Anda di halaman 1dari 20

Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)

PQR's are not required if Standard Welding Procedures are used, see below for

This document contains details of the welding test, it must include details of all the
parameters listed as variables in tables QW250 to QW265 for each process
involved and all the destructive test results.

The relevant variables for each type of welding process are clearly defined in
tables QW250 to QW265. The left hand column of each table defines the section
and paragraph where each variable and its application to the table is explained in
the code.

Welding Variables

Variables used in a welding procedure test are divided into 3 categories :-

 Essential Variables Are variables that have a significant affect on the

mechanical properties of a joint. They must not be changed except within
the limits specified by this code. e.g. Material thickness range, Material
Group etc.

 Non-Essential Variables Are variables that have no significant affect on

mechanical properties. They can be changed without re qualification of the

 Supplementary Variables Are variables that have an affect on the impact

properties of a joint. They are classed as Non-Essential if impact testing is
not required

All variables listed as essential, non-essential or supplementary should be

addressed on both the WPS and the PQR. If any of the variables do not apply to the
particular application then they should be specified as not applicable.

Joint Configuration
Either plate or pipe can be used for the test piece (plate approves pipe and vice
versa ref. QW211), any welding position approves all positions providing no
impact tests are required ref. tables QW250 to QW265 and any joint geometry
approves all geometry's, e.g. single V, double V, U prep, backed or unbacked.

A butt or groove weld approves branch and fillet welds but not the converse, ref.
QW202. Non pressure retaining fillet welds in pipe or plate can be tested but they
must be double sided if plate and at least the dimensions illustrated in QW462.4a,
ref. QW202.2c. Pressure retaining branch welds must be qualified by groove (butt)
Material Grouping
Materials are assigned P numbers in QW420; a test in one P number approves all
materials listed under that P number, except where impact tests are required then
approval is restricted to materials listed in the group number within the P number.
Other P number groupings are permissible ref. QW424.1 for details. Ref QW 424.1
for further details.

It is normally permissible if the material is not listed in QW422 to assign it to a P

number which lists materials with the same metallurgical and mechanical
properties although this is not in strict conformance with the code. Typically
BS1501 151 430A low carbon steel could be regarded as P1 and stainless steels
such as 316, 304 as P8.

Note P5, 9 & 10 are divided into sub groups eg 5A,5B etc., Treat each sub group
like a separate P Number

Dissimilar materials are acceptable providing they are compatible. For example P1
to P8, but this does not cover P1 to P1 or P8 to P8.

Note S numbers are for pipework to B31, a P number covers an S number but not
the converse

The ASME code uses its own specifications for consumables SFA. which is almost
identical to the AWS specification.

NOTE A change in consumable is only permissible providing it has the same F

number and A number (if applicable) as the P.Q.R..

Thickness Limits
Thickness limits Groove welds. See QW451 for precise details.

 When Impact tests are required the minimum thickness approved is

restricted. See QW403.6
 More than one PQR may be required to qualify dissimilar thickness

The thickness little 't' of deposited weld metal for each process involved is
approved from 0 to 2xt except:-

 MIG/MAG (GMAW/FCAW) dip transfer weld of deposited thickness less

than ½" approves maximum thickness of 1.1 x t only Ref: QW255

 If any Pass in a single or multipass weld > ½" then the thickness approval
equals 1.1xT
Dissimilar Thickness QW202.4:- The thicker and thinner part must be qualified,
Except P8 and P4X the thinner part can be qualified if no Impacts and test coupon
> 6mm thick.

Thickness limits for fillet welds as per QW462.4a or QW462.4d qualify all fillet
weld sizes on all base material thicknesses and all diameters in one test.

Testing Requirements (Ref QW 463 for location of specimens)

Unlike EN288 there is no requirement for any non-destructive testing such as

radiography or MPI/DPI, although I would recommend radiography for butt

The testing requirement for groove welds are as follows:-

 Two Transverse tensile tests (QW150).

 Two Root bends and Two face bends unless the plate thickness exceeds 3/8"
then 4 side bends are required. All bend tests should be done to QW160
using the correct former ref. QW466 to an angle of 180 degrees.
Longitudinal (all weld) bend tests are not recommended unless the
base/weld materials differ markedly in bending properties. See QW 466 for
exceptions and precise details.

The testing requirement for fillet welds on plate is 5 macro sections only, for Pipe
fillet welds 4 macro sections. No fracture test required.

Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS)

This document details the practical application of the Procedure Qualification

Record (PQR). It should contain enough information to give direction to the welder
and should address all variables associated with the welding process defined in
QW250 including non essential and supplementary.

Dokumen ini butiran permohonan praktikal Tatacara Kelayakan Rekod (PQR). Ia

perlu mengandungi maklumat yang mencukupi untuk memberi arahan kepada
pengimpal dan perlu diberi perhatian oleh semua pemboleh ubah yang berkaitan
dengan proses kimpalan yang ditentukan dalam QW250 termasuk bukan penting
dan tambahan.
A WPS can combine welding processes from other PQR's but all the relevant
variables must be addressed including parent metal thickness.

A WPS boleh menggabungkan proses kimpalan dari lain PQR tetapi semua
pemboleh ubah berkenaan perlu ditangani termasuk ketebalan logam induk. There
is an exception to this rule for root runs from PQR's that are greater than 1.5 inches
thick (38.1mm), see code for details.

Standard Welding Procedures Specifications (SWP's)

Standard welding procedures listed in annex E of ASME IX can be purchased from
the 'American Welding Society' and used without qualifying a PQR. Section V of
ASME IX gives details of essential variables and restrictions. A successful welder
performance qualification must be carried out to demonstrate the SWP's before a
manufacturer can use it.
Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ)

The purpose of this test is to determine the welders ability to deposit a sound weld
therefore the base material is not considered as critical as it is in the PQR. Hence a
performance test on any material in P groups 1 to 11 approves all those groups and
sub groups, also P34 and P4X (P40-P49). Providing a compatible consumable
exists with the same F number used in the qualification test. (QW423.1)

Note a single sided weld is classed as a weld without backing and a double sided
weld or weld with sealing run is classed as a weld with backing

The F number cannot be changed without re qualification of the welder except that
for performance qualification only using SMAW (MMA) F numbers up to and
including 4 approve all lesser F numbers for double sided or welds with
backing only. One Consumable from F41 To F45 approves any of these
consumables, except SAW. Ref.QW404.11.

Note 'A' numbers do not apply to welder approval tests.

For each welding process there is a list of essential variables in QW352 to QW357
and QW360 for welding operators, these are not necessarily the same as the ones
for the PQR. Essential variables cannot be changed. Explanations of all these
variables is given in section IV of the code.

Diameter and Thickness Ranges

Diameter limits for all circular welds including groove welds, branch welds and
fillet welds is given in QW452.3. there are no upper limits on diameters approved
and pipe covers plate

Note for branch welds the diameter considered for the above limits is the one
containing the weld preparation.

Thickness limits, groove welds.

The thickness limit only applies to the deposited weld metal thickness not the plate
thickness and any groove weld approves all fillet weld sizes.
For t greater than 12.5mm there is no restriction on the size that can be welded
(Providing the test weld deposit contains at least 3 layers of weld).

Thickness limits, fillet welds.

A test on plate greater than 3/16" approves all base metal thicknesses and fillet
weld sizes ref. QW452.5. (Note the above diameter limits apply unless the fillet
weld is qualified by a groove weld)

Joint Configuration
Joint geometry, a double V (or U) is considered the same as a joint with backing
and does not qualify a single V (or U) without backing, but a single full penetration
joint without backing qualifies all joint configurations.

Approval Range
Extent of approval is very well explained in QW461.9. Take particular note of
welding positions which are also explained in QW461, for example to qualify a
fillet weld in the normal horizontal-vertical position with a groove weld, the
groove weld must be qualified in at least the 2G position. The welding positions
defined in QW461.1.& QW461.2 should be referred to in the WPS. The position
designations: 1G ,2G ,3G ,4G ,5G ,6G (Groove Welds) and 1F ,2F ,3F ,4F (Fillet
Welds) are test positions

Period of Validity/Renewal of Qualifications (QW 322.2)

Providing the welder uses the process for which he is qualified and there is no
reason to question his ability then his qualification lasts indefinitely.

If the welder does not use the welding process for which he is qualified for a
period of 6 months or more then he must perform a new test in pipe or plate, any
parent material, thickness and position, if successful all the welder approvals for
that welding process are renewed in one test.

Testing Requirements
Test requirements for groove welds QW452 consists of either:-

 One face bend and one root bend except for welding positions 5G &
6G which require 4 bends (Ref QW452.1 Note 4). If the plate exceeds 3/8"
side bends may be used. See QW 466 for precise details and exceptions.
Note:- Bend Tests can in most cases be replaced by Radiography {See

 Radiography is optional and must be supplemented by bend tests when

using GMAW (MIG/MAG) with dip transfer (Short Circuiting Arc) or when
welding some special materials. Ref. QW304.

Note:- Ultrasonic Examination in lieu of Radiography is not permitted

Test requirements for fillet welds in plate ref. QW452.5:-

 One macro section (QW 184) and One fracture test (QW182).

The location where each specimen has to be taken is defined in QW463

Radiography Ref QW 191

 A length of at least 6" must be examined for plate or the entire

circumference for pipe.
 If the pipe circumference is less than 6" then more samples must be welded
up to a maximum of 4. Ref QW 302.2.

Visual Examination Ref QW 302.2 & QW 190

Performance test coupons must show complete joint penetration with full fusion of
the weld metal and base metal.

The welder performance test must follow a properly qualified W.P.S. Once
qualified the welder must always work within the extent of approval of any
properly qualified W.P.S. and his W.P.Q.

The welder who qualifies the P.Q.R. is automatically approved within the limits
specified in QW304, QW305 and QW303. Ref QW301.2.

Specialist Processes
Such as corrosion resistant overlay or hard facing are covered in QW 453.
Procedure variables are defined with all procedure variables in QW252 and in
QW380 for welder approval.

Min base thickness approved = size welded or 1", QW 453

Min Deposit Size Approved:- Point Where Chemical analysis taken No upper limit
QW402.16 (462.5a) Welding Positions QW405.4 Performance Qualification
approves all deposit thickness’ No min.QW381

ASME Definitions, Consumables, Welding Positions

 ASME P Material Numbers Explained

ASME has adopted their own designation for welding processes, which are very
different from the ISO definitions adopted by EN24063.

Designation Description
OFW Oxyfuel Gas Welding
SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMA)
SAW Submerged Arc Welding
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG/MAG)
FCAW Flux Cored Wire
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG)
PAW Plasma Arc Welding

Straight polarity = Electrode -ve

Reverse polarity = Electrode +ve

ASME F Numbers

General Description
1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes :- A5.1 : E7024
2 Most Rutile consumables such as :- A5.1 : E6013
3 Cellulosic electrodes such as :- A5.1 : E6011
4 Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018
5 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex :- A5.4 : E316L-16
6 Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal)
2X Aluminium and its alloys
3X Copper and its alloys
4X Nickel alloys
5X Titanium
6X Zirconium
7X Hard Facing Overlay

Note:- X represents any number 0 to 9

ASME A Numbers
These refer to the chemical analysis of the deposited weld and not the parent
material. They only apply to welding procedures in steel materials.

A1 Plain unalloyed carbon manganese steels.

A2 to A4 Low alloy steels containing Moly and Chrome Moly
A8 Austenitic stainless steels such as type 316.

ASME Welding Positions Graphic Representation

Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must always be

stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and performance

Welding Positions For Groove welds:-

Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN

Flat 1G PA
Horizontal 2G PC
Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3G PG
Overhead 4G PE
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G PF
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards 6G JL045

Welding Positions For Fillet welds:-

Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN

Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA
Horizontal 2F PB
Horizontal Rotated 2FR PB
Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3F PG
Overhead 4F PD
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F PF

Welding Positions QW431.1 and QW461.2

Basically there are three inclinations involved.

 Flat, which includes from 0 to 15 degrees inclination

 15 - 80 degrees inclination
 Vertical, 80 - 90 degrees
For each of these inclinations the weld can be rotated from the flat position to
Horizontal to overhead.

ASME P Material Numbers

This is a general guide ASME P numbers and their equivalent EN288 groupings. Groups referred
to in the Base Metal column are ASME sub groups. EN288 material groups are included for
comparison only.

P No. EN288 Base Metal

Carbon Manganese Steels, 4 Sub Groups

 Group 1 up to approx 65 ksi

1 1  Group 2 Approx 70ksi
 Group 3 Approx 80ksi
 Group 4 ?

2 - Not Used
3 4 3 Sub Groups:- Typically half moly and half chrome half moly
4 5 2 Sub Groups:- Typically one and a quarter chrome half moly
5A 5 Typically two and a quarter chrome one moly
2 Sub Groups:- Typically five chrome half moly and nine chrome one
5B 5
5C 6 5 Sub Groups:- Chrome moly vanadium
6 8 6 Sub Groups:- Martensitic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 410
7 8 Ferritic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 409
Austenitic Stainless Steels, 4 Sub groups

 Group1 Typically Grades 304, 316, 347

8 9  Group 2 Typically Grades 309, 310
 Group 3 High manganese grades
 Group 4 Typically 254 SMO type steels

9A, B, C 7 Typically two to four percent Nickel Steels

10A,B,C,F,G ? Mixed bag of low alloy steels, 10G 36 Nickel Steel
10 H 10 Duplex and Super Duplex Grades 31803, 32750
10J ? Typically 26 Chrome one moly
11A Group 1 7 9 Nickel Steels
11 A Groups
? Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels.
2 to 5
11B ? 10 Sub Groups:- Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels.
12 to 20 - Not Used
21 21 Pure Aluminium
22 22a Aluminium Magnesium Grade 5000
23 23 Aluminium Magnesium Silicone Grade 6000
24 - Not Used
25 22b Aluminium Magnesium Manganese Typically 5083, 5086
26 to 30 Not used
31 Pure Copper
32 Brass
33 Copper Silicone
34 Copper Nickel
35 Copper Aluminium
36 to 40 Not Used
41 Pure Nickel
42 Nickel Copper:- Monel 500
43 Nickel Chrome Ferrite:- Inconel
44 Nickel Moly:- Hastelloy C22, C276
45 Nickel Chrome :- Incoloy 800, 825
46 Nickel Chrome Silicone
47 Nickel Chrome Tungstone
47 to 50 Not Used
51, 52, 53 Titanium Alloys
61, 62 Zirconium Alloys
Paksi kimpalan
Paksi kimpalan

Paksi kimpalan
Paksi kimpalan
Welding Procedures Specifications And Procedure

Chip Testing!
A chip test is when you take a little bit of material off of a piece of material you are
testing with a chisel. The material you remove can either be small fragmented piece to a
strip of material.

The chip you get could result in a smooth texture or have edges that are sharp. It might
be a fine grained piece of material or coarse. It's also possible that the material has
edges that are like teeth like on a saw.

However the size of the material you chip off is also important.

Metals and Chip Characteristics:

Listed here are all of the common metals you'll be worthing with and what the
characteristics are of the chips.

White cast iron:

Chips are small, brittle fragments. Chipped surfaces not smooth.

Gray cast iron:

Chips are about 1/8 inch in length. Metal not easily chipped; therefore, chips break off
and prevent smooth cut.

Malleable iron:
Chips vary from 1/4 to 3/8 inch in length (larger than chips from cast iron). Metal is
tough and hard to chip.

Wrought iron:

Chips have smooth edges. Metal is easily cut or chipped, and a chip can be made as a
continuous strip.

Low carbon and cast steel:

Chips have smooth edges. Metal is easily cut or chipped, and a chip can be taken off as a
continuous strip.

High carbon steel:

Chips show a fine-grain structure. Edges of chips are lighter in color than chips of low-
carbon steel. Metal is hard, but can be chipped in a continuous strip.


Chips are smooth, with sawtooth edges where cut. Metal is easily cut as a continuous

Brass and bronze:

Chips are smooth, with sawtooth edges. These metals are easily cut, but chips are more
brittle than chips of copper. Continuous strip is not easily cut.

Aluminum and aluminum alloys:

Chips are smooth, with sawtooth edges. A drip can be cut as continuous strip.


Chips have smooth edges. Continuous strip can be cut. Metal chips easily.


Chips have smooth edges. Continuous strip can be cut. Metal chips easily.


Chips of any shape may be obtained because the metal is so soft that it can be cut with
a knife.