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TUGAS TEKNOLOGI FERMENTASI

AERASI DAN AGITASI

Disusun Oleh:
Suci Indah Pratiwi
H0915079

PROGRAM STUDI ILMU DAN TEKNOLOGI PANGAN


FAKULTAS PERTANIAN
UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET
SURAKARTA
2018
Agitasi, Aerasi dan Shear Stress sebagai Faktor Kunci pada Produksi
Inulinase oleh Kluyveromyces marxianus

Oleh : Bernardo O. Y´epez Silva-Santisteban, dan Francisco Maugeri Filho


Sumber: Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724

A. Pendahuluan
Inulin adalah cadangan karbohidrat di akar dan umbi tanaman seperti
artichoke Yerusalem, chicory, dahlia atau yacon yang mewakili sumber-
sumber yang baik dari fruktosa tinggi, pemanis rendah kalori dan terdiri dari
rantai poly-fruktosa linear β-2,1 terhubung yang menampilkan unit glukosa
terminal. Inulinase juga mampu mensintesis fruktooligosakarida. Inulonase
mikroba (2,1- β-ᴅ-fruktan-fruktanohidrolase, EC 3.2.1.7) muncul sebagai
alternatif untuk produksi fruktosa karena dimungkinkan untuk mencapai
kandungan fruktosa tinggi yang memiliki inulin sebagai bahan baku.
Kluyveromyces, Aspergillus, Staphylococcus, Xanthomonas dan Pseudomonas
merupakan mokroorganisme yang memproduksi inulase. Sumber karbohidrat
terbaik untuk produksi inulase adalah inulin, tetapi sukrosa adalah sumber
inulase kedua yang lebih baik untuk Inulase mikroba.
Aerasi dan agitasi adalah hal yang penting bagi mikroorganisme untuk
memasok oksigen selama fermentasi. Berdasarkan literatur produksi inulin
oleh Kluyveromyces fragilis tanpa aerasi menghasilkan inulinase yang lebih
sedikit, peningkatan volume media kultur dalam labu mengurangi produksi
inulase oleh Kluyveromyces sp. Pada penelitian ini, kecepatan agitasi, tingkat
aerasi dan jenis impeller dioptimalkan untuk produksi inulinase oleh
Kluyveromyces marxianus var bulgaricus ATCC 16045 yang menggunakan
desain eksperimental. Dipelajari juga hubungan antara produksi inulinase,
KLa, viabilitas dan kinerja metabolik selama fermentasi. Dijelaskan pula,
pengaruh shear stress dan transfer oksigen dalam produksi inulinase.
B. Bahan dan Metode
1. Fermentasi
a. Shaked flasks
Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045 digunakan untuk produksi
inulinase yang ditumbuhkan pada agar MY. Kultur inokulum
ditumbuhkan dalam media yang mengandung 2% sukrosa pada pH 6,5.
Inulinase diproduksi dalam labu 500 ml dengan 100 ml medium kultur,
pada suhu 30oC, 150 rpm selama 48 jam. Fermentasi dimulai dengan
10% (v/v) inokulum.
b. Fermentor dan KLa
Fermentasi dilakukan dalam fermentor Bioflo III yang
mengandung media biakan yang tersusun oleh 14 g/L, ekstrak ragi 10
g/L, pepton 20 g/L dan K2HPO4 1 g/L, pada pH 3,5 (tanpa kontrol pH)
dan 30oC, selama 72 jam. Fermentasi dimulai dengan 10% (v/v)
inokulum. Tiga jenis impeller, turbin disk, marine, dan pitched blade
up diuji. Teknik dinamis tanpa mikroorganisme dilakukan untuk
menghitung KLa dan nitrogen yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan
oksigen dan oksigen terlarut diukur dengan sensor polarografik.
2. Uji inulase
Dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode DNS. Nilai S/I yang lebih
rendah ari 50 adalah karakteristik inulinase, dan lebih tinggi dari 50
mewakili invertase.
3. Biomassa dan viabilitas sel
Biomassa ditentukan dengan metode berat kering tidak langsung,
dengan membandingkan kerapatan optik suspensi sel pada 600 nm dengan
kurva standar, yang sebelumnya disiapkan dengan mikroorganisme yang
sama yang diproduksi dalam media kultur yang sama sedangkan viabilitas
sel diukur dengan teknik pewarnaan dengan metilen biru.
C. Desain dan Ilustrasi
1. Fermentor
Pada penelitian ini digunakan fermentor Bioflo III yang
mengandung media biakan, yang digambarkan dengan Gambar 1.
Sedangkan bagian-bagian dari fermentor Bioflo III diilustrasikan seperti
Gambar 2. Bagian-bagian dari fermentor ini terdiri dari sistem agitasi,
pompa masukan, sistem monitor, tempat masuk udara, tangki reaktor,
termal jaket, submerged aerator, sensors probes dan jalur keluar.

Gambar 1. Fermentor Bioflo III


sistem agitasi

Pompa masukan
Sistem monitor

Sensors probes
Inlet udara

Tangki reaktor Termal jaket

Submerged aerator Outlet

Gambar 2. Ilustrasi Bagian-bagian Fermentor Bioflo III


2. Impeller pada Sistem Agitasi
Pada penelitian ini digunakan fermentor Bioflo III, dan dilakukan
variasi jenis-jenis impeller (bilah pengaduk) untuk mengetahui
pengaruhnya terhadap produksi enzim inulinase. Jenis-jenis impeller yang
dipakai antara lain turbin disk impeller, marine impeller dan pitched blade
up impeller. Masing-masing impeller memiliki bentuk bilah yang berbeda-
beda. Ilustrasi dari jenis-jenis impeller ini dijelaskan pada Gambar 3.
Turbin Disk
Impeller

Impeller

Marine
Impeller

Pitched Blade
Up Impeller

Gambar 3. Ilustrasi Jenis-jenis Impeller


3. Design, Variasi vvm pada aerasi dan rpm pada agitasi
Dua desain 22 faktorial dilakukan untuk mengoptimalkan tingkat
aerasi dan agitasi. Variasi vvm pada aerasi untuk design 1 menggunakan
0,5; 1,0; dan 1,5 vvm sedangkan design 2 menggunakan 1,0; 1,5; dan 2,0
vvm. Variasi rpm pada aerasi untuk design 1 menggunakan 50, 150 dan
200 rpm sedangkan design 2 menggunakan 150, 200 dan 250 rpm.Nilai-
nilai nilai nyata dan tingkat kode yang digunakan dalam semua desain
faktorial ditunjukkan pada Tabel 1.
Tabel 1. Nilai nilai nyata dan tingkat kode yang digunakan dalam desain
faktorial
Design Aerasi Level kode Agitasi Level kode
(vvm) untuk aerasi (rpm) untuk agitasi
Design 1 0,5 -1 50 -1
1,0 0 150 0,33
1,5 +1 200 +1

Design 2 1,0 -1 150 -1


1,5 0 200 0
2,0 +1 250 +1
D. Hasil Penelitian
1. Design 1
Desain ini dilakukan dengan perubahan aerasi dari 0,5 menjadi 1,5
vvm dan agitasi dari 50 hingga 200 rpm. Diperoleh bahwa untuk
meningkatkan produksi enzim maka aerasi dan agitasi perlu ditingkatkan.
Berdasarkan metode RSM diperoleh bahwa semakin rendah tingkat agitasi
dan aerasi semakin rendah produksi inulinase. Namun, produksi enzim
meningkat ketika kedua parameter meningkat dsn mencapai sekitar 101
UI/mL setelah 72 jam fermentasi pada aerasi 1,5 vvm dan agitasi 200 rpm.
2. Design 2
Desain ini dilakukan dengan perubahan aerasi dari 1,0 menjadi 2,0
vvm dan agitasi dari 100 hingga 250 rpm. Diperoleh bahwa baik aerasi
maupun agitasi meningkatkan produksi enzim dibandingkan dengan
design 1. Berdasarkan metode RSM tidak peduli apa pun tingkat
aerasinya, produksi inulinase adalah serupa (89 dan 84 IU / mL).
Sedangkan, aktivitas meningkat secara signifikan ketika agitasi meningkat
dari 150 hingga 250 rpm, yang mengarah ke aktivitas dari 80 ke 97 IU /
mL, masing-masing. Peningkatan produktivitas mungkin disebabkan oleh
peningkatan transfer oksigen.
3. Optimalisasi Kecepatan Agitasi
Diperoleh adanya peningkatan produksi enzim dengan peningkatan
kecepatan agitasi dari 150 hingga 450 rpm dengan aktivitas maksimum
yang dicapai adalah 121 IU / mL pada 450 rpm. Hal ini menunjukkan
bahwa produksi enzim berhubungan dengan konsentrasi biomassa dan
keduanya merupakan fungsi dari kecepatan agitasi. Sehingga, ada
kemungkinan besar bahwa proses ini dengan konsentrasi biomassa yang
tinggi dapat memastikan produksi inulinase yang tinggi. Diketahui juga,
bahwa kecepatan agitasi yang tinggi menyebabkan terjadinya mekanisme
kematian yang mungkin disebabkan oleh shear stress yang disebabkan
oleh ujung pisau dari impeller, yang meningkat ketika kecepatan putaran
meningkat. Selain itu, kecepatan agitasi yang tinggi berefek pada produksi
enzim, karena untuk agitasi lebih tinggi dari 450 rpm ada penurunan
efektif dari aktivitas enzim.
Koefisien transfer oksigen volumetrik meningkat tajam dengan
agitasi, yang berarti bahwa pasokan oksigen yang memadai dapat dicapai
dengan cara ini. Namun, karena kecepatan agitasi terus meningkat dari
450 hingga 550 rpm, memastikan koefisien transfer oksigen volumetrik
meningkat, baik aktivitas dan biomassa turun dan viabilitas praktis
mencapai nol setelah 72 jam fermentasi pada 550 rpm. Peningkatan
kecepatan agitasi memang memiliki efek positif pada koefisien transfer
oksigen volumetrik, tetapi ini tidak berlaku dalam produksi enzim, karena
ada efek shear stress yang meningkatkan tingkat kematian.
4. Jenis Impeller
Berdasarkan penggunaan tiga jenis impeller yang berbeda
diperoleh bahwa turbin disk impeller menyebabkan koefisien transfer
− 1
oksigen volumetrik tertinggi (102 h ) dan efek negatif tertinggi pada
viabilitas, sedangkan untuk marine impeller koefisien transfer oksigen
volumetrik terendah (17 h − 1) dan efek yang hampir dapat diabaikan pada
viabilitas. Berdasarkan aktivitas tertinggi pitched blade up impeller yang
memberikan aktivitas tertinggi, 176 UI / mL, diikuti oleh marine impeller
dan turbin disk impeller, keduanya dengan hasil hampir serupa. Alasannya
adalah bahwa dalam situasi ini ada nilai koefisien transfer oksigen
− 1
volumetrik antara diperoleh dengan pitched blade up impeller (75 h )
dan efek negatif menengah pada kelangsungan hidup sel.
5. Shear stress
Shear stress dalam bioreaktor terkait dengan sifat reologi medium
dan laju geser. Diketahui bahwa peningkatan koefisien transfer oksigen
volumetrik dengan shear stress menyebabkan peningkatan simultan dalam
aktivitas dan konsentrasi biomassa. Ketika shear stress mencapai 0,17 Pa,
koefisien transfer oksigen memulai peningkatan yang lebih cepat,
sementara aktivitas dan biomassa meningkat dengan sedikit kemiringan.
Pada akhirnya, ketika shear stress 0,22 Pa, koefisien transfer oksigen
masih terus meningkat, baik aktivitas dan biomassa mencapai tingkat
maksimum, dan setiap shear stress tambahan secara signifikan
mengurangi kedua variabel. Hasil ini memperjelas relevansi shear stress
sebagai parameter penting untuk optimalisasi produksi inulinase. Hal ini
menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan produksi inulinase membutuhkan
koefisien transfer oksigen yang tinggi, selama kondisi ini tidak
menyiratkan shear stress lebih tinggi dari 0,22 Pa.

E. Kondisi terbaik
Kondisi fermentasi terbaik yang ditemukan setelah penelitian ini adalah
dengan aerasi 1 vvm, agitasi 450 rpm, penggunaan pitched blade up impeller,
dengan produksi 176 IU / mL. Shear stress dan koefisien transfer oksigen juga
harus dipertimbangkan untuk viabilitas sel.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Santisteban, Bernardo O. Y´epez Silva dan Francisco Maugeri Filho. 2005.


Agitation, Aeration and Shear Stress as Key Factors in Inulinase
Production by Kluyveromyces marxianus. Enzyme and Microbial
Technology, 36: 717–724.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724

Agitation, aeration and shear stress as key factors in


inulinase production by Kluyveromyces marxianus
Bernardo O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, Francisco Maugeri Filho∗
Department of Food Engineering, FEA-University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, CEP 13083-970, CP 6121, Brazil

Received 9 August 2004; accepted 13 December 2004

Abstract

Factorial design and response surface analyses were used to optimize the production of inulinase (2,1-␤-d-fructan fructanohydrolase, EC
3.2.1.7) by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045, using sucrose as carbon source. Effects of aeration, agitation and type of impeller (disk
turbine, marine, pitched blade) were studied in a batch stirred reactor. Two factorial designs 22 were carried out. Agitation speed varied from
50 to 550 rpm (revolution per minute), aeration rate from 0.5 to 2.0 vvm (air volume/broth volume·minute). It has been shown that the enzyme
production was strongly influenced by mixing conditions, while aeration rate was shown to be less significant. Additionally, the increase in
the agitation speed is limited by the death rate, which increases drastically at high speeds, lowering the enzyme production. Also, the impeller
type has significant influence in the production, the disk impeller at 450 rpm and aeration at 1.0 vvm led to an activity of 121 UI/mL, while
the pitched blade was shown to be the best impeller for this process, leading to the best production, 176 UI/mL, at 450 rpm and 1.0 vvm. The
maximum shear stress for inulinase production was about 0.22 Pa, since higher values cause higher cell death rates, affecting the enzyme
production. The same results were confirmed with another microorganism, which was also sensible to shear stress. Therefore, it has been
concluded that in some cases, mainly when the microorganism is sensible to shear stress, the interaction between mass transfer and mechanical
stress should be considered in scale up processes.
© 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Agitation; Aeration; Inulinase; Impeller effect; Factorial design; KL a; Shear stress; Scale up

1. Introduction Kluyveromyces [5–7], Aspergillus [8,9], Staphylococcus [6],


Xanthomonas [10] and Pseudomonas [11]. The best source
Inulin is the storage carbohydrate in the roots and tubers of of carbohydrate for inulinase production is the inulin [8], but
plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, dahlia or yacon. the sucrose is the second better source for it [12]. The agita-
It represents good sources of high fructose, calorie-reduced tion and aeration are important in order to supply oxygen for
sweeteners and consists of linear ␤-2,1 linked poly-fructose the microorganism in the fermentation process. The produc-
chains displaying a terminal glucose unit [1]. High fructose tion by fermentation of several important metabolites is in-
syrups are produced using corn hydrolyzed starch and glu- fluenced by the agitation and aeration [13–15]. A few number
cose enzymatic isomerization. Microbial inulinase (2,1-␤-d- of works in the literature state the importance of agitation and
fructan fructanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.7) appears as an alterna- aeration in the inulinase production. Kluyveromyces fragilis
tive for fructose production because it is possible to reach high produced a little inulinase without aeration [16]; the increase
fructose content having inulin as raw material [1–3]. Inulinase of culture medium volume in the flask dimished the inulinase
is also able to synthesize fructooligosaccharides from su- production of Kluyveromyces sp. [17]; the scale up for inuli-
crose [4]. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms as nase production by Candida kefir was carried out maintaing
constant the oxygen transfer coefficient (KL a) [18]. Kalil et
al. [7] optimized the culture medium for the inulinase pro-
∗ Corresponding author. Tel. +55 19 37884052; fax: +55 19 37884024. duction in shaked flask using experimental design. However,
E-mail address: maugeri@fea.unicamp.br (F.M. Filho). the bench scale inulinase production using the same medium

0141-0229/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2004.12.008
718 B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724

2.3. Inulinase assay


Nomenclature
Activity was assayed as follows: 1 mL enzyme solution
KL a volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (min−1 ) was mixed with 9 mL of 2% sucrose or inulin in acetate
rpm revolution per minute (min−1 ) buffer 0.1 M pH 4.5. The mixture was maintained at 50 ◦ C
S/I sucrose/inulin activities and the rate of appearance of fructose was determined by the
v/v inoculum/broth volume DNS method [19]. One unit of inulinase activity is defined as
vvm air volume per broth volume per minute the amount of enzyme which hydrolyses 1 ␮mol of sucrose
(min−1 ) per min under the conditions above mentioned (sucrose as
substrate) or amount of enzyme catalyzing the liberation of
1 ␮mol of reducing sugar per min, under the conditions above
mentioned (inulin as substrate). Inulinase have different hy-
composition and strain failed to produce similar amounts of drolytic activities on sucrose compared to the hydrolytic ac-
inulinase. tivities on inulin. This behavior is represented by the S/I (su-
In the present work, the agitation speed, aeration rate and crose/inulin activities) ratio. Values of S/I lower than 50 are a
impeller type were optimized for inulinase production by characteristic behavior of an inulinase, and higher than 50 are
Kluyveromyces marxianus var bulgaricus ATCC 16045, us- representative of an invertase [1]. The optimization work was
ing experimental design. Some relationships between the in- carried out by measuring only the sucrose hydrolytic activity.
ulinase production, KL a, viability and metabolic performance
during the fermentation were also studied. Some important 2.4. Biomass and cells viability
aspects about the influence of shear stress and oxygen transfer
in inulinase production were described. The biomass was determined by an indirect dry weight
method, by comparing the cell suspensions optical density at
600 nm to a standard curve, which was previously prepared
2. Material and methods with the same microorganism produced in the same culture
medium. Cell viability was measured by the coloration tech-
2.1. Fermentation nique with methylene blue.

2.1.1. Shaked flasks


3. Results and discussion
Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045 was employed
for inulinase production. The microorganism was grown on 3.1. Design 1
MY broth. The inoculum cultures were grown in a medium
containing 2% sucrose with pH at 6.5. Inulinase was produced Factorial designs 1 and 2, as depicted in Table 1, were
in 500 mL flasks with 100 mL of culture medium, at 30 ◦ C, performed to optimize agitation speed and aeration rate. The
150 rpm for 48 h. The fermentation was started with 10% first design was carried out with aeration changing from 0.5 to
(v/v) inoculum. 1.5 vvm and agitation from 50 to 200 rpm. It has been shown,
in these ranges of values, that both parameters are significant,
as shown in Table 2, and also that they should be increased
2.1.2. Fermenter and KL a
in order to enhance enzyme production. The analysis of vari-
The fermentations were carried out in a Bioflo III (New-
ance (ANOVA) of the model (Eq. (1)) is shown in Table 3 .
Brunswick Scientific) fermenter, containing 2.2 L of the cul-
The ANOVA shows a high R-squared (0.91, coefficient of de-
ture medium [7] composed by sucrose 14 g/L, yeast extract
termination) and a good performance of the F-test for lack of
10 g/L, peptone 20 g/L and K2 HPO4 1 g/L, at initial pH 3.5 (no
fit (listed value is about six times the calculated one) and for
pH control) and 30 ◦ C, during 72 h. The fermentations were
the regression (calculated value is about five times the listed
started with 10% (v/v) inoculum. Three types of impellers,
one). Therefore, Eq. (1) is predictive of the inulinase produc-
disk turbine, marine and pitched blade up, were tested. The
dynamic technique without microorganism was performed
Table 1
to calculate the KL a and nitrogen was used to eliminate oxy- Values of real values and coded levels used in the factorial designs
gen. The dissolved oxygen was measured with polarographic
Design Aeration Coded level Agitation Coded level
sensor. (vvm) for aeration (rpm) for agitation
Design 1 0.5 −1 50 −1
2.2. Experimental design 1.0 0 150 0.33
1.5 +1 200 +1

Two 22 factorial designs were performed to optimize aer- Design 2 1.0 −1 150 −1
ation and agitation rates. Table 1 shows the values of real 1.5 0 200 0
2.0 +1 250 +1
values and coded levels used in all factorial designs.
B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724 719

Table 2
Design 1: parameters real values and coded level, and results after 72 h of fermentation
Real values Coded level Activity (UI/mL) Biomass (g/L)
Agitation (rpm) Aeration (vvm) Agitation Aeration
200 1.5 1 1 101 6
200 1.5 1 1 88 7.4
200 1.5 1 1 87 6.5
200 0.5 1 −1 95 5
150 1.0 0.33 0 74 5.7
150 1.0 0.33 0 89 5.6
150 1.0 0.33 0 79 5
50 1.5 −1 1 110 4.9
50 0.5 −1 −1 41 2.8

Table 3
ANOVA for the inulinase activity from design 1
Source of Sum of Degrees of Mean F-test
variation squares freedom squares
Regression 3258.51 3 1086.17 17.97a
Residual 323.32 5 64.66 1.07
Lack of fit 81.59 1 81.59 1.35b
Pure error 241.73 4 60.43 –
Total 3581.83 8 – –
R-squared: R2 = 0.91; F0.90, 3,5 = 3.62; F0.90, 1,4 = 7.71.
a F-ratio (regression/residual).
b F-ratio (lack of fit/pure error).

tion process, in this range of the factor values, and consists


of a first order function for agitation speed and aeration rate,
and a second order function for agitation speed-aeration rate
interaction. This model, describing the activity as a function Fig. 1. Response surface from design 1 for the enzymatic activity as a func-
of agitation speed and aeration rate, is represented in Fig. 1. It tion of aeration (vvm) and agitation (rpm) after 72 h of fermentation.
can be seen in this figure that the lower the agitation and aer-
ation levels the lower the inulinase production; however, the
enzyme production increases when both parameters increase 2 shown in Table 1, was performed. Since, from the previous
and achieved about 101 UI/mL after 72 h of fermentation, at experiments, both agitation and aeration increase the enzyme
200 rpm and 1.5 vvm. production, the ranges for both variables were increased in
comparison to design 1. In design 2 the ranges varied from
Activity = 82.02 + 17.16×vvm + 8.65×rpm 150 to 250 rpm for agitation and from 1.0 to 2.0 vvm for
aeration.
− 17.1×vvm×rpm (1)
The results are shown in Table 4. It can be noticed that
3.2. Design 2 the highest activity achieved in this step was similar to the
one obtained in the previous design, however, at these ranges
According to the result from the first experimental design, only agitation was significant and an increase could be tried
as depicted by Fig. 1, another set of experiments, the design in order to obtain higher enzyme production. In Table 5 are

Table 4
Design 2: real values and coded levels, and results for activity and biomass after 72 h of fermentation
Real values Coded level Activity (UI/mL) Biomass (g/L)
Agitation (rpm) Aeration (vvm) Agitation (rpm) Aeration (vvm)
250 2.0 1 1 101 7.2
250 1.0 1 −1 94 6.6
200 1.5 0 0 101 6
200 1.5 0 0 88 7.4
200 1.5 0 0 87 6.5
150 2.0 −1 1 78 5.7
150 1.0 −1 −1 74 5.7
150 1.0 −1 −1 89 5.6
150 1.0 −1 −1 79 5
720 B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724

Table 5
ANOVA for the inulinase activity from design 2
Source Sum of Degree of Mean F-test
variation square freedom square
Regression 445.85 1 445.85 7.37a
Residual 299.12 7 42.73 0.707
Lack of fit 57.39 3 19.13 0.317b
Pure erro 241.73 4 60.43 –
Total 744.97 8 – –
R-squared: R2 = 0.6; F0.90, 1,7 = 3.59; F0.90, 3,4 = 4.19.
a F-ratio (regression/residual).
b F-ratio (lack of fit/pure error).

shown the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the model (Eq.


(2)) that describes the activity as a function of agitation speed Fig. 3. Agitation effects in the production of inulinase, biomass (X), KL a
and aeration rate at these new ranges. The ANOVA shows and viability (V) after 72 hours of fermentation, with 1.0 vvm aeration.
an R-squared of 0.6, that is suitable for describing the ten-
dency and the influences over the inulinase production, and a
good F-test for lack of fit and regression (two times the listed 3.3. Optimization of agitation speed
value). The Eq. (2) describes the inulinase production only
as a first order function of the agitation speed, and it is used According to the previous result, a new set of experi-
to create the response surface depicted by Fig. 2. As it can be ments was performed, where only the agitation was increased,
seen, the inulinase production was similar (89 and 84 IU/mL) keeping aeration at 1.0 vvm. Agitation changed from 150 to
no matter whatever is the aeration rate, which changed from 1 550 rpm, as shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen that there was
to 2 vvm. On the other hand, the activity enhanced consider- an increase in the enzyme production with the increase of
ably when agitation increased from 150 to 250 rpm, leading to the agitation speed from 150 up to 450 rpm. The maximum
activities from 80 to 97 IU/mL, respectively. The enhanced achieved activity was 121 IU/mL at 450 rpm. It is interesting
productivity was probably due to the enhancing in oxygen to notice that the biomass concentration profile is similar to
transfer. the one of enzymatic activity, showing that enzyme produc-
tion is related to the biomass concentration and that both of
Activity = 89.85 + 8.95×rpm (2) them are function of the agitation speed. Therefore, there is
a good chance that this process with a high biomass concen-
tration may ensure a high inulinase production. It can also
Additionally, the biomass, in the design 1, is a function of
be seen that there is an increasing death rate as revolution
both agitation and aeration, whereas for design 2 it is only
speed increases (Fig. 3). This death mechanism is probably
influenced by agitation (results not shown here). Therefore,
due to the shear stress caused by the blade tips of the impeller,
the activity and biomass are both function of oxygen supply.
which increases as the revolution speed increases [20]. Addi-
tionally, this effect is pernicious for the enzyme production,
since for agitations higher than 450 rpm there is an effective
decrease of the activity. Therefore, it is clear that there are
two mechanisms acting in antagonism, which are the oxygen
supply and the shear stress. The former contributes for the
biomass increase and the latter acts against better enzyme
yields.
Important also are the results for the oxygen supply and
the KL a. It can be notice in Fig. 3 that KL a increases sharply
with the agitation, meaning that an adequate oxygen supply
could be reached by this means. However, as agitation speed
continues increasing from 450 to 550 rpm, ensuring the KL a
increasing, both the activity and biomass dropped and via-
bility practically reaches zero after 72 h of fermentation at
550 rpm. Indeed, the increase of agitation speed have a pos-
itive effect on KL a, but this does not reflects in the enzyme
production, since there is the shear stress effect that enhances
Fig. 2. Response surface from design 2 for the enzymatic activity as a func- death rate. Consequently, other methods to enhance the KL a
tion of aeration (vvm) and agitation (rpm) after 72 h of fermentation. or oxygen supply, for example using oxygen enriched air, are
B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724 721

3.5. Shear stress

Shear stress in a bioreactor is related to rheological prop-


erties of broth and to shear rate. Rheological properties are
defined for broth viscosity during the fermentation process,
and the shear rate is a function of impeller geometry and im-
peller rotational speed, Eqs. (3) and (4), as established by
Metzner et al. [21] and Calderbank and Moon Young [22] for
newtonian fluids.

τav = µγ̇av (3)

γ̇av = κN (4)

where τ av is the average shear stress between impeller neigh-


Fig. 4. Time courses for viability for different impellers at 450 rpm and borhood and tank wall, µ is dynamic viscosity, γ̇av is the
1.0 vvm. average shear rate between impeller neighborhood and tank
wall, κ is a constant that depend on the system geometry
required in order to lesser biomass damaging and increase only for newtonian fluids and N is the impeller rotational
the inulinase production. speed. These equations make it possible to determine the ap-
proximated shear stress in agitation systems, assuming the
3.4. Impeller type viscosity similar to water, and defining κ values for the case
system.
The two others impeller types, which are less harmful to Disk turbine and marine impellers were widely studied
the cells due to their smoother blade format, were than tested and κ values been defined as 15 and 11, respectively [21,22]
in order to examine the performance of the microorganism whereas κ for the pitched blade up was estimated as 30, based
under different shear stress. Fig. 4 shows the time courses on data from similar impellers [23–26]. It was assumed that
of viability and Table 6 the results of activity and KL a, with shear stress was proportional to impeller number. These data
the three different impellers. The disk turbine led to the high- enables the approximate calculation of the shear stress in all
est KL a (102 h−1 ) and highest negative effect on the viability, conditions of agitation and aeration from designs 1and 2 and
whereas for marine impeller there was a low KL a (17 h−1 ) and Fig. 3.
an almost negligible effect on viability, as shown in Table 6. These shear stress data are plotted in Fig. 5 against en-
It can be seen in Fig. 4 that death rate is higher with disk im- zyme activity, biomass and KL a. It can be seen that the in-
peller and lower with the marine impeller, while the pitched crease of KL a with shear stress caused simultaneous increas-
impeller has an intermediate effect. This could suggest that ing in the activity and biomass concentration. When shear
the marine impeller would give the best results followed by stress reached 0.17 Pa, KL a starts a faster increase, mean-
pitched and disk impellers, if only shear stress would be rel- while activity and biomass increase with a slight slope. Fi-
evant. However, in Table 6 it can be seen that, in fact it is the nally, when shear stress is 0.22 Pa, KL a still keeps increas-
pitched blade which gives the highest activity, 176 UI/mL, ing, both activity and biomass reached the maximum lev-
followed by the marine and disk impellers, both with almost
similar results. The reason is that in this situation there is an
intermediate KL a value obtained with the pitched impeller
(75 h−1 ) and an intermediate negative effect on the viabil-
ity.
Therefore, for this microorganism, not only oxygen supply
is important, as shear stress can be very harmful and play an
important role in the organism’s physiology and consequently
biomass formation and enzyme production.

Table 6
Enzyme production, biomass concentration at the end of fermentation and
KL a for the three different impeller types, at 450 rpm and 1.0 vvm
Impeller type Activity Biomass KL a (h−1 )
(UI/mL) (g/L)
Two disk turbine 122 8.9 102
Fig. 5. Activity, biomass, and KL a as functions of shear stress during inuli-
Two marine impellers 126 6.5 17
nase production. Shear stress was estimated according to the method used
One pitched blade up 176 8.6 75
by Metzner et al. [21].
722 B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724

Table 8
Tank geometry used by Pessoa et al. [18]
Tank volume (L) 15 300
Medium volume (L) 9 200
Blaffe number 4 4
Tank diameter (mm) 200 490 490
Impeller type Two blades Two blades Two blades
paddle paddle paddle
Impeller diameter (mm) 128 200 340
Impeller number 2 3 3
Blade height (mm) 22 40 60
κ values 12.37 8.69 12.37

soa et al. [18], with volumes ranging from 15 to 300 L, were


used to validate this method. The inulinase production data
Fig. 6. Activity, biomass, and KL a as functions of shear stress during inuli- and tank geometry used by Pessoa et al. [18] are shown in
nase production. Shear stress was estimated according to the method used
Tables 7 and 8 .
by Ilevsky et al. [27].
The two methods used above to estimate shear stress were
els (176 and 8.6 g/L, respectively), and any additional shear applied again to data from Pessoa et al. [18]. Approximated
stress diminishes significantly both variables. These results values for κ for two blades paddle was taken form Castell-
make clear the relevance of shear stress as valuable param- Perez and Steffe [29]. It was assumed that the shear stress was
eter for the optimization of inulinase production. It shows the sum of shear stress of each type of impeller and it was pro-
that the increase in inulinase production needs high KL a, as portional to the impeller number. For the power estimating,
long as this condition does not imply in shear stress higher the NP and NRe relations for two blades paddle impeller re-
than 0.22 Pa. ported by Nagata [30] were used. The relation between shear
The mean shear stress in a stirred tank can be calculated, stress and activity, biomass, and KL a for inulinase produc-
according to Ilevsky et al. [27] and Byrne et al. [28], in turbu- tion by Candida kefyr is shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The two
lently stirred tank precipitators by Eq. (5), where P/V is the methods give approximated tendencies for activity, biomass
power per unit volume dissipated by the impeller and µ the and KL a as a function of shear stress. In both Figs. 7 and 8,
fluid dynamic viscosity.

P
γ̇av = (5)
V ×µ
The power is estimated from NP and NRe relation for each
impeller type (data not shown) and the viscosity and density
was considered similar to water. In Fig. 6 it can be seen that
the behavior of the three variables are quite similar to the one
observed in Fig. 5, only the scale of shear stress is different
due to a different estimating method. In both cases there is a
maximum level of shear stress for inulinase production (0.22
in Fig. 5 and 1.3 in Fig. 6).
This method of estimating the effect of shear stress in
fermentation processes can also be applied as scale up tech-
nique, since it predicts the effects of the agitation speed and Fig. 7. Activity, biomass, and KL a as functions of shear stress during in-
of the type of the impeller in the process yields. Data of the ulinase production by C. kefyr from Pessoa et al. [29]. Shear stress was
scaled up of inulinase production by Candida kefyr from Pes- estimated according to Metzner et al. [21].

Table 7
Inulinase production data from Pessoa et al. [18]
Fermentor volume (L)
15 300
Agitation (rpm) 180 100 120 120 150 300 500 100
Aeration (vvm) 1 1 0.5 1.0 1 1 1 0.8
KL a (h−1 ) 25 35 39 43 70 164.4 199 43
Biomass (g/L) 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.9
Activity (UI/mL) 25.5 30.2 34 37.5 32.6 0 0 36.7
B.O. Yépez Silva-Santisteban, F. Maugeri F. / Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 717–724 723

be considered in the cases of process optimization and scal-


ing up. For a more general conclusion, the sensitivity to shear
stress being an intrinsic characteristic of microorganisms and
varying sometimes greatly from strain to strain, in some cases
it can turn out to be a limiting factor in optimization, as well
as in scale up processes, in such a case the improvement of the
KL a should be considered not only using standard procedures
but non conventional systems.

Acknowledgements

First author is grateful to the Interamerican Development


Bank-Japan Fellowships Programm for master study schol-
Fig. 8. Activity, biomass, and KL a as a function of shear stress during in- arship.
ulinase production by C. kefyr from Pessoa et al. [29]. Shear stress was
estimated according to Ilevsky et al. [27].

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