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World Religions and Belief Systems:

Definition of Terms
Introduction to World Religions and Belief Systems, the learners are expected
to demonstrate understanding of belief system or worldview, Religion, Spirituality,
Philosophy of Religion, Theology, the elements of religion, belief system, and
spirituality. Being familiar with the following terms and concepts are very important as
an introduction:

1. ‘Materialism’ is the philosophical doctrine that physical matter is the only ultimate
reality. It maintains that all that exists is reducible to matter or to qualities or upshots of
matter.

2. Theists believe that unlike opposing ethical theories, theistic moral system (which is
also called ‘moral supernaturalism’) can satisfactorily explain the existence of objective
ethical values and moral laws.

3. Worldview is more than culture as it extends to perceptions of time and space, of


happiness and of well-being. In fact, the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a culture stem
from its worldviews.

4. Derived from the German term ‘weltanschauung,’ the term ‘worldview’ refers to the
cluster of beliefs an individual holds about the most significant concepts of life such as
God, the cosmos (universe), and humanity. These beliefs, which may or may not be true,
form a general picture, a broad-spectrum outlook, or a grand perspective on life and the
world.

5. ‘Spirituality’ is one’s integrative view of life. It involves a quest for the meaning and
ultimate value of life as opposed to an instrumentalist or materialistic attitude to life.

6. The word ‘philosophy’ came from the Greek words ‘philo’ (love) and ‘sophia’
(wisdom) and is thus literally defined as “the love of wisdom”. Considered by some as
‘the mother of all branches of knowledge’, it may be defined as the systematic
examination of principles and presuppositions of any field of inquiry, including religion.

7. “Seekers” are those people who are looking for a spiritual home but contemplate
recovering earlier religious identities. These SBNRs embrace the “spiritual but not
religious" label and are eager to find a completely new religious identity or alternative
spiritual group that they can ultimately commit to.

8. Belief systems are often deemed as convictions, often in the form of supernatural or
religious beliefs, though they may also take the form of scientific views, or any
philosophical belief relating to the sphere of daily life.
9. Religious scriptures are the so-called sacred texts which religions consider to be
central to their faith. Religious texts may be utilized to “evoke a deeper connection with
the divine, convey spiritual truths, promote mystical experience, foster communal
identity, and to guide individual and communal spiritual practice” (“Religious Text,”
n.d.).

10. Generally, a ‘ritual’ is a “sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects,
performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence” (“Ritual,”
n.d.). Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious
community.

11. Other polytheists are ‘kathenotheists,’ that is, worshiping different gods or goddesses
at different times.

12. The term ‘monotheism’ comes from the Greek ‘μόνος’ (‘monos’) meaning “single”
and ‘θεός’ (‘theos’) meaning ‘god.’ It characterizes the traditions of Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam—religions that had grown up in opposition to polytheism.

13. The spiritual dimension (spirit) is described as a unifying force within


individuals, integrating and transcending all other dimensions. This dimension is also
described as God-consciousness, or related to a deity or supreme values.

14. This worldview finds its roots in empiricism, which claims that all valid knowledge is
derived from experience, and in positivism, which denies all metaphysical concepts.
Ethically, naturalism proposes that morality must be limited to non-spiritual context
since it denies any supernatural end for humankind.

15. A religion is also viewed as “an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and worldviews that relate humanity to an order of existence” (“Religion,” n.d.). Many
religions possess holy scriptures, narratives, or sacred accounts that aim to explain
the origin and meaning of life and the universe.

16. Webster’s dictionary defines theology as “the science of God or of religion; the
science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God, his laws and
government, the doctrines we are to believe, and the duties we are to practice. . . the
science of Christian faith and life.” In the fifth-century, the philosopher Augustine
defined theology as “rational discussion respecting the deity” (“Theology,” n.d.).

17. ‘Philosophy of religion’ refers to the philosophical study of the main themes and
concepts involved in religions. It may also include an enquiry into the religious
significance of historical events (e.g., the Holocaust) and the general features of the
cosmos, the laws of nature, and the occurrence of conscious life.

18. A ‘mosque’ is a place of worship for followers of Islam. Many mosques” have
elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture … The
mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for ‘salat’ (prayer) as well as
a center for information, education, social welfare, and dispute settlement” (“Mosque,”
n.d.).
19. Monism is a philosophical, cosmological, and metaphysical stand which proposes an
ultimate unity of all things, and that all seeming differences, distinctions, divisions, and
separations are ultimately only apparent or partial aspects of an ultimate whole. It is a
theological stance that “all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions, and that a
unified set of laws underlie all of nature.

20. Evolutionists claim that the existence of all life is explained by natural selection
which for them is a “blind, unconscious, no purpose, no mind, no vision, no foresight,
no sight at all, automatic process” (Dawkins, 2000, p. 14). In other words, all life
allegedly originated through intrinsically directionless series of processes as opposed to
the planned and decisive creation by God.

The following 25 concepts and terms are also important in studying world religions and
belief systems:

1. ‘Belief system’ refers to a particular way of ordering the realities of one’s world. It is
often interchangeable with the term ‘worldview,’ hence, the two shall be predominantly
used as synonyms in this book.

2. A ‘worldview’ is a theory of the world used for living in it, serving as a mental model of
reality, a framework of ideas and attitudes about ourselves, the world, and life.
Simply put, a worldview may be defined as how one sees life and the world at large.

3. Theism or theistic worldview holds that a deity or deities exist/s. Many theistic
worldviews consider this supernatural being as an infinite personal God who is the
creator of the universe, and who supernaturally acts on things in it.

4. ‘Atheism’ refers to the disbelief, denial of, or lack of belief in the existence of God or
gods. The term comes from the Greek prefix a-, meaning ‘without,’ and the Greek
word theos, which means ‘god.’

5. ‘Naturalism’ is a belief system that rejects all spiritual and supernatural


explanations of the worldand affirms nature as the totality of reality. It holds that we can
comprehend nature only through scientific investigation since science is the sole basis of
what can be known.

6. ‘Materialism’ is the philosophical doctrine that physical matter is the only ultimate
reality. It maintains that all that exists is reducible to matter or to qualities or upshots of
matter.

7. ‘Religion’ refers to the pursuit of transformation guided by a sacred belief system. It is


defined as “people's beliefs and opinions concerning the existence, nature, and worship
of a deity or deities, and divine involvement in the universe and human life” (“Religion,”
2009).

8. ‘Spirituality’ is one’s integrative view of life. It involves a quest for the meaning and
ultimate value of life as opposed to an instrumentalist or materialistic attitude to life.
9. Simply put, theology is the study of God. It comes from the word ‘theos’ which is
Greek for ‘God,’ and ‘logos,’ meaning ‘word’ or ‘study.’

10. ‘Philosophy of religion’ refers to the philosophical study of the main themes and
concepts involved in religions. It may also include an enquiry into the religious
significance of historical events (e.g., the Holocaust) and the general features of the
cosmos, the laws of nature, and the occurrence of conscious life.

11. ‘Religious rituals’ refer to the behavior performed by a religious member or a group
of believers with reference to supernatural power or a deity. It includes varieties of
behavior such as reciting prayers, singing of hymns, dancing, fasting, putting on of
special types of cloth, taking birth in holy rivers, crawling, etc.

12. A ‘synagogue’ is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a large hall for prayer
(the main sanctuary).

13. A ‘mosque’ is a place of worship for followers of Islam. Many mosques” have
elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture … The
mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for ‘salat’ (prayer) as well as
a center for information, education, social welfare, and dispute settlement” (“Mosque,”
n.d.).

14. Monism is a philosophical, cosmological, and metaphysical stand which proposes an


ultimate unity of all things, and that all seeming differences, distinctions, divisions, and
separations are ultimately only apparent or partial aspects of an ultimate whole. It is a
theological stance that “all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions, and that a
unified set of laws underlie all of nature.

15. Polytheism’ refers to the worship of or belief in more than one deity, especially
several deities usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with
their own religions and rituals. Especially in a sociological perspective, the emergence of
polytheism has been attributed to the desire to pacify the uncontrollable forces of
nature, the need for supernatural moral sanctions, and the attempt to justify
specialization and class distinctions.

16. ‘Monotheism’is the “belief in single God: the belief that there is only one God”
(“Monotheism,” 2009). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church defines it as the
“belief in one personal and transcendent God.”

17. ‘Atheism’ stands for the disbelief, denial of, or lack of belief in the existence of God or
gods. The term comes from the Greek prefix ‘a-,’ meaning ‘without,’ and the Greek word
‘theos,’ which means ‘god.’

18. Darwinism, the advocacy of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, and evolutionism,
the belief in the theory of evolution by natural selection, are fundamentally related. Both
ideologies attribute the origins of all life forms and other things not to the purposeful
creation by God but to the behavior of random chemical and physical forces.
19. A spiritual but not religious (SBNR) individual associates faith with the private realm
of personal experience rather than with the public realm of religious institutions, creeds,
and rituals. He or she may ignore membership in religious institutions, participation in
formal rituals, and adherence to official denominational doctrines.

20. “Dissenters” are the people who, for the most part, make a conscious effort to veer
away from institutional religion.

21. “Casuals” are the people who see religious and/or spiritual practices as primarily
functional.

22. “Explorers” are the people who seem to have what Mercandante refers to as a
“spiritual wanderlust.”

23. Seekers” are those people who are looking for a spiritual home but contemplate
recovering earlier religious identities.

24. Immigrants” are those people who have found themselves in a novel spiritual realm
and are trying to adjust themselves to this newfound identity and its community.

25. Religious but not spiritual (RBNS) man is thus sketched as someone who can give
gifts, pray, and do many good works, but he or she does not understand what it is to
offer oneself. Accordingly, this person may pay ‘tithes’ exactly, but he or she will not put
himself or herself to death in the moments of temptation.

Reference:

http://ourhappyschool.com/religion/world-religions-and-belief-systems-definition-terms
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A
Comparative Analysis
Submitted by admin on Tue, 04/04/2017 - 03:15

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A Comparative Analysis

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are traditionally called the Abrahamic religions. They highlight
and trace their common origin to the patriarch Abraham or recognize a spiritual tradition
identified with him. Abraham appears in the scred texts of all of these religions. The major
Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are: Judaism (late second millennium
BCE), Christianity (first century CE), and Islam (seventh century CE).

Influence to the World:


Christianity claims 33% of the world's population, Islam comes second with 21%, and Judaism
has 0.2%.

7.1. The Uniqueness and Similarities of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


a) Judaism
Judaism claims that what separates it from all other religions is mainly it's proof of Divine origin
as demonstrated through God's revelation of Himself to all the Jews at Mount Sinai. This was
said to be witnessed by approximately 3 million Jews as an intelligent voice speaking to them
from the fiery mountain. Judaism states that no other religion makes such a claim because
Divine revelation to the masses never happened to others, and as the Torah says, it will never
happen again (Deut. 4:32-34). All other religions are founded on a single person's claim that
God appeared to him.

Moreover, Judaism is said to be founded on principles which are rational and comply with
man's nature as a philosophical and psychological being. Not one law in all of Judaism goes
against man's nature. Unlike Catholicism which frowns upon divorce, and praises celibacy,
Judaism embraces the need at times for married couples to divorce if they will be happier that
way, and Judaism also embraces man's need for sexual happiness and children.

Concerning destiny, Jews are messianists. For Christians, messianism is a spiritual concept that
speaks to mankind’s redemption from original sin. But for Jews, messianism is a physical
concept that connotes mankind’s capacity to make the world a nearly perfect place. Jews believe
in humankind’s promised destiny of an era in which peace will reign over the earth.
In short, Judaism believes in the perfectibility of mankind.

b) Christianity
Christianity is also based upon the most amazing event in all of human history—Christ’s
resurrection.

“Christians believe that mankind was created specifically to have a relationship with God, but
sin separates all men from Him (Romans 3:23, 5:12). Christianity teaches that Jesus Christ
walked this earth, died on the cross to restore the relationship that was broken by sin. After His
death on the cross, Christ was buried, He rose again, and now lives at the right hand of the
Father, making intercession for believers forever (Hebrews 7:25). The intimacy of this
relationship is revealed in two poignant pictures. Now no longer seen as law-breakers, the
people who benefitted from Christ’s sacrifice have been adopted into God’s own family as His
children (Ephesians 1:5). Even more intimately, true believers are the very “body of Christ” of
which He is the head (Ephesians 1:22-23), having been purchased by His blood (Hebrews 9:12).”

Probably the most defining principle of Christianity that makes it truly unique in every way and
provides its fundamental basis is the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Within Christianity, the
resurrection is vitally important, for without it, Christianity does not exist, and Christian faith is
useless (1 Corinthians 15:14). It was Jesus' resurrection that changed the lives of the disciples.
After Jesus was crucified, the disciples ran and hid. But when they saw the risen Lord, they knew
that all Jesus had said and done proved that He was indeed God-sent.
The resurrection is proof of who Jesus is and that He did accomplish what He set out to do:
provide the only means of redemption for mankind. Buddha did not rise from the dead.
Muhammad did not rise from the dead. Confucius did not rise from the dead. Krishna did not
rise from the dead. Only Jesus has physically risen from the dead, walked on water, and raised
others from the dead.

“The God of Judaism and Islam can forgive the sins of men without demanding an ultimately
worthy substitute sacrifice. But the justice of the Christian God demands that all sin be paid for
in full. Christianity teaches that Christ died as the substitute sacrifice for the sins of mankind. In
this way God remains just for He has punished all sin by punishing Jesus on the cross of
Calvary. Still, God can justify and forgive sinners who decide to obey Jesus and the Father, for
Jesus paid the price for their sins (Romans 3:20-26). So when the Christian God forgives sin, He
does not ignore sin, for all sin has been paid for in full. Since Jesus is the begotten Son of God,
He is the ultimately worthy sacrifice and able to atone for the sins of all mankind.”

The God of Christianity is more loving for He loved mankind so much that He sacrificed His
only begotten Son in our place (John 3:16; Romans 5:8). Christian God is a personal God who
loves us, a totally just God that must punish all sin, and an all-loving God that offers us the free
gift of salvation that comes only through His Son. What makes Christianity different from other
religions is the love of God.

c) Islam
Islam is exceptional in that it is not named after any person, tribe, region or culture. Islam is
named after a belief in one God, Allah, and submission to His will. In other words, Muslims
ideally put Allah’s Will before their own.

Muhammad’s message is not new. His message of absolute monotheism is a reaffirmation of


what came before it. “We as humans constantly stray from guidance if we are left on our own
without a divine reminder, thus Allah the Merciful has sent us prophets to remind us. Islam
preaches the same message of all previous prophets (peace be upon them). That message is:
Allah is One, worship Him alone.”
“Islam is a religion without any mythology. Its teachings are simple and intelligible. It is free
from superstitions and irrational beliefs. The oneness of God, the prophethood of Muhammad,
and the concept of life after death are the basic articles of its faith. There is no hierarchy of
priests, no farfetched abstractions, no complicated rites or rituals.”

Coceni destiny, Islam offers eternity in Paradise if people obey Allah’s commands. “If we believe
and do good deeds, we will be rewarded, while if we deny the message and do evil, we will be
punished.”

Some Similarities
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, in contrast to Hinduism and Buddhism, are all monotheistic
religions that worship the God of Adam, Abraham, and Moses—the creator, sustainer, and Lord
of the universe. They somewhat share a common belief in the oneness of God (monotheism),
sacred history (history as the theater of God’s activity and the encounter of God and
humankind), prophets and divine revelation, angels, and Satan. All stress moral responsibility
and accountability, Judgment Day, and eternal reward and punishment.

“All three faiths emphasize their special covenant with God, for Judaism through Moses,
Christianity through Jesus, and Islam through Muhammad. Christianity accepts God’s covenant
with and revelation to the Jews but traditionally has seen itself as superseding Judaism with the
coming of Jesus. Thus Christianity speaks of its new covenant and New Testament. So, too,
Islam and Muslims recognize Judaism and Christianity: their biblical prophets (among them
Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus) and their revelations (the Torah and the New Testament, or
Message of Jesus).”

“Peace is central to all three faiths. This is reflected historically in their use of similar greetings
meaning “peace be upon you”: shalom aleichem in Judaism, pax vobiscum in Christianity, and
salaam alaikum in Islam. Often, however, the greeting of peace has been meant primarily for
members of one’s own faith community.”

A conclusion
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam trace their roots back to Abraham and his message of
monotheism. The similarities among these faiths range in practices and beliefs. They all have the
same geographical roots in the Arab World. A holy book can be found in all three religions and is
considered to be the word of God or the inspired word of God. Within the Torah, Bible and
Qur’an are creation stories in which God created the universe. Central to these three faiths are
the various prophets that came to spread messages of monotheism.

“All of the biblical prophets shared by Judaism and Christianity can also be found in the Qur’an
and Islamic writings. A level of accountability for one’s actions and the belief in charity and good
deeds are another similarity that these faiths share. In addition, the belief in life after death is a
shared belief among the three religions. Lastly, all three faiths regard Jerusalem as a holy city.
For Jews, it is home to the Wailing Wall and the Temple Mount. In Christianity,
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the spot where Jesus was believed to be crucified. For
Muslims it is home to the Dome of the Rock, where the Prophet Muhammad is believed to have
ascended to heaven and where Al Aqsa Mosque is located.”

#Judaism #Christianity #Islam #ComparativeAnalysis

Reference: http://ourhappyschool.com/religion/judaism-christianity-and-islam-comparative-analysis
COMMON ROOTS OF THREE ABRAHAMIC FAITHS:
A FOUNDATION FOR PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE
BY DOUGLAS NORELL

Four score and several thousand years ago, our Father brought forth on this planet a
new religious spirit. As this spirit evolved, it assumed the form of monotheism—
because it affirmed only one God. The father of this new religious impulse came to be
called Abraham.

FATHER OF MANY NATIONS

Abraham is a unique figure. His name means "Father of Many Nations." Indeed he is.
We trace roots of three different, but related, world religions school God of Abraham:

 The Jews know this one God as Yahweh or Yehovah, the self-Existent or Eternal.
Jehovah, the Lord.
 Muslims know this God as Allah. They say there is "No god, but God." In the Semitic
tongues, both Jews and Muslims use virtually the same word for God -only one mark
distinguishes them.
 Christians know the Sacred One first in Matthew 1:23 as Emanuel, "God with Us."

Abraham brought the world a new way to see God. This new vision of God evolved
over time and became transformed as the three Abrahamic faiths. Each tradition
remembers its origins in unique ways. For example, Christians celebrate their vision at
Christmas, Easter and Epiphany the traditional nativity story of Jesus and the three
Magi. In understanding this story anew, I propose to take the advice of Islam's revered
poet Rumi. He advised: "But don't be satisfied with stories, how things have gone with
others. Unfold your own myth…" This article views the Magi as symbols of the wisdom
of three Abrahamic traditions that flow into and from the birth of Jesus. They are "Three
Gifts from the East." I will show that each tradition stands on its own, but may also
illuminate the others.

Identifying the common roots of the Abrahamic faiths—while respecting their


differences—can also help lay the for a durable peace in Middle East. Negotiations can
arrest conflict involving Muslims, Jews, and Christians, but only understanding can curb
the fears that drive conflict itself.

FATHER OF ISRAEL

Judaism, the religion of those who call Abraham the Father of Israel, is symbolized by
the Hebrew Scriptures. Without Judaism, we would lack the prophetic and historic
traditions that inform the Gospels in the New Testament/Christian Scriptures. Another
example of the gift of Judaism comes from Isaiah. Isaiah 42:1-4 is one of the so-called
"servant songs." Some interpret the passages as referring to the nation Israel, and they
believe it should be understood in that context. I suggest that if these verses and
passages in chapters 49, 50 and 52-53 illuminate the Gospels and Epistles, they do not
do so in a direct, literal way. Rather, the metaphors about the nation Israel acting justly,
wisely, and emphatically become windows for understanding how Christians see Jesus'
ministry through Jewish eyes.

Properly interpreted, these Jewish texts can illuminate our understanding of Judaism
and of Christianity. I offer these Jewish scriptures as our first gift from the East.

FATHER OF JESUS
As I stated at the outset, Abraham was the father not only of Judaism, but also of Christianity.
Matthew 1-17 traces the lineage of Jesus through David all the way back to Abraham. Are we to
treat this as a literal family tree, or as a metaphorical message to the Jews that made up the
audience for Matthew's Gospel? I suggest the latter, that he was telling them that Jesus has a
special role to play in Jewish history and in God's plan for humankind. An example of the latter
are the two Great Commandments Jesus gave us: to love our God wholeheartedly, and to love
our neighbor as ourselves. And who is our neighbor? Jesus taught that our neighbors include
the sick, the outcast, all races, and both genders—he did not give a religious preference. He
mandated love and justice—the social extension of love.

Jesus' wisdom embodies what Karen Armstrong calls the essence of all the major
religions, including the Abrahamic traditions. I refer to personal responsibility and
practical action. The teachings of Jesus symbolize our second gift from the East.

THE FATHER OF THE PROPHET

Our third gift comes from the Prophet Muhammad in the Qur'an. The Qur'an exalts and
extols no god but Allah and severely criticizes tritheism. Even so, therein we learn of
extraordinarily high regard of Muslims for Jesus:

 He performs the miracles healing the sick and demon-possessed.


 He receives the designations of "Word of God" and "the Spirit of God."
 He tells his disciples to obey him and to assist Allah on Judgment Day.

Of course, the Qur'an uplifts a whole string of prophets. They include Abraham's heirs:
Jewish prophets, Jesus, and Muhammad himself. The Qur'an, then, represents our third
gift from the East.
FATHER OF COEXISTENCE

In summary, the covenant in Genesis makes Abraham the father of many nations. It
also makes Sarah and Hagar the mothers of many nations. We ought never to get so
enraptured of the Patriarchs that we forget the Matriarchs who made them fathers.
These parents, then, gave birth to generations as numerous as the sands of the sea
and stars sky. So we learn another lesson: the common heritage of Jews, Christians
and Muslims should encourage coexistence.

Let us notice the wide Semitic links within itself. Abraham brought his first wife from the
land of Babylon. He then took Hagar, an Arab slave woman, as his second wife, and
she became the mother of his first child, Ishmael.

Muslims and Arabs chart their lineage through Ishmael, who the Bible tells us had 12
sons, just like Jacob. Muslims likewise count model of faith. The Qur'an says Abraham
eschewed all religious labels but insisted only on one thing: his faith in the One True
God. Thus, a Jewish Patriarch doubles as Muslim Prophet.

Christians also revere Abraham. According to the Apostle Paul, Abraham became, by
faith, the father of both Jews and Gentiles. Jesus himself refers to the teaching of
Moses and the example of Abraham.

Let us appreciate the three gifts from the East—Judaism, Christianity and Islam—and
celebrate their sacred writings: the Hebrew Scriptures, New Testament, and the Qur'an.
The symbols of the three faiths—the Muslim crescent, and star, and the Christian
cross—can be joined to spell "love" in "interfaith consonants"—COEXIST. Let's do it
peacefully—in the Middle East and around the globe!

Douglas Norell is a candidate for Doctor of Ministry at Hartford Seminary. He is a lay leader in interfaith
education at Emmaus United Church of Christ in Vienna, Virginia, where he teaches courses reflected in
this article. He is Director of Legislative Affairs, Catholic Relief Services.

THE GOLDEN RULE


Christianity

All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the
law and the prophets,

King James version: Matt. 7:12


Islam

None of you is a believer if he does not desire for his brother that which he desires for himself.

Sunna

Judaism

That which you hold as detestable, do not do to your neighbor. That is the whole Law: the rest is
but commentary.

Talmud, Sabbat, 21a

[Source: Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 9, 1975]

BROTHERHOOD
Buddhism
A friend is a great treasure and should be cherished as a brother. One should make good his
chosen friends, his brothers.

Christianity
All men are brothers. If one has anything against a brother, he should make peace with him
before attending to other religious duties. As one treats a brother, so he treats God. To hate
one's brother is evil. Brotherly love should rule the world.

Hinduism
The good man makes no distinction between friend and foe, brother or stranger, but regards
them all with impartiality. A true friend will be sympathetic with you at all times.

Judaism
God has made all men brothers and they should live together as brothers at all times. It is good
for men to act in unity as brothers. Such action will be blessed by God and will prosper.

Mohammedanism/Islam
All mankind is one family, one people. All men are brothers and should live as such. The Lord
loves those who so live.

[Source: Topical Index, The Sacred Writings of the Great Religions, edited by S.E.
Frost, Jr., McGraw-Hill Paperback Edition, 1972]

https://promotingpeace.org/2006/2/norell.html

https://jewsforjesus.org/publications/issues/issues-v10-n04/comparison-chart-buddhism-hinduism-
traditional-judaism-and-the-gospel/