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Special issue of Asia Pacific Journal of Management

Familial Organizations and International Business: Individual,

Organizational and Institutional Variety in and beyond Asia
Special Issue Editors:
Kimberly Eddleston (Northeastern University, USA,
Peter Jaskiewicz (Concordia University, Canada,
Mike Wright (Imperial College, UK,
Ling Chen (Zhejiang University, China,
APJM Advising Editor:
Michael Carney (Concordia University, Canada,

Submission deadline: Nov. 1st, 2016

First author notification Jan. 5th, 2017
Special issue workshop May 14-15th, 2017 (Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, China)
Tentative publication date: Dec. 31st, 2017


Familial organizations are the most popular form of business organizations in the
world, including Asia. They include traditional modes of authority based on family,
kin, and clan ties. Familial forms of organizing account for more than 80% of non-
governmental business activity world-wide (The Economist, 2015), from start-ups
to multinational corporations. Although management and organization theories
claim that norms of bureaucratic rationality accompanying globalization (e.g.,
Meyer, 2010) should lead to the marginalization of familial forms of organization
(Chandler, 1977), we have seen these organizations survive and even thrive in
many contexts. Indeed, The Economist predicts that the share of familial
organizations among large multinational firms will increase from 15% to 40% over
the next decade, mainly as a result of the increase in the number of large family
firms in Southeast Asia.
Twenty years ago Boisot & Child (1996) predicted that clan-like network
capitalism would become commonplace in countries like China due to the central
role that families play in doing business. Recently, Fukuyama (2014) introduced the
concept of re-patrimonialization that recognizes the capture by elite families of
impersonal bureaucratic organizations and government institutions. Indeed, families
have created dynasties with profound, lasting influence on international markets
and institutional environments. Therefore, in considering Boisot & Child’s (1996)
contention that clans provide an effective form of organizing in many developing
countries and Fukuyama’s prediction that familial forces will impede the
development of impersonal bureaucratic organizations, we ask: How do familial
organizations shape international business across institutional contexts in and
beyond Asia?

Sociologists and anthropologists recognize how characteristics of families,
kin, and clans reflect evolutionary outcomes within institutional contexts (Blau,
1964) that must be considered to understand individual, group, and organizational
decision-making (Hsu, 1971; Ouchi, 1980). Finance, management, and
entrepreneurship scholars recognize the pervasive influence of families, kinship,
and clans on economic activity (Anderson & Reeb 2003; Chrisman & Patel, 2012),
but have struggled to develop theories capturing how ancestral and consanguineous
systems influence international business.
The IB literature has recently acknowledged the tensions arising when FDI,
foreign portfolio investments, and diverse entry modes are portrayed as
homogenous and impersonal decisions uninfluenced by familial organizing and
authority (Miller, et al., 2009). Behaviors of firms regarding internationalization
vary greatly depending on the degree and type of family influence on firms
(Banalieva & Eddleston, 2011). Since understanding organizational drivers of
international success and failure is at the heart of IB theorizing and empirical
investigation (Lu & Beamish, 2004; Peng, 2004), we aim to integrate insights from
disciplines that have recognized the complexity of familial forms of organizing so as
to advance the study of IB in and beyond the context of Asia. Accordingly, we
encourage contributions from sociology, family science, management, IB, and other
domains. We welcome conceptual and empirical papers using quantitative,
qualitative and mixed approaches on any level and across levels of analysis. Papers
are expected to look at Asian contexts and/ or compare Asian and other
institutional contexts with respect to familial forms of organizing.


From a theory perspective, we envision research focusing on how families, kin,

and clans influence IB within particular institutional contexts across levels of
analysis. We envision contributions that analyze variations within familial
organizations as well as those comparing familial organizations with other forms.

1) At the individual and family/kin/clan level of analysis:

National and international differences in the meaning, structure, culture, and
hierarchy of family, kin, and clan have developed as they confer advantages over
other forms of organizing in a specific institutional context (Lévi-Strauss, 1969).
When exposed to business environments, however, how do these distinctive familial
forms of organizing shape business behavior with respect to IB? (Vaaler, 2011)
 In which institutional environments are some forms of familial organizing
superior to others when internationalizing? Which characteristics of kinship ties,
families, and clans facilitate or impede IB across institutional context?
 Immigrants are one of the most important sources of international investments
(Gould, 1994). When do immigrants use earnings to invest in their host country
versus remitting them to family members in their home country? Does wealth
transfer to their home country spur entrepreneurship among family, kin, or clan
members? How does migration promote and influence IB activities? Do returnee
migrants bolster familial organizations in entrepreneurial deficit countries?
 High net worth individuals, families, and clan members highlight the immense
success of familial organizations but point to new means of IB, including family

and clan wealth offices, trusts and foundations, holding companies for tax
evasion purposes, real estate investments to launder profits from illegal
activities, and sovereign wealth funds to steer inherited funds of the monarch
bloodline. How do IB activities pursued by familial forms of organizing differ from
those offered by more rational financial institutions, bankers, and advisors?

2) At the organizational level of analysis:

Increasingly more familial organizations are expanding overseas however, research
on the interplay between internationalization and familial organizations is sparse
(Pukall & Calabro, 2014; Reuber & Fischer, 1997).
 How do features of familial organizations affect their motives and strategies
regarding internationalization and overseas expansion such as where to invest,
which entry mode to use, and with whom to partner?
 When familial organizations expand to geographic markets with different
institutional environments, what are the unique challenges they face and how do
they adapt their business strategies and practices?
 Does internationalization of familial organizations lead to clashes in
cultural/social values, which affects their structure, strategy and performance?

3) At the institutional level of analysis:

Despite the undeniable influence of familial organizations, research employing
institutional or cross-national perspectives remains surprisingly scarce (Carney &
Gedajlovic, 2002; Deephouse & Jaskiewicz, 2013):
 How do societal institutions shape familial forms of organizing? What are the
regulatory, legal, and societal factors that affect how family, kin, and clans
organize their IB strategies?
 Familial organizations are not exempt from globalization pressures and hence
there is likely a convergence of practices around the globe. As family, kinship
groups and clans are deeply rooted in the cultural/social values of institutional
environments, are they more resistant to the adoption of new practices brought
about by globalization than other types of businesses?
 Which institutional contingencies of home and host countries make familial forms
of organizing building blocks of IB in some societies and stumbling blocks in
 How do differing levels of economic and institutional development moderate the
structure, prevalence, and value of IB activities of familial forms of organizing?

From a methodology perspective we welcome work that considers questions

surrounding the measurement of familial organizations and their roles in IB using
interdisciplinary and cross-level approaches:
 What are the measures of familial forms of organizing that have been used in
other disciplines and under which contingencies can they help explain IB?
 What are the critical characteristics of familial forms of organizing that shape IB?
How can we measure them among familial forms of organizing within an
institutional context and across institutional contexts?
 Which methodological approaches can be used to analyze across levels of
analysis how characteristics of familial forms of organizing at the individual,
familial, and institutional level influence IB?

We similarly encourage researchers to import from other disciplines and consider
new theoretical, methodological and empirical approaches to understanding,
measuring, and analyzing the role of family, kin and clan for IB. We anticipate
fruitful hybridization in interdisciplinary research that will lead to major theoretical
contributions that extend beyond multiple disciplines. These ideas are not
exhaustive and other topics within this theme are welcome.

Submission Process

All manuscripts will be reviewed as a cohort for this special issue. Manuscripts must
be submitted before November 1st, 2016.

APJM Special Issue Workshop

All authors who are invited to revise and resubmit their manuscripts are expected
to present their papers at an APJM Special Issue workshop at Zhejiang University in
Hangzhou, China (May 14-15th, 2017). Concordia University, Zhejiang University
and Northeastern University have secured funding to host this Special Issue
Workshop. In addition to accommodation and meals during the workshop in China,
a stipend of $ 1,000 US will be given to each author team for travel assistance.

The special issue editors and APJM editorial board members will provide
developmental feedback to paper presentations during the workshop to enhance
the quality and contribution of papers in order to maximize the impact of the SI.


Anderson R. C. & Reeb D. M. (2003). Founding family ownership and firm performance:
Evidence from the S&P 500. Journal of Finance, 58, 1301–1328.
Banalieva, E. & Eddleston, K.A. (2011). Home region focus and performance of family firms:
The roles of family versus professional leaders. Journal of International Business Studies,
42, 1060-1072.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: John Wiley.
Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1996). From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: Explaining China's
emerging economic order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 600-628.
Carney, M. & Gedajlovic, E. (2002). The co-evolution of institutional environments and
organizational strategies: The rise of family business groups in the ASEAN region.
Organization Studies, 23(1), 1-29.
Chrisman, J.J. & Patel, P.C. (2012). Variations in R&D investments of family and non-family
firms: behavioral agency and myopic loss aversion perspectives. Academy of Management
Journal, 55(4), 976-997.
Chandler Jr, A. D. (1977). The visible hand. Harvard University Press.
Deephouse, D., & Jaskiewicz, P., (2013). Do family firms have better reputations than non-
family firms? An integration of socioemotional wealth and social identity theories. Journal
of Management Studies, 50, 337-360.
Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to
the globalization of democracy: Macmillan.
Gould, D. M. (1994). Immigrant links to the home country: empirical implications for US
bilateral trade flows. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 302-316.

Hsu, F. L. (Ed.). (1971). Kinship and culture. Transaction Publishers.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1969). The elementary structures of kinship (No. 340). Beacon Press.
Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P. W. (2004). International diversification and firm performance: The
S-curve hypothesis. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 598-609.
Meyer, J. W. (2010). World society, institutional theories, and the actor. Annual Review of
Sociology, 36, 1-20.
Miller, D., Lee, J., Chang, S., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2009). Filling the institutional void: The
social behavior and performance of family vs non-family technology firms in emerging
markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(5), 802-817.
Ouchi, W. G. (1980). Markets, bureaucracies, and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly,
Peng, M. W. (2004). Identifying the big question in international business research. Journal
of International Business Studies, 35(2), 99-108.
Pukall, T. J., & Calabrò, A. (2014). The Internationalization of Family Firms A Critical Review
and Integrative Model. Family Business Review, 27(2), 103-125.
Reuber, A. R. & Fischer, E. (1997). The influence of the management team's international
experience on the internationalization behaviors of SMEs. Journal of International Business
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The Economist (2015). Family Companies – To have and to hold. Special Report. April, 18th,
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Special Issue Editors

The Special Issue Editors have an abundance of research experience in

management, strategy, governance, finance, entrepreneurship, family business,
family science and international business. The four suggested SI editors know each
other and have met on various occasions. They represent North America, Europe,
and Asia. Last but not least, the composition of our editorial team ensures gender
equality. Brief bios of the SI editors follow:

Kimberly Eddleston
Kimberly A. Eddleston is the Schulze Distinguished Professor of Entrepreneurship
and Professor of Entrepreneurship & Innovation at the D’Amore-McKim School of
Business Northeastern University. She also holds the Daniel and Dorothy Grady
Research Fellowship and is a research fellow at the University of St. Gallen.
Professor Eddleston received her Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut and her
graduate degree from Cornell University and Group ESSEC. Her research focuses on
family businesses and the careers of entrepreneurs. Professor Eddleston is an
associate editor of the Journal of Business Venturing and serves on the editorial
board of multiple journals. She has also co-edited special issues for Small Business
Economics, Journal of Family Business Strategy, and Entrepreneurship Theory &
Practice. Professor Eddleston has won multiple awards for her research including
best paper awards from the Family Firm Institute, Diana Conference on Women’s
Entrepreneurship, USASBE, Journal of Small Business Management, and Academy
of Management. Her research has appeared in prestigious journals such as the
Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Applied
Psychology, Academy of Management Perspectives, Journal of Business Venturing,

Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Management Studies and Journal
of International Business Studies.

Peter Jaskiewicz
Peter Jaskiewicz is the CIBC Distinguished Professor of Entrepreneurship and Family
Business at the John Molson School of Business at Concordia University, Canada.
Peter Jaskiewicz’s research interests lie at the intersection of family business,
entrepreneurship, and corporate governance. He conducts qualitative and
quantitative research on the individual, team and organizational level of analysis.
His current research analyzes how cultural differences of families influence
entrepreneurship, firm governance, and performance around the world. Peter`s
research has been published (or is forthcoming) in journals such as Journal of
Management, Journal of Management Studies, Entrepreneurship Theory and
Practice, Family Business Review, Journal of Family Business Strategy, Journal of
Business Venturing, Human Resource Management Review, and Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal. Peter Jaskiewicz currently co-edits two special issues,
one on the role of family theories for human resource management and the other
one on the drivers of enduring entrepreneurship. Peter Jaskiewicz also serves on
various editorial boards of leading entrepreneurship and family business journals.
Mike Wright
Mike is Professor of Entrepreneurship and Head of the Innovation and
Entrepreneurship Department at Imperial College Business School, Director of the
Centre for Management Buy-out Research and Associate Director of the Enterprise
Research Centre. He has received Honorary Doctorates from the Universities of
Ghent and Derby and published over 50 books as well as over 400 articles on
emerging economies, returnee entrepreneurs, family business boards, survival and
innovation, SME internationalization, etc. in leading journals including Academy of
Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management
Journal, Journal of Management Studies, Review of Economics and Statistics,
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of International Business Studies,
Journal of Business Venturing, Journal of Management, etc. His latest books include
The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Governance (edited by Mike Wright, Don Siegel,
Kevin Keasey and Igor Filatotchev). He was recently ranked #1 worldwide for
entrepreneurship publications. He is an editor of Strategic Entrepreneurship
Journal, and Academy of Management Perspectives. He has edited numerous special
issues of leading journals, including, AMJ, JOM, JMS, JBV, Res. Policy, ETP, etc.,
which have been highly cited.

Michael Carney
Michael Carney has published extensively on the corporate and organizational
strategies of Asia’s family-owned business groups and on the development of the
global institutional environment of international aviation. His research focuses on
entrepreneurship and the comparative analysis of business, financial and
governance systems and their influence upon the development of firm capabilities
and national competitiveness. Carney the incoming Editor-in-Chief of the Asia-

Pacific Journal of Management. He is a member of the editorial boards of the
Journal of Management Studies, Family Business Review, Journal of Family
Business Strategy. He is a member of the advisory board of the Center for
Governance Institutions & Organizations at the National University of Singapore. He
has published in Journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Asia Pacific
Business Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Economic and Industrial
Democracy, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Family Business Review,
Journal of Management Studies, Management and Organization Review,
Organization Studies, and Strategic Management Journal.