time during which the student acts as pilot in command of
an airship requiring more than one flight crewmember.

(b) Aeronautical knowledge. A student pilot must have demonstrated


satisfactory knowledge to an authorized instructor, of the appropriate portions of
parts 61 and 91 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations that are applicable to
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student pilots. This demonstration must include the satisfactory completion


of a written examination to be administered and graded by the instructor who
endorses the student’s pilot license for solo flight. The written examination must
include questions on the applicable regulations and the flight characteristics
and operational limitations for the make and model aircraft to be flown.

(c) Pre-solo flight training. Prior to being authorized to conduct a solo flight, a student
pilot must have received and logged instruction in at least the applicable
maneuvers and procedures listed in paragraphs (d) through (j) of this Part for the
make and model of aircraft to be flown in solo flight, and must have demonstrated
proficiency to an acceptable performance level as judged by the instructor who
endorses the student’s pilot license.

(d) For all aircraft (as appropriate to the aircraft to be flown in solo flight), the student
pilot must have received pre-solo flight training in -
(1) Flight preparation procedures, including preflight inspections, powerplant
operation, and aircraft systems ;
(2) Taxing or surface operations, including runups ;
(3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and crosswind ;
(4) Straight and level flight, shallow, medium, and steep banked turns in both
directions ;
(5) Climbs and climbing turns ;
(6) Airport traffic patterns including entry and departure procedures, and collision
and wake turbulence avoidance ;
(7) Descents with and without turns using high and low drag configurations ;
(8) Flight at various airspeeds from cruising to minimum controllable airspeed ;
(9) Emergency procedures and equipment malfunctions ; and
(10) Ground reference maneuvers.

(e) For airplanes, in addition to the maneuvers and procedures in Paragraph (d) of
this Part, the student pilot must have received pre-solo flight training in -
(1) Approaches to the landing area with engine power at idle and with partial
power ;
(2) Slips to a landing ;
(3) Go-arounds from final approach and from the landing flare in various flight
configurations including turns ;
(4) Forced landing procedures initiated on takeoff, during initial climb, cruise,
descent, and in the landing pattern ; and
(5) Stall entries from various flight attitudes and power combinations with
recovery initiated at the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a full stall.

(f) For rotorcraft (other than single place gyroplanes), in addition to the maneuvers
and procedures in Paragraph (d) of this Part, the student pilot must have received
pre-solo flight training in-
(1) Approaches to the landing area;

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(2) Hovering turns and air taxiing (for helicopter only) and ground maneuvers;
(3) Go-arounds from landing hover and from final approach;
(4) Simulated emergency procedures, including autorotational descent with a
power recovery or running landing in gyroplanes, a power recovery to a
hover in a single engine helicopter, or approaches to a hover or a landing
with one engine inoperative in multiengine helicopter; and
(5) Rapid decelerations (helicopter only).

(g) For single place gyroplanes, in addition to the appropriate maneuvers and
procedures in Paragraph (d) of this Part, the student pilot must have received pre-
solo flight training in:
(1) Simulated emergency procedures, including autorotational descents with a
power recovery or a running landing;
(2) At least three successful flight in gyroplanes under the observation of a
qualified instructor; and
(3) For non-powered single place gyroplanes only, at least three successful flight
in a gyroplane towed from the ground under the observation of the flight
instructor who endorses the student’s pilot license.

(h) For gliders, in addition to the appropriate maneuvers and procedures in Paragraph
(d) of this Part, the student pilot must have received pre-solo flight training in:
(1) Preflight inspection of towline rigging, review of signals, and release
procedures to be used;
(2) Aerotows, ground tows, or self-launch;
(3) Principles of glider disassembly and assembly;
(4) Stall entries from various flight attitudes with recovery initiated at the first
indication of a stall, and recovery from a full stall;
(5) Straight glides, turns, and spirals;
(6) Slips to a landing;
(7) Procedures and techniques for thermalling in convergence lift or ridge lift as
appropriate to the training area; and
(8) Emergency operations including towline break procedures.

(i) In airships, in addition to the appropriate maneuvers and procedures in Paragraph


(d) of this Part, the student pilot must have received pre-solo flight training in:
(1) Rigging, ballasting, controlling pressure in the ballonets, and superheating ;
and
(2) Landings with positive and with negative static balance.

(j) In free balloons, in addition to the appropriate maneuvers and procedures in


Paragraph (d) of this Part, the student pilot must have received pre-solo flight
training in :
(1) Operation of hot air or gas source, ballast, valves, and rip panels, as
appropriate;
(2) Emergency use of rip panel (may be simulated) ;
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(3) The effects of wind on climb and approach angles ; and


(4) Obstruction detection and avoidance techniques.

(k) The instruction required by this Part must be given by an authorized flight
instructor who is licensed :
(1) In the category and class of airplanes, for airplanes;
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (k)(3) of this Part, in helicopters or
gyroplanes, as appropriate, for rotorcraft;
(3) In airplanes or gyroplanes, for single place gyroplanes ; and
(4) In gliders for gliders.

(l) The holder of a commercial pilot license with a lighter-than-air category rating may
give the instruction required by this Part in :
(1) Airships, if that commercial pilot holds an airship class rating ; and
(2) Free balloons, if that commercial pilot holds a free balloon class rating.

(m) Flight instructor endorsements. No student pilot may operate an aircraft in solo
flight unless that student’s pilot license and logbook have been endorsed for the
specific make and model aircraft to be flown by an authorized flight instructor
licensed under this part, and the student’s logbook has been endorsed, within the
90 days prior to the student operating in solo flight, by an authorized flight
instructor licensed under this part who has flown with the student. No flight
instructor may authorize solo flight without endorsing the student’s logbook. The
instructor’s endorsement must certify that the instructor :
(1) Has given the student instruction in the make and model aircraft in which the
solo flight is to be made ;
(2) Finds that the student has met the flight training requirements of this Part;
and
(3) Finds that the student is competent to make a safe solo flight in that aircraft.

(n) Notwithstanding the requirements of Paragraphs (a) through (m) of this Part, each
student pilot, whose student pilot license and logbook are endorsed for solo flight
by an authorized flight instructor on or before the effective date of this part of the
CASRs may operate in solo flight until the 90th day after the date on which the
logbook was endorsed for solo flight.

61.89 General Limitations: Student Pilots

(a) A student pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft -


(1) That is carrying a passenger ;
(2) That is carrying property for compensation or hire ;
(3) For compensation or hire ;
(4) In furtherance of business ;
(5) On an international flight ;
(6) With a flight or surface visibility of less than 3 statute miles during daylight

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hours or 5 statute miles at night ;


(7) When the flight cannot be made with visual reference to the surface ; or
(8) In a manner contrary to any limitations placed in the pilot’s logbook by the
instructor.

(b) A student pilot may not act as required pilot flight crewmember on any aircraft for
which more than one pilot is required by the type certificate of the aircraft or
regulations under which the flight is conducted, except when receiving flight
instruction from an authorized flight instructor on board an airship and no person
other than a required flight crewmember is carried on the aircraft.

61.91 Aircraft Limitations For Student Pilots : Pilot In Command

A student pilot may not serve as pilot in command of any airship requiring more than
one flight crewmember unless he has met the pertinent requirements prescribed in Part
61.87.

61.93 Cross-Country Flight Requirements (For Student And Sport Pilots


Seeking Private Pilot Certification)

(a) General. No student pilot may operate an aircraft in solo cross-country flight, nor
may that student, except in an emergency, make a solo flight landing at any
point other than the airport of take-off, unless the student has met the
requirements of this Part. The term cross-country flight, as used in this Part,
means a flight beyond a radius of 25 nautical miles from the point of departure.

(b) Notwithstanding Paragraph (a) of this Part, an authorized flight instructor, licensed
under this part, may permit the student to practice solo takeoffs and landings at
another airport within 25 nautical miles from the airport at which the student
receives instruction if the flight instructor :
(1) Determines that the student pilot is competent and proficient to make those
landings and takeoffs ;
(2) Has flown with that student prior to authorizing those takeoff and landings ;
and
(3) Endorses the student pilot’s logbook with an authorization to make those
landings and takeoffs.

(c) Flight training. A student pilot, in addition to the pre-solo flight training maneuvers
and procedures required by Part 61.87(c), must have received and logged
instruction from an authorized flight instructor in the appropriate pilot maneuvers
and procedures of this Part. Additionally, a student pilot must have demonstrated
an acceptable standard of performance, as judged by the authorized flight
instructor licensed under this part, who endoses the student’s pilot license in the
appropriate pilot maneuvers and procedures of this Part.
(1) For all aircraft :
(i) The use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage and
dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass ;
(ii) Aircraft cross-country performance, and procurement and analysis of
aeronautical weather reports and forecasts, including recognition of
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critical weather situations and estimating visibility while in flight ;


(ii) Cross-country emergency conditions including lost procedures, adverse
weather conditions, and simulated precautionary off airport approaches
and landing procedures ;
(iv) Traffic pattern procedures, including normal area arrival and departure,
collision avoidance, and wake turbulence precautions ;
(v) Recognition of operational problems associated with the different terrain
features in the geographical area in which the cross-country flight is to
be flown; and
(vi) Proper operation of the instruments and equipment installed in the
aircraft to be flown.
(2) For airplanes, in addition to Paragraph (c) (1) of this Part :
(i) Short and soft field takeoff, approach, and landing procedures, including
crosswind takeoffs and landings ;
(ii) Takeoffs at best angle and rate of climb ;
(iii) Control maneuvering solely by reference to flight instruments including
straight and level flight, turns, descents, climbs, and the use of radio
aids and radar directives ;
(iv) The use of radios for VFR navigation and for two-way communication;
and
(v) For those student pilots seeking night flying privileges, night flying
procedures including takeoffs, landings, go-arounds, and VFR
navigation.
(3) For rotorcraft, in addition to Paragraph (c) (1) of this Part and as appropriate
to the aircraft being flown
(i) High altitude takeoff and landing procedures ;
(ii) Steep and shallow approaches to a landing hover ;
(iii) Rapid decelerations (helicopters only) ; and
(iv) The use of radios for VFR navigation and two-way communication.
(4) For gliders, in addition to the appropriate maneuvers and procedures in
Paragraph (c) (1) of this Part:
(i) Landings accomplished without the use of the altimeter from at least
2,000 feet above the surface
(ii) Recognition of weather conditions and conditions favorable for cross-
country soaring; and
(iii) The use of radios for two-way radio communications.
(5) For airships, in addition to appropriate maneuvers and procedures in
Paragraph (c) (1) of this Part -
(i) Control of gas pressure with regard to superheating and altitude ; and
(ii) Control of the airship solely by reference to flight instruments.
(6) For free ballons, the appropriate maneuvers and procedures in Paragraph (c)
(1) of this Part.

(d) No student pilot may operate an aircraft in solo cross-country flight, unless :
(1) The instructor is an authorized instructor licensed under this part and the
student’s license has been endorsed by the instructor attesting that the
student has received the instruction and demonstrated an acceptable level of
competency and proficiency in the maneuvers and procedures of this Part for
the category of aircraft to be flown ; and

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(2) The instructor has endorsed the student’s logbook:


(i) For each solo cross-country flight, after reviewing the student’s preflight
planning and preparation, attesting that the student is prepared to make
the flight safely under the known circumstances and subject to any
conditions listed in the logbook by the instructor ; and
(ii) For repeated specific solo cross-country flights that are not greater than
50 nautical miles from the point of departure, after giving that student
flight instruction in both directions over the route, including takeoffs and
landings at the airports to be used, and has specified the conditions for
which the flights can be made.

61.95 Operations In Class B Airspace And At Airports Located Within Class B


Airspace: Student Pilots

(a) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft on a solo flight in Class B airspace
unless:
(1) The pilot has received both ground and flight instruction from an authorized
instructor on that Class B airspace area and the flight instruction was
received in the specific Class B airspace area for which solo flight is
authorized ;
(2) The logbook of that pilot has been endorsed within the preceding 90 days for
conducting solo flight in that Class B airspace area by the instructor who
gave the flight training ; and
(3) The logbook endorsement specifies that the pilot has received the required
ground and flight instruction and has been found competent to conduct solo
flight in that specific Class B airspace area.

(b) Pursuant to Part 91.131 (b), a student pilot may not operate an aircraft on a solo
flight to, from, or at an airport located within Class B airspace unless :
(1) That student pilot has received both ground and flight instruction from an
authorized instructor to operate at that airport and the flight and ground
instruction has been received at the specific airport for which the solo flight is
authorized ;
(2) The logbook of that student pilot has been endorsed within the preceding 90
days for conducting solo flight at that specific airport by the instructor who
gave the flight training ; and
(3) The logbook endorsement specifies that the student pilot has received the
required ground and flight instruction and has been found competent to
conduct solo flight operations at that specific airport.

61.96 Eligibility Requirements: Sport Pilots

To be eligible for a sport pilot license, a person must:

(a) Be at least 17 years of age;

(b) Be able to read, speak, and understand the English language, or have such
operating limitations placed on the pilot license as are necessary for the safe
operation of aircraft, to be removed when the sport pilot shows the ability to read,
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speak, and understand the English language ;


(c) Hold at least a current third-class medical certificate issued under part 67 of the
CASRs;

(d) Pass a written test on the subject areas on which instruction is required by Part
61.97;

(e) Pass an oral and flight test on maneuvers and procedures selected by a DGAC
inspector or designated examiner to determine the applicant’s competency in the
appropriate flight operations listed in Part 61.98; and

(f) Comply with the sections of this part that apply to the rating sought.

61.97 Aeronautical Knowledge: Sport Pilots

An applicant for a sport pilot license must have logged ground instruction from an
authorized instructor, or must present evidence showing satisfactory completion of a
course of instruction in at least the following areas of aeronautical knowledge
appropriate to the category and class of aircraft for which a rating is sought :

(a) The Civil Aviation Safety Regulations applicable to sport pilot privileges,
limitations, and flight operations and the accident reporting requirements of the
CASRs.

(b) The use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using piloting with the aid of a
magnetic compass;

(c) The recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and in flight and the
procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts ;

(d) The safe and efficient operation of aircraft including collision and wake turbulence
avoidance ;

(e) The effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance ;

(f) Weight and balance computations ;

(g) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems; and

(h) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques.

61.98 Flight Proficiency : Sport Pilot

The applicant for a sport pilot license must have logged instruction from an authorized
flight instructor in at least the pilot operations listed in this Part. In addition, the
applicant’s logbook must contain an endorsement by an authorized flight instructor who
has found the applicant competent to perform each of those operations safely as a sport
pilot.

(a) In airplanes.
(1) Preflight operations, including weight and balance determination, line
inspection, airplane servicing, powerplant operations, and aircraft systems ;
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(2) Airport and traffic pattern operations, collision and wake turbulence
avoidance ;
(3) Flight maneuvering by reference to ground objects ;
(4) Pilotage with the aid of magnetic compass;
(5) Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions and the recognition of and
recovery from stalls entered from straight flight and from turns ;
(6) Emergency operations, including simulated aircraft and equipment
malfunctions ;
(7) Maximum performance takeoffs and landings ; and
(8) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings.

(b) In helicopters.
(1) Preflight operations including weight and balance determination, line
inspection, helicopter servicing, powerplant operations, and aircraft systems ;
(2) Airport and traffic pattern operations, collision and wake turbulence
avoidance;
(3) Hovering, air taxiing, and maneuvering by reference to ground objects ;
(4) Pilotage with the aid of magnetic compass;
(5) High altitude takeoffs and roll on landings, and rapid decelerations; and
(6) Emergency operations, including autorotative descents.

(c) In gyroplanes.
(1) Preflight operations, including weight and balance determination, line
inspection, helicopter servicing, powerplant operations, and aircraft systems ;
(2) Airport and traffic pattern operations, collision and wake turbulence
avoidance;
(3) Flight maneuvering by reference to ground objects;
(4) Pilotage with the aid of a magnetic compass;
(5) Maneuvering at critically slow air speeds, and the recognition of any recovery
from high rates of descent at low airspeeds; and
(6) Emergency procedures, including maximum performance takeoffs and
landings.

61.99 Airplane Rating : Aeronautical Experience For Sport Pilots

(a) An applicant for a sport pilot license with an airplane rating must have had at
least a total of 30 hours of flight instruction and solo flight time which must include
the following:
(1) Fifteen hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, including
at least:
(i) Except as provided for in Paragraph (b), 2 hours outside of the vicinity
of the airport at which instruction is given, including at least three
landings at another airport that is located more than 25 nautical miles

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from the airport of departure ; and
(ii) Two hours in airplanes in preparation for the sport pilot flight test
within the 60 day period before the test.
(2) Fifteen hours of solo flight time in airplanes.

(b) Pilots based on small islands.


(1) An applicant who is located on an island from which the flight required in Part
61.99 (a)(1)(i) cannot be accomplished without flying over water more than
10 nautical miles from the nearest shoreline need not comply with Part 61.99
(a)(1)(i). However, if other airports that permit civil operations are available to
which a flight may be made without flying over water more than 10 nautical
miles from the nearest shoreline, the applicant must show completion of a
single cross-country flight with two return trips between those two airports
which must include three landings at the other airport.
(2) The pilot license issued to a person under Paragraph (b) (1) of this Part
contains an endorsement with the following limitation which may
subsequently be amended to include another island if the applicant complies
with Paragraph (b) (1) of this Part with respect to that island : “Passenger
carrying prohibited in flights more than 10 nautical miles from (appropriate
island)”.
(3) The holder of a sport pilot license with an endorsement described in
Paragraph (b) (2) of this Part is entitled to removal of the endorsement if the
holder presents satisfactory evidence of compliance with the applicable flight
requirements of Part 61.93(c) to a DGAC inspector or designated examiner.

61.100 Rotorcraft Rating : Aeronautical Experience For Sport Pilots

An applicant for a sport pilot license with a rotorcraft category rating must have a least
the following aeronautical experience :

(a) For a helicopter rating, an applicant must have a minimum of 30 hours of flight
instruction and solo flight time in aircraft, which must include the following :
(1) Fifteen hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor including
at least-
(i) Two hours of flight instruction in helicopters from an authorized flight
instructor outside the vicinity of the airport at which instruction is given,
including at least three landings at another airport that is located more
than 25 nautical miles from the airport of departure ; and
(ii) Two hours of flight instruction in preparation for the flight test within the
60 day period preceding the test.
(2) Fifteen hours of solo time in helicopters including :
(i) A takeoff and landing at an airport that serves both airplanes and
helicopters; and
(ii) A flight with a landing at a point other than an airport.

(b) For a gyroplane rating, an applicant must have a minimum of 30 hours of flight
instruction and solo flight time in aircraft, which must include the following :
(1) Fifteen hours of flight instruction in gyroplanes from an authorized flight
instructor including at least-
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(i) Two hours of flight instruction in gyroplanes from an authorized flight
instructor outside the vicinity of the airport at which instruction is given,
including at least three landings at another airport that is located more
than 25 nautical miles from the airport of departure ; and
(ii) Two hours of flight instruction in preparation for the flight test within the
60 day period preceding the test.
(2) Ten hours of solo flight time in a gyroplane, including flights with takeoffs and
landings at paved and unpaved airports.

61.101 Sporting Pilot Privileges And Limitations

(a) A sporting pilot may :


(1) Carry not more than one passenger ; and
(2) Share the operating expenses of the flight with passenger.
(3) Act as pilot in command of an aircraft only when -
(i) The flight is within 50 nautical miles of an airport at which the pilot has
received ground and flight instruction from an authorized instructor
licensed under this part ;
(ii) The fligh lands at an airport within 50 nautical miles of the departure
airport; and
(iii) The pilots carries, in that pilot’s personal possession, a logbook that has
been endorsed by the instructor attesting to the instruction required by
Paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this Part.

(b) Except as provided in Paragraphs (f) and (g) of this Part, a sport pilot may not act
as pilot in command of an aircraft -
(1) that is certificated :
(i) For more than four occupants ;
(ii) With more than one powerplant ;
(iii) With a powerplant of more than 180 horsepower ; or
(iv) With retractable landing gear.
(2) That is classified as a glider, airship, or ballon ;
(3) That is carrying a passenger or property for compensation or hire ;
(4) For compesation or hire
(5) In furtherance of a business ;
(6) Between sunset and sunrise ;
(7) In airspace in which communication with air traffic control is required ;
(8) At an altitude of more than 10,000 feet MSL or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is
higher ;
(9) When the flight or surface visibility is less than 3 statute miles ;
(10) Without visual reference to the surface ;
(11) On a flight outside the Republic of Indonesia ;
(12) To demonstrate that aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer ;
(13) That is used in a passenger carrying airlift and sponsored by a charitable
organization ; and
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(14) That is towing any object.

(c) A sport pilot may not act as required pilot flight crewmember on any aircraft for
which more than one pilot is required by the type certificate of the aircraft or the
regulations under which the flight is conducted, except when receiving flight
instruction from an authorized flight instructor on board an airship and no person
other than a required flight crewmember is carried on the aircraft.

(d) A sport pilot who has logged fewer than 400 flight hours and who has not logged
pilot in command time in an aircraft within the preceding 180 days may not act as
pilot in command of an aircraft until the pilot has received flight instruction from an
authorized flight instructor who certifies in the pilot’s logbook that the pilot is
competent to act as pilot in command of the aircraft. This requirement can be met
in combination with the requirements of Part 61.56 and 61.57 at the discretion of
the instructor.

(e) The sport pilot license issued under this subpart carries the notation “Holder does
not meet ICAO requirements. “

(f) For the purpose of obtaining additional licenses or ratings, while under the
supervision of an authorized flight instructor, a sport pilot may fly as sole occupant
of an aircraft -
(1) For which the pilot does not hold an appropriate category or class rating ;
(2) Within airspace that requires communication with air traffic control; or
(3) Between sunset and sunrise, provided the flight or surface visibility is at least
5 statute miles.

(g) In order to fly solo as provided in Paragraph (f) of this Part, the sport pilot must
meet the appropriate aeronautical knowledge and flight training requirements of
Part 61.87 for that aircraft. When operating an aircraft under the conditions
specified in Paragraph (f) of this Part, the sport pilot shall carry the logbook that
has been endorsed for each flight by an authorized pilot instructor who :
(1) Has given the sport pilot instruction in the make and model of aircraft in
which the solo flight is to be made ;
(2) Has found that the sport pilot has met the applicable requirements of Part
61.87 and
(3) Has found that the sport pilot is competent to make solo flights in accordance
with the logbook endorsement.

(h) Notwithstanding Part 61.101 9a)(3), a sport pilot may, for the purpose of obtaining
an additional license or rating, while under the supervision of an authorized flight
instructor, act as pilot in command of an aircraft on a flight in excess of 50 nautical
miles from an airport at which flight instruction is received if the pilot meets the
flight training requirements of Part 61.93 and in that pilot’s personal possession is
the logbook that has been endorsed by an authorized instructor attesting that :
(1) The sport pilot has received instruction in solo cross-country flight and the
training described in Part 61.93 applicable to the aircraft to be operated, and

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is competent to make solo cross-country flights in the make and model of


aircraft to be flown; and
(2) The instructor has reviewed the student’s preflight planning and preparation
for the specific solo cross-country flight and that the sport pilot is prepared to
make the flight safely under the known circumstances and subject to any
conditions listed in the logbook by the instructor.

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SUBPART D - PRIVATE PILOTS

61.102 Applicability

This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of private pilot licenses and
ratings, the conditions under which those licenses and ratings are necessary, and the
general operating rules for the holders of those licenses and ratings.

61.103 Eligibility Requirements: General.

To be eligibility for a private pilot license, a person must:

(a) Be at least 17 years of age, except that a private pilot license with a free balloon or
a glider rating only may be issued to a qualified applicant who is at least 16 years
of age;

(b) Be able to read, speak, and understand the English language, or have such
operating limitation placed on his pilot license as are necessary for the safe
operation of aircraft, to be removed when he shows that he can read, speak, and
understand the English language;

(c) Hold at least a current second-class medical certificate issued under part 67 of the
CASRs, or, in the case of a glider or free balloon rating, certify that he has no
known medical defect that makes him unable to pilot a glider or free balloon, as
appropriate;

(d) Pass a written test on the subject areas on which instruction is required by Part
61.105;

(e) Pass an oral and flight test on procedures and maneuvers selected by a DGAC
inspector or designated examiner to determine the applicant’s competency in the
flight operations on which instruction is required by the flight proficiency provision
of Part 61.107; and

(f) Comply with the sections of this part that apply to the rating he seeks.

61.105 Aeronautical Knowledge

An applicant for a private pilot license must have logged ground instruction from an
authorized instructor, or must present evidence showing that he has satisfactorily
completed a course of instruction in at least the following areas of aeronautical
knowledge appropriate to the category of aircraft for which a rating is sought.

(a) Airplanes and rotorcraft.


(1) The accident reporting requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations
applicable to private pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations for
airplanes or rotorcraft, as appropriate;
(2) practical aspects of air navigation and dead-reckoning techniques; use of

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aeronautical charts
(3) The recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and in flight, the
procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;
(4) The safety and efficient operation of airplanes or rotorcraft, as appropriate,
including high density airport operations, collision avoidance precautions, and
radio communication procedures;
(5) Basic aerodynamics and the principles of flight which apply to airplanes or
rotorcraft, as appropriate; and
(5) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques for
airplanes
(6) Human performance and limitations relevant to the private pilot - airplanes
or rotorcraft, as appropriate.

(b) Gliders
(1) The accident reporting requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations
applicable to glider pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations;
(2) Glider navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts and the magnetic
compass;
(3) Recognition of weather situations of concern to the glider pilot, and the
procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;
(4) The safe and efficient operation of gliders, including ground and/or aero tow
procedures as appropriate, signals, and safety precautions; and
(6) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques for gliders
(7) Human performance and limitations relevant to the glider pilot.

(c) Airships.
(1) The Civil Aviation Safety Regulations applicable to private lighter-than-air
pilot privileges, limitations, and airship flight operations;
(2) Airship navigation, including pilotage, dead reckoning, and the use of radio
aids;
(3) The recognition of weather conditions of concern to the airship pilot, and the
procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts; and
(4) Airship operations, including free ballooning, the effects of superheating, and
positive and negative lift
(5) Human performance and limitations relevant to the airship pilot.

(d) Free balloons.


(1) The Civil Aviation Safety Regulations Applicable to private free balloon pilot
privileges, limitations, and flight operations;
(2) The use of aeronautical charts and the magnetic compass for free balloon
navigation;
(3) The recognition of weather conditions of concern to the free balloon pilot, and
the procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts
appropriate to free balloon operations; and
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(4) Operating principles and procedures of free balloons, including gas and hot
air inflation systems
(5) Human performance and limitations relevant to the free balloon pilot.

61.107 Flight Proficiency

The applicant for a private pilot license must have logged instruction from an authorized
flight instruction in at least the following pilot operations. In addition, his logbook must
contain an endorsement by an authorized flight instructor who has found him competent
to perform each of those operations safely as a private pilot.

(a) In airplanes.
(1) Preflight operations, including weight and balance determination, line
inspection, and airplane servicing;
(2) Airport and traffic pattern operations, including operations at controlled
airports, radio communication, and collision avoidance precautions;
(3) Flight maneuvering by reference to ground objects;
(4) Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions, and the recognition of and
recovery from stalls entered from straight flight and from turns;
(5) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings;
(6) Control and maneuvering an airplane solely by reference to instruments,
including descents an climbs using radio aids or radar directives;
(7) Cross – country flying, using pilotage, dead reckoning, and radio aids,
including one hours flight;
(8) Maximum performance takeoffs and landings;
(9) Night flying, including takeoffs, landings, and VFR navigation; and
(10) Emergency operations, including simulated aircraft and equipment
malfunctions.

(b) In helicopters.
(1) Preflight operations, including the line inspection and servicing of helicopters;
(2) Hovering, air taxiing, and maneuvering by ground references;
(3) Airport and traffic pattern operations, including collision avoidance
precautions;
(4) Cross-country flying, using pilotage, dead reckoning, and radio aids,
including one 1 hour flight;
(5) Operations in confined areas and on pinnacles, rapid decelerations, landings
on slopes, high altitude takeoffs, landings, and run on landings;
(6) Night flying, including takeoffs, landings, and VFR navigation; and
(7) Simulated emergency procedures, including aircraft and equipment
malfunctions, approaches to a hover or landing with an engine inoperative in
a multiengine helicopter, or autorotational descents with a power recovery to
a hover in single engine helicopters.
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(c) In gyroplanes.
(1) Preflight operations, including the line inspection and servicing of gyroplanes;
(2) Flight maneuvering by ground references;
(3) Maneuvering at critically slow airspeeds, and the recognition of and recovery
from high rates of descent at low airspeeds;
(4) Airport and traffic pattern operations, including collision avoidance
precautions and radio communication procedures;
(5) Cross-country flying by pilotage, dead reckoning, and the use of radio aids;
and
(6) Emergency procedures, including maximum performance takeoffs and
landings.

(d) In gliders.
(1) Preflight operations, including the installation of wings and tail surfaces
specifically designed for quick removal and installation by a pilot and line
inspection;
(2) Ground (auto or winch) tow or aero tow (the applicant’s license is limited to
the kind of tow selected);
(3) Precision maneuvering, including steep turns and spirals in both direction;
(4) The correct use of critical sailplane performance speeds;
(5) Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions, and the recognition of and
recovery from stalls entered from straight flight and from turns; and
(6) Accuracy approaches and landings with the nose of the glider stopping short
of and within 200 feet of a line or mark.

(e) In airships.
(1) Ground handling, mooring, rigging, and preflight operations;
(2) Takeoffs and landing with static lift, and with negative and positive lift, and
the use of two-way radio;
(3) Straight and level flight, climbs, turns, and descents;
(4) Precision flight maneuvering;
(5) Navigation, using pilotage, dead reckoning, and radio aids; and
(6) Simulated emergencies, including equipment malfunction, the valving of gas,
and the loss of power on one engine.

(f) In free balloons.


(1) Rigging and tethering, including the installation of baskets and burners
specifically designed for quick removal or installation by a pilot and the
interchange of baskets or burners, when provided for in the type certificate
data, classified as preventive maintenance, and subject to the recording
requirements of Part 43.9 of the CASRs;
(2) Operation of burner, if airborne heater used;
(3) Ascents and descents;
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(4) Landing; and


(8) Emergencies, including the use of the ripcord (may be simulated)

61.109 Airplane Rating; Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a private pilot license with an airplane rating must have had at least a
total of 40 hours of flight instruction and solo flight time which must include the following:

(a) Twenty hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, including at
least:
(1) Three hours of cross-country;
(2) Three hours at night, including 10 takeoffs and landings for applicants
seeking night flying privileges; and
(3) Three hours in airplanes in preparation for the private pilot flight test within
60 days prior to that test.

An applicant who does not meet the night flying requirement in Paragraph (a)(2) of
this Part is issued a private pilot license bearing the limitation “Night flying
prohibited.”

This limitation may be removed if the holder of the license shows that he has met
the requirements of Paragraph (a)(2) of this Part.

(b) Twenty hours of solo flight time, including at least:


(1) Ten hours in airplanes.
(2) Ten hours of cross-country flight, each flight with a landing at a point more
than 50 nautical miles from the original departure point. One flight must be of
at least 300 nautical miles with landings at a minimum of three points, one of
which is at least 100 nautical miles from the original departure point.
(3) Three solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport with an operating
control tower.

61.111 Cross - Country Flights: Pilot Based On Small Islands

(a) An applicant who shows that he is located on an island from which the required
flights cannot be accomplished without flying over water more than 10 nautical
miles from the nearest shoreline need not comply with Paragraph (b)(2) of Part
61.109. However, if other air sports that permit civil operations are available to
which a flight may be made without flying over water more than 10 nautical miles
from the nearest shoreline, he must show that he has completed two round trip
solo flights between those two airports that are farthest apart, including a landing
at each airport on both flights.

(a) The pilot licenses issued to a person under Paragraph (a) of this Part contains an
endorsement with the following limitation which may be subsequently amended to
include another island if the applicant complies with Paragraph (9a) of this Part
with respect to that island:
“Passenger carrying prohibited on flight more than 10 nautical miles from
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(appropriate island.”)

(c) If an applicant for a private pilot license under Paragraph (a) of this Part does not
have at least 3 hours of solo cross-country flight time, including a round trip flight
to an airport at least 50 nautical miles from the place of departure with at least two
full stop landing at different points along the route, his pilot license is also
endorsed as follows:

“Holder does not meet the cross-country flight requirements of ICAO.”

(d) The holder of a private pilot license with an endorsement described in Paragraph
(b)or (c) of this Part, is entitled to a removal of the endorsement, if he present
satisfactory evidence to a DGAC inspector or designated examiner that he has
complied with the applicable solo cross-country flight requirements and has
passed a practical test on cross-country flying.

61.113 Rotorcraft Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a private pilot license with a rotorcraft category rating must have at
least the following aeronautical experience:

(a) Helicopter class rating. A total of 40 hours of flight instruction, 15 hours of which
must be in a helicopter, including:
(1) 20 hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, 15 hours of
which must be in a helicopter, including;
(i) 3 hours of cross-country flying in helicopters;
(ii) 3 hours of night flying in helicopter, including 10 takeoffs and landings,
each of which must be separated by an enroute phase of flight;
(iii) 3 hours in helicopters in preparation for the private pilot flight test within
60 days before that test; and
(iv) A flight in a helicopter with a landing at a point other than an airport; and
(2) 20 hours of solo flight time, 15 hours of which must be in a helicopter,
including at least;
(i) 3 hours of cross-country flying in helicopters; including one flight with a
landing at three or more points, each of which must be more than 25
nautical miles from each of the other two points; and
(ii) Three takeoffs and landings in helicopters at an airport with an
operating control tower, each of which must be separated by an enroute
phase of flight.

(b) Gyroplane class rating. A total of 40 hours of flight instruction and solo flight time
in aircraft, including at least-
(1) 20 hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, 15 hours of
which must be in a gyroplane, including-
(i) 3 hours of cross-country flying in gyroplanes;
(ii) 3 hours of night flying in gyroplanes, including 10 takeoffs and landings;
and
(iii) 3 hours in gyroplanes in preparation for the private pilot flight test within
60 days before that test; and
(2) 20 hours of solo flight time, 10 hours of which must be in a gyroplane,
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including
(i) 3 hours of cross-country flying in gyroplanes, including one flight with a
landing at three or more points, each of which must be more than 25
nautical miles from each of the other two points; and
(ii) Three takeoffs and landings in gyroplanes at an airport with an
operating control tower.

(c) An applicant who does not meet the night flying requirement in Paragraph
9(a)(1)(ii) or (b)(1)(ii) of this Part is issued a private pilot license bearing the
limitation “ night flying prohibited”. This limitation may be removed if the holder of
the license demonstrate compliance with requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) or
(b)(1)(ii) of this Part, as appropriate.

61.115 Glider Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a private pilot license with a glider rating must have logged at least one
of the following:

(a) Seventy solo glider flights , including 20 flights during which 360 degree turns were
made.

(b) Seven hours of solo flight in gliders, including 35 glider flights launched by ground
tows, or 20 glider flights launched by aero tows.

(c) Forty hours of flight time in gliders and single engine airplanes, including 10 solo
glider flights during which 360 degree turns were made.

61.117 Lighter-Than-Air Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a private pilot license with a lighter-than-air category rating must have
at least the aeronautical experience prescribed in Paragraph (a) or (b) of this Part
appropriate to the rating sought.

(a) Airships. A total of 50 hours of flight time as pilot with at least 25 hours in airships,
which must include 5 hours of solo flight time in airships, or time performing the
functions of pilot in command of an airship for which more than one pilot is
required.

(b) Free balloons


(1) If a gas balloon or a hot air balloon with an airborne heater is used, a total of
10 hours in free balloons with at least six flights under the supervision of a
person holding a commercial pilot license with a free balloon rating. These
flights must include
(i) Two flights, each of at least 1 hour’s duration, if a gas balloon is used,
or of 30 minutes’ duration, if a hot air balloon with an airborne heater is
used
(ii) One ascent under control to 5,000 feet above the point of takeoff, if a
gas balloon is used, or 3,000 feet above the point of takeoff, if a hot air
balloon with an airborne heater is used; and
(iii) One solo flight in a free balloon.

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(2) If a hot balloon without an airborne heater is used, six flights in a free balloon
under the supervision of a commercial balloon pilot, including at least one
solo flight.

61.118 Private Pilot Privileges And Limitations : Pilot In Command

(a) Subject to compliance with validity and type rating requirements, the privileges of
the holder of a private pilot license - airplane shall be to act, but not for
remuneration, as pilot-in-command or co-pilot of any airplane engaged in non-
revenue flights.

(b) Before exercising the privileges at night, the license holder shall have received
dual instruction in airplanes in night flying, including take-offs, landing and
navigation.

61.119 Free balloon Rating: Limitations

(a) If the applicant for a free balloon rating takes his flight test in a hot air balloon with
an airborne heater, his pilot license contains an endorsement restricting the
exercise of the privilege of that rating to hot air balloons with airborne heaters.
The restriction may be deleted when the holder of the license obtains the pilot
experience required for a rating on a gas balloon.

(b) If the applicant for a free balloon rating takes his flight test in a hot air balloon
without an airborne heater, his pilot license contains and endorsement restricting
the exercise of the privileges of that rating to hot air balloons without airborne
heaters. The restriction may be deleted when the holder of the license obtains the
pilot experience and passes the tests required for a rating on a free balloon with
an airborne heater or a gas balloon.

61.120 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Second in Command of Aircraft


Requiring More Than One Required Pilot

A private pilot may not act as second in command of an aircraft that is type certificated
for more than one required pilot.

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SUBPART E - COMMERCIAL PILOTS

61.121 Applicability

This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of commercial pilot licenses
and ratings, the conditions under which those licenses and ratings are necessary, and
the limitations upon those licenses and ratings.

61.123 Eligibility Requirements: General

To be eligible for a commercial pilot license, a person must:

(a) Be at least 18 years of age;

(b) Be able to read, speak, and understand the English language, or have such
operating limitations placed on his pilot license as are necessary for safety, to be
removed when he shows that he can read, speak, and understand the English
language;

(c) Hold at least a valid first-class medical certificate issued under Part 67 of the
CASRs, or, in the case of a glider or free balloon rating, certify that he has no
known medical deficiency that makes him unable to pilot a glider or a free balloon
as appropriate;

(d) Pass a written examination appropriate to the aircraft rating sought on the subject
in which ground instruction is required by Part 61.125;

(e) Pass an oral and flight test appropriate to the rating he seeks, covering items
selected by the DGAC inspector or designated examiner from those on which
training is required by Part 61.127; and

Comply with the provisions of this subpart which apply to the rating he seeks.

61.125 Aeronautical Knowledge

An applicant for a commercial pilot license must have logged ground instruction from an
authorized instructor, or must present evidence showing that he has satisfactorily
completed a course of instruction, in at least the following areas of aeronautical
knowledge appropriate to the category of aircraft for which a rating is sought.
(a) Airplane.
(1) The regulations of the CASRs governing the operations, privileges, and
limitations of a commercial pilot, and the accident reporting requirements of
the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations;
(2) Basic aerodynamics and the principles of flight which apply to airplanes;
(3) Airplane operations, including the use of flaps, retractable landing gear,
controllable propellers, high altitude operation with and without
pressurization, loading and balance computations, and the significance and
use of airplane performance speeds; and
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(4) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques for
airplanes
(5) Human performance and limitations relevant to the commercial pilot -
airplanes.

(b) Helicopter
(1) The regulations of the CASRs which apply to the operations, privileges, and
limitations of a commercial helicopter pilot, and the accident reporting
requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations;
(2) Meteorology, including the characteristics of air masses and fronts, elements
of weather forecasting, and the procurement and use of aeronautical weather
reports and forecasts;
(3) Aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas in respect of the
elements having an effect upon aviation; the movement of pressure systems;
the structure of fronts, and the origins and characteristics of significant
weather phenomena which affect take-off, en-route and landing conditions;
hazardous weather avoidance;
(4) The safe and efficient operation of helicopters or gyroplanes, as appropriate
to the rating sought; and
(5) Basic aerodynamics and principles of flight which apply to rotorcraft and the
significance and use of performance charts.

(c) Airships.
(1) The regulations of the CASRs pertinent to airship operations, VFR and IFR,
including the privileges and limitations of a commercial airship pilot;
(2) Airship navigation, including pilotage, dead reckoning, and the use of radio
aids for VFR and IFR navigation, and IFR approaches;
(3) The use and limitations of the required flight instruments;
(4) ATC procedures for VFR and IFR operation, and the use of IFR charts and
approach plates;
(5) Meterology, including the characteristics of air masses and fronts, and the
procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;
(6) Airship ground and flight instruction procedures; and
(7) Airship operating procedures and emergency operations, including free
ballooning procedures.

(d) Free balloons.


(1) The regulations of the CASRs pertinent to commercial free balloon piloting
privileges limitations, and flight operations;
(2) The use of aeronautical charts and the magnetic compass for free balloon
navigation;
(3) The recognition of weather conditions significant to free balloon flight
operations, and the procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports
and forecasts appropriate to free ballooning;

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(4) Free balloon flight and ground instruction procedures; and


(5) Operating principles and procedures for free balloons, including emergency
procedures such as crowd control and protection, high wind and water
landings, and operations in proximity to buildings and power lines.

61.127 Flight Proficiency

The applicant for a commercial pilot license must have logged instruction from an
authorized flight instructor in at least the following pilot operations. In addition, his
logbook must contain an endorsement by an authorized flight instructor who has given
him the instruction certifying that he has found the applicant prepared to perform each
of those operations competently as a commercial pilot

(a) Airplanes.
(1) Preflight duties, including load and balance determination, line inspection,
and aircraft servicing;
(2) Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions, and the recognition of and
recovery from stalls entered from straight flight and from turns;
(3) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings, using precision approaches,
flaps power as appropriate, and specified approach speeds;
(4) Maximum performance takeoffs and landings, climbs, and descents;
(5) Operation of an airplane equipped with a retractable landing gear, flaps,
and controllable propeller(s), including normal and emergency operations;
and
(6) Emergency procedures, such as coping with power loss or equipment
malfunctions, fire in flight, collision avoidance precautions, and engine out
procedures if a multiengine airplane is used.

(b) Helicopters.
(1) Preflight duties, including line inspection and helicopter servicing;
(2) Straight and level flight, climbs, turn, and descents;
(3) Air taxiing, hovering, and maneuvering by ground references;
(4) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings;
(5) Recognition of and recovery from imminent flight at critical/rapid descent with
power (settling with power);
(6) Airport and traffic pattern operations, including collision avoidance
precautions and radio communications;
(7) Cross – country flight operations;
(8) Operations in confined areas and on pinnacles, rapid decelerations, landing
on slopes, high altitude takeoffs, and run on landings; and
(9) Simulated emergency procedures, including failure of an engine or other
component system, and approaches to a hover or landing with one engine
inoperative in multiengine helicopters, or autorotational descents with a
power recovery to a hover in single engine helicopters.

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(c) Gyroplanes.
(1) Preflight operations, including line inspection and gyroplane servicing;
(2) Straight and level flight, turns, climbs, and descents;
(3) Flight maneuvering by ground references;
(4) Maneuvering at critically slow airspeeds, and the recognition of and recovery
from high rates of descent at slow airspeeds;
(5) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings;
(6) Airport and traffic pattern operations, including collision avoidance
precautions and radio communications;
(7) Cross-country flight operations; and
(8) Emergency procedures, such as power failure, equipment malfunctions,
maximum performance takeoffs and landings and simulated liftoffs at low
airspeed and high angles of attack.

(d) Airships.
(1) Ground handling, mooring, and preflight operations;
(2) Straight and level flight, turns, climbs, and descents, under VFR and
simulated IFR conditions;
(3) Take off and landings with positive and with negative static lift;
(4) Turns and figure eights;
(5) Precision turns to headings under simulated IFR conditions;
(6) Preparing and filing IFR flight plans, and complying with IFR clearances;
(7) IFR radio navigation and instrument approach procedures;
(8) Cross-country flight operations, using pilotage, dead reckoning, and radio
aids; and
(9) Emergency operations, including engine out operations, free ballooning an
airship, and ripcord procedures (may be simulated).

(e) Free balloons.


(1) Assembly of basket and burner to the envelope, and rigging, inflating, and
tethering of a free balloon;
(2) Ground and flight crew briefing:
(3) Ascents;
(4) Descents;
(5) Landings;
(6) Operation of airborne heater, if balloon is so equipped; and
(7) Emergency operations, including the use of the ripcord (may be simulated),
and recovery from a terminal velocity descent if a balloon with an airborne
heater is used.

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61.129 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a commercial pilot license with a airplane category rating must have
at least the following aeronautical experience as a pilot:
(a) Not less than 200 hours of flight time, or 150 hours if completed during a course
of training approved under Part 141 or 142, as a pilot of airplanes
(b) The Director General may accept experience as a pilot under instruction in an
approved synthetic flight trainer as part of the total time in (a) above, provided
such experience is not more than 10 hours
(c) 100 hours as pilot-in-command, or in the case of a course approved under Part
141 or 142, 70 hours as pilot-in-command
(d) 20 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot-in-command including a cross-
country flight totalling not less than 540km (300NM) in the course of which full-
stop landings at two different aerodromes shall be made
(e) 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours may be
instrument ground time, and
(f) If the privileges are to be exercised at night, 5 hours of night flight time including
5 take-offs and 5 landings as pilot-in-command.

61.131 Helicopter Ratings: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a commercial pilot license with a helicopter category rating must have
at least the following aeronautical experience as a pilot:

(a) Helicopter class rating. A total of 150 hours of flight time, including at least 100
hours in powered aircraft, 50 hours of which must be in a helicopter, including at
least
(1) 40 hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, 15 hours of
which must be in a helicopter, including:
(i) 3 hours of cross-country flying in helicopters;
(ii) 3 hours of night flying in helicopter, including 10 takeoffs and landings,
each of which must be separated by an enroute phase of flight;
(iii) 3 hours in helicopters preparing for the commercial pilot flight test within
60 days before that test; and
(iv) Takeoffs and landings at three points other than airports; and
(2) 100 hours of pilot in command flight time, 35 hours of which must be in a
helicopter, including at least-
(i) 10 hours of cross-country flying in helicopters, including one flight with a
landing at three or more points, each of which must be more than 50
nautical miles from each of the other two points; and
(ii) Three takeoffs and landings in helicopters, each of which must be
separated by an enroute phase of flight, at an airport with an operating
control tower.

(b) Gyroplane class rating. A total of 150 hours of flight time in aircraft, including at
least 100 hours in powered aircraft, 25 hours of which must be in a gyroplane,
including at least:
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(1) 40 hours of flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor, 10 hours of


which must be in a gyroplane, including at least:
(i) 3 hours of cross – country flying in gyroplanes;
(ii) 3 hours of night flying in gyroplanes, including 10 takeoffs and landings;
and
(iii) 3 hours in gyroplanes preparing for the commercial pilot flight test within
60 days before that test; and
(2) 100 hours of pilot in command flight time, 15 hours of which must be in
gyroplane, including at least:
(i) 10 hours of cross-country flying in gyroplanes, including one flight with a
landing at three or more points, each of which is more than 50
nautical miles from each of the other two points; and
(ii) Three takeoffs and landings in gyroplanes at an airport with an
operating control tower.

61.133 [Reserved]

61.135 Airship Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a commercial pilot license with an airship rating must have a total of at
least 200 hours of flight time as pilot, including-

(a) Fifty hours of flight time as pilot in airships;

(b) 30 hours of flight time performing the duties of pilot in command in airships,
including-
(1) 10 hours of cross-country flight; and
(2) 10 hours of night flight; and

(c) 40 hours of instrument time, of which at least 20 hours must be in flight with 10
hours of that flight time in airships.

61.137 Free balloon Rating: Aeronautical Experience

An applicant for a commercial pilot license with a free balloon rating must have the
following flight time as pilot;

(a) If a gas balloon or a hot air balloon with an airborne heater is used, a total of at
least 35 hours of flight time as pilot including-
(1) 20 hours in free balloons; and
(2) 10 flights in free balloons, including
(i) Six flight under the supervision of a commercial free balloons pilot;
(ii) Two solo flights;
(iii) Two flights of at least 2 hours duration if a gas balloon is used, or at
least 1 hour duration if a hot air balloon with an airborne heater is used;
and
(iv) One ascent under control to more than 10,000 feet above the takeoff
point if a gas balloon is used or 5,000 feet above the takeoff point if a
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hot air balloon with an airborne heater is used.


(b) If a hot air balloon without an airborne heater is used, 10 flights in free balloons
including-
(1) Six flights under the supervision of a commercial free balloon pilot; and
(2) Two solo flights.

61.139 Commercial Pilot Privileges And Limitations : General

Subject to compliance with validity and type rating requirements, the privileges of the
holder of a commercial pilot license shall be:

(a) to exercise all the privileges of the holder of a private pilot license - airplane or
helicopter, as appropriate

(b) to act as pilot-in-command in any aircraft engaged in operations other than


commercial air transport

(c) to act as pilot-in-command in commercial air transport in any aircraft certificated


for single-pilot operation, and

(d) to act as co-pilot in commercial air transport in aircraft required to be operated with
a co-pilot.

Before exercising the privileges at night, the license holder shall have complied
with Part 61.118(b).

61.141 Airship And Free Balloon Ratings : Limitations

(a) If the applicant for a free balloon class rating takes his flight test in a hot air balloon
without an airborne heater, his pilot license contains an endorsement restricting
the exercise of the privileges of that rating to hot air balloons without airborne
heaters. The restriction may be deleted when the holder of the license obtains the
pilot experience and passes the test required for a rating on a free balloon with an
airborne heater or a gas balloon.

(b) If the applicant for a free balloon class rating takes his flight test in a hot air balloon
with an air borne heater, his pilot license contains an endorsement restricting the
exercise of the privileges of that rating to hot air balloons with airborne heaters.
The restriction may be deleted when the holder of the license obtains the pilot
experience required for a rating on a gas balloon.

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SUBPART F - AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOTS

61.151 Eligibility Requirements: General

To be eligible for an airline transport pilot license, a person must

(a) Be at least 21 years of age;

(b) Be of good moral character;

(c) Be able to read, write, and understand the English language and speak it without
accent or impediment of speech that would interfere with two-way radio
conversation;

(d) Be a high school graduate, or its equivalent in the Director General’s opinion,
based on the applicant’s general experience and aeronautical experience,
knowledge, and skill;

(e) Have a first-class medical certificate issued under Part 67 of the CASRs within the
6 months before the date he applies; and

(f) Comply with the sections of this part that apply to the rating he seeks.

61.153 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Knowledge

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the


privileges to the holder of an airline transport pilot license - airplane, in at least the
following subjects:

Air Law

(a) rules and regulations relevant to the holder of an airline transport pilot license -
airplanes; rules of the air; appropriate air traffic services practices and
procedures

Aircraft General Knowledge

(b) general characteristics amd limitations of electrical, hydraulic, pressurisation and


other airplane systems; flight control systems, including autopilot and stability
augmentation

(c) principles of operation, handling procedures and operating limitations of airplane


powerplants; effects of atmospheric conditions on engine performance; relevant
operational information from the flight manual or other appropriate document;

(d) operating procedures and limitations of appropriate airplanes; effects of


atmospheric conditions on airplane performance;

(e) use and serviceability checks of equipment and systems of appropriate


airplanes;
(f) flight instruments; compasses, turning and acceleration errors; gyroscopic

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instruments, operational limits and precession effects; practices and procedures in
the event of malfunctions of various flight instruments;

(g) maintenance procedures for airframes, systems and powerplants of appropriate


airplanes;

Flight performance and planning

(h) effects of' loading and mass distribution on airplane handling, flight
characteristics and performance; mass and balance calculations;

(i) use and practical application of take-off, landing and other performance data,
including procedures for cruise control;

(j) preflight and en-route operational flight planning; preparation and filing of air traffic
services flight plans; appropriate air traffic services procedures; altimeter setting
procedures;

Human performance and limitations

(k) human performance and limitations relevant to the airline transport pilot -
airplane;

Meteorology

(l) interpretation and application of aeronautical meteorological reports, charts and


forecasts; codes and abbreviations; use of, and procedures for obtaining,
meteorological information, preflight and in-flight; altimetry;

(m) aeronautical meteorology; climatology of relevant areas in respect of the elements


having an effect upon aviation; the movement of pressure systems; the structure
of fronts, and the origin and characteristics of significant weather phenomena
which affect takeoff, en-route and landing conditions;

(n) causes, recognition and effects of engine and airframe icing; frontal zone
penetration procedures; hazardous weather avoidance;

(o) practical high altitude meteorology, including interpretation and use of weather
reports, charts and forecasts; jetstrearns;

Navigation

(p) air navigation, including the use of aeronautical charts, radio navigation aids and
area navigation systems; specific navigation requirements for long-range flights;

(q) use, limitation and serviceability of avionics and instruments necessary for the
control and navigation of airplanes;

(r) use, accuracy and reliability of navigation systems used in departure, en-route,
approach and landing phases of flight; identification of radio navigation aids;

(s) principles and characteristics of self-contained and external-referenced navigation


systems; operation of airborne equipment;
Operational procedures
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(t) interpretation and use of aeronautical documentation such as AIP, NOTAM,


aeronautical codes and abbreviations, and instrument procedure charts for
departure, en-route, descent and approach;

(u) precautionary and emergency procedures; safety practices associated with flight
under IFR;

(v) operational procedures for carriage of freight and dangerous goods;

(w) requirements and practices for safety briefing to passengers, including precautions
to be observed when embarking and disembarking from airplanes;

Principles of flight

(x) principles of flight relating to airplanes; sub-sonic aerodynamics; compressibility


effects, manoeuvre boundary limits, wing design characteristics, effects of
supplementary lift and drag devices; relationships between lift, drag and thrust at
various airspeeds and in different flight configurations;

Radiotelephony

(y) radiotelephony procedures and phraseology; action to be taken in case of


communication failure.

61.155 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Experience

(a) An application for an airline transport pilot license with an airplane rating must
hold a commercial pilot license or a foreign airline transport pilot or commercial
pilot license without limitations, issued by a member state of ICAO, or he must be
a pilot in a Armed Force (ABRI) of the Republic of Indonesia whose military
experience qualifies him for a commercial pilot license under Part 61.73.

(b) An applicant must have had :


(1) At least 250 hours of flight time as pilot in command of an airplane, or as
copilot of an airplane performing the duties and functions of a pilot in
command under the supervision of a pilot in command, or any combination
thereof at least 100 hours of which were cross-country time and 25 hours of
which were night flight time; and
(2) At least 1,500 hours of flight time as a pilot, including at least :
(i) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
(ii) 100 hours of night flight time; and
(iii) 75 hours of actual or simulated instrument time, at least 50 hours of
which were in actual flight.

Flight time to meet the requirements of Paragraph (b)(1) of this Part may also be
used to meet the requirements of Paragraph (b)(2) of this Part. Also, an applicant
who has made at least 20 night takeoffs and landings to a full stop may substitute
one additional night takeoff and landing to a full stop for each hour of night flight
time required by Paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this Part. However, not more than 25
hours of night flight time may be credited in this manner.

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(c) The holder of a pilot license, when acting as a co-pilot of an aircraft required to be
operated with a co-pilot, shall be entitled to be credited with not more than 50 per
cent of the co-pilot flight time towards the the total flight time required for a higher
grade of license.

61.157 Airplane Rating: Aeronautical Skill

(a) An applicant for an airplane transport pilot license with a single engine or
multiengine class rating or an additional type rating for a type certificated for two
pilot operation must pass a practical test that includes the items set forth in
Appendix A of this part. The DGAC inspector or designated examiner may modify
any required maneuver where necessary for the reasonable and safe operation of
the airplane being used and, unless specifically prohibited in Appendix A, may
combine any required maneuvers and may permit their performance in any
convenient sequence.

(b) Whenever an applicant for an airline transport pilot license does not already have
an instrument rating he shall, as part of the oral part of the practical test, comply
with Part 61.65(g), and, as part of the flight part, perform each additional
maneuver required by Part 61.65(g) that is appropriate to the airplane.

(c) Unless the Director General requires certain or all maneuvers to be performed, the
person giving a flight test for an airline transport pilot license or additional
airplane class or type rating may, in his discretion, waive any of the maneuvers
for which a specific waiver authority are required by DGAC if a pilot being
checked:
(1) Is employed as a pilot by a Part 121 certificate holder; and
(2) Within the preceding 6 calendar months, has successfully completed that
certificate holder’s approved training program for the airplane type
involved.

(d) The items specified in Paragraph (a) of this Part may be performed in the
airplane simulator or other training device required by DGAC for the particular
item if:
(1) The airplane simulator or other training device meets the requirements of
Part 121.407 of the CASRs; and
(2) The applicant has successfully completed the training set forth in Part
121.424(d) of the CASRs. However, the DGAC inspector or designated
examiner may require to be performed in the airplane if he determines that
action is necessary to determine the applicant’s competence with respect to
that maneuver.

(e) An approved simulate may be used instead of the airplane to satisfy some of the
in-flight requirements of this part, if the simulator:
(1) Is approved under Part 121.407 of the CASRs and meets appropriate
simulator requirements acceptable to DGAC; and
(2) Is used as part of an approved program that meets the training requirements
of Part 121.424(a) and (c) of the CASRs.

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(f) After six months from the effective date of this part of the CASRs an applicant for a
type rating to be added to an airline transport pilot license must :
(1) Have completed ground and flight training on the maneuvers and procedures
of Appendix A of this part that is appropriate to the airplane for which a type
rating is sought and received an endorsement from an authorized instructor
in the person’s logbook or and training records certifying satisfactory
completion of the training; or
(2) For a pilot employee of a Part 121 or Part 135 certificate holder, have
completed ground and flight training that is appropriate to the airplane for
which a type rating is sought and is approved under Parts 121 and 135.

61.159 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Knowledge

An applicant for an airline transport pilot license with a rotorcraft category and a
helicopter class rating must pass a written test on :

(a) So much of the CASRs as relates to air carrier rotorcraft operations;

(b) Helicopter design, components, systems, and performance limitations;

(c) Basic principles of loading and weight distribution and their effect on Helicopter
flight characteristic;

(d) Air traffic control systems and procedures relating to Helicopters;

(e) Procedures for operating Helicopters in potentially hazardous meteorological


conditions.

(f) Flight theory as applicable to Helicopters; and

(g) The items listed under Paragraphs (b) through (m) of Part 61.153

61.161 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Experience

(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot license with a helicopter category and
helicopter class rating must hold a commercial pilot license, or a foreign airline
transport pilot or commercial pilot license with a helicopter category and helicopter
class rating issued by a member of ICAO, or be a pilot in an Armed Force (ABRI)
of the Republic of Indonesia whose military experience qualifies that pilot for the
issuance of a commercial pilot license under Part 61.73

(b) An applicant must have had at least 1,200 hours of flight time as a pilot, including
at least-
(1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
(2) 100 hours of night flight time, of which at lest 15 hours are in helicopters;
(3) 200 hours in helicopters, including at least 75 hours as pilot in command, or
as second in command performing the duties and functions of a pilot in
command under the supervision of a pilot in command, or any combination
thereof; and
(4) 75 hours of instrument time under actual or simulated instrument conditions
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of which at least 50 hours were completed in flight with at least 25 hours in
helicopters as pilot in command, or as second in command performing the
duties of a pilot in command under the supervision of a pilot in command, or
any combination thereof.

61.163 Helicopter Rating: Aeronautical Skill

(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot license with a helicopter category and
helicopter class rating, or additional aircraft rating, must pass a practical test on
those maneuvers set forth as required by DGAC in a helicopter. The DGAC
inspector or designated examiner may modify or waive any maneuver where
necessary for the reasonable and safe operation of the helicopter being used and
may combine any maneuvers and permit their performance in any convenient
sequence to determine the applicant’s competency

(b) Whenever an applicant for an airline pilot license with a helicopter category and
helicopter class rating does not already have an instrument rating, the applicant
shall, as part of the practical test, comply with Part 61.65 (g).

61.165 Additional Category Ratings

(a) Helicopter category with a helicopter class rating. The holder of an airline
transport pilot license (airline category) who applies for a helicopter category with
a helicopter class rating must meet the applicable requirements of Part 61.159,
61.161, and 61.163 and-
(1) Have at least 100 hours, including at least 15 hours at night, of helicopter
flight time as pilot in command or as second in command performing the
duties and functions of a pilot in command under the supervision of a pilot in
command who holds an airline transport pilot license with an appropriate
helicopter rating, or any combination thereof; or
(2) Complete a training program conducted by a certificated air carrier or other
approved agency requiring at least 75 hours of helicopter flight time as pilot
in command, second in command, or as flight instruction from an
appropriately rated DGAC licensed flight instructor or an airline transport
pilot, or any combination thereof, including at least 15 hours of night flight
time.

(b) Airplane rating. The holder of an airline transport pilot license (helicopter
category) who applies for an airplane category must comply with Part 61.153,
61.155 (except Part 61.155(b)(1)), and 61.165 and :
(1) Have at least 100 hours, including at least 15 hours at night, of airplane
flight time as pilot in command or as second in command performing the
duties and functions of a pilot in command under the supervision of a pilot in
command who holds an airline transport pilot license with an appropriate
airplane rating, or any combination thereof; or
(2) Complete a training program conducted by a certificated air carrier or other
approved agency requiring at least 75 hours of airplane flight time as pilot in
command, second in command, or as flight instruction from an appropriately
rated DGAC licensed flight instructor or an airline transport

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pilot, or any combination thereof, including at least 15 hours of night flight


time.

61.167 Tests

(a) Each applicant for an airline transport license must pass each practical and
theoretical test to the satisfaction of the Director General. The minimum passing
grade in each subject is 70 percent. Each flight maneuver is graded separately.
Other tests are graded as a whole.

(b) Information collected incidentally to such a test shall be treated as a confidential


matter by the persons giving the test and by employees of the DGAC.

61.169 Instruction in Air Transportation Service

An airline transport pilot may instruct other pilots in air transportation service in aircraft
of the category, class, and type for which he is rated. However, he may not instruct for
more than 8 hours in one day nor more than 36 hours in any 7 day period. He may
instruct under this Part only in aircraft with functioning dual controls. Unless he has a
Flight Instructor License, an airline transport pilot may instruct only as provided in this
Part.

61.171 General Privileges and Limitations

An airline transport pilot has the privileges of a commercial pilot with an instrument
rating. The holder of a commercial pilot license who qualifies for an airline transport
pilot license retains the ratings on his commercial pilot license, but he may exercise only
the privileges of a commercial pilot with respect to them.

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SUBPART G - FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS LICENSES APPROPRIATE TO


AIRPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

61.181 Applicability

This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of Flight Instructor Licenses
and ratings, the conditions under which those licenses and ratings are necessary, and
the limitations upon these licenses and ratings.

61.183 Eligibility Requirements: General

To be eligible for a Flight Instructor License a person must:

(a) Be at least 18 years of age but less than 60 years of age;

(b) Be of good moral character;

(c) Read, write, and converse fluently in English;

(d) Hold:
(1) A commercial or airline transport pilot license with an aircraft rating
appropriate to the flight instructor rating sought, and
(2) An instrument rating, if the person is applying for an airplane or an
instrument instructor rating:

(e) Pass a written on the subjects in which ground instruction is required by Part
61.185; and

(f) Pass a practical test on all items in which instruction is required by Part 61.186
and, in the case of an applicant for either a flight instructor - airplane or flight
instructor - glider rating, present a logbook endorsement from an appropriately
licensed and rated flight instructor who has provided the applicant with spin entry,
spin, and spin recovery training in an aircraft of the appropriate category that is
certificated for spins, and has found that applicant competent and proficient in
those training areas. Except in the case of retest after failure for the deficiencies
stated in Part 61.49(b), the person conducting the practical test may either accept
the spin training logbook endorsement or require demonstration of the spin, and
spin recovery maneuver on the flight portion of the practical test.

(g) Be attached to a flying school or flying club.

61.185 Aeronautical Knowledge

(a) Present evidence showing that he has satisfactorily completed a course of


instruction in at least the following subjects:
(1) The learning process.
(2) Elements of effective teaching
(3) Student evaluation, quizzing, and testing.
(4) Course development
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(5) Lesson planning.


(6) Classroom instructing techniques.

(b) Have logged ground instruction from an authorized ground or flight instructor in all
of the subjects in which ground instruction is required for a private and commercial
pilot license, and for an instrument rating, if an airplane or instrument instructor
rating is sought.

61.187 Flight Proficiency

(a) An applicant for a Flight Instructor License must have received instruction,
appropriate to the instructor license sought in the subjects listed in this paragraph
by a person authorized in Paragraph (b) of this Part. In addition, his logbook must
contain an endorsement by the person who has given him the instruction certifying
that he has found the applicant competent to pass a practical test on the following
subjects:
(1) Preparation and conduct of lesson plans for students with varying
backgrounds and levels of experience and ability.
(2) The evaluation of student flight performance
(3) Effective preflight and post flight instruction.
(4) Flight instructor responsibilities and certifying procedures.
(5) Effective analysis and correction of common student pilot flight errors.
(6) Performance and analysis of standard flight training procedures and
maneuvers appropriate to the flight instructor license sought. For both
airplane flight instructor and glider flight instructor applicants, this shall
include the satisfactory demonstration of stall awareness, spin entry, spins,
and spin recovery techniques in an aircraft of the appropriate category that is
certificated for spins

(b) The flight instruction required by Paragraph (a) of this part must be given by a
person who has held a Flight Instructor License during the 24 calendar months
immediately preceding the date the instruction is given, who meets the general
requirements for a Flight Instructor License prescribed in Part 61.183, and who
has given at least 200 hours of flight instruction, or 80 hours in the case of glider
instruction, as a licensed flight instructor.

61.189 Flight instructor records

(a) Each licensed flight instructor shall sign the logbook of each person to whom he
has given flight or ground instruction and specify in that book the amount of the
time and the date on which it was given. In addition, he shall maintain a record in
his flight instructor logbook, or in a separate document containing the following:
(1) The name of each person whose logbook or student pilot license he has
endorsed for solo flight privileges. The record must include the type and date
of each endorsement
(2) The name of each person for whom he has signed a certification for a written,
flight, or practical test, including the kind of test, date of his certification, and
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the result of the test.

(b) The record required by this Part shall be retained by the flight instructor separately
or in his logbook for at least 3 years.

61.191 Additional Flight Instructor Ratings

The holder of a Flight Instructor License who applies for an additional rating on that
license must:

(a) Hold an effective pilot license with ratings appropriate to the flight instructor rating
sought.

(b) Have had at least 15 hours as pilot in command in the category and class of
aircraft appropriate to the rating sought; and

(c) Pass the written and practical test prescribed in this subpart for the issuance of a
Flight Instructor License with the rating sought.

61.193 Flight instructor authorizations

(a) The holder of a Flight Instructor License is authorized, within the limitations of that
person’s Flight Instructor License and ratings, to give the-
(1) Flight instruction required by this part for a pilot license or rating;
(2) Ground instruction course required by this part for a pilot license and rating;
(3) Ground and flight instruction required by this subpart for a flight instruction
license and rating, if that person meets the requirements prescribed in Part
61.187 (b);
(4) Flight instruction required for an initial solo or cross-country flight;
(5) Flight review required in Part 61.56 in a manner acceptable to the Director
General;
(6) Instrument competency check required in Part 61.157(e)(2);
(7) Pilot in command flight instruction required under Part 61.101 (d); and
(8) Ground and flight instruction required by this part for the issuance of the
endorsement specified in Paragraph (b) of this Part.

(b) The holder of a Flight Instructor License is authorized within the limitations of that
person’s Flight Instructor License and ratings, to endorse-
(1) In accordance with Part 61.87(m) and 61.93(c) and (d), the pilot license of a
student pilot the flight instructor has instructed authorizing the student to
conduct solo or solo cross–country flights, or to act as pilot in command of an
airship requiring more than one flight crew member;
(2) In accordance with Part 61.86(m) and 61.93(b) and (d), the logbook of a
student pilot the flight instructor has instructed, authorizing single or repeated
solo flights;
(3) In accordance with Part 61.93(d), the logbook of a student pilot whose
preparation and preflight planning for a solo cross-country flight the flight
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instructor has reviewed and found adequate for a safe flight under the
conditions the flight instructor has listed in the logbook;
(4) In accordance with Part 61.59, the logbook of a student pilot the flight
instructor has instructed authorizing solo flight in a class B airspace area or
at an airport within a Class B airspace area.
(5) The logbook of a pilot or another flight instructor who has been trained by the
person described in Paragraph(b) of this Part, certifying that the pilot or other
flight instructor is prepared for an operating privilege, a written test, or
practical test required by this part;
(6) In accordance with Part 61.57(e)(2) and 61.101(d) the logbook of a pilot the
flight instructor has instructed authorizing the pilot to act as pilot in command;
(7) In accordance with Part 61.101 (g) and (h), the logbook of a sport pilot the
flight instructor has instructed authorizing solo flight.

61.195 Flight instructor limitations.

The holder of a Flight Instructor License is subject to the following limitations:

(a) Hours of instruction. He may not conduct more than eight hours of flight
instruction in any period of 24 consecutive hours.

(b) Ratings. Flight instruction may not be conducted in any aircraft for which the flight
instructor does not hold a category, class, and if appropriate, a type rating, on the
flight instructor’s pilot and Flight Instructor Licenses.

(c) Endorsement of student pilot license. He may not endorse a student pilot license
for initial solo or solo cross-country flight privileges, unless he has given that
student pilot flight instruction required by this part for the endorsement, and
considers that the student is prepared to conduct the flight safely with the aircraft
involved.

(d) Logbook endorsement. He may not endorse a student pilot’s logbook-


(1) For solo flight unless he has given that student flight instruction and found
that student pilot prepared for solo flight in the type of aircraft involved;
(2) For a cross-country flight, unless he has reviewed the student’s flight
preparation, planning, equipment, and proposed procedures and found them
to be adequate for the flight proposed under existing circumstances; or
(3) For solo flight in a Class B airspace are or at an airport within a Class B
airspace area unless the flight instructor has given that student ground and
flight instruction and has found that student prepared and competent to
conduct the operations authorized.

(e) Solo flight. He may not authorize any student pilot to make a solo flight unless he
possesses a valid student pilot license endorsed for solo in the make and model
aircraft to be flown. In addition, he may not authorize any student pilot to make a
solo cross-country flight unless he possesses a valid student pilot license
endorsed for solo cross-country flight in the category of aircraft to be flown.
(f) Instruction in multiengine airplane or helicopter. He may not give flight
instruction required for the issuance of a license or a category, or class rating, in a
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multiengine airplane or a helicopter, unless he has at least 5 hours of experience
as pilot in command in the make and model of that airplane or helicopter, as the
case may be.

61.197 Renewal of Flight Instructor Licenses

The holder of a Flight Instructor License may have his license renewed for an additional
period of 24 months if he passes the practical test for a Flight Instructor License and the
rating involved, or those portions of that test that the Director General considers
necessary to determine his competency as a flight instructor. His license may be
renewed without taking the practical test if-

(a) His record of instruction shows that he is a competent flight instructor;

(b) He has a satisfactory record as a company check pilot, chief flight instructor, pilot
in command of an aircraft operated under Part 121 of the CASRs, or other activity
involving the regular evaluation of pilots, and passes any oral test that may be
necessary to determine that instructor knowledge of current pilot training and
certification requirements and standards; or

(c) He has successfully completed, within 90 days before the application for the
renewal of his license, an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of
ground or flight instruction, or both.

61.199 Expired Flight Instructor Licenses and ratings.

(a) Flight Instructor Licenses. The holder of an expired Flight Instructor License may
exchange that license for a new license by passing the practical test prescribed in
Part 61.187

(b) Assistant flight instructor ratings. An assistant flight instructor rating is no longer
valid and may not be exchanged for a similar rating or a Flight Instructor License.
The holder of either of that rating is issued a Flight Instructor License only if he
passes the written and practical test prescribed in this subpart for the issue of that
license.

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APPENDIX A - PRACTICAL TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRPLANE AIRLINE


TRANSPORT PILOT LICENSES AND ASSOCIATED CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS

Throughout the maneuvers prescribe in this appendix, good judgement commensurate


with a high level of safety must be demonstrated. In determining whether such
judgment has been shown, the DGAC inspector or designed examiner who conducts
the check considers adherence to approved procedures, actions based on analysis of
situation for which there is no prescribed procedure or recommended practice, and
qualities of prudence and care in selecting a course of action.

Each maneuver or procedure must be performed in-flight except to the extent that
certain maneuvers or procedures may be performed in an airplanes simulator with a
visual system (visual simulator) or an airplane simulator without a visual system (non-
visual simulator) or may be waived as indicated by an X in the appropriate columns. A
maneuver authorized to be performed in a non-visual simulator may be performed in a
visual simulator, and a maneuver authorized to be performed in a training device may
be performed in a non-visual or a visual simulator.

An asterisk (*) preceding a maneuver or procedure indicates that the maneuver or


procedure may be performed in an airplane simulator or other training device as
indicated, provided the applicant has successfully completed the training set forth in
Part 121.424(d) of the CASRs.

When a maneuver or procedure is preceded by this symbol (#), it indicates that the
DGAC inspector or designed examiner may require the maneuver or procedure to be
performed in the airplane if he determines such action is necessary to determine the
applicant’s competence with respect to that maneuver.

An X and asterisk (X*) indicates that a particular condition is specified in connection with
the maneuver, procedure, or waiver provisions.

Key:

RS = Required, Simulated instrument conditions

RI = Required, In-flight

PV = Permitted, Visual simulator

PN = Permitted, Non-visual simulator

PT = Permitted, Training device

PW = Permitted, Waiver provision of Part 61.157 (c)

The procedures and maneuvers set forth in this appendix must be performed in a
manner that satisfactorily demonstrates knowledge and skill with respect to:

(1) The airplane, its systems and components;

(2) Proper control of airspeed, configuration, direction, altitude, and attitude in


accordance with procedures and limitations contained in the approved Airplane
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Flight Manual, check lists, or other approved material appropriate to the


airplane type; and

(3) Compliance with approved enroute, instrument approach, missed approach,


ATC, or other applicable procedures.

61xA.I Preflight

(a) Equipment examination (oral). As part of the practical test the equipment
examination must be closely coordinated with and related to, the flight maneuvers
portion but may not be given during the flight maneuvers portion. Notwithstanding
Part 61.21 the equipment examination may be given to an applicant who has
completed a ground school that is part of an approved training program under Civil
Aviation Safety Regulation Part 121 for the airplane type involved and who is
recommended by his instructor. The equipment examination must be repeated if
the flight maneuvers portion is not satisfactorily completed within 60 days. The
equipment examination must cover airplane, its powerplants, systems,
components, operational, and performance factors; {PT}
(1) Subject requiring a practical knowledge of the airplane, its powerplants,
systems, components, operational, and performance factors;
(2) Normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures, and the operations and
limitations relating to those procedures; and
(3) The appropriate provisions of the approved Airplane Flight Manual.

(b) Preflight Inspection. The pilot must-


(1) Conduct an actual visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the
airplane, locating each item and explaining briefly the purpose of inspecting it;
and {PT,PW*}
(2) Demonstrate the use of the prestart checklist, appropriate control system
checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the
selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and
frequencies prior to flight.{PN}

If a flight engineer is a required crewmember for the particular type airplane, the
actual visual inspection may either be waived or it may be replaced by using an
approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detail of
inspection items.

(c) Taxiing. This maneuvers includes taxiing, sailing, or docking procedures in


compliance with instructions issued by the appropriate traffic control authority or by
the DGAC inspector or designated examiner. {RI}

(d) Powerplant checks. As appropriate to the airplane type. {PN}

61xA.II Takeoffs

(a) Normal. One normal takeoff which, for the purpose of this maneuver begins when
the airplane is taxied into position on the runway to be used. {RI}
*(b) Instrument. One takeoff with instrument conditions simulated at or before reaching
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Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

an altitude of 100 feet above the airport elevation. {RS,PV}

(c) Crosswind. One crosswind takeoff, if practical under the existing meteorological,
airport, and traffic conditions. {RI*}

#*(d) Powerplant failure. One takeoff with a simulated failure of the most critical
powerplant. {PV}
(1) At a point after V1 and before V2 that in the judgement of the person
conducting the check is appropriate to the airplane type under the
prevailing conditions;
(2) At a point as close as possible after V1 when V1 and V2 or V1 and Vr are
identical; or
(3) At the appropriate speed for non-transport category airplanes.

For additional type ratings in an airplane group with engines mounted in similar
position or from wing mounted engines to aft fuselage mounted engines this
maneuver may be performed in a non-visual simulator

(e) Rejected. A rejected takeoff performed in an airplane during a normal takeoff run
after reaching a reasonable speed determined by giving due consideration to
aircraft characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and
velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely
affect safety or the airplane.{PN,PW*}

61xA.III Instrument Procedures

(a) Area departure and area arrival. During each of these maneuvers the applicant
must {RS, PN, PW}
(1) Adhere to actual or simulated ATC clearances (including assigned
radials);and
(2) Properly use available navigation facilities.

Either area arrival or area departure, but not both, may be waived under Part
61.157 (c)

(b) Holding. This maneuver includes entering, maintaining, and leaving holding
patterns. It may be performed under either area departure or area arrival.
{RS,PN,PW*}

(c) ILS and other instrument approaches. There must be the following:
*(1) At least one normal ILS approach. {RS, PV}
#(2) At least one manually controlled ILS approach with a simulated failure of one
powerplant. The simulated failure should occur before initiating the final
approach course and must continue to touchdown or through the missed
approach procedure. {RS, PV}
However, either the normal ILS approach or the manually controlled ILS
approach must be performed in flight.
(3) At least one non-precision approach procedure that is representative of the
non-precision approach procedures that the applicant is likely to use.{RS,PV}
Appendix A App. A-3
Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

(4) Demonstration of at least one non-precision approach procedure on a


letdown aid other than the approach procedure performed under
Subparagraph (3) of this paragraph that the applicant is likely to use. If
performed in a synthetic instrument trainer, the procedures must be observed
by the DGAC inspector or designated examiner, or if the applicant has
completed an approved training course under Part 121 of the CASRs for the
airplane type involved, the procedures may be observed by a person
qualified to act as an instructor or DGAC-approved check pilot under that
approved training program.{RS,PT}

Each instrument approach must be performed according to any procedures and


limitations approved for the approach facility used. The instrument approach
begins when the airplane is over the initial approach fix for the approach
procedure being used (or turned over to the final approach controller in the case of
GCA approach) and ends when the airplane touches down on the runway or
when transition to a missed approach configuration is completed. Instrument
conditions need not to be simulated below 100 feet above touchdown zone
elevation.

(d) Circling approaches. At least one circling approach must be made under the
following conditions: {PV, PW*}
(1) The portion of the circling approach to the authorized minimum circling
approach altitude must be made under simulated instrument conditions.{RS}
(2) The approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach
altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by
visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a
runway at least 90 degrees from the final approach course of the simulated
instrument portion of the approach.
(3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering,
and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the airplane. The
angle of bank should not exceed 30 degrees.

When the maneuver is performed in an airplane, it may be waived as provided in


Part 61.157 (c) if local conditions beyond the control of the pilot prohibit the
maneuver or prevent it from being performed as required.

The circling approach maneuver is not required for a pilot employed by a


certificate holder subject to the operating rules of Part 121 of the CASRs, if the
certificate holder’s manual prohibits a circling approach in weather conditions
below 1000-foot ceiling and 3 miles visibility.

*(e) Missed approaches. Each applicant must perform at least two missed
approaches, with at least one missed approach from an ILS approach. A
complete approved missed approach procedure must be accomplished at least
once and, at the discretion of the DGAC inspector or designated examiner, a
simulated powerplant failure may be required during any of the missed
approaches. These maneuvers may be performed either independently or in
conjunction with maneuvers required under Parts III or V or this appendix. At least
one must be performed in-flight.{RS,RI,PV*}

Appendix A App. A-4


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

61x.A.IV In-flight Maneuvers

*(a) Steep turns. At least one steep turn in each direction must be performed. Each
steep turn must involve a bank angle of 45 degrees with a heading change of at
least 180 degrees but not more than 360 degrees. {RS, PN, PW}

*(b) Approaches to stalls. For the purpose of this maneuver the required approach to a
stall is reached when there is a perceptible buffet or other response to the initial
stall entry. Except as provided below, there must be at least three approaches to
stalls as follows: {RS, PN, and PW}
(1) One must be in the takeoff configuration (except where the airplane uses
only a zero flap takeoff configuration).
(2) One in a clean configuration.
(3) One in landing configuration.

At the discretion of the DGAC inspector or designated examiner, one approach to


a stall must be performed in one of the above configurations while in a turn with a
bank angle between 15 degrees and 30 degrees. Two out of the three approaches
required by this paragraph may be waived as provided in Part 61.157 (c).

*(c) Specific flight characteristics. Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are
peculiar to the airplane type. {PN, PW}

(d) Powerplant failures. In addition to the specific requirements for maneuvers with
simulated powerplant failures, the DGAC inspector or designated examiner may
require a simulated powerplant failure at any time during the check. {RI}

61xA.V Landings and Approaches to Landings

Notwithstanding the authorizations for combining of maneuvers and for waiver of


maneuvers, at least three actual landings (one to a full stop) must be made. These
landings must include the types listed below but more than one type can be combined
where appropriate:

(a) Normal landing. {RI}

#(b) Landing in sequence from an ILS instrument approach except that if circumstances
beyond the control of the pilot prevent an actual landing, the person conducting the
check may accept an approach to a point where in his judgment a landing to a full
stop could have been made. In addition, where a simulator approved for the
landing maneuver out of an ILS approach is used, the approach may be continued
through the landing and credit given for 1 of the 3 landings required by this Part.
{PV*}

(c) Cross wind landing, if practical under existing meteorological, airport, and traffic
conditions. {RI*}

#(d) Maneuvering to a landing with simulated powerplant failure, as follows: {PV*}


(1) In the case of three engine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with an
approved procedure that approximates the loss of 2 powerplants (center and
1 outboard engine); or
Appendix A App. A-5
Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

(2) In the case of other multiengine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with a


simulated failure of 50 percent of available powerplants, with the simulated
loss of power on one side of the airplane. However, before Jan. 1, 1975, in
the case of a four engine turbojet powered airplane, maneuvering to a
landing with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant may be
substitute therefor, if a flight instructor in an approved training program under
Part 121 of the CASRs certifies to the Director General that he has observed
the applicant satisfactorily perform a landing in that type airplane with a
simulated failure of 50 percent of the available powerplants.

The substitute maneuver may not be used if the Director General determines that
training in the two engine-out landing maneuver provided in the training program is
unsatisfactory.

If an applicant performs this maneuver in a visual simulator, he must, in addition,


maneuver in flight to a landing with a simulated failure of the most critical
powerplant.

*(e) Except as provided in Paragraph (f), landing under simulated circling approach
conditions except that if circumstances beyond the control of the pilot prevent a
landing, the person conducting the check may accept an approach to a point
where, in his judgment, a landing to a full stop could have been made. {PV}

The circling approach maneuver is not required for a pilot employed by a


certificate holder subject to the operating rules of Part 121 of the CASRs, if the
certificate holder’s manual prohibits a circling approach in weather condition below
1000 – 3 (ceiling and visibility).

*#(f) A rejected landing, including a normal missed approach procedure, that is rejected
approximately 50 feet over the runway and approximately over the runway
threshold. This maneuver may be combined with instrument, circling, or missed
approach procedures, but instrument conditions need not be simulated below 100
feet above the runway. {RS*, PV*}

#(g) A zero flap visual approach to a point where, in the judgment of the person
conducting the check, a landing to a full stop on the appropriate runway could be
made. This maneuver is not required for a particular airplane type if the Director
General has determined that the probability of flap extension failure on that type is
extremely remote due to system design. In making this determination, the Director
General determines whether checking on slats only and partial flap approach is
necessary. {PV*}

(h) For a single powerplant rating only, unless the applicant holds a commercial pilot
license, he must accomplish accurate approaches and spot landings that include a
series of three landings from an altitude of 1,000 feet or less, with the engine
throttled and 180 degrees change in direction. The airplane must touch the
ground in a normal landing attitude beyond and within 200 feet from a designated
line. At least one landing must be from a forward slip. One hundred eighty degree
approaches using two 90 degree turns with a straight base leg are preferred
although circular approaches are acceptable. {RI}

Appendix A App. A-6


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

61xA.VI Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Each applicant must demonstrate the proper use of as many of the systems and
devices listed below as the DGAC inspector or designated examiner finds are
necessary to determine that the person being checked has a practical knowledge of the
use of the systems and devices appropriate to the aircraft type:

(a) Anti-icing and deicing systems. {PN}

(b) Autopilot systems. {PN}

(c) Automatic or other approach aid systems. {PN}

(d) Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation devices.
{PN}

(e) Airborne radar devices. {PN}

(f) Any other systems, devices, or aids available. {PN}

(g) Hydraulic and electrical system failures and malfunctions. {PT}

(h) Landing gear and flap systems failures or malfunctions. {PT}

(i) Failure of navigation or communications equipment. {PN}

61xA.VII Emergency Procedures

Each applicant must demonstrate the proper emergency procedures for as many of the
emergency situations listed below as the DGAC inspector or designated examiner finds
are necessary to determine that the person being checked has an adequate knowledge
of, and ability to perform, such procedures:

(a) Fire in-flight. {PN}

(b) Smoke control. {PN}

(c) Rapid decompression. {PN}

(d) Emergency descent. {PN}

(e) Any other emergency procedures outlined in the appropriate approved airplane
flight manual. {PN}

Appendix A App. A-7


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

APPENDIX B - PRACTICAL TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR HELICOPTER AIRLINE


TRANSPORT PILOT LICENSES WITH A HELICOPTER CLASS RATING AND
ASSOCIATED TYPE RATINGS

Throughout the maneuvers prescribed in this appendix, good judgment commensurate


with a high level of safety must be demonstrated. In determining whether such judgment
has been shown, the DGAC inspector or designated examiner who conducts the check
considers adherence to approved procedures, actions based on analysis of situations
for which there is no prescribed procedure or recommended practice, and qualities of
prudence and care in selecting a course of action. The successful outcome of a
procedure or maneuver will never be in doubt.

The maneuvers and procedures in this appendix must be performed in a manner that
satisfactorily demonstrates knowledge and skill with respect to-

(1) The helicopter, its systems, and components;

(2) Proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, and attitude in accordance with
procedures and limitations contained in the approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual,
checklists, or other approved material appropriate to the rotorcraft type; and

(3) Compliance with approved enroute, instrument approach, missed approach,


ATC, and other applicable procedures.

61xB.I Preflight

(a) Equipment examination (oral). The equipment examination must be repeated if


the flight maneuvers portion is not satisfactorily completed within 60 days. The
equipment examination must cover-
(1) Subjects requiring a practical knowledge of the helicopter, its powerplants,
systems, components, and operational and performance factors;
(2) Normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures and related operations and
limitations; and
(3) The appropriate provisions of the approved helicopter Flight Manual or
manual material.

(b) Preflight inspection. The pilot must-


(1) Conduct an actual visual inspection of the exterior and interior of helicopter,
locating each item and explaining briefly the purpose of inspecting it; and
(2) Demonstrate the use of the prestart checklist, appropriate control system
checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the
selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and
frequencies before flight.

(c) Taxiing. The maneuver includes ground taxiing, hover taxiing (including
performance checks), and docking procedures, as appropriate, in compliance with
instructions issued by ATC, the DGAC inspector, or the designated examiner.

(d) Powerplant checks. As appropriate to the helicopter type in accordance with the
Helicopter Flight Manual procedures.

Appendix B App. B-1


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4
61xB.II Takeoffs

(a) Normal. One normal takeoff from a stabilized hover which begins when the
helicopter is taxied into position for takeoff.

(b) Instrument. One takeoff with instrument conditions simulated at or before


reaching 100 feet above airport elevation.

(c) Crosswind. One crosswind takeoff from a stabilized hover, if practical under the
existing meteorological, airport, and traffic elevation.

(d) Powerplant failure.


(1) For single engine Helicopter, one normal takeoff with simulated powerplant
failure.
(2) For multiengine Helicopters, one normal takeoff with simulated failure of one
engine:
(i) At an appropriate airspeed that would allow continued climb
performance in forward flight; or
(ii) At an appropriate airspeed that is 50 percent of normal cruise speed, if
there is no published single engine climb airspeed for that type of
helicopter.

(e) Rejected. One normal takeoff that is rejected after simulated engine failure at a
reasonable airspeed, determined by giving due consideration to the helicopter’s
characteristics, length of landing area, surface conditions, wind direction and
velocity, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety.

61xB.III Instrument Procedures

(a) Area departure and arrival. During each of these maneuvers, the applicant must-
(1) Adhere to actual and simulated ATC clearances (including assigned bearings
or radials); and
(2) Properly use available navigation facilities.

(b) Holding. This maneuver includes entering, maintaining, and leaving holding
patterns.

(c) ILS and other instrument approaches. The instrument approach begins when the
helicopter is over the initial approach fix for the approach procedure being used (or
turned over to the final controller in case of a surveillance or precision radar
approach) and ends when the helicopter terminates at a hover or touches down or
where transition to a missed approach is completed. The following approaches
must be performed:
(1) At least one normal ILS approach.
(2) For multiengine helicopters, at least one manually controlled ILS approach
with a simulated failure of one powerplant. The simulated engine failure
should occur before initiating the final approach course and continue to a
hover to touchdown or through the missed approach procedure.
(3) At least one non-precision approach procedure that is representative of the
non-precision approach procedure that the applicant is likely to use.
Appendix B App. B-2
Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

(4) At least one non-precision approach procedure on a letdown aid other than
the approach procedure performed under Subparagraph (3) of this paragraph
that the applicant is likely to use.

(d) Circling approaches. At least one circling approach must be made under the
following conditions:
(1) The portion of the circling approach to the authorized minimum circling
approach altitude must be made under simulated instrument conditions.
(2) The approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach
altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by
visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a
runway at least 90 degrees from the final approach course of the simulated
instrument portion of the approach.
(3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering
and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the rotorcraft. The angle
of bank should not exceed 30 degrees.

(e) Missed approaches. Each applicant must perform at least two missed approaches
with at least one missed approach from an ILS approach. At the discretion of the
DGAC inspector or designated examiner, a simulated powerplant failure may be
required during any of the missed approaches. The maneuver may be performed
either independently or in conjunction with maneuvers required under Part III or V
of this appendix. At least one must be performed in flight.

61xB.IV In-flight Maneuvers

(a) Steep turns. At least one steep turn in each direction must be performed. Each
steep turn must involve a bank angle of 30 degrees with a heading change of at
least 180 degrees but not more than 360 degrees.

(b) Settling with power. Demonstrate recognition of and recovery from imminent flight
at critical/rapid descent with power. For the purpose of this maneuver, settling with
power is reached when a perceptive buffet or other indications of imminent settling
with power have been induced.

(c) Powerplant failure. In addition to the specific requirements for maneuvers with
simulated powerplant failures, the DGAC inspector or designated examiner may
require a simulated powerplant failure at any time during the check.

(d) Recovery from unusual attitudes.

61xB.V Approaches and Landings

(a) Normal. One normal approach to a stabilized hover or to the ground must be
performed.

(b) Instrument. One approach to a hover or to a landing in sequence from an ILS


instrument approach.

(c) Crosswind. One crosswind approach to a hover or to the ground, if practical under

Appendix B App. B-3


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

the existing meteorological, airport, or traffic conditions.


(d) Powerplant failure. For a multiengine rotorcraft, maneuvering to a landing with
simulated powerplant failure of one engine.
(e) Rejected. Rejected landing, including a normal missed approach procedure at
approximately 50 feet above the runway. This maneuver may be combined with
instrument or missed approach procedures, but instrument conditions need not be
simulated below 100 feet above the runway or landing area.
(f) Autorotative landings. Autorotative landings in a single engine helicopter. The
applicant may be required to accomplish at least one autorotative approach and
landing from any phase of flight as specified by the DGAC inspector or designated
examiner.

61xB.VI Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Each applicant must demonstrate the proper use of as many systems and devices listed
below as the DGAC inspector or designated examiner finds are necessary to determine
that the applicant has a practical knowledge of the use of the systems and devices
appropriate to the helicopter type:
(a) Anti-icing or deicing systems.
(b) Autopilot or other stability augmentation devices.
(c) Airborne radar devices.
(d) Hydraulic and electrical systems failures or malfunctions.
(e) Landing gear failures or malfunctions.
(f) Failures of navigation or communications equipment.
(g) Any other system appropriate to the helicopter as outlined in the approved
Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

61xB.VII Emergency Procedures

Each applicant must demonstrated the proper emergency procedures for as many of
the emergency situations listed below as the DGAC inspector or designated airmen
examiner finds are necessary to determine that the applicant has adequate knowledge
of, and ability to perform, such procedures:
(a) Fire or smoke control in flight.
(b) Ditching.
(c) Evacuation.
(d) Operation of emergency equipment.
(e) Emergency descent.
(f) Any other emergency procedure outline in the approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

Appendix B App. B-4


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

APPENDIX C – LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE

LEVEL PRONUNCIATION STRUCTURE VOCABULARY FLUENCY COMPREHENSION INTERACTIONS


Assumes a dialect Relevant
and/ or accent grammatical
intelligible to the structures
aeronautical and sentence
community patterns are
determined
by language
functions
appropriate
to the task
Expert Pronunciation, Both basic Vocabulary Able to Comprehension is Interacts with
6 rhythm, and and complex range and speak at consistently ease in neatly
intonation, though grammatical accuracy are length with accurate in nearly all situations. Is
possibly influenced structures sufficient to a natural, all contexts and sensitive to
by
the first language and sentence communicate effortless includes verbal and non-
or
regional variation, patterns are effectively on a flow. Varies comprehension of verbal cues and
almost never consistently well wide variety of speech flow linguistic and responds to
interfere
with ease of controlled familiar and for stylistic effect, cultural subtitles. Them appropriately.
unfamiliar e.g.
understanding topics. to
Vocabulary is emphasize
idiomatic, a point.
nuanced, and Uses
sensitive to appropriate
register. discourse
markers
and
connectors
spontaneously.

Extended Pronunciation, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range Able to Comprehension is Responses are
stress, and
5 rhythm, and structures accuracy are speak at accurate on immediate,
intonation, though and sentence sufficient to length with common, concrete, appropriate,
influenced by the patterns are communicate relative and work-related and informative.
first
language or consistently effectively on ease on topics and mostly Manages the
regional
variation, rarely well common, familiar accurate when the speaker/listener
interfere with ease controlled. concrete, and topics but speaker is relationship
of
understanding Complex work-related may not confronted with a effectively
structures topics. vary speech linguistic or
are Paraphrases flow as a situational
attempted consistently stylistic complication or an
but with and device. Can unexpected turn of
errors which successfully. make use events. Is able to
sometimes Vocabulary is of comprehend a range
interfere with sometimes appropriate of speech varieties
meaning. idiomatic. discourse (dialect and/or

Appendix C App. C-1


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

markers or accent) or registers


connectors
Operation Pronunciation, Basic Vocabulary Produces Comprehension Responses are
stress,
al 4 grammatical range and stretches of is mostly accurate usually
rhythm, and
structures and accuracy are language at an on common, immediate,
intonation are
sentence patterns usually sufficient appropriate concrete, and appropriate,
influenced by
are used to communicate tempo. There work-related and
the first
creatively effectively on may be topics when the informative
language or
and are usually common, occasional loss accent or variety Initiates and
regional
well controlled. concrete, and of fluency on used is sufficiently maintains
variation but
Errors may work-related transition from intelligible for an exchanges
only sometimes
occur, topics. Can rehearsed international even when
interfere
particularly in often or community of dealing with an
with ease of paraphrase
unusual or formulaic users. When the unexpected
understanding. unexpected successfully turn of events.
speech to speaker is
circumstances, but when lacking spontaneous confronted with a Deals
rarely interfere vocabulary in interaction, but linguistic or adequately
with meaning. unusual or this does not situational with apparent
unexpected prevent effective complication or an misunderstandi
circumstances communication. unexpected turn ngs by
Can make of events, checking,
limited use of comprehension confirming, or
discourse may be slower or clarifying.
markers or require
connectors. clarification
Fillers are not strategies.
distracting

Pre- Pronunciation, Basic Vocabulary Produces Comprehension is Responses are


stress,
operation grammatical range and accuracy stretches of often accurate on sometimes
rhythm, and structures and are often sufficient to language, but common, concrete, immediate,
al
intonation are sentence patterns communicate on phrasing and and work-related appropriate,
3
influenced by the associated common, concrete, topics when the and informative.
pausing are
first language or or accent or variety Can initiate and
with often inappropriate.
regional variation work-related topics, used is sufficiently maintain exchanges
predictable situations hesitations or
and frequently but range is intelligible for an w ith reasonable
are not always well slowness in
interfere international ease on familiar
controlled. Errors limited and the language
with ease of community of users. topics and in
frequently word choice often processing may
understanding May fail to understand predictable
interfere with inappropriate. Is often prevent
meaning. unable to paraphrase effective a linguistic or situations. Generally
successfully when communication. Fillers situational inadequate
are sometimes
lacking vocabulary distracting complication or an when dealing with
unexpected turn of an unexpected turn
events. of events

Appendix C App. C-2


Mei 2016 CASR 61 Amdt. 4

Elementa Pronunciation, Shows only Limited Can produce very Comprehension is Response time
stress, limited control of a
ry vocabulary range short, isolated, limited to isolated, is slow and often
rhythm, and few simple consisting only of memorized
2 memorized phrases inappropriate.
intonation are memorized isolated utterances when they are Interaction is
heavily influenced grammatical with
words and carefully and slowly limited to simple
by the first language structures and memorized phrases frequent pausing articulated. routine exchanges.
or regional variation sentence patterns and a distracting
and usually interfere
use of fillers to
with ease of
search for
understanding.
expressions
and to articulate
less familiar
words.

Pre- Performs at a level Performs at a Performs at a Performs at Performs at a level Performs at a


elementar below the level below the level below the a level below the below the Elementary level below the
y Elementary level Elementary level. Elementary level Elementary level level Elementary level
1

Note.
- The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication. Levels 1 through
3 describe Pre-elementary, Elementary, and Preoperational levels of language proficiency, respectively, all of which describe a
level of proficiency below the ICAO language proficiency requirement. Levels 5 and 6 describe Extended and Expert levels, at levels
of proficiency more advanced than the minimum required Standard. As a whole, the scale will serve as benchmarks for training
and testing, and in assisting cru1didates to attain the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4).

Appendix C App. C-3