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# MADANAPALLE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

UGC-Autonomous

## Approved by AICTE Delhi and affiliated with JNTUA Anantapuramu

NAME : K.VINODKUMAR

## ROLL NO: 15695A0324

Department : Mechanical Engineering
Section: D
Assignment : 2
Subject : Applied Thermodynamics

## 1)Describe the working jet propulsion and rocket propulsion

highlighting the difference between the two?

JET ENGINE:

## A jet engine is a machine for turning fuel into thrust (forward

motion). The thrust is produced by action and reaction—a piece
of physics also known as Newton’s law of motion. The force
(action) of the exhaust gases pushing backward produces an
equal and opposite force (reaction) called thrust that powers the
vehicle forward. Exactly the same principle pushes a skateboard
forward when you kick backward with your foot. In a jet engine,
it's the exhaust gas that provides the "kick". Let's have a look
inside the engine.
ROCKET ENGINE:
A rocket engine is a type of jet engine. that uses only stored
rocket propulsion mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet.
Rocket engines are reaction engines. obtaining thrust in
accordance with Newton's third law. Most rocket engines
are internal combustion engines, although non-combusting forms
also exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly
called rockets.

## 1)The main difference between jet propulsion and rocket propulsion is

that in rocket propulsion the oxidizer is carried with the vehicle, but jet
propulsion the oxidizer is the oxygen in the air sucked into the engine
of the plane. Because there is no oxidizer in space, rockets need to
carry their own oxidizers with them.

## 2) Jet engines and rockets work on the same principle. They

produce thrust through an internal pressure difference and, as
explained by Newton’s Third Law of Motion, eject exhaust gases
in an equal and opposite direction. The main difference between
them is that jets get the oxygen to burn fuel from the air and
rockets carry their own oxygen, which allows them to operate in
space.
2.A convergent divergent nozzle has a throat area of 500 mm2 and an
exit area of 1000 mm2. Air enters the nozzle with a stagnation
temperature of 360 K and a stagnation pressure of 1 mpa. Determine the
maximum flow rate of the air that the nozzle can pass, and the static
pressure, static temperature and Mach number, and velocity at the exit
from the nozzle, if (a) the divergent section acts a nozzle and (b) the
divergent section acts as a diffuser.
When the nozzle is choked it posses max. flow rate. When chocked M=1
𝐴 1 2 𝛾−1 2 𝛾+1
= [ [1 + 𝑀 ]]
𝐴∗ 𝑀 𝛾 + 1 2 2(𝛾 − 1)
𝐴 1000
= =2
𝐴∗ 500
From table on page 289 in pk nag
M=2.20,0.3

## a)Divergent section acts as a nozzle M=2.2

m=𝜌∗ 𝐴∗ 𝑉 ∗ = 𝜌𝑒 𝐴𝑒 𝑉𝑒
𝑇0 𝛾−1 2
= [1 + 𝑀 ] 𝐴𝑡 𝑀 = 2.2
𝑇 2
360
𝑇𝑒 =
(1 + (0.2)2.22

=182.9 k
𝑃𝑜 𝛾−1 2 2
= [1 + 𝑀 ]
𝑃𝑒 2 𝛾−1
𝑃𝑒 = 93.52 𝑘𝑝𝑎

Ve=CeMe

= √𝛾𝑅𝑇𝑒

=271.08 m/s

M=𝜌𝑒 𝐴𝑒 𝑉𝑒
𝑃𝑒
𝜌𝑒 = = 1.78𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
𝑅𝑇𝑒

b)M=0.3
𝑇0 𝛾−1 2
= [1 + 𝑀 ]
𝑇 2
𝑇𝑒 = 353.63 𝑘
𝑃𝑜 𝛾−1 2 2
= [1 + 𝑀 ]
𝑃𝑒 2 𝛾−1
𝑃𝑒 = 939.47 𝑘𝑝𝑎
𝑚
𝐶𝑒 = 376.94
𝑠
𝑉𝑒 = 113.08 𝑚/𝑠

𝜌𝑒 = 9.25

m=1.045 kg/s

## 3. A convergent divergent nozzle has a throat area of 500 mm2 and

an exit area of 1000 mm2. Air enters the nozzle with a stagnation
temperature of 360 K and a stagnation pressure of 1 mPa.
Determine the maximum flow rate of the air that the nozzle can
pass, and the static pfromressure, static temperature and Mach
number, and velocity at the exit from the nozzle, if (a) the divergent
section acts a nozzle and (b) the divergent section acts as a diffuser.

𝐴2
= 1000 /500 = 2 .
𝐴∗
When the divergent section acts as a diffuser , which are M2= 2.197 ,
0.308 .
𝑃2 𝑇2
M2 = 2.197 = 0.0939 = 0.5089
𝑃0 𝑇0

## P2 = 0.0939 X 1000 = 93.9 kPa

T2 = 0.5089 X 360 = 183.2 K
C2 = √𝛾𝑅𝑇 = 20.045 √ 183.2 = 271.2 m/s
V2 = 271.2 X 2.197 = 596 m/s
W = 𝜌* A*V* = 𝜌2 A2V2 = 𝜌1 A1V1

For air
P* / P0 = 0.528 T* / T = 0.833 .

## 𝜌* = P* / RT = 0.528 X 1000 / 0.287 X 0.833 X 360 = 6.13 kg / m3

T* = 360 X 0.833 = 300 K
V* = √𝛾𝑅𝑇 = 20.045 √300 = 347.2 m/s
W = (500 X 10-6) X 6.13 X 347.2 = 1.065 kg/s .
𝑃2 𝑇2
b.) M = 0.038 = 0.936 = 0.9812
𝑃0 𝑇0

## P2 = 0.936 X 1000 = 936 kPa

T2 = 0.9812 X 360 = 353.2 K
C2 = √𝛾𝑅𝑇 = 20.045 √ 353.2 = 376.8 m/s
V2 = 376.8 X 0.308 = 116 m/s
W= 1.065 kg/s
4. A single-acting two-stage air compressor deals with 4 m3/min of
air at 1.013 bar and 15 oC with a speed of 250 rpm. The delivery
pressure is 80 bar. Assuming complete intercooling, find the
minimum power required by the compressor and the bore and
stroke of the compressor. Assume a piston speed of 3 m/s,
mechanical efficiency of 75% and volumetric of 80% per stage.
Assume the polytropic index of compression in both stage to be
n=1.25 and neglect clearance.

## P2 = √P1P2 . √1.013 x 80 = 9 bar.

Minimum power required by the compressor .
2𝑛 1
W= 𝑥 p1V1(p2/p1)n-1/n -1 X
𝑛−1 ή

1013𝑋100 4
= (1013 X 4) / 4 X X {(9/1.103)0.25/1.25 – 1 }
0.75 60
= 49.34 kW.

## If L be the stroke length of piston . 2L X N / 60 .

90 𝑋 100
L= = 36 cm .
250
Effective LP swept volume = 4 / 250 = 0.016 m3.

𝑃1𝑉1 𝑃3𝑉3
=
𝑇1 𝑇3

𝜋
4
𝐷2 𝐿
=𝜋 = 1.013 / 9 .
4
𝐷𝑙𝑝 2 𝐿

## DHP = 0.266 √1.013/9 = 0.892 m = 8.92 cm.

5.Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle at 100
kPa and 300 K with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. The compressor
pressure ratio is 10. The turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. A
regenerator of 80% effectiveness is incorporated in the cycle. Determine
the net power developed by the turbine and its thermal efficiency.

1 100 300

2 1000 579.2

3 1000 725.39
4 1000 1400

5 100 761.94

6 100 615.75

𝑃2
= 10
𝑃1

## P2=10 x 100=1000 kpa

𝑇3 −𝑇2
E= = 0.8
𝑇5 −𝑇2

𝑛−1
𝑇2 𝑃2 𝑛
= = 100.29
𝑇1 𝑃1

T2=579.2 k
𝑛−1
𝑇4 𝑃3 𝑛
= = 100.29 = 579.2 𝑘
𝑇3 𝑃4

T3=725.39 k
𝑇3 −𝑇2 725.39−579.2
0.8= =
𝑇5 −𝑇2 𝑇5 −579.2

T2=761.94 k

𝑇3 − 𝑇2 = 𝑇5 − 𝑇6

T6=615.75 k
𝑞2 𝑇6 −𝑇1
Thermal efficieney=1- =1− = 53.1%
𝑞1 𝑇4 −𝑇3

## Power developed in turbine,

= ℎ4 − ℎ5

= 𝐶𝑝 (𝑇4 − 𝑇5 )/60
= 1.004(1400 − 761.94)
640.61
=
60
= 10.67 𝑘𝑊