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Primary

Nomi Kaston

Skill Areas: speaking and listening


Ages: 8 through 10
Grades: 3 through 5

Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.

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About the Author

Nomi Kaston, M.S., is a speech-language pathologist working in


private practice in Victoria, B.C. She also has several years of
experience working in the public schools in Calgary and in private
settings for children with learning disabilities. Nomi believes in the
power of metacognitive self-talk to turn students into active, strategic
learners who guide their own journeys toward success. She
acknowledges the spiritual aspects of speech and language work and
the profound appeal of ritual, reflection time, and guided imagery in
the classroom and therapy room. Nomi has done workshops for ASHA,
CASLPA, the International Reading Association, The Learning
Disabilities Association, and Young Writers’ Conferences. 100%
Speaking & Listening – Primary is Nomi’s first publication with
LinguiSystems.

Dedication
To the angels at the East Health Center. Code Pink by the coffee machine!

Edited by Kelly Malone


Page Layout by Christine Buysse
Cover Design by Chris Claus
Illustrated by Margaret Warner
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Activity 1: Conversation Warm-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2: Introducing Peptalks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3: Speaking and Listening Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4: Get the Ball Rolling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5: Speaker’s Necklace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6: Show and Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7: My Talking Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8: My Speaking and Listening Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
9: Peptalks Star Jar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10: Peptalks Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


Activity 1: Listening Warm-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2: My Whole Body Listens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3: I Make Pictures in My Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4: I Listen for Feelings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5: I Ask! Comprehension Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6: I Can Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7: A Talk About Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


Activity 1: Marvelous Me!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2: Overcoming Shyness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3: Toes and Tummy, Loosen Up! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4: Calming Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5: Giving a Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6: Boosting Each Other’s Confidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7: Keeping our Successes in Mind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8: A Talk About Courage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86


Activity 1: I Invite My Listeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2: I Speak Slowly and Clearly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3: Good Posture for Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4: I Say Every Syllable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5: I Pause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6: A Demonstration Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7: Presenting a Poem or Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
8: A Talk About Talking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Table of Contents, continued
Unit 5: Speaking with Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Activity 1: Three Cheers for Our Class! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2: Healthy Ways to Build Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
3: Different Kinds of Voices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4: A Talk About Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5: Giving Your Voice Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


Activity 1: Draw, Then Talk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2: Tell the News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
3: News Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4: Tell a Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5: An Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6: My Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
7: Inform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


Activity 1: I Describe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2: I Give Fresh Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
3: Juicy Words, Not Dry Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
4: Describing with All the Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5: Describing Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
6: Describing Feelings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7: I See with New Eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174


Activity 1: Interviews: Finding Our Family Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
2: Good Arguments: Power Without Anger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
3: Resolving Conflicts Peacefully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
4: Sharing Our Deepest Thoughts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5: Peptalks in Daily Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
6: A TV Talk Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7: I’m So Proud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
8: A Peptalks Celebration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Peptalks Mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Speaking and Listening Family Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Blank Peptalk Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

General Inclusion Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204


Introduction
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary is a complete oral communication program that’s
presented in a lively, fun format. This program will energize all of your students to:

JOIN IN sharing times and discussions


SPEAK clearly and confidently in daily interactions
LISTEN with understanding and empathy
EXPRESS IDEAS in an organized and persuasive way
DESCRIBE experiences using rich, varied vocabulary
COMMUNICATE to share feelings and get along

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary is designed to meet the diverse needs of students with a
variety of communication goals. Use this program with:

✽ students in regular education classrooms, to address the oral language benchmarks for
grades 3 to 5
✽ students with delays and disorders in speech production, those with articulation and
phonological disorders, and those who simply need to speak more clearly
✽ students who are working on their fluency skills with a speech-language pathologist
✽ students with pragmatic disorders, to help them learn the rules and rituals of
communication
✽ students with learning disabilities, to develop descriptive, organized oral expression
✽ students with attention, auditory processing, and receptive language disorders

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary teaches students to use metacognitive self-talk prompts,
called Peptalks, to direct their efforts toward clear, personal oral communication goals. Some
examples of Peptalks are:

I stop and think. My voice shows life and change.


I speak slowly and clearly. I make pictures in my listeners’ minds.
I say every syllable. I use juicy words.

Each lesson includes an activity that places students in a challenging communication situation,
as well as a list of suggested Peptalks to help students overcome the communication challenge.
At times there are specific ideas for when to introduce a particular Peptalk in the lesson, but in
general, the best time to present a Peptalk is at the moment it’s needed. Here are some ideas for
ways to introduce Peptalks:

Define the Situation: Say to the student, “You seem to be rushing. It’s hard for you to gather
your thoughts when you hurry. Can you give yourself a Peptalk to help you take your time?”

Model a Peptalk: Pick up the Peptalks mirror and give yourself an energizing Peptalk. For
example, say, “When I feel rushed, I talk to myself. I tell myself, ‘No one can hurry me. I take
my time.’ ” Then pass the mirror to the student, and ask the student to look into the mirror and
repeat the Peptalk or make up a personal one.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 5 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Introduction, continued
Role Play: Have a conversation with a puppet. For example, the puppet may say, “I always talk
too fast. I can’t help it. Everybody rushes me.” Ask students to suggest a Peptalk to the puppet,
such as “I set the pace. It’s not a race” or “No one can hurry me.”

Reinforce: Praise students when they come up with strategies to help improve their commu-
nication skills. Catch them the moment they do something that works and ask them to make up
a Peptalk. For example, say, “I saw that Jason didn’t get impatient when we didn’t understand.
He just said it again more slowly and clearly. We all stayed with him until his message got
through.” Ask students what Peptalks could remind them to continue these speaking and
listening successes.

Brainstorm: Before beginning an activity, have students think of Peptalks that might be helpful
during that specific situation. For example, ask, “What Peptalks might help us be brave enough
to talk in front of an audience?”

Reframe: The moment a student (or the puppet) makes a negative self-talk comment, have the
students suggest a Peptalk the student could have said instead. For example, “I’ll never get this
right” could be positively reformulated to “I’ll take one step at a time.”

Use Peptalk Cards: Reproducible ready-made Peptalk cards are provided at the end of every
unit for the Peptalks suggested in the lessons. It’s up to you to decide which cards to give
individual students. Allow students to color and decorate the cards you give them. (You may
want to duplicate the cards for each unit on a different color paper so they can be easily sorted.)
Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203 so students can make up their own, personal
self-talk prompts. Always have a stack of blank cards and crayons or markers handy so students
can make Peptalk cards on the spot when needed. You may want to encourage students who
write more fluently to help those who are having difficulty.

Celebrate: Whenever a student uses a Peptalk correctly, exclaim, “Now you have a Peptalk that
you can use all your life!” Help the student brainstorm situations in the classroom, at home, and
in the community in which this Peptalk could help the student achieve his communication goals.

Basic Session Plan

Each Speaking and Listening Session should be a special, fun part of the day with predictable,
repeated rituals that center the students and create a comfort zone where all students feel willing
to share and to stretch. Here’s one way to structure the sessions:

1. Sharing Time or Warm-Up Game: Give each student a turn with the Speaker’s Necklace
to tell one bit of news. You may provide a sentence starter, such as “One good thing that
happened this week was . . ..” After a few sessions, when students have chosen Peptalks to
work on, have each student announce a Peptalk before sharing his news. As the students
progress, the initial sharing round can become an opportunity for students to celebrate their
successes during the past week and to tell how they’re doing using their Peptalks at school, at
home, and in the community.

2. Peptalk Lesson: Introduce the new Peptalk(s) listed at the top of the lesson. Encourage
students to use these Peptalks throughout the activity.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 6 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Introduction, continued
3. Peptalk Practice Time: Pass the Peptalks mirror around and let each student announce
the Peptalk she’s focusing on. It can be one of the new Peptalks from the lesson or a personal
Peptalk that’s related to the student’s individual communication goals. For example, a stu-
dent who’s receiving help for stuttering may include fluency targets, such as “I do tummy
breathing.” Have students practice their Peptalks in paired conversation.

4. Discussions or Short Speeches: Often, students will have prepared a speaking activity for
homework from the previous session. Encourage students to use the speech organizers and
planners provided to jot down key words, brief notes, or sketches rather than entire speeches.
Students can even use these organizers without doing any writing or drawing. They simply
point to each section of the organizer while speaking. With practice, students can memorize
the organizers and use them naturally when they’re telling news, opinions, and stories during
daily conversations. Always allow students to use additional sheets of blank paper during the
planning stages of their speeches. Provide students with time at the end of their presenta-
tions to give each other feedback and to evaluate how well they’ve used their Peptalks.

5. Planning Time: Give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter on
page 202 and any worksheets he’ll need for home practice. Then let each student have
another turn with the Speaker’s Necklace to tell one way he was successful in this session and
to announce a Peptalk he’ll try to use during the coming week.

6. Inclusion Tips: Each lesson includes specific ideas for ways to adapt the lesson for students
with special needs. There’s also a list of general inclusion tips on pages 204-205.

Important Materials

You should have the following available at all sessions:

Peptalks Mirror, page 201: Model self-talk by looking into the mirror and giving yourself a
Peptalk. Encourage students to use the mirror anytime they want to give themselves a Peptalk.

Speaker’s Necklace, page 20: This necklace provides a visual for the rule that only one person
speaks at a time, and while that person is speaking, others focus their attention on the speaker
and listen with their eyes, ears, and hearts.

Puppet or Doll: These can be wonderful conversation partners. A shy, fearful puppet can voice
its fears and receive support and suggestions from the students. It can also serve as a newcomer
to the classroom so that students are motivated to turn everyday, common knowledge and events
into exciting, fresh speeches for the new listener.

Peptalks Star Jar, page 34: Place a paper bag of colored beads next to the jar so that anytime
a student uses a Peptalk successfully, anyone in the room can place a bead in the jar. This
provides a very visible, tangible celebration of growth.

Blank Peptalk Cards, page 203: Allow students to invent new Peptalks any time they discover
strategies that work for them. Let students help each other make up the Peptalks they need.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 7 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Introduction, continued
Speaking and Listening Family Letter, page 202: At the end of each session, help students
complete this letter to take home to encourage review, to share the student’s most important
Peptalks, to give students some communication practice activities to do at home during the week,
and to let families know about any needed supplies or preparation for the next session. You may
want to do this on an overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

Using the Peptalk Cards

Here are some additional ideas for general ways to give students practice using Peptalks:

✽ Encourage students to choose the best places to display their Peptalk cards, such as on the
corner of their desks, on their locker doors, in their notebooks, or beside the telephone.

✽ Have students turn their Peptalks into big, beautiful posters.

✽ Turn a bulletin board, a door, or a wall into a large display of Peptalk cards, posters, and
students’ illustrations of themselves using Peptalks.

✽ Make a double set of Peptalk cards and put them in a small box or paper bag. Have
students take turns drawing two cards out, reading each card aloud, and telling why
they’re important. The first student to draw two identical cards is the winner.

✽ Play a memory game. How many Peptalks can the group recall in one minute?

✽ Decide together on the most important Peptalks for the week, and turn these into a rap
or chant.

✽ Have students share their Peptalks at a staff meeting so that all staff members know what
communication behaviors to reinforce. You might also have students present their
Peptalks to another class or during an all-school assembly.

✽ When the Peptalks Star Jar is full, or anytime the students have shown improvements in
their communication skills, have a Peptalks celebration. (See Unit 8, Activity 8 on page
193.)

Storing the Peptalk Cards

Students can store their cards in sports trading card sleeves, computer disk holder sheets
(available at many office supply stores), or in reclosable plastic bags. They could also punch a
hole in each card and carry the cards on a key ring.

It’s important to set aside regular times to focus our full attention on the skills involved in effec-
tive speaking and listening. 100% Speaking & Listening – Primary identifies specific target
behaviors, provides practice with these behaviors, and offers ways to celebrate specific successes.
I hope you and your students enjoy the ideas and exercises presented in this book.

Nomi

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 8 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community
The activities in this unit are designed to help you create a community in which all students
encourage each other and themselves to become confident speakers and effective listeners.

Students will learn to use energizing self-talk prompts called Peptalks to help them achieve their
speaking and listening goals. Each lesson plan begins with suggested Peptalks to present during
the activity. Reproducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages
36-39. Duplicate and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the
students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where they can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around, and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family
Letter on page 202 to take home. (You’ll send home a different family letter after Activity 2
to introduce families to the program and during Activity 6 to help students prepare for the next
session.) Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and telling the dates of
upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an overhead so students
can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 9 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Activity 1: Conversation Warm-up

Goal: to form a spirit of sharing and community within the group

Peptalks I can do this!


It’s okay to make mistakes.
I won’t give up.

Activity: When any new group begins, it’s a good idea to do some playful warm-up activities.
Here’s an example:

Introduce yourself to the students. Say your name and one descriptive phrase about yourself.
For example, “I’m Mrs. Kaston and I love cherries.”

Then say, “Now let’s go around the room. When it’s your turn, please say your first name and
tell us one thing about yourself. After each person’s turn, I’ll see if I can remember all the
interesting things you’ve told me.”

After each child’s turn, start at the beginning and repeat everyone’s name and descriptive
phrase. For example, after the first child’s turn you might say, “I’m Mrs. Kaston who loves
cherries, and this is Tyler who plays hockey.”

After the second child’s turn you might say, “I’m Mrs. Kaston who loves cherries, this is
Tyler who plays hockey, and this is Amanda who has three brothers.” Continue until all the
children have had a turn. (Note: Don’t pressure students to join in if they’re not ready. Let
students know that they can say “Pass” or ask for help. Encourage students to help each other
think of responses, if necessary.)

You’ll probably forget some of the descriptive phrases and students may have to help you out
several times as you go around the room. Have fun with this activity and be prepared to laugh
together. Give yourself some Peptalks as you try to recall and repeat all of the information
you’ve heard. Each time you give yourself a Peptalk, look in the mirror to show that you’re
talking to yourself.

On subsequent meetings, try to begin each group session with a sharing time. The list on
page 11 provides some topic ideas for this time.

☺ Inclusion Give students with special needs rehearsal time before the group session. Help
Tip: the student prepare a statement in advance, and prompt the student during the
group session. Students using Augmentative Communication systems can pre-
pare messages on their communication devices to play on their turns. Here are
some ways to help a student share:

Prompt: “Maybe you could tell us a game you like.”


Choice: Give two possibilities such as, “Do you like pizza or spaghetti better?”
Cloze: “You like to play with __________.”
Yes/No: “Do you have a dog?”

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 10 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Sharing Time Starters
Use these ideas with the Conversation Warm-up activity on page 10.

Sentence Starters

✽ One good thing that happened this week was __________.


✽ I like to play with __________.
✽ If I were an animal, I’d be a __________ because __________.
✽ If I could fly, I’d __________.
✽ My favorite food is __________.
✽ One thing I like about this school is __________.
✽ One thing I’m thankful for is __________.
✽ I’m happy when __________.
✽ I wish __________.
✽ If I had a magic wand I’d __________.
✽ If I were a super hero, I’d have the power to __________.
✽ One thing I like about (the next holiday) is __________.
✽ One way a child can make the world a better place is __________.
✽ One way I can be kind is __________.
✽ I wouldn’t want a __________ for a pet because __________.
✽ Today is a celebration day because __________.

Starters for Special Days

✽ On the first day of school, ask each student to name one thing he sees in the room and
tell why he thinks it’s there.

✽ When one of the children is celebrating a birthday, have each student say one thing they
appreciate about the birthday child. You might even ask each student to make a special
wish for the birthday child.

✽ On Halloween, let the group invent a wild monster. Encourage each student to add a new
feature to the description.

✽ On Thanksgiving, have each student tell one thing she’s thankful for.

Curriculum Related Starters

✽ Have students retell a story they’ve just read or heard. Let each student say one or two
sentences about the story.

✽ Ask each student to give his reaction to a story the class has just read or heard. Let each
student give one response.

✽ Give students a sharing starter related to a particular curriculum topic. For example,
for a science starter, have each student name one living thing and one non-living thing.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 11 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: Introducing Peptalks

Goal: to learn that Peptalks are positive messages we say to ourselves

Materials: puppet
Introductory Speaking and Listening Family Letter (p. 14)

Peptalks I can do this!


I’ll try!
I’ll take my time.
No one can rush me.
I’m doing the best I can.

Activity: Show students the puppet and begin a dialogue to introduce the Peptalks concept.
(You’ll play both roles—yourself and the puppet.) Here’s a sample dialogue:

You: “I’d like you to meet a new member of our class. This is Jamie.”

Puppet: “I don’t know anybody here. I’ll never have any friends. No one will ever want to
talk to me.”

You: “How can we help Jamie feel comfortable here, class?” Invite suggestions. Then say,
“Tell us a little about yourself, Jamie.”

Puppet (long pause, looks at the floor): “If I say something, you’ll all probably laugh at me.”

You: “What can we say to Jamie so she’ll feel brave enough to join in?” Prompt students to
think of phrases like, “You can do it, Jamie,” “Take your time,” and “We won’t hurry you.”
Then say, “Great job, class! You’re giving Jamie Peptalks. Peptalks are things we can say to
make us feel good and help us do our best. Let’s see if the Peptalks we gave Jamie are
helping her.”

Puppet: “I’m starting to feel good here. It doesn’t matter if I make a mistake. No one will
laugh at me. I’ll take my time. No one can rush me. Okay, I’ll tell you about myself. I love
dill pickles and my favorite color is dill pickle green.”

You: “Which Peptalks did Jamie give herself?” Help students, if necessary.

Then say, “We can give ourselves Peptalks too. Imagine you have to give a talk in front of the
whole school and you’re scared. What could you say to yourself to make you feel better and
help you do your best?” Brainstorm possible Peptalks.

Then say, “Let’s pass the mirror around. When it’s in your hand, give yourself a Peptalk. You
can say, ‘I can!,’ ‘I’ll try!,’ or ‘I won’t give up!’ ” Give each student the appropriate amount of
prompting.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 12 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2, continued

After the role-play, give students several blank Peptalk cards, and have them work in pairs to
create their own Peptalks. Encourage them to decorate their cards using the crayons or markers.
Then help students brainstorm some places in the classroom that they could display their Peptalk
cards to help the puppet feel brave and happy. Also have students suggest some places at home
where they could display Peptalk cards, such as on the refrigerator, on the corner of the table,
beside the telephone, etc.

At the end of the session, give each student a copy of the Introductory Speaking and Listening
Family Letter to take home.

☺ Inclusion Some students will be able to invent their own Peptalks. Others will need
Tip: a model to repeat. You may want to encourage students to work together.
Students who have more advanced writing skills can write for those who
need help.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 13 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Introductory Speaking and Listening Family Letter
Dear Family,

I’ve joined a program for improving my speaking and listening skills. I’m going to learn to
give myself Peptalks, which are positive messages I can say to myself to help me be a
better speaker and listener. Here are some examples of Peptalks:

I speak slowly and clearly.


I listen carefully.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Our Speaking and Listening Sessions will be held at the following times:
_____________________________________________________________________

Here are some ways you can help me:

✽ Help me have an idea ready to talk about before each session. This can be some
news from home or a little story I’ve made up.
✽ I’ll be bringing home some cards that show my speaking and listening goals. They’re
called Peptalk cards, and we can make copies of them. Please help me put my
cards on the refrigerator, by the telephone, on the corner of my desk, or anywhere
we talk and listen.
✽ I’ll keep my Peptalk cards and assignments in my Talking Portfolio. Please help me
do the assignments at home. I’ll have to do some talking and prepare some ideas to
talk about at the next Speaking and Listening Session.
✽ You can give me some gentle reminders for better speaking and listening. Please
don’t nag me, though. Just ask me to give myself a Peptalk !

Other ideas:
✽ ________________________________________________________________
✽ ________________________________________________________________

Most importantly, please be patient. Learning to be a good speaker and listener will take
time.

Yours truly,

__________________________________ _________________________________
student educator

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 14 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Speaking and Listening Contract

Goal: to set ground rules so that all students feel comfortable speaking in the group

Materials: Sample Speaking and Listening Contract (p. 16)


blank Speaking and Listening Contract (p. 17)
puppet

Peptalks One person speaks at a time.


We’re good listeners.
We don’t hurry the speaker.
We don’t laugh at mistakes.
We won’t give put-downs!
We give suggestions kindly.
We take suggestions well.
We all try our best.
We help each other.

Activity: Say, “We want to make sure everyone in our group feels comfortable talking. What
rules could we have so that everyone will feel good about talking here?” Help students
brainstorm ideas.

Then say, “Let’s look at this list of rules. I want you to tell me what you think about each one.”
Show students the Sample Speaking and Listening Contract and ask them to give their opinions
about each communication promise.

Then hold up the blank Speaking and Listening Contract and say, “Now let’s make our own
Speaking and Listening Contract. What communication promises should we include on our
contract?” Help students complete the contract and then sign it.

Post the promises where all students can see them during group sessions. Review the promises
often. Students may also want to share these promises with other classes and with their families.
Brothers and sisters often need to be reminded of the promise regarding put-downs.

Discuss situations outside of the group where these promises would be helpful.

Announce that the puppet wants to share something with the group. Ask students to take turns
making promises to the puppet before it speaks to show that it can feel safe speaking here. Then
use the puppet to tell some news about an upcoming school event.

☺ Inclusion Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have an extremely


Tip: difficult time listening patiently without hurrying the speaker. You may want
to offer these students a compromise, such as allowing their hands to be busy as
long as they keep their eyes on the speaker. For example, they may squeeze a
silent toy while they listen.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 15 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Sample Speaking and Listening Contract

We agree to the following promises:

One person speaks at a time.

We listen well.

We do not hurry the speaker.

We can have fun together, but we do not


laugh at mistakes.

We won’t give put-downs!

We give suggestions kindly.

We take suggestions well.

We all try our best.

We help each other.

Signed,

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 16 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaking and Listening Contract

We agree to the following promises:

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

Signed,

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 17 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: Get the Ball Rolling

Goal: to practice turn taking while speaking

Materials: a large ball


Peptalk We take turns.

Activity: Say, “We’re going to pass this ball to each other. When you have the ball, it’s your
turn to talk. Let’s start by telling our favorite flavor of ice cream. I have the ball, so I’ll tell
mine. I like butterscotch ripple ice cream. Show me with your eyes and your face and your body
that you would like a turn telling your favorite ice cream flavor. I see Tyler leaning forward a
little. His eyes are excited and wide open. I’ll pass the ball to Tyler.”

After a student has shared his favorite ice-cream flavor, have other students who are ready to
share signal to the person holding the ball. Students who are ready can signal with their eyes,
faces, and bodies. The person holding the ball may choose whom to pass the ball to next.

After everyone has had a turn, ask, “Would this activity work if we all talked at the same time?”
Discuss students’ responses. Then have students color the “We take turns” Peptalk card or
suggest other Peptalks and make their own cards showing similar messages.

Here are some ideas for additional turn-taking topics:

✽ favorite cereal ✽ favorite movie

✽ favorite weather ✽ favorite singing group

✽ favorite game ✽ favorite color

✽ favorite sport ✽ favorite animal

✽ favorite TV show ✽ a person I admire

✽ favorite story ✽ a place I’ve been to

✽ favorite holiday ✽ a place I’d like to visit

✽ a familiar story (each student tells one part of the story and then passes the ball)

☺ Inclusion Identify students who may have difficulty with this activity before the session
Tip: and practice with them individually. Use the turn-taking starter you’ll be pre-
senting to the group, and help each student choose an item and practice saying
its name. Some students may also want to use a visual reminder, such as a
picture. During the group session, offer these students as much prompting as
they need. Remind the other students of the communication promises on the
Speaking and Listening Contract they signed.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 18 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: Speaker’s Necklace

Goal: to demonstrate the communication promise of one person speaking at a time

Materials: Speaker’s Necklace (p. 20) scissors


markers or crayons glue
cardboard string
single hole punch

Peptalk One person speaks at a time.

Activity: Photocopy the Speaker’s Necklace sheet and give each student a copy. Have students
decorate and cut out the nametag before gluing it to a piece of cardboard. Punch holes in the two
upper corners and tie a long piece of string through them to make a necklace. (Note: To simplify
the activity, you may use ready-made nametags available at office supply stores and simply slip
the decorated nametag into the necklace.)

During group sessions, use one Speaker’s Necklace. When students are working in pairs, give
each pair one necklace. Keep all necklaces that aren’t being used in a clear plastic bag for future
sessions.

Put on a Speaker’s Necklace and introduce the Peptalk “One person speaks at a time.” Help
students brainstorm times at school and at home that this Peptalk may be useful.

Then say, “I’m wearing the Speaker’s Necklace. That means it’s my turn to talk. I’m going to
tell you something good that happened to me this week. Then I’m going to give the necklace to
someone else. When you receive the Speaker’s Necklace, first thank the person who just talked.
Smile or say something to show the person that you heard her and that you care. Then it’s your
turn to share something good that happened to you.”

Each time the necklace changes hands, encourage the student who received it to thank the
previous speaker.

Here are some ideas for additional speaking topics:

✽ something funny that happened to me ✽ what my favorite meal is


✽ how I take care of my pet ✽ what I think a perfect day would be
✽ something I don’t think is fair ✽ what I would do if I were the principal
✽ what I like most about my best friend and why

☺ Inclusion In a group, there are often some students who dominate the discussion and
Tip: others who don’t get a turn. To even out the participation, give each student
three poker chips. Have students put a poker chip on the table each time they
speak. This provides a visual record of participation. You can also use a timer
and set a maximum time for each conversation turn. Ring a gentle, pleasant bell
20 seconds before a speaker’s time is up so the speaker can conclude.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 19 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaker’s Necklace
Decorate and cut out the nametag below to make a Speaker’s Necklace. The person who is
speaking will hold or wear this necklace to remind everyone of this Peptalk :

One person speaks at a time.

When do we need to make sure that one person speaks at a time?

at school
at the dinner table

during discussions

when working together

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 20 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: Show and Share

Goal: to make a brief oral presentation about an item that’s special to the student

Materials: Show and Share Worksheet (p. 23)


Show and Share Family Letter (p. 24)
objects that students bring in
crayons and paper
video camera

Peptalks I have something special to share.


My listeners want to hear me.

Activity: Show the students something that’s special to you. It can be a stone you found on the
beach, a family heirloom, a toy from your childhood, the program from a concert, or a family
photograph. Tell the students why you treasure this item.

Then say, “During our next Speaking and Listening Session, each of you will bring something to
show. Try to bring an item that’s special to you. It can be a treasure that reminds you of a
special time, or it can be an object that’s like a friend to you. What are some things that people
could bring?” Help students brainstorm ideas.

To help students decide what to bring and plan what to say, give each student a copy of the Show
and Share Worksheet. As an example, read through the items and provide responses based on
the item you brought. Then have students work in pairs to discuss the items they might bring to
the next session. Before the session is over, give each student a copy of the Show and Share
Family Letter to take home.

At the next session, have several volunteers present the items they brought to the group. If
necessary, provide prompts to get students to tell more about their items. Students who forgot
to bring something can draw a picture of the item to show.

Then divide students into pairs and instruct them to show their items to their partners and share
why their items are special to them. This way all students will have an opportunity to
participate.

If possible, videotape each student’s Show and Share presentation. The videotape can serve as
an early measure of each student’s communication skills.

Additional Show and Share topics and ideas for what to share about items are listed on page 22.

☺ Inclusion Some students will only “show” and not yet speak in front of the group. That’s
Tip: okay. This activity serves as a wonderful way to involve even students with
severe communication disorders.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 21 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Show and Share Topics
Use these ideas with the Show and Share activity on page 21.

Suggested items to bring to the Speaking and Listening Session:

✽ a favorite toy ✽ a photograph

✽ first stuffed animal ✽ an article of clothing

✽ a book ✽ a family treasure

✽ a stone ✽ a holiday ornament

✽ a treasure found outside ✽ a party favor

✽ a ticket stub ✽ a postcard

✽ a necklace ✽ a magazine picture

✽ a gift ✽ a souvenir from a special trip

✽ a souvenir program from a game or concert

Things speakers might tell listeners about their items:

✽ where they got the item

✽ when they got the item

✽ who gave the item to them

✽ why the item is special to them

✽ where they keep the item


✽ what special features the item may have

✽ how the item makes them feel

✽ a story about the item

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 22 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Show and Share Worksheet
Name ________________________________________ Date ______________________

My special item is called

My special item’s story (where it comes from, how I got it, who gave it to me)

This item is special to me because

This item reminds me of

My special item makes me feel

More about my special item

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 23 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Show and Share Family Letter

Dear Family,

I need to bring something from home to share with our Speaking and Listening Group.
Please help me select an item that’s special to me. For example:

✽ a favorite toy, doll, or stuffed animal


✽ a special stone or shell
✽ a ticket stub, program, or souvenir from a special event I attended
✽ a treasure passed on from a grandparent
✽ a holiday ornament
✽ a photograph
✽ a postcard
✽ a homemade craft

I’ll be showing the item to the group and sharing important information about it. Please
help me prepare to tell about the item before our next session. Here are some things we
might talk about:

✽ the name of the item


✽ where the item is from
✽ who gave the item to me
✽ when I received the item
✽ why the item is special to me

Please help me remember to bring this special item to school on __________________.


Thanks for helping me learn!

Yours truly,

___________________________________ ___________________________________
student educator

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 24 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: My Talking Portfolio

Goal: to create a folder for Peptalk cards, worksheets, idea pages, and notes for speeches

Materials: My Talking Portfolio cover sheet (p. 26)


8½” x 11” folder with pockets for each student
glue
sports trading card sleeves, computer disk holder sheets, or reclosable plastic bags
I’m So Proud Cards (p. 27).

Activity: Photocopy the My Talking Portfolio cover sheet and give each student a folder.
Have students glue the sheet on the front of their folders and write their names on the blanks.
Explain that soon they’ll fill in the bubbles on the cover with their most important Peptalks.
Tell students to bring their portfolios to every group session.

Then give each student some sports trading card sleeves or computer disk holder sheets, or a
reclosable plastic bag. Students should put their Peptalk cards in these holders and store them
in one of the pockets in their portfolios.

Next, give each student a copy of the I’m So Proud Cards. Explain that each time a student
does something she’s proud of, she can fill out one of the cards and award it to herself. Also,
encourage each student to start an Idea Page that includes topics she can talk about at future
Speaking and Listening Sessions. Tell students they can add to their Idea Pages anytime.

As a sharing time, have students tell about accomplishments they’re proud of. Encourage them
to think of things that they were once unable to do, but now can do.

☺ Inclusion For students with high communication needs, encourage family members to jot
Tip: down some news from home every day or write down a little hint for you, such
as “Ask Kelsey about her puppy.” In turn, have a peer tuck a note about some
school news into the student’s portfolio to take home.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 25 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
My
Talking
Portfolio

Name ______________________________

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 26 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I’m So Proud Cards

☺☺☺☺☺☺ I’m so
PROUD!
I’m proud of myself today because
Here’s why:

I’m PROUD because

I’m PROUD because

I’m PROUD because


I’m
because

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 27 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 8: My Speaking and Listening Goals

Goal: to set individual goals and track progress in speaking and listening

Materials: Speaking and Listening Questionnaire (p. 29)


Sample Speaking and Listening Goals (p. 30)
Speaking and Listening Goals (p. 31)

Peptalks I’ll take one step at a time.


Things take time.
I get better every day.

Activity: Do this goal-setting activity in individual conferences with each student. If you
videotaped the student’s Show and Share presentation from Activity 6, begin by watching it
together.

Next go through the items on the Speaking and Listening Questionnaire together. Record the
student’s responses.

Then show the student the Sample Speaking and Listening Goals. Say, “Look at this list of goals.
Let’s work on these goals first to improve your speaking and listening skills.” Go through the list
with the student, explaining any goals that aren’t clear. You may also wish to help the student
state additional personalized goals as Peptalks and write them in the blanks on the Speaking and
Listening Goals sheet. Tell the student that you’ll review the questionnaire and the goals sheets
together each month and record changes in the student’s speaking and listening skills.

Finally, talk about the Peptalks suggested for this activity and give the student the corresponding
cards. You might also want to encourage the student to think of other Peptalks that will help as
she works on improving her speaking and listening skills over time.

☺ Inclusion Use the blank Speaking and Listening Goals form to set individualized goals for
Tip: students with communication disorders. For example, a child with severe delays
may have the goals, “I point to make a choice” and “I vocalize to greet others.”
Students with articulation goals may have, “I use my r sound.” Students work-
ing on their fluency may include, “I use my easy onsets.” Advanced students may
include goals such as, “I listen without judging.”

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 28 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaking and Listening Questionnaire Name _________________

Wishes
What changes would you like to make in these areas?

Confidence _______________________________________________________________
_

Listening _________________________________________________________________

Understanding _____________________________________________________________

Remembering _____________________________________________________________

Speaking Clearly ___________________________________________________________

Finding Ideas to Talk About ___________________________________________________

Organizing My Ideas _________________________________________________________

Convincing People __________________________________________________________

Describing ________________________________________________________________

Thinking of Words ___________________________________________________________

Other Skills _______________________________________________________________

Strengths
Describe some things you do well. These can be listening and speaking skills or anything
you’re good at.

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Goals
What would you most like to improve this month?

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 29 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Sample Speaking and Listening Goals Name _________________________

Color the picture and write the date under it each time you reach a new level of mastery for
each goal.

I don’t do I’m starting I do this I’m great


this yet. to do this. often. at this!

Peptalk ☺
(date) (date) (date) (date)

I speak slowly. ☺
I speak clearly. ☺
I pause. ☺
I make sure my listeners understand. ☺
My voice shows life and change. ☺
I describe well. ☺
I use juicy words. ☺
I show that I’m listening. ☺
I listen kindly. ☺
I make pictures in my mind. ☺
When I don’t get it, I ask. ☺
I join in discussions. ☺
Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 30 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaking and Listening Goals Name _________________________

Write your personal speaking and listening goals as Peptalks in the blanks below. Color the
picture and write the date under it each time you reach a new level of mastery for each goal.

I don’t do I’m starting I do this I’m great


this yet. to do this. often. at this!

Peptalk ☺
(date) (date) (date) (date)













Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 31 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 9: Peptalks Star Jar

Goal: to reward themselves for using positive self-talk prompts (Peptalks)

Materials: clear glass or plastic jar puppet


Peptalks Star Jar Label (p. 34) colored beads or other small, colorful
crayons or markers objects to put into the jar
glue scissors

Peptalks I can give myself a Peptalk.


I’m so proud!

Activity: Decorate the Peptalks Star Jar Label, cut it out, and glue it to the jar. Place the jar on
your desk or on the table with a bag of brightly colored beads beside it. You may also want to
make copies of the label to send home with students so they can make a Peptalks Star Jar for use
at home.

Then tell the students that the puppet is going to tell a story today. Make the puppet say, “I
know I’m going to make a fool of myself. I’m no good at this.”

Look at the puppet and say, “That was negative self-talk! Let’s change it to a Peptalk!” Ask
students what the puppet could say to give herself a Peptalk. Using students’ suggestions, make
the puppet give herself some Peptalks.

After each Peptalk, put a colored bead in the jar. Tell students that they can put a bead in the
jar whenever they give themselves a Peptalk.

Make the puppet say other negative self-talk messages. After each one, have students suggest a
Peptalk she could say instead. Let students who suggest Peptalks put beads in the jar.

Here are some examples of negative self-talk that can be turned into Peptalks.

Negative Message Peptalks

I can’t! I’ll try!

I’ll never get it! I’ll take one step at a time.

I won’t talk! I might make a mistake! It doesn’t matter if I’m wrong or right.
I’ll try!

Everyone rushes me. I set the pace. It’s not a race.

I always talk fast. I can’t help it! I can speak slowly and clearly.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 32 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 9, continued

Let students know that whenever they hear someone make a negative comment, they can hand
the Peptalks mirror to that person and encourage her to give herself a Peptalk.

(Note: It’s important for students to be honest with themselves and to feel comfort-
able acknowledging and expressing their real worries. Guide students to see the
difference between real concerns that need to be explored and unproductive com-
ments that are simply negative. Also, discuss the fact that an honest description
may not be negative. For example, if a student says he can’t hear well or that he
has trouble sitting still and paying attention, these might be honest descriptions
that the student must accept and learn to work with.)

☺ Inclusion Encourage students to be patient with themselves in their journey toward


Tip: positive self-talk. A negative-sounding message can often be a student giving
voice to a valid concern. Try to provide ways for students to explore their
worries, either within the group setting or in individual meetings. Let students
know that it’s okay to say, “I’m not ready to turn that into a Peptalk yet.”

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 33 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks Star Jar Label
Decorate and cut out this label. Then glue it to a clear glass or plastic jar. Let students put a
colored bead in the jar every time they use a Peptalk. As they fill the jar, students will see, hear,
and feel their growing success in speaking and listening.

✰✰✰✰✰
PEPTALKS
STAR JAR
✰✰✰✰✰

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 34 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 10: Peptalks Wall

Goal: to display Peptalks strategies where students can see them at all times

Materials: Peptalk cards

Activity: Start a Peptalks Wall. Let students make and decorate several Peptalk cards.
Before hanging them on the wall, sort them into categories like Listening, Speaking, Feel-
Good, Remembering, etc. Designate a different section of the wall for each type of Peptalk
and label it accordingly.

As students invent new Peptalks to help them with specific communication needs and situations,
encourage them to add their ideas to the Peptalks Wall.

☺ Inclusion For students who struggle with reading, include pictures beside the printed
Tip: Peptalks to illustrate the concepts. You may also want to help students read
the Peptalks Wall aloud several times, chant the Peptalks, and play word search
games until the words on the Peptalks Wall become familiar.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 35 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Creating a Sharing Community

I can ❦
I’ll try!
do this!
I won’t It’s okay
to make
give up. mistakes.

I’ll take No one can


my time. rush me.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 36 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Creating a Sharing Community

One person We don’t


speaks at hurry the
speaker.
a time.

We won’t We’re
give good
put-downs! listeners.

I’m doing We don’t


the best
I can. laugh at
mistakes.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 37 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Creating a Sharing Community

I have
something We take
special to
4 share.
turns.

We give
We help suggestions
each other. kindly.

We take We all try


suggestions our best.
well.

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 38 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Creating a Sharing Community

My listeners I’ll take one


want to step at a
hear me. time.

Things
take time. I get better
every day.

I can
give myself
I’m so
a Peptalk. PROUD!

Unit 1: Creating a Sharing Community


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 39 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and
Remembering
The activities in this unit are designed to help students learn the importance not only of lis-
tening, but also of showing the speaker that we’re interested, that we understand, and that
we care. You’ll find that the strategies students learn in this unit will also be helpful as you
present the units that focus on students’ speaking skills. For example, you may ask students
to declare a listening Peptalk to use during a speaking activity when it’s someone else’s turn
to talk.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. Repro-
ducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 56-60. Duplicate
and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where they can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around, and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 40 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Activity 1: Listening Warm-up

Goals: to perform a task that requires active listening and to make Peptalks for listening

Materials: Introducing . . . (p. 42)

Peptalks I show that I’m ready to listen.


I listen carefully.
When I don’t understand, I ask.
I don’t hurry the speaker.
I don’t interrupt.

Activity: Introduce the Peptalks for this lesson. Then give each student a copy of Introducing . . .
and tell students they’re going to practice talking and listening to each other. Then divide
students into pairs. Have students interview each other. They should find out:

✽ a sport or game their partner likes


✽ a food their partner hates
✽ a movie their partner has seen

Then ask, “How many things do you need to find out about your partner? What are they?”
(Allow students to respond.)

Remind students to ask the question again if they can’t hear what their partners say or haven’t
understood a response. Then tell students that when everyone has finished their interviews,
they’ll all report to the group.

(Note: You may want to have students ask some of the other interview questions.
Students may also want to make up their own interview questions. You can do this
as a group by brainstorming questions and writing them on the board. You might
also have students write their questions on a blank sheet of paper.)

Before each student presents his partner to the group, ask, “Are all of your listeners ready to
listen? How can you tell?” Then ask the listeners, “What Peptalks can we make to show that
we’re ready to listen?” Give each student a blank Peptalk card to make a strategy for listening.

After students have presented their partners to the group, ask them to assess how well the class
did listening to everyone’s presentations.

☺ Inclusion Some students may not be able to handle so many interview questions. Give
Tip: these students fewer items of information to find out about their partners,
perhaps even just one.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 41 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Introducing . . .
Ask your partner some questions. Listen very carefully to your partner’s answers and make
sure you understand them. Then write the answers on the lines. When it’s your turn, use this
sheet to introduce your partner to the group.

Write your partner’s name here. ________________________________________________

0 What game or sport do you like? _______________________________________

L What food do you hate? ______________________________________________


What movie have you seen recently? ____________________________________

Here are some more interview questions you could ask.

What pets do you have? _______________________________________________

 What pets do you wish you could have? ___________________________________

How many brothers or sisters do you have? ________________________________

What’s your favorite color? _____________________________________________

What’s your favorite song? _____________________________________________

Where would you like to visit? ___________________________________________

What holiday do you like the most? ______________________________________

Write a Peptalk here.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 42 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: My Whole Body Listens

Goal: to demonstrate behaviors that help students listen and show the speaker that they’re
interested

Materials: What Does Good Listening Look Like and Sound Like? (p. 44)

Peptalks My whole body listens.


I look at the speaker.
I stay still.
I lean forward slightly.
I nod my head.
I say, “mm-hmm.”

Activity: Ask, “When you’re speaking, how can you tell that your listeners really care about
what you’re saying? How can they help you feel relaxed and comfortable? How will you know
that they’re not hurrying you?” Help students brainstorm ideas and record them on the board.
Then introduce the Peptalks for the lesson and discuss how each idea can be turned into a
Peptalk.

Next, have students demonstrate poor listening behaviors as you give a short speech about an
event. Let them know that just this once, they can make distracting sounds, move around in
their chairs, look at the clock, doodle, or talk. Call a halt to this fun before it gets out of hand!

Then have each student make a listening Peptalk card and share it with the class. Ask students
to use these Peptalks as each student gives a brief, one-sentence speech. You can go around the
room, for example, letting each student describe a pet or toy he’s fond of. After each student’s
speech, let the speaker tell the group whether he felt “listened to.”

If you have additional class time, have students complete What Does Good Listening Look Like
and Sound Like? Otherwise assign this page as homework.

Before ending the session, let each student add his listening Peptalk card to the Peptalks Wall
and select a listening Peptalk to practice during the week.

☺ Inclusion For some more active students, staying still just doesn’t seem possible. Help
Tip: these students choose a silent toy that they can play with while they listen.
Stress the idea that the speaker needs to feel “listened to.”

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 43 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
What Does Good Listening
Look Like and Sound Like?
How can a speaker tell that you’re listening with interest and that you really care? Fill in this
chart with your ideas. Where will you put actions such as leaning forward slightly, nodding,
saying “mm-hmm,” repeating the main idea, making noise, interrupting, looking away, and
watching the clock?

You can tell I’m listening with interest I don’t seem to be listening when . . .
when . . .

Tell a partner about something you did over the weekend or a movie you like. How can you
tell your partner is listening and cares?
__________________________________________________________________________

Now let your partner tell you about something she did over the weekend or a movie she likes.
As a listener, how do you show that you’re listening and that you care?
__________________________________________________________________________

Write a Peptalk here.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 44 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: I Make Pictures in My Mind

Goal: to use mental imagery to help make meaning while listening

Materials: puppet
pictures of people, places, or objects
I Make Pictures in My Mind (p. 46)

Peptalk I make pictures in my mind.

Activity: Begin by asking students to name some of their Peptalks for listening. Then introduce
a new puppet and say, “This puppet is from another planet. He can’t see, but he does have a
special power. When people talk, their words turn into pictures in the puppet’s mind. For
example, if I say I have a slice of pizza that’s dripping with melted cheese and sizzling round
slices of pepperoni, the puppet can see that pizza perfectly in his mind. Can you see it too?”

Continue, “Making pictures in our minds is a power we all have. Let’s try picturing an ice-cream
cone. It has two scoops of ice cream. The top scoop is chocolate. The bottom scoop is strawberry.
Can you see it? Oops, the ice cream is starting to melt! The top scoop is falling off! Can you see
that in your mind?”

Introduce the Peptalk for this lesson and give each student the corresponding card. Then say,
“I’m going to describe a picture without showing it to you. As I talk, try to see it in your mind.
As I tell you more details, add to the picture in your mind.”

Next, select one of the pictures you brought and hold it so none of the students can see it.
Describe the picture in detail, pausing often to remind students to visualize. Some students may
want to close their eyes to concentrate on the image.

When you’ve finished your description, ask for volunteers to describe the pictures they’ve made in
their minds. Then show them the picture and ask them how close their “mind” pictures were to
the actual picture.

Continue by giving students the opportunity to select a picture and describe it to the rest of the
class. Ask listeners to make pictures in their minds and then describe them before showing them
the actual picture.

Before ending the session, give each student a copy of I Make Pictures in My Mind to prepare for
next time. In addition, remind students to try to use the Peptalk from this lesson often
throughout the day as they listen.

☺ Inclusion Visualization may be too abstract a concept for some learners. When these
Tip: students are the listeners, let them choose between two pictures after hearing
a description, the picture that was being described and a different one.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 45 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Make Pictures in My Mind
Choose a partner. One person will be the speaker and the other person will be the listener.

Speaker: Look at the topics below and secretly choose one. Then describe it to the
listener. Be sure to use lots of details. Tell the colors, the shapes and sizes, the
sounds, when it happens, where it is, how it makes you feel, etc.

Listener: Listen carefully to the speaker. Make a picture in your mind of what the speaker
is describing. When the speaker has finished talking, tell her exactly what you
see in your “mind” picture.

Both: Keep talking to each other until you’re sure that the listener’s mind picture is the
same as what the speaker is describing.

Things to Describe
a delicious meal

a hot day

a winter day

a thunderstorm

a pet

a beloved toy

your room at its messiest

a picture in a magazine or book

Put a check mark in the boxes of the ones you’ve tried with a partner. Prepare to tell about a
picture you made in your mind at our next Speaking and Listening Session.

Write a Peptalk here.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 46 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: I Listen for Feelings

Goal: to infer a speaker’s feelings by noticing body language, facial expression, tone of voice, and
words

Materials: I Listen for Feelings (p. 49)

Peptalks I listen kindly.


I nod my head.
I say, “mm-hmm.”
I listen for feelings.
I say, “Tell me more.”
My face reflects the speaker’s feeling.
My face shows that I care.
I don’t interrupt.

Activity: Say, “I’m going to tell you some things about my day. Listen carefully. For each thing
I say, can you tell how I feel?” This activity will have the most impact if you tell about actual
events of the day and show lots of emotion using tone of voice, facial expression, body language,
and special word choices.

For example, smile proudly and say, “Our Peptalks Star Jar is two-thirds full already!” Ask
students to guess how you feel.

Continue giving one-sentence descriptions for other events of the day. Ask students to tell how
you feel using the prompt, “You must feel . . . .” For example:

Disappointed: Jenn isn’t here today because she has the chickenpox.
Hopeful: If all goes well, she’ll be back next week.
Confused: I don’t understand what you want.
Excited: I got to take the class hamster home for the weekend!
Shocked: I woke up and the hamster wasn’t in his cage!
Worried: I couldn’t find the hamster anywhere.
Relieved: My sister found the hamster in one of her shoes.

Next, introduce the Peptalks for the lesson and hand out the corresponding cards. Talk about
how we can listen for feelings. Help students brainstorm times when they’ve listened for feelings.

Then give each student an opportunity to tell a one-sentence story involving an emotion that he’s
feeling right at this moment or a feeling that he’s felt strongly in the past. Let listeners respond
with “You must feel . . .” to demonstrate that they’ve listened for feelings.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 47 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4, continued

When students have finished telling their stories, give them each a copy of I Listen for Feelings to
complete in class or assign it as homework.

☺ Inclusion Students with a pervasive developmental disorder or autism spectrum disorders


Tip: may not be able to infer the emotions of others. Teach these students to observe
people’s facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice, and to listen for
certain emotion words. This way, even if they don’t have the intuitive ability to
detect emotions, they can develop this skill at a cognitive level and learn
appropriate ways of responding.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 48 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Listen for Feelings
Choose a partner. One person will be the speaker and the other person will be the listener.

Speaker: Choose one of the feelings in bold type below, and describe the event to the
listener. You may also want to choose a feeling and describe an event of your
own that fits that feeling.

Listener: Listen carefully to the speaker and show the speaker that you care. Here are
some Peptalks you can use to show that you care:

My face shows that I care.


My face reflects the speaker’s feeling.
I nod my head to show that I’m interested.
I don’t interrupt.
I say, “Tell me more.”

Happy: Tell about a day something special happened or when you opened a
birthday present.
Proud: Tell about the first time you rode a bike or dove into the deep end of a
swimming pool.
Disappointed: Tell about a time it rained so you couldn’t do something or a time you
didn’t get to do something you wanted to do.
Left Out: Pretend the other kids didn’t let you join in a game at recess or after
school. Tell about it.
Excited: Describe the day before your birthday or a special holiday.
Angry: Tell about a time someone did something that made you very mad, or
tell about an unfair rule at home or at school.
Worried: Describe a time you couldn’t find something or someone important
(money, mother, pet, etc.).
Thankful: Tell about a time a friend helped you.
Relieved: Pretend you found something you thought you had lost, or you found out
you didn’t have to do something you didn’t want to do.

Put a check mark in the boxes of the ones you’ve tried with a partner. What are some other
feelings you could tell about?

__________________________________________________________________________

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 49 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: I Ask! Comprehension Monitoring

Goal: to monitor comprehension and use specific questions to request clarification

Materials: clean socks


colored felt pieces
scissors
glue
When I Don’t Understand, I Can Say . . . (p. 52)

Peptalks I have the right to understand.


It’s up to me to ask.
I choose the right time and place to ask.
I let the speaker know exactly what I need.
I can say, “Please repeat that.”
I can say, “Please give me an example.”
If my mind wanders, I can bring it back.

Activity: Introduce the Peptalks for the lesson and give students the corresponding cards.
Then say, “Today we’re going to make sock puppets. Listen carefully to my instructions. If
you have trouble understanding me, use a Peptalk to help you get more information.” Next,
read the instructions for making sock puppets on page 51, inserting some of the following
behaviors to interfere with the message:

• Speak too quietly.


• Speak too quickly.
• Mumble.
• Make noise with your feet as you talk.
• Sneeze and cover your mouth with your hand while talking.
• Make some of the directions unclear by leaving out important words. For example, say,
“Take a thing and put it on the thing.”

As you’re reading the instructions, respond to students’ requests to slow down, to say it more
clearly, to show them, etc. For example, if a student says, “Please repeat that,” just repeat the
same incomplete message. When the student realizes she still doesn’t understand, suggest that
she ask you to explain it in a different way or to show her. Praise students when they ask
specific questions to get the information they need.

Continue the process until all students have understood how to make a sock puppet. Encourage
students to ask good questions and to help each other.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 50 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5, continued

Instructions for making sock puppets:

1. Put the sock on your left hand.


2. Put your fingers and thumb in the toe of the sock and the back of your wrist in the heel.
(Your fingers and your thumb will be the puppet’s mouth.)
3. Open and close the puppet’s mouth by tapping your thumb and fingers together.
4. Glue pieces of felt on your sock to make eyes, hair, a hat, eyelashes, eyebrows, or any features
you like.

When students have finished their sock puppets, help them brainstorm questions they can ask in
response to various problems in comprehension. Here are some examples:

Problem What to Say


speaker talks too quickly Say it more slowly, please.
speaker talks too quietly Say it a little louder, please.
speaker gives too many ideas at once Say those one at a time, please.
speaker uses an unfamiliar word What does that mean?
speaker’s ideas are too complicated Please give me an example or show me.
speaker says “it” and you don’t know what What do you mean?
“it” refers to
too much noise in the room Let’s go to a quiet spot.
You were daydreaming. Please repeat that.
You don’t know the topic. Please tell me what you’re talking about.
You want to check whether you got it. Have I got this right? Did you say ___?

Then have a group discussion about when and why listeners may not understand some very
important information at school, at home, and in the community. Have students suggest Peptalks
that would energize them to ask questions to help them understand.

Finally, let students make posters showing the questions they can ask when they need help
understanding information. They can decorate the When I Don’t Understand, I Can Say . . .
poster or make their own.

☺ Inclusion Knowing what questions to ask to improve comprehension can be a survival


Tip: skill for students with hearing, auditory processing, or comprehension problems.
Help each student learn to ask the questions that will get the speaker to
translate input into the student’s best learning mode. For example, a visual
learner would say, “Please show me.” Encourage students to share their
difficulties with all of their teachers and to agree on the best place and time
for the student to ask questions.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 51 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
When I Don’t Understand,
I Can Say . . .
Please repeat that.
Say it more slowly.
Say it a little louder, please.
What does that mean?
Say those one at a time, please.
Please give me an example.
I understood the part about ____ ,
but would you explain the rest?
Let’s see if I got this right. Did
you say ____?

You can put a check mark in the boxes next to the Peptalks that you’ve tried,
or you can make your own poster showing things to say when you don’t
understand what a speaker has said.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 52 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: I Can Remember

Goal: to learn memory strategies

Materials: I Can Remember (p. 54)

Peptalks I can remember this.


Say it! Sing it! Picture it! Trick!
I make pictures in my mind.
I replay the pictures in my mind.
I say it over and over again.
I link new ideas with old ideas.

Activity: Play a simple chanting game where students repeat sentences that get longer and
longer as they add items to the original list. To play the game, each person repeats the entire
sentence and then adds an item to the list. Here are some starters:

✽ If I could spend the day with anyone, I would pick . . .


✽ I furnished my dream house and in it I put . . .
✽ If I moved to a space station on Mars I’d take . . .
✽ If I could go anywhere in the world I’d go . . .
✽ My favorite place to visit is . . .
✽ I made a weird pizza and on it I put . . .
✽ I made a crazy sandwich and on it I put . . .
✽ I made the ultimate ice-cream sundae and on it I put . . .

When it’s your turn to repeat the chant, pick up the Peptalks mirror several times and give
yourself a Peptalk to help you remember all the items. For example, you might say, “Say it!
Sing it! Picture it! Trick!” A trick for remembering that David would like to go to Disneyland
is that David and Disneyland both begin with the /d / sound.

After everyone has had a turn, ask students which Peptalks they used to help them remember.
Have them make Peptalk cards for the strategies that helped them most.

Finally, let students make posters showing strategies they can use to help them remember
information. They can decorate the I Can Remember poster or make their own.

☺ Inclusion For students with learning disabilities, strategies must be learned in multiple
Tip: contexts to be effective. These students will only be able to use these strategies
in real life if all teachers and parents know them and gently point them out when
the student needs them. You can also ask the student frequently throughout the
day, “How will you remember this? What Peptalk will you use?”

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 53 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Can
Remember
%
Say it! Sing it! Picture it! Trick!

I can remember this.

I make pictures in my mind.

I replay the pictures in my mind.

I say it over and over again.

I link new ideas with old ideas.

I can remember by teaching a friend.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 54 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: A Talk About Listening

Goal: to give an oral summary of effective listening strategies

Peptalk I’m a good listener.

Activity: Ask each student to choose six Peptalks about listening, understanding, and
remembering that are most important to him. These can be Peptalks that were presented
during the lessons in this unit, or they can be Peptalks that the student created himself.

When students have selected their six important Peptalks, tell them you’d like each student to
write a short speech to present to the group. In their speeches, students should tell the group
which Peptalks they’ve chosen and why.

Before having students present to the group, let them rehearse their speeches with a partner.

☺ Inclusion Pair students who are unable to give a speech on their own with other students,
Tips: and have two students present their ideas together. Let the student with the
weaker speaking skills participate at a level that he can manage.

Have students who are working on specific articulation sounds highlight their
sound in the Peptalks they’ve chosen and say the Peptalks as a speech exercise.
For example, if a student is working on the /s / sound, she’d find that sound in
the Peptalk “I stay still” and practice it before giving her speech.

Here are some Peptalks that a student with language delays might present:

I look.
I stay still.
My feet stay still.
My hands stay still.
Shhh.
I listen.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 55 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Listening, Understanding, and Remembering

I’m a good I don’t


interrupt.
listener.

When I don’t I don’t


understand, hurry the
speaker.
? I ask. ?

I show that
I listen
carefully. I’m ready to
listen.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 56 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Listening, Understanding, and Remembering

My whole I nod
body my head.
listens.

I look at
the speaker.
I stay
still.

I say, I lean
“mm-hmm.” forward
slightly.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 57 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Listening, Understanding, and Remembering

% I listen
I make pictures
kindly.
in my mind.

My face
I listen for shows that
feelings. ☺ I care.

I say, My face

“ Tell me reflects the
mor e .”
speaker’s feeling.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 58 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Listening, Understanding, and Remembering

I have the It’s up


right to ? to me ?
understand. to ask.

I choose the I can say,


right time and “Please repeat
place to ask. that.”
? ?

I can say, I let the speaker


“Please give me know exactly
an example.”
what I need.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 59 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Listening, Understanding, and Remembering

If my mind I can
wanders, I can remember
bring it back. this.

Say it! Sing it!


I link new
Picture it! Trick!
ideas with
old ideas.
%

I say it I replay
over and
over again.
the pictures
in my mind.

Unit 2: Listening, Understanding, and Remembering


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 60 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 3: The Courage to Speak
The activities in this unit are designed to help students take their minds off of themselves and
their anxieties about speaking in front of others and focus on their listeners. This unit will also
teach students that one success can launch us, but we need to save that glorious moment and
come back to it for energy again and again. Students will:

✽ see themselves as unique individuals with gifts to share


✽ save their successes on a Feel Good Page that they can look at whenever they need a boost
✽ try out the behaviors, posture, and breathing associated with confident speaking

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. Repro-
ducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 82-85. Duplicate
and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where they can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet show an extreme and comical fear of
speaking, and let the students suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 61 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.


Activity 1: Marvelous Me!

Goal: to appreciate ourselves as unique beings with gifts to give and important things to say

Materials: Introducing the Awesome, the Terrific, the Marvelous ME! (p. 63)

Peptalks There’s only one ME in the whole world.


My ideas are important.
I have great ideas to share.

Activity: Give each student a copy of Introducing the Awesome, the Terrific, the Marvelous ME!
Before they begin writing, have students brainstorm their ideas for this worksheet out loud. If
students have trouble thinking of words to describe themselves, suggest any of the following:

• considerate • fabulous • optimistic


• fun to be with • amazing • creative
• energetic • awesome • lovable
• generous • incredible • brave
• thoughtful • terrific • sweet
• wonderful • cheerful • fair

After the brainstorming session, give students some time during the session to work in pairs on
their worksheets. After class, they may even ask their families and friends for suggestions.

Ask students to practice presenting the ideas on their worksheets as a speech throughout the
week. Tell them that if they’re ready at the next Speaking and Listening Session, they may
present their speeches to the class. Remind students that every speech can be different. Some
students may choose to give a speech about just one of the ideas, and others will want to present
some or all of their ideas.

At the next session, introduce the Peptalks for this lesson. Ask each student to tell which Peptalk
he’s going to use before giving his speech. Before beginning any of the speeches, you might also
ask listeners to suggest some Peptalks for kind listening, such as “I show my interest,” “I don’t
hurry the speaker,” and “I show that I care.” We open up as speakers when we trust our
listeners, and this is one way to set the tone for good listening behaviors.

☺ Inclusion The Marvelous ME! speech can be a moment of glory, even for the student with
Tip: very limited speaking skills. Pair up the student with a buddy, and give the
students ample time to practice the speech. Have the buddy introduce the
student to the group, starting each sentence and letting the student fill in single
word responses or point to pictures that represent the responses. You may also
need to adapt the sentence starters on the worksheet so that they have meaning
to the individual student.

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Introducing the Awesome,
the Terrific, the Marvelous ME!
Use the sentence starters below and your own ideas to prepare a speech about
yourself. Keep in mind that boasting is not only allowed, but it’s required. We all
deserve to feel good about ourselves!

Introducing the ______________, the ______________, the ______________ ME!

My name is ________________________________________________________.

I enjoy (games, sports, foods, books, hobbies, etc.) _________________________

__________________________________________________________________.

I was so proud when _________________________________________________.

I can ______________________________________________________________.

I have been helpful when _____________________________________________


_.

These are some reasons people like to be with me: _________________________

__________________________________________________________________.

The most important thing about me is: ___________________________________

__________________________________________________________________.

Write a speaking Peptalk here to Write a listening Peptalk here to use


use while giving your speech. while listening to others’ speeches.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 63 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: Overcoming Shyness

Goals: to recognize reasons people avoid speaking and to use Peptalks to overcome shyness and
fear of speaking

Materials: puppet
Peptalks Make Me Brave (p. 66)

Peptalks I’m safe here.


Everyone makes mistakes.
It doesn’t matter if I’m wrong or right. I’ll try.
If people tease me, I can ignore them.
If people tease me, I can ask them to stop.
The more I practice speaking, the more
comfortable I’ll feel.

Activity: Tell the puppet that it’s his turn to present a Marvelous ME! speech. Have the
puppet shake his head No and look at the floor. Ask students to suggest possible reasons why
the puppet is reluctant to speak. Encourage students to make up a Peptalk that the puppet
could say to himself to go with each reason the students give. Here are some examples:

Reason For Not Speaking Peptalk


I’m scared. I’m safe here.
I might make a mistake. Everyone makes mistakes.
It’s okay if I make a mistake.
It doesn’t matter if I’m wrong or right. I’ll try!
I can’t think of anything to say. I’ll look around. Ideas are all around me.
I can ask for help getting started.
People might laugh at me. I can ignore them.
I can ask them to stop.
I’m shy. I’m getting braver every day.
I’m nervous. I breathe slowly and deeply.
I calm my toes, my legs, all the way up to my head.
I might make a fool of myself. I picture myself doing well.
I stutter. I can’t talk right. I’m okay just the way I am.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 64 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2, continued

Then have each student make a Peptalk card about the courage to speak. Finally, ask students
to take out the Speaking and Listening Contracts they made in Unit 1 and go over their promises.
Remind students that everyone must feel that this is a safe and comfortable place in order to
have the courage to speak. Ask students how they can become more supportive and helpful to
their classmates.

☺ Inclusion People who stutter often report that they experience confidence speaking for the
Tip: first time when addressing a pet or a very young child. Talking to the puppet
may serve as a similar experience for students who lack confidence speaking.
They know that the puppet won’t hurry them, judge them, or laugh at them. As
students gain trust in their listeners and faith in their Peptalks, they’ll begin to
join in on speaking activities. For students who stutter, make sure they’re
enrolled in a program for fluency training. Ask these students if they’d like to
share their fluency goals with the group and turn their goals into Peptalks.

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Peptalks Make Me Brave
When you feel shy, try saying one of these Peptalks to yourself:

I’m safe here. It’s okay if I make a mistake.


I can do this. People want to hear my ideas.
I have great ideas to share. It doesn’t matter if I’m wrong or right. I’ll try!
I’m okay just the way I am. I’m getting braver every day.

Write three Peptalks to help someone be brave enough to speak in front of a group:

What can you say to yourself if you’re


worried that people might laugh at you
or tease you? Write your Peptalk here.
What Peptalk can listeners use to help the
speaker feel brave? Write your idea here.

Here are some ideas:


If they laugh, I’ll ignore them.
I’ll ask them to stop. Here are some ideas:
I won’t let anyone make me feel bad. I don’t hurry the speaker.
I’m a good person. I don’t laugh or tease.
I listen kindly.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 66 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Toes and Tummy, Loosen Up!

Goals: to identify the physical symptoms associated with stress and to use relaxation
techniques to gain a sense of calmness

Materials: Toes and Tummy, Loosen Up! (p. 68)

Peptalks I can feel my tense spots.


I talk gently to each body part.
My body listens to me.
My body knows how to relax.
I breathe deeply.
I relax all the muscles of my body, one by one.

Activity: Ask students to describe how they feel just before they have to speak or perform in
front of others. Some will give vivid descriptions of tummies going budump-budump, and others
will tell tales of hearts thumping at top speed. Tell students that there are things we can do to
help get those nervous feelings under control.

Give each student a copy of Toes and Tummy, Loosen Up! Have students mark an X on the
figure to show which places on their bodies tense up when they’re nervous. They could also draw
pictures of what happens to their bodies when they’re nervous, such as having sweaty palms or
butterflies in the stomach. Encourage students to really think about the sensations they feel
when they’re nervous, not on what’s commonly thought of in terms of being nervous.

After students have identified their tense areas and the sensations they feel, have them suggest
calming Peptalks they could give to each body part. Here are some examples:

Tense Area/Sensation Calming Peptalk


shallow, quick breathing Breathe in. Breathe out. Deeply. Slowly.
sweaty hands Shake it out! Nice and loose! Cooool!
butterflies in stomach Everything’s okay!
feelings of tightness Be loose! Open!

Finally, have students suggest ways that listeners can help create a spirit of serenity and
calmness for the speaker.

☺ Inclusion To address students’ different learning styles, you can easily make this activity
Tip: concrete, visual, and kinesthetic. Call out a body part, and have students shake
out and visibly relax that body part.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


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Toes and Tummy, Loosen Up!
What happens to your body when you’re nervous? Draw what happens to each
body part.

You can tell your body in a gentle, calming voice that everything’s okay. Your body
will listen to you and begin to relax. Write some calming Peptalks around the tense
body above. Here are some ideas:

Breathe in! Breathe out! I shake all the tightness out of my hands.

Everything’s okay. I can be a rag doll and get all loosened up.

I wiggle my toes. Toes relax, legs relax, all the way up to my head.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 68 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: Calming Images

Goal: to release tension by visualizing a calming image

Materials: My Calm Place (p. 70)

Peptalk I can go to my calm place.

Activity: Ask students to close their eyes and listen as you describe a calming place. It can be a
beach, a cozy bed, or a spot in the woods. Describe the sights, the sounds, and the textures in
great detail. Ask students to try to picture your calming place in their minds as you describe it.
Tell students that you think about this place when you feel nervous or tense and it helps you feel
relaxed and calm.

Then ask students to suggest places that make them feel relaxed and calm. Have students work
in pairs and each take a turn describing a calming place in detail. Then give each student a copy
of My Calm Place. Have students draw pictures of their calm places.

Introduce the Peptalks for the lesson and give students copies of the corresponding cards.
Discuss the idea of picturing our calm places as a way of relaxing our muscles when we’re
nervous. Ask students to close their eyes and try it while silently repeating the Peptalks.

Display students’ pictures on the wall or on a bulletin board for a few days. Then tell students
to keep their calm place pictures in their portfolios. Remind them that they may look at their
pictures before speaking to help them relax their muscles and feel calmer.

☺ Inclusion For students who have difficulty with drawing, let them bring in photographs
Tip: or magazine pictures instead of drawing their calm places.

Visual imagery, or the ability to visualize ourselves in a calm, serene place, is


helpful for all of us. For some students, the concept of visual imagery is difficult
to grasp. Having a picture to look at makes the exercise more concrete and clear
for these students.

Students who show weak impulse control need this skill the most, yet many of
them are unable to stop themselves in the midst of an angry outburst or an
anxious moment. When students have pictures of their calm places handy in
their portfolios, a peer or an adult can suggest, “Stop for a moment. Let’s take
a look at your calm place.” This concrete, visual act is a good first step toward
the more abstract skill of visualizing.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 69 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
My Calm Place
Draw a picture of a place that makes you feel calm and relaxed.

You can picture your calm place in your


mind anytime you need to relax. Write a
Peptalk here that helps you relax and feel
calm.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 70 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: Giving a Speech

Goal: to use techniques to boost courage and relaxation during brief speeches

Materials: Choosing a Topic (p. 72) puppet


Speech Planner (p. 73) crayons or markers
Organizing Your Speech (p. 74) paper

Peptalks Breathe in. Breathe out.


I have good ideas to share.
Beginning, Middle, End

Activity: Tell students that the puppet wants to present a short speech to them, but he’s a little
nervous. Have each student suggest a Peptalk the puppet can say to himself before he speaks.

Have the puppet give himself the Peptalks for this lesson. Then remind him (and the students)
that every speech needs a beginning, a middle, and an end. The beginning tells the listeners
what your speech is about and invites them to listen. The middle gives information about your
topic. The end gives a short summary of your speech.

Encourage students to give the puppet supportive feedback as he gives a simple speech with a
beginning, a middle, and an end. For example:

✽ Beginning: Last summer my family went to the Dinosaur Museum.


✽ Middle: We saw the bones of prehistoric animals. We also saw the skeleton of a
giant fish that died while swallowing a smaller fish. You could see the
skeleton of the small fish inside the big fish.
✽ End: We had an exciting day at the Dinosaur Museum.

After the puppet’s speech, help students brainstorm topics for short speeches. Remind them that
topics are all around them, such as schoolwork, events of the day, things they did at home, etc.
Then give each student a copy of Choosing a Topic. Let students complete the worksheet in pairs
as they chat about their interests and experiences and choose topics that truly excite them.

After they’ve chosen their topics, give each student a copy of Speech Planner. Let students
continue to work in pairs as they each prepare a speech with a beginning, a middle, and an end.
You might also give students time to draw pictures to go with their speeches. They can use these
pictures to illustrate their speeches.

Post the Organizing Your Speech poster on the wall. Then, before presenting their speeches to
the group, ask each student to say a Peptalk for courage.

☺ Inclusion Help students in individual speech and language sessions memorize short
Tip: speeches at their own language levels. A speech may be as simple as, “My bike is
blue. I ride to the park. I like my bike.” Provide as much prompting as students
need during the presentation. For this and all speeches, you may choose not to
require students to write. They can point to the train cars to cue themselves.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 71 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Choosing a Topic
When you give a speech, it’s important to choose a topic that you find interesting.
Have a conversation with a partner. As you talk together, see what topic makes
your eyes light up and your heart jump with excitement. Here are some ideas to
get you started:

 My pet _____________________ My hobbies _____________


A pet I would like 
______________________________
I collect ____________________
I’m good at _________________
An animal I find interesting
. I know all about __________
#
______________________________ I’m curious about H
______________________________ __________________________
______________________________ __________________________
______________________________ __________________________
__________________________
__________________________

R I’ve been to ________


______________________
I get excited when I
5 I’d like to go to ______ think about _____________
______________________ _______________________
A place I’m interested in Something interesting that
______________________ happened to me was
______________________ _______________________
______________________ ___________________
______________________

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Speech Planner
Every speech has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Select one of the topics you
brainstormed. Then use the chart to plan your speech. You may draw pictures,
write key words, or write sentences to plan your speech.

Write the topic of your speech here. ___________________________________

Use this chart to write the beginning, the middle, and the end of your speech.

Beginning (State your topic and invite listeners.)

Middle (Give information about your topic.)

End (Give a short summary.)

Write a Peptalk here that will help Write a listening Peptalk here to help
you feel good during your speech. you to listen to others’ speeches.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 73 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Organizing Your Speech
74

middle end
beginning

A speech = a beginning + a middle + an end

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: Boosting Each Other’s Conf idence

Goal: to give feedback and suggestions to peers in a supportive manner

Materials: The Suggestion Sandwich (p. 77)

Peptalks I give suggestions kindly.


I take suggestions well.
I sandwich a suggestion
between two slices of praise.

Activity: Present the Peptalks for this lesson and give students copies of the corresponding
cards. Then discuss ways that we can give people suggestions for improving their speaking skills
while, at the same time, building up their confidence.

After students have had an opportunity to respond, explain the concept of a Suggestion Sand-
wich. When you give someone a Suggestion Sandwich, first you give the person one positive
comment, then you give him a suggestion for improvement, then you give him another positive
comment. Here’s an example: “That was an exciting story. You could pause more often as you
tell it so we can follow it. I’m really interested in this.” Show students The Suggestion Sandwich
either as an overhead or as a poster to reinforce the concept.

Then let students work in pairs. Have students give short speeches to their partners. The
following are some suggested topics:

✽ My idea of the perfect school


✽ My idea of the perfect birthday party
✽ What life would be like without TV
✽ What age I’d like to be and why
✽ A time when I was helpful
✽ A time when I shared something
✽ A time when I helped someone feel better
✽ A time I had a problem with a friend, and how I solved it
✽ A time when I was scared but acted brave
✽ A time when I was kind to an animal

Ask students to give their partners constructive feedback on their speeches in the form of a
Suggestion Sandwich. Say, “I’d like you to sandwich your suggestion between two slices of
praise. That means that you’ll say one good thing about the way your partner gave his speech,
then you’ll give him a suggestion for improvement, and then you’ll say another good thing your
partner did.” Walk around and monitor the pairs to make sure the partners are giving their
suggestions between two slices of praise.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 75 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6, continued

After everyone has had a chance to present a speech and give constructive feedback, bring
the group back together. Ask students how it feels to receive constructive suggestions for
improving their speaking skills. Discuss how the Peptalks “I give suggestions kindly” and
“I take suggestions well” can have an impact on this. You might also want to ask students
how these Peptalks can help them in daily life at home, at school, and in the community.

☺ Inclusion It may be best for students who have difficulty judging what’s possible for each
Tip: of their peers to work with the instructor when giving a Suggestion Sandwich.
These students can give the positive comments and the instructor can give the
suggestion.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 76 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
The
Suggestion
Sandwich

I sandwich a
suggestion between
two slices of praise.
Praise _____________________________________

Suggestion ________________________________

Praise _____________________________________

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 77 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: Keeping our Successes in Mind

Goals: to focus on successes and to view acts of kindness as success experiences to be proud of

Materials: Feel Good Page (p. 79)

Peptalks I’ve done lots of things well.


I’m TERRIFIC!

Activity: Present the Peptalks for this lesson and give students the corresponding cards. Then
give students the Feel Good Page. Read the directions together, and help students understand
how feeling good about themselves can make them better, more confident speakers. Tell students
that they all have reasons they can feel good about themselves.

Then have students write sentences or words, or draw pictures to tell about their personal proud
moments, compliments they’ve received, and things they’re thankful for. When they’ve finished,
instruct students to put this page in their portfolios. Encourage them to look at it anytime they
need to feel good about themselves.

Then say, “During the week, ask your friends and family members to remind you of your proud
moments. These can be times when you were helpful or kind or times you did something well.
Remember to add these things to your Feel Good Page.”

Before ending the session, go around the room and ask each student to give a sincere compliment
to another student.

☺ Inclusion Help students who have trouble with reading, writing, and/or drawing complete
Tip: the Feel Good Page. Or, better yet, encourage students to work together to help
students who are having difficulty.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 78 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Feel Good Page
If you feel good about yourself, you’re more likely to be a powerful and confident
speaker. Use this page to help you collect reasons to feel good about yourself.

Proud Moments
Write about times you’ve done something well or times you helped someone.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Compliments
Write some nice things people have said about you. You might also work with a
partner and give each other a few sincere compliments.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Things I’m Thankful For


__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Write a Peptalk here.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 79 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 8: A Talk About Courage

Goal: to summarize the Peptalks for confident speaking

Materials: I Have the Courage to Speak (p. 81)


crayons or markers

Activity: Give students time to review all the Peptalks for having the courage to speak. These
can be Peptalks that were presented in the lessons or personal Peptalks that students came up
with on their own. Ask each student to choose the six Peptalks that are most important to her in
terms of having the courage to speak.

Then give each student a copy of I Have the Courage to Speak. Tell students to write their six
most important Peptalks for having the courage to speak on this poster. Then let them use
crayons or markers to decorate their posters.

Give students an opportunity to present their posters to the class. Encourage students to
rehearse the Peptalks on their posters silently before presenting them aloud. Then hang the
posters on the wall or let students take them with them to use at home or in other classes.

☺ Inclusion Saying Peptalks is a great exercise for students who are practicing easy onsets
Tip: in fluency or voice programs. Easy onset is beginning a vowel sound very gently,
without forcing. Peptalks are a good way to practice this because they almost
always begin with a vowel sound.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 80 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I have
the courage
to speak.

______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________

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Peptalks for the Courage to Speak

There’s only My ideas


one ME in the f are
whole world. important.

fI have I’m
great ideas safe
to share. here.

Everyone It doesn’t matter if


makes I’m wrong or right.
mi stakes .
I’ll try.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 82 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for the Courage to Speak

If people If people
tease me, I tease me, I can
ask them
can ignore to stop.
them.

The more I practice I can feel


speaking, the more my tense
comfortable I’ll feel. spots.

I talk gently My body


to each listens
to me.
body part.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 83 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for the Courage to Speak

My body I breathe
knows how deeply.
to relax.

I relax all the I can go to


muscles of my my calm
body, one by one. place.

Breathe in. I have


Breathe out. good ideas
to share.

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 84 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for the Courage to Speak

Beginning, Middle, End I give


suggestions
kindly.

I take I sandwich a
suggestion between
suggestions
two slices of praise.
well.

I’ve done I’m


lots of
things well. TERRIFIC!

Unit 3: The Courage to Speak


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 85 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking
The activities in this unit are designed to help students learn the importance of speaking slowly
and clearly, of pausing, of saying every syllable, of monitoring their listeners, and of staying with
a message until they’re sure that the listener has understood. Little by little and Peptalk by
Peptalk, your classroom community will grow until speakers learn to monitor whether their
listeners have understood a message. If they haven’t, speakers will learn to adjust the pace of
their speech, the length of the pauses they take between words and sentences, and their precision
at pronouncing each syllable of a word. They will stick with a message, repeating and repairing
it until it gets through to the listeners.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. Repro-
ducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 106-110. Duplicate
and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where students can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 86 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 1: I Invite My Listeners

Goal: to prepare to speak by choosing the right time and place, addressing the listener by name,
making sure the listener is ready, and having a good posture for speaking

Materials: The Search Is On! (p. 88)

Peptalks I choose the right time and place.


I say the person’s name.
I make sure my listeners are ready.
I hold my head up high.
I look right at my listeners.
My hands are away from my face.

Activity: Give each student a copy of The Search Is On! Read the directions together, and then
assign one item to each student. Say, “I’d like you to walk around the room and try to find a
person who fits your description. You’ll have one minute to complete this task.” Signal the
beginning and the end of the minute.

At the end of the minute, ask students, “How could you tell that someone wanted to talk with
you? Did you have any problems talking to your classmates during this activity?” Discuss
things like background noise, interruptions, or speakers beginning to talk before listeners were
ready. Then help students brainstorm the best ways to invite listeners to hear us. Introduce
the Peptalks for the lesson, and give students copies of the corresponding cards.

Have students make their own Peptalk cards for inviting listeners to listen. Let each student
announce a Peptalk for inviting listeners to hear us, and then give students some additional time
to ask each other questions to complete the rest of the items on the worksheet. If students can’t
find someone to fit each description, allow them to take the worksheet home with them or to
other classes to complete.

☺ Inclusion Even a student with severe delays can benefit from learning to maintain eye
Tip: contact, have good posture, and keep his hands away from his face when talking.
For students with severe speech disorders, these skills, along with monitoring the
listener and making sure that the message has gotten through, can make the
difference between intelligible and unintelligible speech.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 87 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
The Search Is On!
Listen carefully as your teacher asks you to find a person that fits one of the
descriptions below. Then walk around your room and ask your classmates questions
to find out who fits the description. Write the person’s name on the line next to the
item. If you can’t find someone, leave the item blank.

1. This person has more than one pet.  ______________________________

2. This person has never been in an airplane.O ___________________________

3. This person knows how to operate a wheelchair. _______________________

4. This person has been to another country. 7 ____________________________

5. This person has been on TV. A ______________________________________


6. This person plays a musical instrument.Î ______________________________

7. This person is left-handed. + ________________________________________

8. This person is wearing socks with pictures on them. 9 ____________________


9. This person knows how to whistle. __________________________________

10. This person has three generations living together.  ______________________

Write three Peptalks for starting to talk to someone here. (Look at the bottom of the
page for some good ideas and some not-so-good ideas.)

I look at the floor. I say the person’s name.


I look at my listener. My hands are in my mouth.
I make sure my listener is ready. I choose the right time and place.
My hands are away from my face. I interrupt.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 88 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: I Speak Slowly and Clearly

Goal: to speak with appropriate pace and precision

Materials: puppet
I Speak Slowly and Clearly (p. 90)

Peptalks I hold my head up high.


I look right at my listeners.
I speak slowly.
I speak clearly.
My hands are away from my face.
I say every sound.
I say the endings.

Activity: Introduce a new puppet to the group. Tell students that this puppet lives far away
where there are no telephones, schools, or cars. He may have come here by time machine or by
spaceship. He just arrived here, and he has just learned to speak our language.

Ask, “What do you think this puppet will need to know in order to get used to life in this city and
at this school?” Write student responses on the board.

Based on this discussion, let students work in pairs to practice giving each other important
information clearly. Give each student a copy of I Speak Slowly and Clearly. Have one student
pretend to be the puppet. Before they begin, have both the listener and the speaker in each pair
say a Peptalk they’ll use during this activity. Encourage students to switch roles often so they
learn to understand how their behavior as speakers affects their listeners and how their behavior
as listeners affects their speakers. This ability to “take the role of the other” is essential to good
communication, which makes this a good exercise to practice any time students work in pairs.

Help students understand the importance of speaking slowly and clearly, especially when the
information is important. Have students brainstorm Peptalks for speaking slowly and clearly.
You may even want to let students make posters showing the most important Peptalks for
speaking slowly and clearly.

☺ Inclusion The ability to monitor speaking rate can make a tremendous difference for
Tip: students who have severe speech disorders and for those who stutter. Students
who stutter benefit from an atmosphere in which all speakers are speaking a
little more slowly than usual. Set the tone for relaxed, unhurried speech in your
classroom, and students will follow your lead.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 89 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Speak Slowly and Clearly
Work with a partner. Pretend that one of you just arrived here by spaceship or by
time machine. This person speaks English. Your job is to give this person some
important information.

Choose one of the topics below or make up one of your own. Then give your
partner some important information very clearly. Speak slowly and check to make
sure your partner understands you.

directions to somewhere in the school and what the person will find there
directions to somewhere in your town or state and what the person will find there
instructions for using a telephone
instructions for ordering the tastiest pizza
instructions for caring for a pet
explanation of what a skateboard, video game, or computer is, and how to use it
explanation of a sport and how to play it
explanation of some of the important routines in your school
_______________________________________________________________

What Peptalks will you use to make sure your listener understands all of the
information?

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 90 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Good Posture for Speaking

Goal: to identify and practice the physical behaviors of effective speaking

Materials: What Does Good Speaking Look Like? (p. 93)

Peptalks I look right at my listeners.


I show interest.
I face directly toward my listeners.
I hold my head up high.
I sit or stand upright and relaxed.
My feet stay still.
I move my lips well.
My face shows life and interest.
My hands are away from my face.
I can gesture to make my point.
My face is always in full view.

Activity: Help students brainstorm the physical characteristics of an effective speaker.


Talk about:

Eyes I look at each of my listeners. I show interest.


Head I face directly forward. I hold my head high.
Shoulders My shoulders are back. I face squarely toward my listeners.
Posture I sit or stand upright and relaxed.
Feet My feet stay still.
Lips I move my lips well.
Face My face shows life and interest.
Hands My hands are away from my face. I can gesture for emphasis. My face
is always in full view.

Explain and demonstrate in particular that a speaker’s hands should never hide the area of her
face from her eyebrows to the bottom of her chin.

Then give each student a copy of What Does Good Speaking Look Like? Write some topics on the
board like the ones on the next page, and ask each student to choose one. You might also ask
students to suggest topics.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 91 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3, continued

✽ a time you hurt yourself


✽ a funny moment or something funny that happened with your pet
✽ a character from a book that you’d like to be
✽ something or someone new at your home
✽ how you would make the world a better place
✽ who your hero is and why

Then have students work in pairs to present their information to each other. Ask them to
note the behaviors associated with their partners’ effective speaking as they complete their
worksheets. As students work together, remind them of the Peptalks “We give suggestions
kindly” and “We take suggestions well.”

Students may also take this worksheet home and spend a week observing speakers and
consulting their families for ideas. Discuss their findings at the next Speaking and Listening
Session.

☺ Inclusion For some students, having the courage to make eye contact with their
Tip: listeners requires a level of bravery that they don’t yet have. To help these
students, continue to work on creating an atmosphere of trust in the room.
As this improves, the courage to make eye contact with their listeners will
grow naturally in these students.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 92 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
What Does Good
Speaking Look Like?
Work with a partner and present some information to each other, or watch some
good speakers throughout the week. What do you see these people doing? Write
what each body part is doing.

Good speaking looks like this:

Eyes ______________________________________________________________

Head _____________________________________________________________

Shoulders _________________________________________________________

Posture ___________________________________________________________

Feet ______________________________________________________________

Lips ______________________________________________________________

Face ______________________________________________________________

Hands ____________________________________________________________

Write four Peptalks for good speaking here. Put a star by the Peptalk you’ll try this
week.

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 93 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: I Say Every Syllable

Goals: to increase speaking precision by saying every syllable and to break difficult words into
syllables to improve pronunciation

Materials: I Say Every Syllable (p. 95)


My Syllable Collector (p. 96)

Peptalks I say every syllable.


I break hard words into small parts.
I practice hard words slowly.
My listeners want to understand me.

Activity: Review syllables with your students. Say, “Syllables are the beats in a word. Touch
your chin gently as you say a word and count the number of times your chin moves. That’s the
number of syllables in that word.” Demonstrate this technique or clap the syllables of several
words as examples. Then ask students to count the syllables in some words you say. You may
select words from the curriculum or use other words you think of.

Discuss the importance of speakers saying every syllable in a word so that listeners can under-
stand them. In addition, speaking clearly by saying every syllable makes us considerate speakers
and makes a good impression on our listeners.

Then give each student a copy of I Say Every Syllable. Read the directions together to make
sure all students understand. Then have students work in pairs to complete the worksheet.
When they’ve finished, have the pairs join with another pair so you now have groups of four
students. Ask the students in each group to select three of their partner’s answers and present
the information to the rest of their group. Remind them to be careful to say every syllable.

Finally, give each student a copy of My Syllable Collector. Encourage students to keep this
worksheet with them throughout the week so they can make a list of words that they have
trouble pronouncing. They may collect words from their science, health, and social studies
curriculum, or words they encounter during the day at home or at school. Let parents and
other teachers know that your students are working on syllables.

☺ Inclusion For students with severe delays, select one- and two-syllable words for this
Tip: lesson that are within each student’s ability level. Choose high-interest words
that are important to the student’s daily classroom life. In addition, all students
should have a way to say their names, their addresses, and the name of their
school so that listeners can understand. For some students, having a card with
this information printed on it can serve as a good backup. For others, it may
just be a matter of practicing these words, paying special attention to saying
every syllable clearly.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 94 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Say Every Syllable
Ask your partner the questions below and write her responses on the lines. Then
count the number of syllables in each underlined word. Write your answer in the box
next to the word. You can also find the number of syllables in your partner’s response
to each question. Write your answer in the box next to your partner’s response. As
you ask and answer these questions, be sure to say every syllable in every word.
Then present a short speech telling about your partner’s favorite things.

1. What’s your favorite color ? _______________________________

2. What’s your favorite animal ? _______________________________

3. What’s your favorite library book? _________________________


__

4. What’s your favorite month ? ______________________________

5. What’s your favorite television show? ________________________

6. Who’s your favorite cartoon character ? ______________________

7. What’s your favorite topping for pizza ? ______________________

8. What’s your favorite holiday ? ______________________________

Now answer these questions yourself. How many syllables are there in each of the
following?

1. your name ________________________________ Say your name clearly.

2. the name of your school _______________ Say the school’s name clearly.

3. the name of your city ___________________ Say the city’s name clearly.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 95 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
My Syllable Collector
Use this chart to keep track of any words that you have trouble pronouncing.
These can be words that you hear or words that you see in books. Remember
to say the words slowly, clapping once for each syllable. An example is done
for you.

Word Number of Word Broken Into Syllables


Syllables
February 4 Feb + ru + ar + y

To pronounce hard words:

I ask for help.


I break the word into syllables. I say every
I look for prefixes, suffixes, and root words. syllable.
I think of a trick.
I practice saying the word slowly.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 96 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: I Pause

Goal: to monitor our speaking rate and learn to pause to help others understand us

Materials: puppet
I Speak Slowly (p. 98)
I Pause (p. 99)

Peptalks I speak slowly.


I pause.

Activity: Use the puppet to present a poem or short story very rapidly with no pauses. You may
use a poem or story you’ve known by heart for years or read one from a book.

When the puppet has finished speaking, ask students if they noticed anything about the way the
puppet talked. Ask them to give the puppet some kind, constructive suggestions for speaking.
Use this discussion to help the students brainstorm Peptalks for speaking slowly and for pausing.
For example:

I pause to gather my thoughts.


I pause to give listeners time to think.
I pause so my listeners can make pictures in their minds.

Then give each student a copy of I Speak Slowly and a copy of I Pause. Tell students the puppet
is going to say the poem or story again, but this time, they can help him be a better speaker. Ask
them to hold up one of the signs any time they want the puppet to slow down his speech or to
pause. Present the poem or story again, letting students control your speaking rate and the
number of pauses.

Next divide students into pairs. One person will be the speaker and one person will be the
listener. Ask each person to announce a speaking or listening Peptalk, depending on which
role she will play. Then tell the speaker to present a poem, a short story, or even sing “Happy
Birthday” to her partner. Tell the listener to hold up one of the signs any time the speaker starts
to talk too quickly or forgets to pause. At the end of the exercise, ask students to evaluate how
well they lived up to their Peptalks.

☺ Inclusion For students with speech disorders, pausing can make all the difference in
Tip: the world in their ability to speak clearly. Furthermore, when speakers pause,
listeners have time to fill in the gaps in their understanding. For students with
processing problems, knowing how to ask speakers to slow their speaking rate
and to pause can be a lifesaver.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 97 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Speak Slowly
Use this sign whenever you want to ask a speaker to talk more slowly so you can
better understand.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 98 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Pause
Use this sign whenever you want to ask a speaker to pause so you can better
understand.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 99 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: A Demonstration Speech

Goal: to use good speaking skills and body language during a demonstration speech

Materials: Demonstration Speech Planner (p. 101)

Peptalks My listeners can always see my face.


I make sure my listeners can see me.
I make sure my listeners can hear me.
I check that my listeners understand.

Activity: Present the Peptalks for this lesson and give each student the corresponding cards.
Say, “Today we’re going to plan and give demonstration speeches. When you give a demon-
stration speech, you explain how to do something. You also show your listeners what to do by
doing it. You’ll need to use gestures and hold up objects without blocking your face so your
listeners can always see you.”

Explain that a demonstration speech, like all speeches, has a beginning, a middle, and an end.

✽ In the beginning, a speaker tells his listeners what he is going to show them.
✽ In the middle, he shows his audience what to do while explaining the steps.
✽ At the end, the speaker says, “Now you know how to ____” and asks his listeners if they
have any questions.

When students are ready to plan their demonstration speeches, give each student a copy of
Demonstration Speech Planner. Read through the topic ideas together, and help students who
are having difficulty select a topic. Then give students time to prepare their speeches using the
organizer.

These are excellent speeches for students to present to a younger class, to a group of grandparent
volunteers, or to a group of people who are just beginning to learn English. If possible, invite an
audience to your class to observe your students’ speeches.

Before students present their speeches, have each student announce a Peptalk he’ll use during
his speech. You may also ask a few listeners to announce Peptalks they’ll use to help them listen
to the demonstration speeches.

☺ Inclusion Not all students will be ready for the same amount of talking. Pair up students
Tip: who are not yet ready to give a demonstration speech entirely on their own with
other students who feel more comfortable speaking. Perhaps one student can do
the demonstration and the other one can give the speech. In addition, help
students choose topics that they feel comfortable with. Students with disabilities
often have expertise in specialized areas. This gives them an opportunity to
display their skills.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 100 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Demonstration Speech Planner
Select one of the topic ideas below or choose one of your own. Then use the chart
to plan your demonstration speech.

how to make an origami paper shape


how to make a paper airplane
how to apply face painting or clown makeup
how to operate a mechanical toy
how to do a line dance
how to draw a cartoon character
how to use a communication device
how to operate a wheelchair Write a Peptalk here that you can
how to put batteries in something use while you speak and show.
how to use a stopwatch
other ___________________________________________________________

Beginning: I will show you how to

Middle: (Show how to do something and explain the steps.): First

End: Now you know how to

Are there any questions?

Write a listening Peptalk here to help you


listen to the demonstration speeches.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 101 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: Presenting a Poem or Story

Goal: to demonstrate that speaking clearly is a gift we give to our listeners

Materials: Word Gifts (p. 103)

Peptalks My words can be a gift.


Speaking clearly is an act of kindness.
I’m kind enough to speak clearly.

Activity: Ask students if they think that words can ever be a gift. Encourage them to state
reasons for their responses. If necessary, lead the discussion in a way that helps students
understand that words can be gifts. For example, ask students to suggest times when a kind
or encouraging phrase helped someone feel better or when giving someone information helped
that person out. Suggest that we can give someone an encouraging statement, an inspiring
quotation, a poem, a story, a joke, or a wish as a gift.

Tell students that today they’re going to practice giving word gifts. Write the following word gift
ideas on the board as well as others students think of:

✽ a poem: from a book, memorized, or made up


✽ a wish for the person
✽ a joke
✽ a story
✽ a compliment
✽ a positive, true statement
✽ good news

Then give each student a copy of Word Gifts. Have students work in pairs to decide which kind
of word gift they’ll give and to whom they’ll give their gifts. They can write their word gifts or
draw pictures to represent them. Then have students practice presenting their word gifts to their
partners.

Before letting students present their word gifts to the intended receivers, help students brain-
storm Peptalks that will remind them to speak slowly and clearly and to check that the receiver
of the gift has understood all of the words.

☺ Inclusion Every student can give a word gift. For some students, it may only be one word
Tip: or even a vocalization along with a picture.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 102 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
4 Word Gifts 4
Use this sheet to help you give someone a talking gift, or a gift made out of words.

First decide who you’ll give your word gift to.


• a friend • a grandparent • my teacher • Planet Earth
• a parent • a family member • all the children • other _________
in the world

I give my word gift to ___________________________.

Next decide what kind of word gift you’ll give.


• poem • joke • encouraging • inspiring
statement quotation
• story • wish • compliment • other _________

My word gift will be _____________________________.

Then decide when you’ll present your word gift to the person. ________________
(date)
Write or draw your word gift here. If you need more room, you may use the back of
this page or another sheet of paper.

Speaking clearly is I’m kind enough


an act of kindness. to speak clearly.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 103 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 8: A Talk About Talking

Goal: to summarize and demonstrate the most important characteristics of good speaking

Materials: I Speak Well (p. 105)

Activity: Give students time to review all their Peptalks for good speaking. These can be
Peptalks that were presented in the lessons or personal Peptalks that students came up with
on their own. Then have students work in pairs to present these Peptalks as a speech entitled
“A Talk About Talking.” Remind students to plan a beginning, a middle, and an end to their
speeches.

Here’s a sample beginning for this speech. You may want to write this on the board or on an
overhead for students to use:

“You can be a good speaker if you give yourself Peptalks. Peptalks are little
messages you say to yourself. Here are some Peptalks that help me get into
position for good speaking.”

After students have presented their speeches to their partners, give each student a copy of I
Speak Well. Tell students to write their six most important Peptalks for clear speaking on this
poster. When students have finished, you may either hang their posters on the wall or let
students take them to use at home or in other classes.

☺ Inclusion Students are often able to think of creative ways to include their classmate with
Tip: special needs in an activity. Ask all students in your class to suggest ways the
student with severe communication needs can participate. Let students know
they can help this classmate by giving her specific suggestions, such as “Please
look at me,” if eye contact is a goal for this classmate.

It’s also important to set the tone in your classroom so that all speakers and
listeners feel comfortable giving and receiving honest feedback. Encourage
students to say to their classmate with the communication disorder, “I didn’t
understand that. Can you say it again slowly for me? Can you say it in a
different way? Can you show me?”

If the student with special communication needs is using an augmentative


communication system, a symbol board, or sign language, help the entire class
learn the system. You might also ask students to suggest what information this
student should have printed on a card, such as the student’s name, address, class
schedule, and the dates of exciting future events.

As you nurture students’ abilities to help and work together constructively with
their classmates who have communication difficulties, you’re showing them the
true meaning of respect and inclusion.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 104 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I speak well.

______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 105 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Good Speaking

I choose I say the


the right time person’s
and place. name.

I make sure I hold


my listeners my head
are ready. up high.

I look right My hands


at my are away from
l i steners.
my face. ☺

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 106 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Good Speaking

I speak I speak
slowly. clearly.

I say every I say


the
sound. endings.

I show I face
directly
interest. toward my
listeners.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 107 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Good Speaking

I sit or stand My feet


upright and stay still.
relaxed.

I move my My face ☺
lips well. shows life and
interest.

I can gesture My face is


☺ always in
to make
my point.
full view.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 108 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Good Speaking

I say every I break


hard words into
syllable. small parts.

I practice My listeners
hard words want to
slowly.
understand me.

My listeners
I can always
pause. see my face.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 109 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Good Speaking

I make sure I make sure


my listeners my listeners
can see me. can hear me.


I check that My words
can be a
my listeners
understand. 4 gift.

Speaking I’m kind


clearly is an act
of kindness.
enough to
speak clearly.

Unit 4: Basics of Good Speaking


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 110 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 5: Speaking with Power
The activities in this unit are designed to help students explore the many ways of adding power
to our speech. Students will learn that power comes not only from having a big voice, but there is
also power in an assertive posture, in a pause, in a look, and even in saying a phrase more softly.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. Repro-
ducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 123-125. Duplicate
and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where students can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around, and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 111 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 1: Three Cheers for Our Class!

Goal: to speak with energy and power

Materials: Hip! Hip! Hooray! (p. 113)


scissors
tape
pencils, rulers, or chopsticks

Peptalks My voice fills the room!


My energy shows!
I speak with POWER!

Activity: Have a brainstorming session with students to think of exciting statements that
describe your class or group. Encourage students to suggest specific, wonderful qualities of the
group. Write their ideas on the board. For example:

✽ We’re the greatest! ✽ Room 7 is awesome!


✽ We’re fabulous! ✽ We help each other!
✽ We rock! ✽ We’re kind to each other!
✽ We have a put-down free zone! ✽ Our class is the best!

Then give each student a copy of Hip! Hip! Hooray! Read the directions together to make sure
everyone understands what to do. When students have finished decorating their pennants, let
them cut them out. Then give each student a long pencil, a ruler, or a chopstick, and tell him to
attach his pennant to the item with tape.

Next have students make Peptalk cards for speaking with power. Then have them take turns
saying their cheers in an energetic voice while holding up their pennants. (See Activity 2 for
healthy ways to build vocal volume.) Pair up students who aren’t yet ready to say a cheer on
their own with another student. One student can say the cheer while the other student holds up
the pennant.

To share these exciting statements about your group with others, collect the pennants and hang
them on the wall outside the room.

☺ Inclusion It’s important for all of us to take care of our vocal folds. No one should yell or
Tip: strain his voice while speaking, but students who have been diagnosed with voice
problems need to be especially careful not to yell. Help students explore other
ways of cheering, including waving, clapping, and other body language. You can
also help students think of ways to communicate power without using a loud
voice, such as using posture, pausing, and body language. Help students under-
stand that a quiet voice can also have immense power. Peptalks for students
with voice disorders may include:

I show my energy without yelling.


They’re my only vocal folds. I take care of them.
I have quiet power.
Unit 5: Speaking with Power
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 Hip! Hip! Hooray! 
Write one exciting statement about your class on the pennant. You can use one of the statements your class
brainstormed, or you can think of one on your own. Then color and decorate your pennant. When you’ve finished,
practice saying your cheer in a big, clear voice.
113

My energy shows! My voice fills the room!

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: Healthy Ways to Build Volume

Goals: to increase vocal volume using diaphragmatic (tummy) breathing and resonance

Materials: My Voice Fills the Room (p. 116)

Peptalks My voice fills the room!


I throw my voice.
I do tummy breathing.
I speak so my listeners can hear me.
I make sure my listeners have heard me.

Activity: Help students brainstorm times when a speaker needs to put a little extra volume in
her voice, like when she’s speaking to a large group of people. Write their ideas on the board.

Then give each student a copy of My Voice Fills the Room. Read each Peptalk and its explanation
aloud to the students. After you discuss each one, let students try it out. (Note: Students with
vocal nodules or reddened vocal folds shouldn’t do these volume-increasing exercises.) Here are
some suggested activities to use with each Peptalk.

Peptalk Activity
My voice fills the room. Have each student choose a color and say, “My voice is ___
(purple). My voice FILLS the room!” Tell students that the
word FILLS should be powerful enough to fill the room.

I throw my voice. Have each student think of a ball that players throw during
a game. Then let the student pretend to throw the ball while
saying, “My voice is a ___ (baseball). I throw my voice.”

I do tummy breathing. Have each student say a Peptalk using diaphragmatic breath-
ing. Then have each student make a wish using diaphrag-
matic breathing.

I speak so my listeners Have a student stand close to the group and name a delicious
can hear me. food. Then have the student take three steps back and name
another food in a slightly louder voice. Continue until the stu-
dent is far away from his listeners and is speaking in a power-
ful voice.

I make sure my listeners Let each student tell about a game he likes. After each stu-
have heard me. dent speaks, ask another student to repeat what the speaker
said. Ask students to give hand signals to show each speaker
whether he’s speaking too softly (palm up to show “louder”),
too loudly (palm down), or just right (thumbs up).

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 114 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2, continued

After students have practiced each Peptalk, have them decide on topics for short speeches they
can present with great power. Give students time to prepare their speeches. Then, before giving
their speeches, have students announce Peptalks for speaking with power. Here are some topic
ideas for these speeches:

✽ Ten ways to improve spirit at this school

✽ Persuade listeners to get more exercise.

✽ Invent a new game and persuade listeners to buy it.

✽ Invent a new exercise machine and persuade listeners to buy it.

✽ Pollution

✽ If I were king or queen of the world . . .

✽ If it were up to me to run the planet . . .

✽ My parents treat me as if I were six years old. I just wish . . .

Remind students that they should never strain their vocal folds. They can increase their volume
by using increased breath support and resonance, not by working the vocal folds harder. In
addition, talk about the difference between speaking with power and speaking with anger. Loud-
ness should never be used as a tactic to try to win an argument.

☺ Inclusion For physiological reasons, some students aren’t able to speak in a louder voice.
Tip: Assure these students that they can still achieve immense power while speaking.
Talk together about ways to speak with power, even without loudness. You
might have students prepare and present powerful speeches on topics they care
strongly about, such as pollution, improving school spirit, or persuading someone
to buy something. Encourage them to use some of the following tactics for speak-
ing with power, even without loudness:

✽ posture: having a powerful, erect stance, with your head held high and
shoulders back
✽ facial expression: having a look of authority on your face
✽ pace: speaking at a deliberate, slow rate
✽ nonverbal communication: joining into the cheering by clapping, raising a
hand high in the air, or waving hands

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 115 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
My Voice Fills the Room
Do you speak too quietly? Here are some healthy ways to build up power in your voice.

My voice fills the room!

Imagine your voice is made of colored light. You choose the color. Imagine your light filling
the room when you speak. Fill every corner of the room with your light. Any time you’re
going to speak, say to yourself, “My voice fills the room!”

I throw my voice.

Pretend to throw a ball to the farthest corner of the room. You can throw your voice too. Try it.

I do tummy breathing.

Some people do shallow breathing, especially when they’re nervous about speaking. They
take in just a little bit of air, filling only a small part of their lungs. If you do shallow breathing,
you won’t have enough air for a powerful voice.

To speak with power, you need to use the muscle that’s below your lungs. This muscle is
called your diaphragm (di-ah-fram). Put your hand on your abdomen (stomach), just below
your ribs. Take a deep breath. Can you feel your abdomen blowing up like a balloon? You’re
filling up your lungs with air. Next breathe out and feel your abdomen deflating. You’re doing
tummy breathing, or diaphragmatic breathing!

Try to speak using tummy breathing. Put your hand on your abdomen and breathe in, feeling
your abdomen expand. Then say “Ahhh” as you breathe out.

Practice this a few times each day until it feels natural. Try reciting all of your Peptalks using
tummy breathing. Breathe in, then say a Peptalk as you breathe out.

I speak so my listeners can hear me.

Ask a listener to stand close to you. As you count out loud, have the listener move away from
you. Increase your loudness as your listener continues to move farther and farther away from
you. Whenever you’re talking, think about your listener. Make sure your voice is powerful
enough for your listeners to hear.

I make sure my listeners have heard me.

Ask friends to give you honest feedback about the loudness of your voice. You might agree
on a hand signal they can use to remind you to speak more loudly.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 116 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Different Kinds of Voices

Goal: to adjust vocal volume to different situations

Materials: I Use the Right Size Voice (p. 118)

Peptalks Not too soft, not too loud, but just right.
I use the right size voice.

Activity: Tell students that it’s the puppet’s turn to give a short speech. Have the puppet speak
very quietly about something that happened during the day. Next ask students, “What kind of
voice did the puppet use?” and “What kind of voice should he use when he speaks to a big group
of people?”

Give students one or two other scenarios and have the puppet act out the voice he used for each
one. For example, tell students to imagine that they’re working quietly in pairs to complete an
assignment, and the puppet needs to borrow a pencil. In a very loud voice, have the puppet ask
a student sitting close to him to borrow a pencil. Again, ask students what kind of voice the
puppet used and what kind of voice he should have used in that situation.

Then explain to students that there are four different kinds of voices, or four different volumes
we can use to speak. Write each type on the board and have students brainstorm times when
we should use each one. Here are some ideas:

Voice When We Use It


Outdoor Voice on the playground, at sporting events, in emergencies
Big Room Voice when we want everyone in a room to hear us, when giving a speech,
when acting in a play
Partner Voice in small groups, when talking to one person
Secret Voice when others are working quietly and we absolutely need to talk to
someone right then

Then give each student a copy of I Use the Right Size Voice. If time permits, let some students
present their worksheets to the class when they’ve finished.

☺ Inclusion Some students may lack the social pragmatic ability to evaluate a situation and
Tip: decide what vocal volume to use. Give these students a concrete visual image
that can help. Tell them that any time they’re speaking, they should imagine a
bubble around the people in the conversation. They should talk just loud enough
to fill the bubble. For example, when three students are working together at one
table in the classroom, their voices should fill a bubble that’s around that table.
When a student is addressing the whole class, his voice should fill a bubble as big
as the room.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 117 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Use the Right Size Voice
Draw a picture or write a sentence to tell about a time when you’d use each kind of voice.

Secret Voice Partner Voice

Big Room Voice Outdoor Voice

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 118 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: A Talk About Safety

Goal: to realize the immense power of communication


Materials: Safety Speech Planner (p. 120)

Peptalks I speak with POWER!


My face shows that this is important.
I use gestures to show that it’s important.
There’s power in a quiet voice.
I emphasize the main points.

Activity: Tell students that today the group is going to talk about safety. Help them brainstorm
a list of activities that have safety rules. These can be real activities or things that we can only
imagine doing, such as time travel. Write their ideas on the board. Here are some to get you
started:
• baby-sitting • camping
• skateboarding • swimming
• in-line skating • boating
• riding a bicycle • playing a sport
• car safety • flying in outer space
• fire prevention • time travel
• cooking • cave dwelling
Then give each student a copy of Safety Speech Planner. Remind students that every speech has
a beginning, a middle, and an end. Provide them with the framework for safety speeches:
✽ In the beginning, a speaker tells his listeners what the activity is and why safety is
important.
✽ In the middle, he tells his audience what the safety rules are for this activity.
✽ At the end, the speaker summarizes his ideas with power and tells his listeners how
important these safety rules are.
Before letting students present their safety speeches, have them make up Peptalks for speaking
with power to use when their message is very important. Let students announce their Peptalks
before giving their speeches.
You may want to invite an audience to listen to students’ safety speeches, such as a younger
class. This might also be a good opportunity to make a videotape of students’ speeches that may
be checked out from the library.

☺ Inclusion This is a great activity, even for students who have very limited speaking skills.
Tip: These students can present a safety speech by demonstrating or saying one safe-
ty rule with great power. Another option would be to let students present their
speeches in pairs. One student could explain a safety rule while the other stu-
dent demonstrates it. Be sure to provide these students with ample rehearsal
time.
Unit 5: Speaking with Power
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 119 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
\ Safety Speech Planner
Select one of the topics your class brainstormed, or choose one of your own. Then
use the chart to plan your safety speech. You may draw pictures, write key words,
or write sentences to plan your speech.

Beginning (Name the activity and tell your listeners why safety is important.)

Middle (Tell your listeners what the safety rules are for this activity.)

End (Summarize your ideas with power and tell your listeners how important these safety
rules are.)

Write a Peptalk here that you can Write a listening Peptalk here to help
use to speak with power. you listen to the safety speeches.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 120 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: Giving Your Voice Energy

Goal: to show animation and enthusiasm when speaking

Materials: Energy! (p. 122)

Peptalks My voice shows life and change.


I keep it interesting.
I show feeling.
My excitement shows!
Energy!

Activity: Ask students to name several emotions and write their ideas on the board. Then
help students brainstorm a list of story starters that involve these emotions. They can name
stories about real or imaginary events. Write these ideas on the board as well. Here are some
suggestions:

✽ I had so much fun the time . . .


✽ I laughed so hard when . . .
✽ I was so embarrassed when . . .
✽ I was so scared when . . .
✽ I get really aggravated when . . .
✽ I loved the movie ____. There was a great scene when . . .
✽ One morning I woke up and realized that I was invisible. I . . .

Then give each student a copy of Energy! Tell students they may select one of the topics the
class brainstormed or choose one of their own to prepare and present aloud. Give them some
class time to complete their stories and select the Peptalks they’ll use for this activity. Before
students present their stories to the class, remind them that their goal for this activity is to use
a voice that has lots of energy and that shows life and change.

☺ Inclusion Even students with very limited speech skills can show a picture and give
Tip: one vocalization or sentence with great enthusiasm and energy. At all times,
encourage students to help one another. Praise students who offer to help their
classmates as well as students who request help.

While building a community of helping is important, be sure to promote a spirit


of independence in all students too. Sometimes students are so eager to help out
their classmate with a disability that they offer to speak for their classmate and
do more than their classmate needs. Have a class discussion about the pride a
person feels by doing something by himself. Work toward an ideal balance of
helping out and celebrating independence.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 121 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Energy!
Use this page to plan an exciting story to present aloud. Plan your story in the box
below. You may draw pictures, write key words, or write sentences to complete
your story. Then tell your story with energy!

What is your most important Peptalk for


giving your voice energy? Write it here.

My voice shows life and change.


I keep it interesting.
I excite my listeners!
My story comes alive!
My excitement shows!
Energy!

What listening Peptalk will you use to


help you listen to your classmates’
stories? Write it here.

I share the excitement.


I reflect back the feelings.
I show that I care.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 122 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Speaking With Power

My voice My
energy
fills the
shows!
room!

I speak I throw
with my
POWER! voice.

I do I speak so
tummy
breathing. my listeners
can hear me.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 123 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Speaking With Power

I make Not too soft,


sure my not too loud,
listeners have but just right.
heard me.

My face
I use the
right size
shows that
voice. ☺ this is
important.

There’s power I use gestures


in a to show that
quiet voice. it’s important.

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 124 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Speaking With Power

My voice
I emphasize shows life and
the main points. change.

I keep it I show
interesting.
feeling.

My
excitement Energy!
shows!

Unit 5: Speaking with Power


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 125 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas
The activities in this unit are designed to teach students a variety of frames for organizing their
thoughts so they can clearly communicate news, opinions, how-to instructions, persuasive mes-
sages, and information sharing. Once students are able to internalize these formats, they can
prompt themselves to organize their thoughts right in the middle of a conversation. It works
like magic! Students who typically couldn’t find more than a couple of words to say suddenly
make coherent, organized contributions to conversations.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. Repro-
ducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 149-152. Duplicate
and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where students can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around, and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest a Peptalk that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 126 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 1: Draw, Then Talk

Goal: to use drawing to help sequence thoughts before speaking

Materials: Draw, Then Talk Topics (p. 128)


Draw, Then Talk Organizer (p. 129)

Peptalks I gather my thoughts.

Activity: Say, “Today we’re going to draw pictures of an event and then tell about the event.
Drawing will help us get our ideas ready to talk about.”

Give each student a copy of Draw, Then Talk Topics. Read through the worksheet together, and
help students understand how drawing pictures can help them organize their ideas.

Then have students brainstorm additional topics they could use to tell about a sequence of
events. You might suggest that they think of topics related to events in the classroom or
curriculum topics. Write their ideas on the board. Students can write their two favorite topic
ideas from the discussion at the bottom of their Topics pages.

Next present the Peptalk for this lesson and give students the corresponding card. Give each
student a copy of Draw, Then Talk Organizer. Let students work in pairs to discuss and choose
topics to present. They should draw symbols or sketches to help them organize their ideas.
When students have finished preparing, let them tell their picture stories to their partners for
practice.

After everyone has had ample time to prepare and practice the picture stories, let students
present their sequence speeches to the group. Have listeners announce a Peptalk that will help
them listen to the sequence speeches, such as My whole body listens. Allow speakers to use their
pictures as reminders to tell the story in order.

☺ Inclusion “Draw, then talk” is a great strategy for students who aren’t yet fluent writers.
Tip: Some students with severe literacy problems are able to draw very elaborate
sketches that they can use as notes during their speeches.

Students who are unable to draw may pair up with a partner who can do the
drawing.

Students who use augmentative communication devices may point to a series


of symbols or pictures rather than drawing their own pictures.

For students with severely delayed language skills, let a partner draw pictures
of an event that both students have participated in. Prompt the student with
delays to point to the appropriate pictures as the partner tells the story.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 127 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Draw, Then Talk Topics
Before you tell a story, you can draw pictures to help you put your ideas in order.
Here are some examples:

the story of my life so far

Start with “I was born” and draw a little symbol to go with it, such as a baby toy.
Then continue with your story, and draw symbols to show some of the biggest
events in your life so far.

a big
I was born my first trip I learned to . . . when I was 6 . . . event was . . . now I’m . . .

my transportation from stroller to mountain bike

Start with “When I was a baby” and draw a symbol to go with it, such as a stroller.
Then continue with your story. Maybe you’ve had a tricycle and a bike with training
wheels. You can draw and tell about future dreams too!

when I
was a baby when I was 1 when I was 3 now someday maybe even . . .

Here are some other topics you can draw and then talk about. If you have other
ideas, write them on the lines.

my sports career so far


places I’ve visited in my life
my family history
my puppy, from birth to now
my little sister, from birth to now
our baby chicks
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

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Draw, Then Talk Organizer
Draw pictures to show a sequence of events. Then tell your story in order to a partner.

1. First . . . 2. Then . . .

3. 4.

5. 6. Now . . .

Write a Peptalk here that will Write a listening Peptalk here to help
help you tell your story well. you listen to others’ stories.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


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Activity 2: Tell the News

Goal: to use the News Path organizer to tell about something that happened

Materials: puppet
News Path Organizer (p. 132)

Peptalks I have news to share.


News = Topic + 5 Ws + H
(Who, What, Where, When, Why, and How)
I take my listeners along.
I state my topic.
I give some background.
I get right to the point.

Activity: Ask the puppet to tell you about his birthday party. Have the puppet give a very short
response, such as “It was nice.” Have a short discussion with students to discover that the
puppet’s response didn’t tell you very much. You still don’t know any details about the event.

Then give each student a copy of News Path Organizer. Tell students that this path will help
them in conversations and any time they need to explain what happened. Tell students that the
puppet is going to use the News Path organizer to tell you about his birthday party.

Read the information in the circles as you point to each one. Stop after each circle and let the
puppet give some details for each one. When you’ve reached the bottom of the path, ask students
if they now know more details about the event.

Next have students brainstorm topics they could tell about using the News Path organizer. Write
their ideas on the board. Help students understand that they can use this path throughout the
day any time they need to talk about an event. They can even use it to talk about fictional news.
If their topic is fictional, ask students to let their listeners know that up-front by saying, “This is
fiction,” for example.

Here are some topic ideas:

✽ events at home ✽ a time I was left out


✽ events at school ✽ a time I was disappointed
✽ events in the community ✽ a current event in the newspaper
✽ historical events ✽ a dream
✽ a problem on the playground ✽ the day I grew taller than the trees
✽ a vacation ✽ the day aliens arrived
✽ a proud moment ✽ the day I found out I could fly

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 130 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2, continued

After the brainstorming session, have students work in pairs to tell each other a news story using
the News Path organizer. Then have students tell their stories to the group. Before telling her
story, let each student announce a Peptalk for courage, clear speaking, or power.

After each speech, ask listeners to summarize the speaker’s main points and ask any additional
questions, if necessary. Then ask each student to tell how well she did using her chosen Peptalk.

Encourage students to use the News Path organizer (and all of the speaking organizers in this
unit) without writing. Help them memorize the organizers so well that they become able to
sequence their ideas naturally in conversation.

☺ Inclusion For students who usually give single word responses, the News Path organizer
Tip: can be a wonderful step toward helping them sequence their ideas. At first, you
may have to ask a question out loud as you help the student point to each circle
on the path. Gradually reduce your prompting until the student is independently
pointing to the circles and giving an appropriate response for each one.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 131 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
News Path Organizer
When you want to tell about something that happened, the News Path can help
you. Just stop at each spot along the path, and tell your listeners one bit of
information.

Topic News =
who or what your
Topic +
news is about
5 Ws + H
8
Who

it happened to

What
I take my
listeners
along!
happened &
what was said
Where
it happened

When
it happened

n Why
it happened

I have
news to ?
share. How
the person felt
or I felt

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 132 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: News Starters

Goal: to collect vocabulary and ideas to use when telling who, what, where, when, why, and how

Materials: Sample News Ideas (p. 134)


News Ideas (p. 135)

Peptalks There’s always news to tell.

Activity: Introduce the Peptalk for this lesson and give each student the corresponding card.
Then give each student a copy of Sample News Ideas and have a group discussion about the
items in the chart. Remind students that a news story = topic + 5Ws + H, so every news story
should tell one item from each section of the chart.

Next give each student a copy of News Ideas. Tell students that the best ideas for their news
stories will be the ones they collect themselves. Ask students to use these charts to collect words
and phrases that could fit into each spot on the News Path organizer—Who, What, Where, When,
Why, and How.

Encourage them to personalize their lists. For example, in the Who box, they might list their
family members or characters from their favorite books, and in the Where box, they might list
places they’ve visited and places that they’d love to tell about.

Help students understand that this chart can become a great source for news ideas they can tell
about at school and at home. Give students several blank copies of the chart and encourage them
to complete the chart with new information each week.

☺ Inclusion The News Ideas worksheet is extremely useful for students with severe commu-
Tip: nication disorders. These students often have difficulty thinking of ideas to talk
about, and this list allows students to keep track of a variety of newsworthy
topics. It helps them think of news about their home lives to tell listeners at
school and vice versa. In addition, parents and peers can glance at the student’s
list in order to find out some of the people, places, and events to ask the student
about. For example, they may see “Science Center” listed in the Where box, so
they can prompt the student to tell some news about the Science Center.

Finally, listeners of students with severe speech production problems often have
the most trouble understanding specific names of people, pets, and places that
are unfamiliar to the listeners. For example, the student may have trouble
pronouncing the name of a dog called Baxter. Listeners can see the dog’s name
printed in the Who box and understand what the student is saying. To make
this work, it’s a good idea to have people at home and at school help students add
ideas to their worksheets. It may be most helpful to designate one person at
home and one person at school to help the student each day.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 133 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Sample News Ideas
Here are some ideas to help you think about what you could say in your news speech.

Who It Happened To What Happened Where It Happened


family a disaster at my friend’s house
sister a discovery in my backyard
brother a problem, then a solution at the park
grandparent a miracle at school
friend good news in the gym
dog someone got lost on the playground
alien someone found something on the moon
judo teacher amazing on an airplane
rabbit someone turned into a ___ in the hot jungle
someone traveled to ___

  someone traveled back in time


someone visited the future
someone wished
someone tried
someone dreamed that . . .

When It Happened Why It Happened How the Person Felt


or How I Felt
n
now because . . .
before lunch so . . .
yesterday to . . . excited
next week suspicious
once upon a time glad
when dinosaurs lived worried
when I was 2 years old relieved
shocked
on my 7th birthday
embarrassed
on my vacation
amazed
on a dark and stormy night
on a holiday

8 ☺ )

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 134 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
News Ideas
Use this page to collect some good ideas for news to talk about. Now you’ll always have
some news to tell, both in conversations and when you have to give a speech. You can draw
or write your ideas in each box.

Who It Happened To What Happened Where It Happened

When It Happened Why It Happened How the Person Felt


or How I Felt

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 135 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: Tell a Story

Goal: to use the Story Path organizer to tell a real or made-up story or to retell the plot of a
book, movie, or TV show

Materials: Story Path Organizer (p. 137)


Story Path Poster (p. 138)

Peptalks I can use the Story Path.


Story = Setting + Characters +
Problem + Events + Solution
My story comes alive as I tell it.

Activity: Give each student a copy of Story Path Organizer. Tell students that this path will
help them any time they need to tell a real or made-up story, or retell the plot of a book, movie,
or TV show.

Demonstrate the organizer by using it to discuss a recent classroom event. Talk about how the
details of the event would fit into each category in the organizer. For example, imagine a
student’s best friend recently moved and the student has had to learn to overcome her loneliness.

Next have students brainstorm story ideas they could tell using the Story Path organizer.
Discuss the ideas listed at the bottom of Story Path Organizer, and write students’ additional
ideas on the board. You might also encourage students to collect ideas for stories and keep them
in their Talking Portfolios. This way, they’ll always have something to tell about.

After the brainstorming session, have students work in pairs to tell each other a story using the
Story Path organizer. Then have students tell their stories to the group. Post the Story Path
Poster on the wall where students can see it during the telling of their stories.

Before telling his story, let each student announce a Peptalk for courage, clear speaking, or
power. Ask listeners to declare listening Peptalks, as well. In addition, encourage them to be
prepared to ask each speaker at least one question about the story to show interest and to clarify
the story in their minds.

After the speeches, have the speakers give their listeners feedback. Let the speaker tell the
group whether he felt “listened to” and what the listeners did to show the speaker that they were
truly listening.

☺ Inclusion The Story Path organizer is a great tool to help an overexcited student calm
Tip: down so he’s able to give a rational account of a disaster or conflict. In addition,
remember that a student doesn’t need to do any writing to use the News Path
and Story Path organizers, so they’re especially useful for students who have
difficulty writing. The student just needs to point to each step along the path
and talk.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 136 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Story Path Organizer
Use the Story Path organizer to tell a real or made-up story, or to retell the plot of a
book, movie, or TV show. You can use one of the ideas below or one of your own.

Story =
L Setting

 Characters

? Problem
/
Events

☺ Solution
Tell about:
❑ moving to a new school and feeling lost and lonely
❑ a problem with a friend and how we solved it
❑ an unfair situation at home or at school
❑ a disagreement with someone and how we resolved it
❑ a time I overcame fear
❑ a cooking disaster
❑ a fable
❑ the plot of a book, movie, or TV show
❑ when my best friend moved away
❑ when I saw someone bullying someone
❑ when I got lost somewhere

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 137 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Story Path Poster
Story =

L Setting

 Characters

? Problem
/

Events

☺ Solution

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 138 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: An Advertisement

Goal: to demonstrate persuasive speaking skills

Materials: You’ll Love this Book! (p. 140)

Peptalks I persuade my listeners.


I win my listeners’ attention.
I educate my listeners.
I conclude with power.

Activity: Ask students to tell you the titles of their favorite books. List the titles on the board.
Then say, “Today we’re going to plan and give persuasive speeches. When you give a persuasive
speech, you try to talk your listeners into doing something. We’re going to try to persuade others
to read our favorite books.”

Explain that a persuasive speech, like all speeches, has a beginning, a middle, and an end.

✽ In the beginning, a speaker tries to win her listeners’ attention.


✽ In the middle, she gives her listeners more information about the book, without giving
away the ending.
✽ At the end, the speaker concludes with a powerful statement about why listeners should
read this book.

When students are ready to plan their persuasive speeches, give each student a copy of You’ll
Love this Book! Then give students time to prepare their speeches using the organizer. You
might even want to let students work in pairs to present their speeches to each other before
presenting them to the group.

Before students present their speeches, ask listeners to announce Peptalks they could use during
the persuasive speeches to help them keep an open mind, such as I listen with an open mind and
I form my opinion after.

After the speeches, have students brainstorm other things they’d like to persuade their listeners
to do. Encourage them to write their ideas on a blank sheet of paper and put their papers in
their Talking Portfolios for future reference. Here are a few ideas:

✽ to recycle ✽ to eat healthier ✽ to exercise more


✽ to save the rain forest ✽ to buy a certain product ✽ to see a certain movie

☺ Inclusion Review the group’s Speaking and Listening Contract often. If any students
Tip: listen disrespectfully or tease speakers during the speeches, bring this up for
discussion with the group. Review the importance of giving speakers the time
they need. As students learn to create a fully inclusive community in the class-
room, you’re teaching them to create a more tolerant, inclusive world as adults.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 139 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
You’ll Love this Book!
Choose a book that you’d like to persuade other people to read. Use this page to
prepare a talk so persuasive that your listeners will want to jump up and start
reading your book right away.

Beginning ( Win your listeners’ attention. Ask a question, tell the name of the book, or
give an exciting detail.)

Middle ( Tell more about the book, but don’t give away the ending!)

End (Conclude with a powerful statement about why your listeners should read this book.)

Write a Peptalk here that will Write a listening Peptalk here to help you
help you persuade your listeners. listen with an open mind to the persuasive
speeches.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 140 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: My Opinion

Goal: to state opinions and support them with logical reasons

Materials: Opinion Speech Organizer (p. 143)


Opinion Speech Poster (p. 144)

Peptalks I can use the opinion organizer.


I support my opinion.
I speak up for what I believe.
I choose the right time and place.
I use words, not anger, to convince people.
I make my point with reasons, not loudness.
I stay on topic.
I give my opinion with respect.

Activity: Have a discussion about the meaning of the word opinion. Ask students if they can
tell you how opinions differ from facts. (Opinions are what someone thinks or believes. Facts are
true statements that can be proven.)

Have students suggest ways they can signal to their listeners that they’re about to give an
opinion. Suggest using clue words, such as I think, I believe, I feel, in my opinion, it seems, etc.
Stress the importance of letting our listeners know whether we’re presenting facts or opinions.

Then give each student a copy of Opinion Speech Organizer. Tell students that today they’re
going to plan and give opinion speeches. Explain that an opinion speech, like all speeches, has a
beginning, a middle, and an end.

✽ In the beginning, the speaker states his opinion.


✽ In the middle, he supports his opinion with three good reasons.
✽ At the end, the speaker summarizes by restating his opinion in one short, powerful
sentence.

As you’re going over the organizer with students, stress the importance of the middle portion of
the speech. Discuss some “reasons” that won’t convince listeners to adopt the speaker’s point of
view, such as because I said so or because it’s cool.

Then have students brainstorm timely opinion topics related to school issues; questions they
encounter in health, social studies, or science classes; books the students are reading; or family
issues. Have students suggest some issues they care strongly about. Write their ideas on the
board. Here are some ideas:

✽ Should parents care if their child’s room is messy?


✽ Should kids get paid for chores they do around their homes?

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 141 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6, continued

✽ Should kids learn everything from computers instead of going to school?


✽ Should kids ever be grounded?
✽ Does TV violence cause crime?
✽ What’s the best pet to own?
✽ What would be the best time period in history to live in?

As a group, select one of the opinion topics and compose an opinion statement. Then have
students select their own topics and compose an opinion statement for it. Next discuss Peptalks
that will help students convince their listeners of their opinions, such as I speak with power, My
voice shows life and change, and I pause for power. Then let students work in pairs to prepare
and practice their opinion speeches.

Before students present their opinions to the group, post the Opinion Speech Poster on the wall
where students can see it during their speeches. Let each student announce a Peptalk for
speaking with power. After each speech, ask listeners to state the main points they heard and
ask any questions. You might also have each speaker report on how well she feels she used her
chosen Peptalk.

Finally, it may be a good idea to have a discussion about when, where, and how to give our
opinions as well as appropriate ways to listen to others’ opinions. You might want to give
students some Peptalks as guidelines to follow in these areas. Here are some ideas:

I have the right to my own opinion.


I’ll speak up for what I believe.
I give my opinion with respect.
I use words, not anger, to convince people.
I choose the right time and place.
I listen with an open mind.
I show that I’ve heard the other side.

☺ Inclusion Help all students understand the challenges and disabilities of individuals in
Tip: your group. For example, if there’s a student with a visual impairment, have all
students “try on” that disability for an hour. You might also use a puppet with a
language delay or developmental delay to introduce students to these challenges.
Encourage students to openly ask the puppet all the questions they may have
about the disability. Students who learn to talk openly and caringly about our
individual challenges will be better equipped to build communities of respect and
cooperation.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 142 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Opinion Speech Organizer
Use the opinion speech organizer to prepare a speech to tell what you think, feel,
or believe about a topic. Remember to support your opinion with strong reasons.

Beginning (State your opinion. I think, I feel, or I believe that . . .)

Middle (Support your opinion with 3 good reasons.)

Reason 1:

Reason 2:

Reason 3:

End (Summarize by restating your opinion in one short, powerful sentence.)

And that’s why . . .

Write a Peptalk here for speaking with Write a listening Peptalk here that you
power that you can use when giving can use while listening to others’
your opinion. opinions.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 143 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Opinion Speech Poster
Beginning (State your opinion. I think, I feel, or I believe that . . .)

Middle (Support your opinion with 3 good reasons.)

Reason 1:

Reason 2:

Reason 3:

End (Summarize by restating your opinion in one short, powerful sentence.)

And that’s why . . .

I speak up for I make my point


what I believe. with reasons,
not loudness.

I give my
opinion with I show that I’ve
respect. heard the other
person’s opinion.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 144 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: Inform

Goal: to organize information into topics, subtopics, and details

Materials: The Informing Tree Organizer (p. 147)


The Informing Tree Poster (p. 148)

Peptalks I state my topic.


I get right to the point.
Informing Tree = Topic & Subtopics +
Details + Conclusion

Activity: Help students brainstorm topics that they can inform or teach each other about. You
might suggest a broad topic area based on a current curricular unit in health, social studies, or
science, such as rain forests.

Then give each student a copy of The Informing Tree Poster. As you present the organizer,
remind students that speeches to inform or teach others, like all speeches, have a beginning, a
middle, and an end.

✽ In the beginning, the speaker states the topic and the subtopics.
✽ In the middle, he gives more information or details about each subtopic.
✽ At the end, the speaker sums up all of the information he’s presented.

Explain this concept further by directing students to the picture of the tree. Tell students that
any type of information can be organized into topic, subtopics, and details.

✽ The main trunk represents the topic, such as Polar Bears.


✽ The main trunk branches out into three large branches that represent the subtopics, such
as Appearance, Habitat, and Nutrition.
✽ Each of the large branches also divide into many smaller branches and leaves. These
represent the details about each subtopic, such as furry, North Pole, and fish.

Work with students to brainstorm a few sample topics with their corresponding subtopics and
details. Then give each student a copy of The Informing Tree Organizer, and let students work in
pairs to choose their own topics. Give them a week or more to research subtopics and ideas, and
to plan brief information speeches to present to the group.

Before students present their information speeches to the group, have listeners announce some
Peptalks for good listening. Post The Informing Tree Poster on the wall where students can see it
during their speeches.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 145 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7, continued

☺ Inclusion Help students whose speech is unintelligible or difficult to understand prepare


Tip: posters that include key words and illustrations from their speeches. In addi-
tion, help them practice the most important words and phrases before they
present their speeches. Both of these strategies will help listeners more easily
understand these students. Finally, encourage these speakers to monitor their
listeners and to repeat or rephrase until their listeners have understood. Often
there’s a student in the group who has a close friendship with the student who
has difficulty speaking. Encourage this friend to act as an interpreter. You
might also ask the student’s aide or adult helper to take on this role, repeating
the student’s phrases so that listeners can understand.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 146 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
The Informing Tree Organizer
Choose a topic to research. Use this page to prepare a talk
that will inform or teach your listeners about your topic.

Beginning (State the topic and the subtopics.)

Middle (Give more information or details about each subtopic.)

End (Sum up all of the information you’ve presented.)

Write a Peptalk here that will help you Write a listening Peptalk here to help
inform or teach your listeners. you listen to others’ speeches.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 147 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
The Informing Tree Poster

Beginning (State the topic and the subtopics.)

Middle (Give more information or details about each subtopic.)

End (Sum up all of the information you’ve presented.)

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 148 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Organizing and Expressing Ideas

I have
I gather news to
my thoughts. share.

News = I take my
Topic + 5 Ws + H
listeners
(Who, What, Where,
When, Why, and How)
along.

I state I give some


my topic. background.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 149 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Organizing and Expressing Ideas

I get There’s
right to always news
to tell.
the point.
Story =
I can L Setting +
use the  Characters +
? Problem +
Story Path.
/ Events +
☺ Solution

My story comes I persuade


my
alive as I tell it.

listeners.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 150 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Organizing and Expressing Ideas

I win my I educate
listeners’ my listeners.
attention.

I can use
I conclude
with power. the opinion
organizer.

I support I speak up
my for what I
opinion. believe.

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 151 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Organizing and Expressing Ideas

I choose I use words,


not anger, to
the right time convince people.
and place.

I make my point
I stay on
with reasons,
topic.
not loudness.

I give my Informing Tree =


opinion with Topic & Subtopics
RESPECT. + Details
+ Conclusion

Unit 6: Organizing and Expressing Ideas


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 152 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating
The activities in this unit are designed to help students give vivid descriptions while speaking so
that their listeners can see, hear, smell, and feel the objects and experiences they’re talking
about. These skills are generally taught as part of the written expression curriculum, but their
use is just as important to oral expression. Since many students don’t naturally use these tactics
in their daily conversations, their oral language often lacks the details that allow their listeners
to get a vivid picture of what they’re talking about. For example, they may describe a special
vacation or a new toy simply as “awesome,” and leave it at that.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity.
Reproducible, ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 170-173.
Duplicate and cut out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where students can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

You can introduce Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Here are
some ideas:

✽ Before beginning the activity, pass the Peptalks mirror around, and help students give
themselves Peptalks that might be helpful during the activity.

✽ Stage a role-play with a puppet. Have the puppet encounter a communication problem,
and ask students to suggest Peptalks that might help the puppet.

✽ Model the use of self-talk prompts. Use the Peptalks mirror to give yourself a Peptalk.
Then pass the mirror to a student, and ask the student to repeat the Peptalk.

✽ Identify a moment when a student uses a strategy or behavior effectively. Ask students
for suggestions on how to capture that moment in the form of a Peptalk.

✽ Seize moments when students encounter a challenge or a breakdown in communication.


Invite students to suggest a Peptalk that might help.

✽ After completing the activity, help students choose three Peptalks to focus on during the
week. These can be Peptalks from the activity or personal Peptalks that are related to the
students’ individual communication goals.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. (You’ll send home a different family letter after Activity 1 to help
students prepare for the next session.) Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of
Peptalks and telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do
this on an overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 153 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 1: I Describe

Goal: to give specific details when describing orally

Materials: puppet
12 pennies or plastic chips for each child
I Describe (p. 155)
I Describe Family Letter (p. 156)

Peptalks I describe.
I make pictures in my listeners’ minds.
Color, Shape, Size, Parts
What it’s for, What it’s made of,
Where it’s found

Activity: Say, “Today we’re going to practice describing objects. I want you to give lots of details
in your descriptions. Let’s start by describing some objects for the puppet.”

Hold the puppet so its back is facing the students. Show the students an object that the puppet
can’t see. Pass the object around the room, and ask each student to say one sentence about the
object to describe it. Prompt students to tell the object’s color, shape, size, parts, and function.
After students have described the object, let the puppet give them feedback about the vividness of
their details.

As a variation, you may want to present two similar objects, such as a football and a basketball,
and ask students to describe how the items are different. Students might describe the differences
in color, shape, size, and texture.

Next give each student a copy of I Describe and 12 pennies or plastic chips. Help students
brainstorm objects to describe and write their ideas on the board. Then let students work in
pairs to describe objects to each other. Encourage them to look at the balloons on the worksheet
and mention as many features for each object as they can. You may even want to hang a copy of
the worksheet on the wall so students can see it while they’re talking.

☺ Inclusion Prompt students to describe objects at their own language levels. For students
Tip: who need additional help, ask a specific question about the item, such as “Is it
green or red?” Encourage more advanced students to describe how the object
makes them feel and give comparisons, such as “It’s as shiny as ___,” “It glistens
like ___,” or “It reminds me of ___.”

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 154 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Describe
Describe an object to your partner. You can describe a toy, an animal, a tool, a
flower, a watch, a basketball, or whatever you like. Put a penny or a chip on a
balloon for each detail you tell about the object.

Shape
Size
Color

Function
(what it’s for)

Parts

i What it
Composition
reminds
(what it’s
me of
made of)

Location
.
(where
you’d find it)
Significance
Details
(why it’s
important)
=
*
What’s
special
about this
one?
How it
makes

me feel

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 155 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Describe Family Letter

Dear Family,

During our next Speaking and Listening Session, I’ll describe something so well that I
make pictures in my listeners’ minds. Please help me choose an object or picture to
describe, and then help me practice describing the item before our next session. Here
are some objects I might choose:

a picture from a magazine or book


a photograph from our vacation
a toy
a pet
a treasure
a birthday cake
a model car
an ice-cream sundae
a baby animal
my tennis shoes
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

I can bring the item to school or draw a picture of it. My listeners won’t see it when I’m
talking. I’ll tell my listeners these things about my item:

✽ its color
✽ its shape
✽ its size
✽ how it makes me feel
✽ details

I’ll present my description on _____________________. Thanks for helping me learn!


date
Yours truly,

_________________________________ _________________________________
student educator

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 156 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: I Give Fresh Details

Goal: to use descriptive vocabulary while speaking

Materials: Have students bring a favorite stuffed toy, doll, or drawing of a pet from home. You
could also use objects from nature, such as caterpillars, butterflies, stones, or trees.
I Give Fresh Details (p. 158)

Peptalks I give fresh details.


My stories come alive.
I tell what makes this one special.

Activity: Bring in an old, stuffed animal, but don’t let the students see it. Describe the toy
using minimal details. For example, say, “I’m going to describe a toy to you. It’s a teddy bear.
My teddy bear is cute. I like it. It’s sweet.” Then ask students if they can clearly picture your
toy in their minds.

Some students will say that they have vividly imagined your teddy bear. Say, “When I said that
my bear is cute, it could have been any old teddy bear. Lots of teddy bears are cute, aren’t they?
Can you really picture MY teddy bear? I want you to know all about my own special teddy bear
and how it’s different from any other teddy bear. Listen again as I give you some fresh details.
Try to picture my bear in your mind. Try to see it and feel what it’s like.”

Continue by saying, “My teddy bear is the size of a newborn baby. It has light blue fur that feels
like a soft kitten. It had two blue eyes the color of the sky, but now one eye is missing. A small
piece of thread and a little stuffing are sticking out of the hole where the other eye used to be. I
just washed my bear and it smells like a fresh cloud.”

Continue to give fresh details, and then ask the students again if they have a clear picture in
their minds of your toy. Talk about the difference between the two descriptions you gave and
what kind of picture students had in their minds after each one.

Next give each student a copy of I Give Fresh Details. Students may choose to describe the item
they brought from home, or you can help them brainstorm things to describe, such as an object, a
person, or a place, and write their ideas on the board. Then let students work in pairs to describe
things to each other. Encourage them to use fresh details in their descriptions to let their
listeners know what makes the item special.

☺ Inclusion You may need to prompt some students by asking them specific questions about
Tip: what makes their item special. During the presentation, you might also point to
features on the student’s photograph or toy to prompt the student to give specific,
fresh details.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 157 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I Give Fresh Details
Describe something to your partner. You may describe the item you brought from
home, one of the ideas your class brainstormed, or one of the ideas below.
Remember to tell all of the details that make this object, person, or place different
from any other one in the whole world. Tell what is special about the one you’re
describing.

Topics for Describing with Fresh Details:

a favorite stuffed animal


a doll or action figure
a real or imaginary place I love to go
a person I admire
a character from a book, movie or TV show
a character I invented
a photograph
a flower
an animal
a costume
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Write a Peptalk here that you Write a listening Peptalk here that you can use
can use while you’re describing. to help you listen to your partner’s description.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 158 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Juicy Words, Not Dry Words

Goal: to use descriptive vocabulary while speaking

Materials: a snack, such as cold, juicy watermelon


I’m Thankful for . . . (p. 161)

Peptalks I use juicy words.


I make word pictures.
I compare.
I tell my feelings.
I help my listeners feel it.
Stamp out empty words.

Activity: Have students brainstorm a list of adjectives. Write their responses on the board.
Then go through the list and identify the highly descriptive words, or the juicy words, that create
pictures in our listeners’ minds. Explain to students that the remaining words on the list are not
as juicy. They’ve been used so often that they’re dried out. These are words like nice, fun, and big.

Next explain that there are other words that are so vague and general that they don’t create any
pictures in our listeners’ minds. These are words like stuff and things. Ask students to name
other words that are too general.

Then give students some of the snack and ask them to brainstorm juicy words to describe it.
Remind them that these are words that help listeners picture the food in their minds. For
example, if you brought watermelon, students should think of words that help listeners see it,
taste it, smell it, hear its crunch, feel its texture and its temperature, and imagine the way a
person feels when eating it on a steamy summer day. Then let students work in pairs to describe
a food or a meal using juicy words.

Next give each student a copy of I’m Thankful for . . .. Let students work in pairs to prepare to
tell about some foods, people, times, places, and things they’re thankful for. Encourage them to
use specific, juicy descriptions instead of dry and vague or general terms. For example, if a
student says, “I’m thankful for summer,” have others suggest ways to liven up the description,
such as, “I’m thankful for the cool, green grass under my bare feet on hot, sunny, summer days.”

Students can also use their worksheets to present a group poem orally. Let each student say one
thing he’s thankful for. You might also have students use ideas from their worksheets during a
sharing circle. If necessary, encourage them to give specific details and to elaborate by saying,
“Tell me more” and “Give us an example.”

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 159 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3, continued

☺ Inclusion Describing activities are wonderful for students who need to improve their
Tip: vocabulary or word retrieval skills. Help students who struggle to find juicy
words to describe people, objects, places, and experiences by teaching them new
words. For example, a student may only be able to come up with gross as a
description for a snake. Help him learn other words, such as slimy, slithering,
and scaly. You might also want to make a list of words that students learn while
describing their own sensations and experiences. Review these words often with
the group, reminding students of their hands-on experiences and real-life
examples.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 160 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I’m Thankful for . . .
Use this page to prepare to tell about some foods, people, times, places, and things you’re
thankful for. You can draw pictures and write some juicy words and details. Then tell your
ideas to your partner.

sweet, red, juicy The taste is so cool and refreshing on a hot, summer day. I bite in and
watermelon feel that luscious, wet crunch. I love how the sweet watermelon juice
drips down my chin and onto my sweaty T-shirt.

a food Describe the food so listeners will be able to imagine its smell and
taste.

a person Help listeners understand what’s so special about this person.

a season Describe your neighborhood or some other place during this time
of year.

a place Help listeners feel that they’re with you at this place.

an object Describe the object so listeners can almost touch it.

I feel what the


I use juicy words.
speaker is feeling.

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 161 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: Describing with All the Senses

Goal: to describe what students see, hear, taste, smell, and feel (emotional/physical)

Materials: Let Me Describe It to You! (p. 163)

Peptalks I describe with all the senses.


Looks Like, Sounds Like, Feels
Like, Tastes Like, Smells Like

Activity: Give each student a copy of Let Me Describe It to You! Talk about each section of the
chart, and ask students to give examples of details that would fit in each one.

Then say, “Today we’re going to go for a walk outside. While you’re walking, try to use all of your
senses to notice lots of details about your walk. For example, I went for a walk so early this
morning that there weren’t any cars on the street yet. It sure wasn’t quiet though. I could hear
so many different birds singing, it seemed as if they were having a birthday party or something.
The wind was blowing through the cherry trees, and pink petals started falling to the sidewalk.
I bent down and filled my hands with those soft petals that smelled like the first day of spring.
Then I tossed the petals high into the air to shower down on my head.”

Ask students which senses you used in your description. Then let students choose partners to
walk and talk with. Tell them to describe their observations to their partners as they walk.
Encourage them to use juicy words to describe what their senses experience.

When you get back in the classroom, let students brainstorm some of the sensory descriptions
they experienced while on their walks. Have students work with a different partner to tell each
other about the walk.

Direct students to the worksheet again. Tell the partners to select other topics and give each
other descriptions using all the senses. Here are some topic ideas:

✽ a meal ✽ a trip to a farm ✽ newborn puppies


✽ a party ✽ a storm ✽ a walk along the beach
✽ a holiday celebration ✽ a spring day ✽ a summer day
✽ a festive meal ✽ a winter day ✽ a fall day

☺ Inclusion Help students with word retrieval problems use strategies for thinking of the
Tip: words they want to say. You may suggest that a student picture the word in his
mind, talk about the word until it comes to him, think of a word that sounds
similar, or act out the word. During group discussions, you can help a student
with retrieval problems who knows the answer but either needs more time or a
little help coming up with the words. Suggest that he use a signal, such as
raising his hand halfway up, to let you know that he wants to answer, but he
needs a little more time or some prompting questions or hints.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 162 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Let Me Describe It to You!
Go for a walk outside. Use your senses to notice what’s around you. What do you see,
hear, taste, smell, and feel? Draw pictures or write key words to describe what your
senses experience.

Then describe your walk to a listener. Describe it so well that your listener is able to see
what you saw, hear what you heard, taste what you tasted, smell what you smelled, and
feel what you felt.

I see

I feel I hear
(textures,
temperatures,
and emotions)

I smell
I taste

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 163 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: Describing Nature

Goal: to observe something in nature over a two-week period and report the results using
descriptive vocabulary

Materials: Nature Observation Chart (p. 165)

Peptalks I observe carefully.


I share what I know.
I help my listeners learn.

Activity: Help students brainstorm something in nature that they could observe over a two-
week period. You may want to guide students to select items related to their science curricu-
lums. Here are some ideas:

✽ the sky ✽ a pond


✽ a pet ✽ a forest
✽ a zoo animal ✽ the weather
✽ an insect ✽ the view from the classroom window
✽ a tree ✽ a seed, planted in soil, and watered daily
✽ a plant ✽ a moist piece of bread with a little water added daily
✽ snow

Then give each student a copy of Nature Observation Chart and read the directions together.
Each day, let students work with partners and take turns describing their items to each other.
Encourage them to refer to the notes and sketches on their charts to give their partners detailed
descriptions of the changes they noted.

At the end of the two weeks, let each student present the changes she noted during the entire
activity to the whole group or to an invited audience. Remind students to describe their
observations in detail.

As another idea, have students give a full, unique weather report each day for a month. Let each
student say one comment about the day’s weather using fresh details. For example, students
may describe the temperature, how it makes them feel, details about the precipitation, or signs
of a new season coming up.

☺ Inclusion This activity can serve as extra practice for students working on articulation.
Tip: Have students identify all of the words in their observations that contain their
articulation sounds. Help the students practice these words separately so they
can use them successfully as they’re describing the changes they observed.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 164 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
. Nature Observation Chart
Choose something in nature to watch very closely for two weeks. Use this chart to record the changes you notice.
You may write key words or phrases, or draw pictures to record your results.

I am observing ________________________________________________________________.

Week 1
165

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

Week 2

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: Describing Feelings

Goal: to use a wide range of specific vocabulary to describe feelings

Materials: Feelings Chart (p. 167)

Peptalks I name my feelings.


Telling a feeling is sometimes
better than acting it.
I put feelings into words.

Activity: Ask students to name as many feelings as they can think of. Write their ideas on the
board. Then give each student a copy of Feelings Chart. Let students work in pairs to write
words that describe different feelings. Tell them to write their words in the chart.

Next say, “Let’s think of some times when we’ve had some big feelings. These might be times
when we’ve been terrified, times when we were miserable, times when we were furious, or times
when we were thrilled. You could also tell about an episode in a story that showed some big
feelings. Look at your feelings chart if you need help thinking of ideas.”

Before letting students talk, have them state speaking and listening Peptalks they’ll use during
the session. Then go around the room and let each student tell a short story about a personal
experience or an episode in a story and give one word to describe his feeling about it. After each
student describes the experience or story, let all students suggest other possible words to describe
the feeling.

Finally, have a discussion about times when it’s better to name the feeling you’re having than it
is to act it out. For example, it’s better to tell someone, “I feel angry” than it is to hit the person.
Ask students to think of other scenarios and what the person could say to name the feeling
they’re having, rather than acting it out.

☺ Inclusion The most important Peptalk that students who show impulsivity can use when
Tip: they’re agitated is “I stop.” Teach students to stop everything for a moment to
give themselves time to think and to calm down. You may even want to suggest
that they imagine they’re turtles and can crawl inside their shells to think for a
moment. Later, when they’re calm, they can try to put their feelings into words.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 166 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Feelings Chart
Use this chart to write words that describe feelings. Some ideas are provided. You can use these words when you
tell about your own experiences or when you describe a character in a story. You can also use these words when
you want to tell how you feel about a problem you’re having.

Happy Sad Angry Scared Other Feelings


positive feelings negative feelings negative feelings negative feelings

☺ ) ] c
glad, proud, thrilled, depressed, jealous, annoyed, frustrated, terrified, worried, shocked, amazed,
relieved, thankful, lonely, ashamed, irritated, furious, afraid, anxious, fascinated, curious,
167

relaxed, calm, disappointed, left insulted nervous confused


wonderful, excited out, hurt, miserable,
embarrassed, bored

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: I See with New Eyes

Goal: to describe as if seeing scenes and objects for the first time

Materials: Seeing the World for the First Time (p. 169)

Peptalks I wake up my senses.


I see with new eyes.
I tell all about it.

Activity: Explain that sometimes we get so used to our world that we hardly notice things.
Then say, “Let’s wake up our eyes, ears, and fingertips. Let’s pretend we’re from the cave days,
and we just arrived here in a time machine. What would be new to us?”

After allowing time for student responses, encourage students to try to think of other new ways
to see the world. Ask students to think about what they might see, hear, and feel if any of the
following happened to them:

✽ They could fly.

✽ They were suddenly one inch tall.

✽ They’d been asleep since grade one and just woke up.

✽ They’d just arrived by time machine from the year 1000.

✽ They’d just arrived by time machine from the year 1900.

✽ They’d just arrived from another galaxy.

✽ They’d been blind, but they just had an operation and now could see.
✽ They’d been deaf, but they just had an operation and now could hear.

✽ They just discovered they had X-ray vision.

Ask students to brainstorm other ideas and to imagine what they might see, hear, and feel if any
of those things happened.

Next give each student a copy of Seeing the World for the First Time. Let students work in pairs
to choose a scenario and then describe what they’d see, hear, and feel. Stress that they should
show their amazement in their descriptions.

☺ Inclusion Let students act out this activity with costumes and props so they can all
Tip: experience the impact of this exercise.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 168 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Seeing the World
for the First Time
Pretend you’re seeing the world for the very first time. Choose one of the ideas
your class brainstormed. Then describe the world that you see, hear, and feel.
Show your amazement in your descriptions. Draw some pictures or write some
key words in the chart before you present your description to your listeners.

Here’s what I’ll describe. ____________________________________________

What I See

What I Hear

What I Feel

Write a Peptalk here that will help Write a listening Peptalk that will help you
you give good descriptions. listen to others’ descriptions.

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 169 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Describing and Elaborating

Color, A I make
Shape, pictures in
Size, my listeners’
i Parts minds.

I  What it’s for,


describe. What it’s made of,
Where it’s found

I give My stories
fresh
details. come alive.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 170 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Describing and Elaborating

I tell what I use


makes this juicy words.
one special. 5@

I make I
word %
pictures. compare.

I tell my I help my
feelings. listeners
feel it.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 171 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Describing and Elaborating

Stamp out I describe with


empty all the senses.
words.
Looks Like,
Sounds Like, I observe
Feels Like, carefully.
Tastes Like,
Smells Like

I share I help my
what I listeners
know.
learn.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 172 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Describing and Elaborating

I name my Telling a feeling


feelings. is sometimes
better than
acting it.

I put I wake up
feelings my senses.
into words.

I see
with new
I tell all
eyes. about it.

Unit 7: Describing and Elaborating


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 173 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and
Listening Skills
On the first day of school, Mia ran up to me, gave me a hug, and asked excitedly, “Are we going
to have a Speaking and Listening Group party this year?” I smiled as I thought about the
previous year.

Our entire Speaking and Listening Program had built up to the great moment in June when
students invited their parents, siblings, grandparents, the principal, and the custodian to hear
them tell about good communication. It took an enormous amount of discussion, collaboration,
and even conflict resolution to finalize the plans for this entirely student-run celebration. We
used every Peptalk on the Peptalks Wall to grasp Devin’s idea for a cookie pizza with candies for
the pepperoni and to allocate the jobs of inviting, decorating, and preparing.

The party was a Peptalks extravaganza. Peptalk balloons hung from the light fixtures. Each
student stood up and told the audience a few Peptalks. Bradley, who used to wish he could get
run over by a car whenever he had to speak, stood up and announced his Peptalks in a proud,
sure voice. Diana’s voice filled the room. Taylor paced his speech so well that everyone under-
stood. Best of all, the students declared at the party that they would use their Peptalks all of
their lives.

I looked back at Mia and smiled. “You bet!” I answered. “If our group works hard on our
speaking and listening skills all year, we’ll be able to have the best Peptalks party ever!” Mia
nodded as we walked into the classroom together to meet the rest of our group.

The activities in this unit are designed to tie everything together. Students use their Peptalks for
discussing, arguing well, and resolving conflicts. They plan and perform a TV talk show together,
and, of course, they celebrate their successes.

Each lesson plan begins with a list of suggested Peptalks to present during the activity. You can
introduce these Peptalks at any time during the Speaking and Listening Session. Reproducible,
ready-made cards with these Peptalks printed on them are on pages 195-200. Duplicate and cut
out the specific cards needed for the activity, and give them to the students.

Have students color and decorate the cards, and place them where students can see the Peptalks
during the Speaking and Listening Session. Refer to the cards throughout the session at the
moments they’re needed. Blank Peptalk cards are also provided on page 203. Keep these cards
and some markers handy during the session so students can invent new Peptalks any time they
discover communication strategies that work for them.

At the end of every session, give each student a copy of the Speaking and Listening Family Letter
on page 202 to take home. Help students fill in the blanks giving examples of Peptalks and
telling the dates of upcoming Speaking and Listening Sessions. You may want to do this on an
overhead so students can copy what you’ve written.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 174 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 1: Interviews: Finding Our Family Stories

Goal: to use speaking and listening skills to interview someone

Materials: Family History Interview Form (p. 176)


Interview Form (p. 177)

Peptalks I take turns being a good listener and a good speaker.


I ask my question slowly and clearly.
I show interest.
I listen to the answer.
If I don’t understand, I ask.
If I don’t remember, I ask.

Activity: Tell students a little about your family’s history. Include some interesting stories
about where your ancestors come from, when and why they moved to this country, and some
stories about your family today. Then ask students what they’d like to find out about their
families’ histories. Compile a list of the questions they’d like to ask their family members.

Next give each student a copy of Family History Interview Form. Read through the sample
interview questions on this sheet together. Then have students suggest people they could
interview to find out about their families’ histories. Students may suggest relatives or other
members of their communities. Let students know they can use the telephone and E-mail if their
relatives live too far away to talk to personally. Give students who want to think of their own
interview questions copies of the blank Interview Form.

Give students a week to conduct their interviews. Encourage them to draw pictures that
illustrate their families’ histories that they can show during their presentations. At the end of
the week, allow students to present their findings to partners before giving their talks in front of
the whole group.

Before students present their speeches, ask each student to announce a Peptalk he’ll use during
his speech. You may also ask a few listeners to announce Peptalks they’ll use to help them listen
to the family interview speeches.

This is a wonderful activity to have students present to an invited audience. Perhaps students
could present their findings to a group of their grandparents, other family members, or other
visitors.

☺ Inclusion This can be a Show and Share activity for students with limited oral expression.
Tip: Have these students bring in a family memento or photograph to show.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 175 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Family History Interview Form
Prepare to present a talk about one event in your family history. Interview a relative to find
out about your family’s stories. You can use the questions below or make up your own on a
separate sheet of paper. Then draw a picture to illustrate one interesting event from your
family’s history.

Name of the person I’m interviewing: _________________________________________

Questions:

1. What country does our family come from? _________________________________

2. When did we arrive in this country? ______________________________________


_

3. Why did we come to this country? ________________________________________

4. What did we bring with us? _____________________________________________

5. What did we leave behind? _____________________________________________

6. Did our family have some hard times? ____________________________________

7. How is this place different from other places you’ve lived? _____________________

___________________________________________________________________

8. What do you miss about those places? ____________________________________

9. What are you thankful for? ______________________________________________

10. What are your hopes for our family? ______________________________________

11. What was life like when you were small? __________________________________

12. Will you tell me about a time when I was small? _____________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Write a Peptalk here that will help you Write a Peptalk here to help you be a good
be a good speaker during your interview. listener during others’ interviews.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 176 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Interview Form
Interview someone and present your findings to the group. Draw a picture to go
with your talk on another sheet of paper..

Name of the person I’m interviewing: ___________________________________

Question Response

Write a Peptalk here that will help you Write a Peptalk here to help you be a
be a good speaker during your interview. good listener during others’ interviews.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 177 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2: Good Arguments: Power Without Anger

Goal: to practice good speaking and listening skills during a friendly argument

Materials: Speaker’s Necklace (p. 20)


Good Arguments (p. 180)

Peptalks I stand up for myself firmly and gently.


One person talks at a time.
I argue fairly.
I try to see the other side.
I sum up the other point of view.
I use good reasons, not loudness, to make my point.
I keep my voice calm.
I don’t call people names.
I don’t need to yell.

Activity: Ask, “When you don’t agree with someone, should you always give in to that person
just to keep the peace?” Have a discussion about times when it’s okay to argue. Here are some
topics people may argue about in a friendly way:

✽ which movie to go to
✽ where the group should go on a field trip
✽ which pet is best
✽ where is the best place to go on vacation
✽ which sport is best
✽ what is the best fund-raiser event for the school
✽ who is the athlete of the century
✽ whether it would be better to live in this century or in the year _____ (choose a time period
that students are studying)
✽ whether it’s better to live here or in _____ (choose a place that students are studying)

Then introduce the Peptalks for this lesson and give each student the corresponding cards. Have
students brainstorm additional Peptalks for fair arguing and write their ideas on the board.
Allow students to make their own Peptalk cards for any of these ideas that they think would help
them argue firmly yet fairly. You may also want to review the Peptalks for having power without
loudness. Remind students that a quiet voice can also have immense power.

Next have the group select an issue to argue and choose two possible sides. For example, the
group may choose to argue about which sport to play during their next physical education period,
basketball or soccer. Divide the group into two sides and let each side argue its case. Use the
Speaker’s Necklace so that only one person speaks at a time and so that listeners will remember
to give the speaker their full attention and respect.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 178 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 2, continued

Introduce a very special rule for this activity. Say, “When it’s your turn to speak, you must first
summarize the viewpoint of the person who spoke before you. Then you may tell us about your
ideas.”

After the group argument has concluded, divide students into pairs. Give each student a copy of
Good Arguments. Instruct each pair to select an issue the partners disagree on, to choose two
sides, and then to present their arguments to each other. Before students begin this activity,
pass the Peptalks mirror around and have each student announce the most important Peptalk
she’ll use during the argument.

After students have presented their arguments to their partners, allow the pairs to share their
thoughts about the activity with the group. Ask students to report on how well they were able to
argue their points firmly yet fairly. Then brainstorm times that Peptalks for good arguing will be
useful at school, at home, and in the community.

☺ Inclusion Although some of the concepts in this activity may be abstract, we can certainly
Tip: model the ability to assert ourselves firmly and fairly to students. Even students
with severe developmental delays can take on the prevailing tone of a classroom,
one in which all individuals solve their differences peacefully.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 179 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Good Arguments
Practice standing up for yourself in a firm yet fair way by having a friendly argument
with a partner. Use the Venn diagram below to draw pictures or write key words
that show both sides of the argument as well as the points you both agree on.

Our friendly argument is about _____________________________________.

My Point of View My Partner’s Point


of View

Points We
Agree On

Write a Peptalk here that will help Write a listening Peptalk here to help you
you give good arguments. listen with an open mind to your partner’s
arguments.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 180 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 3: Resolving Conf licts Peacefully

Goal: to practice good speaking and listening skills while resolving a conflict

Materials: Speaker’s Necklace (p. 20)


Resolving Conflicts Poster (p. 182)
Blank Resolving Conflicts Poster (p. 183)

Peptalks I take time to cool down.


I breathe.
I relax my body, toes to head.
We talk it out.
Each person tells what happened.
(News = Who + What +Where + When + Why + How)
Each person tells what he really wants.
We show that we’ve heard each other’s point of view.
We brainstorm solutions.
We agree on a solution to try.

Activity: Ask students if they can think of behaviors that aren’t productive for resolving
conflicts, such as hitting, yelling, name calling, etc. Then talk about some more productive ways
to resolve conflicts. You might discuss times when you should:

✽ walk away from the situation


✽ stand up for yourself
✽ work together to find a solution
✽ ask for outside help

Then help students brainstorm Peptalks that can help us calm down in the midst of a conflict,
such as the first three Peptalks listed above. Tell students that after they calm down, they can
use a step-by-step plan to resolve the conflict. Give each student a copy of Resolving Conflicts
Poster and go through the steps together.

Then tell students that you’d like them to each come up with their own personal plans for
resolving conflicts. Give each student a copy of Blank Resolving Conflicts Poster, and provide
some class time for students to write their own plans for resolving conflicts. Then encourage
students to take their posters home to share with family members and to hang them where
everyone can see them.

Tell students they’ll have time at the next Speaking and Listening Session to report back to the
group on how Peptalks helped them resolve conflicts at home, at school, and in the community.

☺ Inclusion Nurture an atmosphere in which students help their classmates throughout the
Tip: day. When two students have a conflict, encourage them to request a peer
mediator (another student who isn’t involved in the conflict) to moderate the
problem-solving discussion.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 181 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Resolving Conflicts Poster

We talk it out.

We take time to cool down.

Each person tells what happened.


(News = Who + What + Where + When + Why + How)

Each person tells what he really wants.

We listen to each other.

We show that we’ve heard each other’s


point of view.

We brainstorm solutions.

We choose the best solution.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 182 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Blank Resolving Conflicts Poster

We talk it out.

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 183 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 4: Sharing Our Deepest Thoughts

Goal: to listen with respect and caring to others’ personal concerns

Materials: Speaker’s Necklace (p. 20)


Heart to Heart (p. 185)

Peptalks I’m safe here.


I can put my feelings into words.
I listen kindly.
I listen with my heart.
I show that I care.

Activity: There are times in the life cycle of every group that all members share a common
emotion. For example, there may be a disappointment, a loss, or a mystery that affects all
members. Talk about one or more of these times with students. Or you may want to begin the
session with a short meditation, allowing students to think about what concerns them, what they
don’t understand about the world, and what they wonder about.

Then go around the room and ask each student to share a heart to heart message with the rest of
the group. Have students respond to one another with expressions that show empathy and
caring. The following sentence starters can set the tone:

✽ I wonder . . .
✽ I wonder why . . .
✽ I hope . . .
✽ I’m worried that . . .
✽ I’m disappointed that . . .
✽ I spend a lot of time thinking about . . .
✽ If only . . .
✽ It really bothers me that . . .
✽ I just don’t understand why . . .
✽ Everything would be all right if only . . .
✽ Sometimes I’m filled with a feeling of . . .

Then give each student a copy of Heart to Heart. Let students share their thoughts with a
partner. When they’ve finished sharing, ask students to tell the group how they could tell that
their partners were listening to them.

☺ Inclusion Let one student be the spokesperson for another student who may not be able
Tip: to express a complex thought in words.

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Heart to Heart
What do you think about most? Draw some pictures or write some key words that show what
you wonder about, what you love, what you worry about, and what you hope for in the future.
Then share your ideas with a partner.

I’m safe here. I show that


I care.

I can put
my feelings
into words. I listen
kindly.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 185 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 5: Peptalks in Daily Life

Goal: to make a commitment to use Peptalks at home, at school, and in the community

Materials: Peptalks Self-portrait (p. 187)

Peptalks I give myself Peptalks at home.


I give myself Peptalks at school.
I give myself Peptalks everywhere.

Activity: Help students brainstorm situations at home, at school, and in the community in
which they can use Peptalks. Write their ideas on the board. Then ask volunteers to tell their
most important Peptalks. Can they give specific examples of times when they’ve used these
Peptalks to help them?

Next give each student a copy of Peptalks Self-portrait. Have students draw pictures of them-
selves saying one of their most important Peptalks. Then let them work in pairs to present
speeches to each other about how they use Peptalks in their daily lives.

You might also want to have students present their speeches to another class. Each student can
announce three Peptalks and then describe a situation in which these Peptalks help.

☺ Inclusion You may want to glue a photograph of the student on the Peptalks self-portrait
Tip: worksheet, especially if the student is unable to draw on her own. For students
with severe language or developmental delays, have other students help by
suggesting a Peptalk they see their classmate using. They can then help the
classmate write the Peptalk on the talk bubble.

As with all of the activities, guide students toward sensitivity in knowing just
how much to help their classmate with a disability. As all of our students grow
in their ability to help without taking over and to judge just how much assistance
to offer, they’re developing their capacity for empathy and cooperative spirit.

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Peptalks Self-portrait
Draw a picture of yourself saying one of your most important Peptalks. Write the
Peptalk in the talk bubble. Write your first and last name under your picture.

Name ____________________________________________________________

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 187 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 6: A TV Talk Show

Goal: to showcase communication skills in a TV talk show format

Materials: TV Talk Show Ideas (p. 189)


TV Talk Show Planner (p. 190)
videotaping equipment (optional)

Peptalks I speak slowly and clearly.


My listeners need to hear every word.
Energy!

Activity: Say, “Today we’re going to work together to plan and present a TV talk show. Every-
one will have a role in the show. First let’s think of some ideas for our show.” Then give each
student a copy of TV Talk Show Ideas. Have students announce Peptalks that will help them
to work well with the group, such as “I don’t interrupt” and “I listen well before I give my own
idea.” Then help students work as a group to brainstorm ideas for the show.

Next give each student a copy of TV Talk Show Planner. Let students work in pairs to select and
prepare a component of the show. For example, two students might work together to prepare a
presentation as a famous celebrity and the person who will interview this celebrity.

Give students class time to prepare and rehearse their presentations. Emphasize that they
shouldn’t write out their parts word for word. At most, a few pictures or key word notes can
serve to cue them during their presentations. You may also want to have each student announce
a Peptalk he’ll use while he’s presenting.

Just before the show “airs,” have each student announce a Peptalk for listening. You may also
want to consider inviting an audience to watch the live show. And if you videotape the show, let
students take turns checking out the videotape to watch at home.

☺ Inclusion This is a great activity to allow students to showcase new articulation or lan-
Tip: guage accomplishments. Have students rehearse until they can include their
target sounds or language forms with confidence.

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 188 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
TV Talk Show Ideas A
Work with your group to gather ideas for a TV talk show. Use this page to brainstorm all
kinds of ideas. Then choose one of the ideas to make into a show.

Celebrity Interviews: One student pretends to be a character from a book or movie, a


person from history, or a famous person in the news. Another student is the interviewer.
Prepare some good questions to ask the celebrity.
3
Real Interviews: Interview a student about a hobby, a trip, or a special interest.

News Report: Tell all about school and community events.

Sports: Tell about sporting events at school and in the community. One student pretends
to be a famous athlete. Another student interviews the athlete. Prepare some good
questions to ask the athlete.
0
Entertainment: Review school plays and concerts or current movies playing at the
theaters.

Opinion: Give comments about events at school, in your community, or in the world.
I think . . .

Health, Fitness, Food: One student plays the part of a doctor, fitness expert, or cook.
Another student interviews the person. Prepare some good questions to ask the person.

@
Commercial: Persuade your audience to recycle, or to buy a certain healthy or
environmentally friendly product.
A
Humor: Make the audience laugh!


Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 189 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
TV Talk Show Planner
Work with your partner and use this page to plan your part of the show.

The title for our part of the show is _________________________________________.

I will play the role of ____________________________________________________.

My partner will play the role of ____________________________________________.

Draw a few pictures or write some key words to plan your part of the show here.

Write a Peptalk here that will help Write a listening Peptalk here to help
you present your part of the show. you listen to others’ presentations.

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 190 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 7: I’m So Proud!

Goals: to assess individual progress using Peptalks and to celebrate personal growth

Materials: Sample Speaking and Listening Goals (p. 30)


Speaking and Listening Goals (p. 31)
I’m So Proud! Diploma (p. 192)

Peptalks I’m so proud!

Activity: Have a group discussion about how your Speaking and Listening Group has progressed
as a community of speakers and listeners. Encourage students to give some examples of times
when they’ve truly listened to one another and have communicated well. Encourage group
members to point out specific examples of progress they’ve seen in each other’s speaking and
listening skills.
You may even find it helpful to videotape students during a class discussion and an oral
presentation. Let students compare this video with the one you made at the beginning of the
Speaking and Listening Program (Unit 1: Activity 6).
Next have students take out the Speaking and Listening Goals sheets they filled out earlier in
the program (Unit 1: Activity 8). Have them use a different color of pen to update the form. For
example, beside the goal “I join in discussions,” a student may have originally used a red marker
to color in the smiley face showing “I’m starting to do this.” Now, however, the student may feel
that he’s made enough progress to color in the award ribbon showing “I’m great at this!” Have
students fill in the date under each shape they color in too so they’ll see a graphic illustration of
the progress they’ve made.
Then give each student a copy of I’m So Proud! Have students write the Peptalks and
accomplishments that they’re most proud of on this worksheet. Let students decorate their
worksheets and display them around the room.

☺ Inclusion Guide all students to focus on their own individual changes rather than on how
Tip: they compare with some imaginary ideal speaker or listener. A student with
articulation problems may begin by saying, “I didn’t make progress this month.
I still can’t do the r, l, or s sounds.” If that student has set goals of helping
listeners understand him by speaking slowly, pausing, and checking that the
listener has understood, that student will have progress to celebrate.
A student who stutters may begin by saying, “I didn’t make progress this month.
I still stutter.” If that student can see even small changes in her courage to join
in and in the number of times she has contributed to discussions or shared in a
conversation with one partner, this student has good reasons to feel proud.

For students with developmental delays who are unable to evaluate their own
progress, have other students suggest changes they’ve seen. They may observe
that their classmate sat with the group for up to five minutes, made eye contact
when listening, or communicated energy and enthusiasm during a Show and
Share presentation.
Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 191 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
I’m So Proud! Diploma
Draw a picture or write why you’re proud of yourself. Be sure to write your name
and the date at the bottom of the page.

I’m so proud! Here’s why:

Name _______________________________ Date ________________

☺☺☺☺☺☺☺☺☺☺
Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 192 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Activity 8: A Peptalks Celebration

Goals: to celebrate successes and to launch into a lifetime of good communication

Materials: Speaking and Listening Celebration Planner (p. 194)

Activity: Give each student a copy of Speaking and Listening Celebration Planner, and let
students work as a group to plan the party. Tell them this will be their chance to tell an
audience of invited guests about their Peptalks. Go over the planner worksheet with students,
elaborating on each aspect of the party they’ll need to plan and carry out.

✽ When: date and time for the party


✽ Where: location for the party
✽ Audience: Will you invite parents, other students, a younger class, grandparent
volunteers, the principal, etc.?
✽ Activities: What can you do to demonstrate your most important Peptalks?
✽ Treats: Will you serve refreshments? Will you need plates, forks, or cups? Who will
bring each item?
✽ Decorations: What will you have? Who will do the decorations?
✽ Invitations: Who will make the invitations? What information will guests need?
✽ Set-up/Clean Up: How will the room be set up? Will you need extra chairs? Who will
get the room ready and when? Who will clean up?
✽ Other: What other preparations are needed for your celebration?

Encourage students to use Peptalks often as they work together to plan the celebration. With
great pomp and ceremony and a satisfying clink of colored beads, drop a bead into the Peptalks
Star Jar every time a student uses a Peptalk well or demonstrates good communication
strategies.

Help students plan and carry out an event that truly celebrates their success in using Peptalks
and one that inspires them and their guests to use Peptalks for their whole lives.

☺ Inclusion Make sure that all students are included in the planning process. For the stud-
Tip: ent who doesn’t generally make decisions, give some either/or choices or have the
student point to a picture to choose his preference. Prompt students to actively
seek their classmate’s preferences by asking questions like “Find out which one
Gary would like.” You may even want to assign a buddy to the student with
severe communication delays. Have the buddy consult this student and help the
student bring his preferences to the group.

You may find that you’re amazed at the outcome of this celebration. By this time
your community of caring speakers and listeners has evolved, and the star of the
party just might be the student with severe disabilities who has gained the
courage and the skills to join in at his own level and in his own style.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 193 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaking and Listening
Celebration Planner
As a group, use your best communication skills to plan a celebration that will be fun for all
members of your group. Write your ideas in the chart.

When Where Audience

Activities Treats Decorations

Invitations Set-up/Clean Up Other

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 194 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

I take turns I ask my


being a good question
slowly and
listener and a clearly.
good speaker.

I show I listen
to the
interest. answer.

If I don’t If I don’t
understand, remember,
I ask.
I ask.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 195 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

I stand up for
One person
myself firmly talks at
and gently. a time.

I I try to see
argue the other
side.
fairly.

I sum up the I use good


other point reasons, not
of view. loudness, to
make my point.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 196 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

I keep I don’t call


my voice people
names.
calm.

I don’t need I take time


to cool
to yell. down.

I I relax my
breathe. body, toes
to head.

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100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 197 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

Each person
We talk tells what
it out. happened.
(News = Who + What + Where
+ When + Why + How)

Each person We show that


tells what he we’ve heard
really wants. each other’s
point of view.

We We agree
brainstorm on a
solutions.
solution to try.

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Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

I can put
I’m safe my feelings
into words.
here.

I listen I listen
with my
kindly. heart.

I show I give myself


that I Peptalks at
care.
home.

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 199 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks for Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills

I give myself I give myself


Peptalks
Peptalks at everywhere.
school.

I speak My listeners
slowly and need to hear
clearly. every word.

I’m
Energy! so
proud!

Unit 8: Using Our Speaking and Listening Skills


100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 200 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Peptalks Mirror
Cut out, color, and decorate this label. Then glue or tape it to the back of a hand-
held mirror. Look in the mirror and give yourself a Peptalk any time you need one!

I give
myself a

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 201 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speaking and Listening Family Letter

Dear Family, Date _____________________

Today in our Speaking and Listening Session we _______________________________

_______________________________________________________________________.

Three of my important Peptalks are:



You can help me practice at home by _________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________.

Our next Speaking and Listening Session will be on _____________________. I need to

_______________________________________________________________________.

Thank you for helping me become a better speaker and listener.

Yours truly,

___________________________________ ___________________________________
student educator

Parents’ comments and ideas:

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 202 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Blank Peptalk Cards
Use these cards to write your own personal Peptalks that will help you speak and listen well. Cut
them out and keep them with the rest of your Peptalk cards.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 203 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
General Inclusion Tips
You’ll need to develop an individual plan for each student with special needs in your group. Here
are some general inclusion tips you can use in addition to the specific idea presented with each
activity.

Prior Preparation
✽ Give students the sharing sentence starter, the speaking topic, or the assignment a week
early. Students can prepare and practice their contributions with the Speech-Language
Pathologist, aide, or a family member all week.

✽ Students who use Augmentative Communication Devices can program in their responses
and play them when it’s their turns.

✽ Have students who are practicing articulation sounds identify the words that contain their
sounds in the presentations they’re planning. Have them use these words for articulation
practice throughout the week. Let them rehearse their presentations until they begin to
use their sounds correctly during the Speaking and Listening Session.

✽ Help students with severe delays prepare a nonverbal or simplified contribution to make
during the Speaking and Listening Session.

✽ Preteach the concepts and vocabulary before the group session in a style that matches
each student’s learning needs.

✽ Help students rehearse the task individually.

Buddy System
✽ Encourage the student to be as independent as possible at all times. Let an adult or peer
sit beside the student to coach, prompt, and interpret.

✽ Let a peer work with a student to listen to the student’s ideas until they’ve been
completely understood. Then the peer can present the student’s ideas to the group.

✽ Let a peer “translate” the student’s contributions. There’s often one student who’s closely
attuned to the speaking style of a student who has communication problems. The role of
“buddy” can be a special privilege.

✽ Students can team up to make a presentation. Students contribute to the presentation


according to their abilities. For example, maybe one student only shows a picture,
demonstrates something, acts out something, or presents just a couple of sentences. This
kind of teaming together provides students with a wonderful life’s lesson.

100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 204 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.
General Inclusion Tips, continued

Prompting
✽ Give the student some suggestions to get him started.

✽ Give two possibilities for the student to choose from.

✽ Begin a sentence for the student to complete.

✽ Ask a yes/no question that the student can answer with a head nod, a signal, or the words
yes or no.

Adapted Task
✽ Give the student a simplified task to complete.

✽ Have the student present just to a partner rather than to the whole group.

✽ Let the student simply show a picture or object without having to talk about it.

Group Adaptations
✽ Teach students about various disorders. You may want to introduce a puppet with a
communication disorder so you don’t put the student with special needs in the spotlight.

✽ Have students suggest ways to encourage and help the student with communication
problems.

✽ Promote a no-hurry atmosphere in which all students receive adequate time to get their
message across. Remind students often of the Communication Contract and some of the
goals, such as listening kindly and patiently with no teasing or put-downs.

✽ Have all students take on a communication goal and Peptalk that will help a student with
a communication disorder achieve his communication goals. For example, if a student who
stutters is working on Peptalks like “I use tummy breathing” and “I start each sound
gently,” teach these skills to the whole group. If a student is using an alternative or
augmentative communication system, such as signing, teach the system to all students so
they can fully include their classmate in the group.

21-02-987654321
100% Speaking & Listening – Primary 205 Copyright © 2002 LinguiSystems, Inc.