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cd is not mined as such.

rather cd is found in zinc ores and recovered during the smelting and
refining of zinc. environmental cd leverls are lower than those of lead and people ordinary have
lower exposure. but cd levels in the enviromental have been increasing, and exposure in hundreds of
times greater than in pre industrial times

camium uses sources and movement

because cadmium has good corrosion resistance it has value for a number of uses. it is ised in
electroplating on iron and steel in alloys with lead, copper, and tin as a stabilizer for pvc plastik and
in ceramics enamels and pigments.

sources cd is released into the air during the smelting and refining of the metals zinc, lead copper.
however the largest sourcec of cadmium is fossil fuel burning especally of coal. municipal solid waste
and other incinerators can emit cd too

Because cd is found naturally in soil, rocks (coal too) and mineral fertilizer it ends up as an impurity
in such products as phosphate fertilizer detergents and refined petrolieum products.
Polyphospahate fertilizer and sewage sludge contribute to cd build up in soils

movement like lead cadmium is released as a particulate and thus has a limited atmospheric life
days to weeks before settling out. however, whitin that time a portion reaches remote locales
incleding the Arctic. The Arctic presence has been demonstrated by Arctic ice cores : cd deposition in
Greenland in the 1960s and 1970s waeight-fold greater than in pre industrial times. Fortunately
recent information indicates that cd levels have steadily declined since the then

food more than 90% of the average non smoker's exposure to cd is from food.
Shellfish concentrate cd and can be a major expoosure for those who eat scallops and oyster. Fish
concentrate less. Because liver and kidney concentrate this metal, hunters in some locales are
advicsed not to eat moose or bear liver or kidney.

cd also is taken up in some crops, especially irrigated rice. Vegetarians and others consuming high
levels of cereals and vegetables may have higer exposure. High soil levels are a special concern
because plants take up cd more readily than metals
Tobacco product because tobacco plants accumulate cd so well, solking one pack of cigarettes each
day can double exposure. Smokers absorb more than 90% of inhaled cd. conversely only abouth 5%
of the cd ingested in food is absorbed. Inhalation is also the greatest route of exposure among those
with occupational exposure and those living near industrial sources. Recall once absorbed into the
body from food and drink

AIR TANAH
soil has a unique property of holding water, but it also holds water for plants organism in the soil.
only plants have the ability to genenerated high enough osmotic pressure (up to 33 bars) to draw
water from the root zone and send it to the leaves. Cohesive force between soil particules and water
prevents human being from extracting usable water. See figure xxx

when all pore space of the soil are filled whith water it becomes saturate . A satured soil slowly
releases the amounth of water it cannot hold against gravity, and the released water flows
downwards which is called vertical infiltration or percolation. Percolation in turn continues until the
soil can hold water against gravity and attains state defined as field capacity. Field capacity varies
from soil to soil. For example, field capacity is about 15% to 25% for dandy soils 35% to 45% for loam
soils, snd 45% to 55% for clay soils. The tern wilting point refer to the condition of soil when plants
can not draw any more water from the soil (dry cocondition)
water before discharging from the larg spring has moved in the hydrologic cycle from rainfall
percolating down through the soil and then underground into and through large chanels in the
limestone to discharge points

The role of spring is describe for ancient times

Spring in al parts of the world are of a diverse character from samll trickles of water in to an old
hollowed out log to large pump lift system into stainless steel tanks for municipal and industrial use
and by the bottle water industry

System conceptts of the environment have longplyed a role in the development of ecology as a
dicipline, but these came to ta head in early 20 th. During this period, the two dominant and
competing ecology paradigms were the organismis and individualistic views. The organismc
approach held that communities and ecosystem were discenible object that had an inherent and
organized complexity resulting in a cybernetic and self governing system, similar in ways to how an
organism regulates itself. The individualistic approach helld that communities had observer-
dependent boundaries and internal development was stochastic and individual. In this paradigm, the
internal relations were synergistic, but not cybernetic since the individual part functionaned
independently. The organismic ideas grew out of the functional understanding of whole system
suuch as lake, and also out of the discussions involving how comminities changed over time during
involving how communities change over time during succession