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Chapter 16:

Mixtures &
Heterogeneous Mixtures
• Mixture: a combination of two or more pure substances in
which each pure substance retains its individual chemical
• Can be homogeneous and heterogeneous
• Heterogeneous mixture: a mixture that does not have a
uniform composition and in which the individual substances
remain distinct.
• Suspensions: a mixture containing particles that settle out if left
• Particles are large enough for gravity to cause the particles to settle
• Ex. Muddy water (particles can be separated when poured through a filter)
• Ex. Latex paint
• Colloid: heterogeneous mixtures of intermediate sized particles
(between 1 nm and 1000 nm) and do not settle out.
• Ex. Milk
• The most abundant substance in a mixture is the dispersion medium.
• Colloids are categorized according to the phases of their dispersion
particles and dispersing mediums.
• Brownian motion: the jerky, random movements of
particles in a liquid colloid, from the results of
particle collisions.
• Robert Brown (1773-1858)
• Noticed random movements of pollen grains dispersed in
• Results from a collision of particles of the dispersion
medium with the dispersed particles  prevents settling

• Tyndall effect: when dispersed colloid particles

scatter light.
• Example: headlights in fog
Homogeneous Mixtures
• Solution: a homogeneous mixture of two or more

• 2 Parts of a simple solution:

• Solute: the component that is dissolved (least abundant
• Solvent: the dissolving agent (most abundant part)

• Aqueous Solution: a substance (solute) is dissolved in water

• Complex Solutions: More than one solute
Common Solution Formation
• A substance that dissolves in a solvent is soluble.
• Substances that form a solution
• Ex. Salt and water

• A substance that does not dissolve in a solvent is

• Ex. Sand and gasoline

• Two liquids that are soluble in each other in any

proportion are miscible.
• Ex. Water and ethanol  alcoholic beverages

• Two liquids that can be mixed but separate shortly

after are immiscible.
• Ex. Oil and Vinegar
• Solvation: the process of surrounding solute particles with
solvent particles to form a solution.
• Solvent particles break their interactions to form interactions with
the solute particles
• Oil does not form a solution with water because there is little attraction
between polar water molecules and nonpolar oil molecules.

• Hydration: solvation with water as the solvent

• During solvation, the solute must separate into particles and move
apart, which requires energy.
• The overall energy change that occurs during solution formation is
called the heat of solution.
Factors That Affect Solvation
• Agitation: brings fresh solvent into contact with
the solute

• Temperature: the solvent particles have more

kinetic energy, increasing the force and frequency
of solvent-solute collisions

• Particle Size: smaller solute particles have greater

surface area and therefore more solvent-solute
collisions occur
• Solubility: maximum amount of substance that dissolves in
a given quantity of a solvent at a certain temperature
• Depends on the nature of the solute and solvent

• Saturated solutions: contains the maximum amount of

solute that can be dissolved at a given temperature
• Unsaturated solution: a solution that contains less solute
than a saturated solution
• Supersaturated solution: under suitable conditions, the
solution contains a greater amount of solute than a
saturated solutions
• To form a supersaturated solution, a saturated solution is formed at
high temperature and then slowly cooled
• Supersaturated solutions are unstable
Factors that Affect Solubility
• Nature of the solute/solvent
• “Like dissolves like”
• Nonpolar solvents (carbon tetrachloride) dissolve nonpolar solutes (grease)
• Polar solvents (water) dissolve ionic compounds (salt) and polar solute
• Temperature
• Solid dissolving in a liquid  solubility tends to increase as temperature
• Gas dissolving in a liquid  solubility tends to decrease as temperature
• Pressure
• Gas solubility increases as the pressure above the solution increases
• Ex. Carbonated beverages: bottled under high pressure to increase the CO2
solubility in the water
• Henry’s Law: at a given temperature, the solubility
of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the
pressure of the gas above the liquid

• Example: The solubility of a gas in water is 0.22g/L

at 20.0kPa of pressure. What is the solubility at 115
Solution Concentration
• Concentration: a measure of the amount of solute
that is dissolved in a specific quantity of solvent

• Qualitative Descriptions:
• Dilute solutions: contains a small amount of solute
• Concentrated solution: contains a lot of solute
Percent by mass
• Usually describes a solid dissolved in a liquid
• Expressed as a percentage
• Ratio of the solute quantity to the total solution

Example: What is the mass percent of a solution with

13.25g of CaCl2 dissolved in 450g of water?
Percent by Volume
• Usually describes solutions with both parts as liquids
• Expressed as a percentage
• Ratio of the solute quantity to the total solution

Example: What is the percent by volume of a solution

with 45.1 mL of ethanol mixed with 375.0 mL of water?
• Number of moles of solute dissolved in 1L of solution

• Example 1: What is the concentration when 35.4 g of

LiOH is added to enough water to form a solution with
a volume of 450mL?

• Example 2: How would you prepare 375.0 mL of 1.2 M

• The ratio of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent
• Useful to eliminate volume changes due to
• 1m is a molal solution

Example: What is the molal concentration of a solution

made by dissolving 67.2 g Mg(NO3)2 in 1250.0 mL of
Mole Fraction
• Ratio of the number of moles of solute to the total
number of moles of solute and solvent

XA = mole fraction
n = number of moles
A/B = substances

Example: Calculate the mole fraction when 34.5 g of

NaCl is dissolved in 250 g of water.
Making Dilutions
• Chemicals are shipped and stored in high
• We dilute these concentrated solutions for use in

• To dilute an acid:
• Add acid to the required amount of water
• This generates the least amount of heat
M1V1 = M2V2
Example: How would you prepare 250.0 mL of 3.0 M H2SO4
from a stock solution that is 18.4 M?
Colligative Properties
• Colligative Properties: physical properties of solutions that are affected
by the number of particles but not by the identity of dissolved solute

• Electrolytes: an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts

• Ions separate (dissociate) during the hydration process
• Increases the number of dissolved particles in solution
• Ex. 1 mole of NaCl breaks into 1 mol Na+ and 1 mol Cl-
• 3 mole CaBr2  3 mol Ca2+ and 6 mol Br-

• Nonelectrolytes: many molecular compounds dissolve in water but do

not dissociate
• Ex. Sugar C12H22O11
• These solutions do not conduct electricity
• No separation = less of an impact on colligative properties
Vapor Pressure Lowering
• Vapor Pressure: pressure exerted in a close container
by liquid particles that have escaped the liquid’s surface
and entered the gas state
• Adding a nonvolatile solute to a solvent lowers the
solvent’s vapor pressure
• Solute particles occupy some of the surface area (fewer
particles enter the gaseous state)
• Solute particles interact with the solvent particles
therefore requiring more energy for the solvent to
• The greater the number of solute particles, the lower
the vapor pressure
Boiling Point Elevation
• Boiling occurs when: vapor pressure = atmospheric
• More heat is needed to supply additional kinetic energy
to raise the vapor pressure to atmospheric pressure.
• The amount of increase is dependent upon the amount
of solute
• The boiling point of a solution is higher than the
boiling point of a pure solvent
• ΔTb = Kbm
• ΔTb is the boiling point elevation
• Kb is the molal boiling point elevation constant
• m represents molality
Freezing Point Depression
• Solute particles interfere with the solvent particle
attractive forces
• This prevents the solvent from freezing at its normal
• The freezing point of a solution is always lower than
that of the pure solvent
• Amount of decrease is dependent on amount of solute
• ΔTf = Kfm
• ΔTf is the freezing point depression
• Kf is the freezing point depression constant
• m is molality
• What is the boiling and freezing temperature of the
solution of 23.45 g NaI in 345 g of water.
Osmotic Pressure
• Osmosis: the diffusion of a solvent through a
semipermeable membrane

• Water molecules diffuse across the membrane

from the dilute solution to the concentrated

• Osmotic pressure: the amount of additional

pressure caused by water molecules that moved
into the concentrated solution