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ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1

1. For M1, B2 and B6 diode and thyristor rectifiers:


a. obtain the current wave form of the input AC side, DC current, DC Voltage and
the voltage drop over the diode or thyristor with R, RL and RC load. (R=100Ω,
L=50mH, C=50μF, V=230V)

The waveforms are available in the respective simulation files when run using
SIMULINK. Further, sample waveforms for M1 Circuit with R load, B2 circuit
with RC load and B6 circuit for RL load with different firing angles have been
submitted.

b. Fill the following tables: (Hint: to calculate the THD and ripple adjust the
calculation time for a whole cycle during steady state operation)

All values of THD have been found using FFT analyser of the powerGUI block
considering two cycles of operation in steady state.

THD of Input Current (%)


alpha = 0 degrees
M1 B2 B6
R 43.53 0.4 30.79
RL 42.88 5.87 31.15
RC 79.93 53.3 52.41

THD of Input Current(%)


alpha = 30 degrees
M1 B2 B6
R 54.85 15.72 37.02
RL 52.14 10.51 32.79
RC 156.06 65.1

THD of Input Current(%)


alpha = 60 degrees
M1 B2 B6
R 79.87 38.79 71.98
RL 73.63 30.98 44.32
RC 203.48 171.29

Ripple of DC Output
alpha = 0 degrees Voltage (V)
M1 B2 B6
R 163.45 161 21.75
RL 187.45 163.1 21.785
RC 152.2 104.25 21.785
Ripple of DC Output Voltage
alpha = 30 degrees (V)
M1 B2 B6
R 163.45 161.8 81.3
RL 187.45 185.75 135.5
RC 153.5 107.75

Ripple of DC Output Voltage


alpha = 60 degrees (V)
M1 B2 B6
R 163.45 161.8 168
RL 187.45 185.75 140.85
RC 154.85 122.4

2. Explain the relationship between THD of input current and firing angle.
The THD of the input current increases with increase in firing angle for each type of
load respectively. (R, RL and RC)

3. Explain the relationship between ripple of DC voltage and firing angle


The ripple of DC voltage either remains constant with increase of firing angle in some
cases or increases with increasing firing angle in some cases.

4. What is the effect of RC and RL load on the ripple of DC voltage?


RC loads have less ripple in output voltage than R loads, and RL loads have more
ripple in output voltage than R loads.

5. What is the frequency of first harmonic of input current for B6 rectifier? What do you
expect about the first harmonic on the line current of a B12 rectifier?

In a B6 rectifier, the frequency of the first harmonic is 250Hz. In general, any


symmetrical repeating waveform has no even harmonics. They contain only odd
harmonics. In B6 rectifier, among all odd harmonics, all the triplen harmonics are not
present (3n harmonics, where n=1,2,3…). Therefore, the first harmonic in B6 is the
fifth order harmonic of the fundamental frequency which is 250 Hz. The B6 rectifier
has all 6n±1 harmonics. In B12 rectifier, there are only 12n±1 harmonics, therefore the
first harmonic component will be the 11-order harmonic which is 550Hz.