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logo.jpg SEMINAR REPORT ON “BARCODES AND RFID TAGS” Guided by Prof. Twinkle Bhavsar BY MITI SHAH

SEMINAR REPORT

ON

“BARCODES AND RFID TAGS”

Guided by

Prof. Twinkle Bhavsar

BY

MITI SHAH MUSKAN PORWAL

ROLL NUMBER 16BEC090 ROLL NUMBER 16BEC094

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

NIRMA UNIVERSITY

AHMEDABAD

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIRMA UNIVERSITY

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Ahmedabad, 382481

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar entitled Barcodes and RFID Tags submitted by Miti Shah (Roll No. 16BEC090) and Muskan Porwal (Roll no.16BEC094) as the partial fulfillment of the re- quirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technology, Nirma University is the record of work carried out by them un- der my supervision and guidance. The work submitted in our opinion has reached a level required for being accepted for the examination.

Date:

/

/

(Prof. GUIDE NAME) Project Guide

(Prof. D K KOTHARI) HOD, EC Department

Acknowledgements

I am profoundly grateful to Prof.Twinkle Bhavsar for his expert guidance and continuous encouragement throughout to see that this project rights its target since its commencement to its completion.

Miti Shah (16BEC090) Muskan Porwal (16BEC094)

Contents

  • 1 Barcodes

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  • 1.1 What is BARCODE?

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  • 1.2 Types of Barcode Scanners

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  • 1.2.1 Wand Scanners

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  • 1.2.2 Laser Scanners

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  • 1.2.3 CCD Scanners .

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  • 1.2.4 Camera Scanners

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  • 1.2.5 MEMS Scanners

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  • 1.3 Working of Barcode Scanners

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  • 1.3.1 Illumination System

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  • 1.3.2 Sensor / Converter

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  • 1.3.3 .

Decoder .

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  • 1.4 Symbologies

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  • 1.4.1 Uniform product code(UPC)

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  • 1.4.2 European article number (EAN)

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  • 1.4.3 Code 39(code 3 of 9)

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  • 1.4.4 .

Code 128

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  • 1.4.5 .

PDF417 .

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  • 1.4.6 .

Data Matrix .

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  • 1.5 Advantages of Barcode

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  • 2 RFID Tags

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  • 2.1 Introduction

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  • 2.2 Transponder or A tag

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  • 2.2.1 .

Active Tags

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  • 2.2.2 Passive Tags

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  • 2.2.3 Battery Assisted Passive Tags

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  • 2.3 Readers

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  • 2.4 Coupling of RFID Tags

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  • 2.4.1 Capacitive Coupling

 

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  • 2.4.2 Inductive Coupling

 

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  • 2.4.3 Radiative coupling / Backscaterring

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  • 3 Difference between barcodes and RFID

 

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  • 4 Conclusion and Future Scope

 

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  • 4.1 .

Conclusion

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  • 4.2 Future Scope

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References

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

Chapter 1 Barcodes

  • 1.1 What is BARCODE?

The bar code is an automatic identification technology in which numbers, and sometimes characters, are encoded in a pattern of vertical bars , spaces , squares and dots so there can be read by bar code scanners.

  • 1.2 Types of Barcode Scanners

Wand Scanners

Laser Scanners

CCD Scanners

Camera Scanners

MEMS Scanners

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.2.1 Wand Scanners

Wand scanners are handheld contact scanners which is be placed in contact with the barcodes and dragged in order to read the barcode correctly.

scanner 1.jpg

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.1 Wand Scanners Wand scanners are handheld contact scanners which is be

Figure 1.1: Wand scanner

  • 1.2.2 Laser Scanners

Laser barcode scanner is the most commonly used barcode scanner which doesn’t require the barcode to be in contact with the scanner.A standard range Laser Barcode Scanner can read a barcode from about 6 to 24 inches away, and a long range Scanner can read one from about 2 to 8 feet away.

scanner.jpg

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.1 Wand Scanners Wand scanners are handheld contact scanners which is be

Figure 1.2: Laser scanner

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.2.3 CCD Scanners

CCD barcode scanners constitute of a long row of LED’s applied in series which generate a digital image of the barcode . Although they have high scan rates but they live lower read rates.

SCANNER.jpg

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.3 CCD Scanners CCD barcode scanners constitute of a long row of

Figure 1.3: CCD scanner

  • 1.2.4 Camera Scanners

Camera scanners are those scanners which are equipped in our smart phones nowa- days . In these scanners the camera of the device is treated as a scanner.

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.3 CCD Scanners CCD barcode scanners constitute of a long row of

Figure 1.4: Camera scanner

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.2.5 MEMS Scanners

SCANNER.jpg

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.5 MEMS Scanners SCANNER.jpg Figure 1.5: MEMS scanner 1.3 Working of Barcode

Figure 1.5: MEMS scanner

  • 1.3 Working of Barcode Scanners

To understand how a barcode scanner works, we have to explore the different parts of the device. Basically, there are 3 functional parts to the barcode scanner itself, the illumination system, the sensor / converter, and the decoder. Basically there are three functionalities associated with barcode scanners :

The Illumination System

Sensor / Converter

The Decoder

dia.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.2.5 MEMS Scanners SCANNER.jpg Figure 1.5: MEMS scanner 1.3 Working of Barcode

Figure 1.6: Block Diagram of a Barcode Scanner

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.3.1 Illumination System

The illumination system illuminates the red light onto the barcode and the barcode either absorbs or reflects the light. The black bars absorb the light whereas the white spaces reflect the light .

Types of Illumination System

Single Point LED

Linear Multiple LED

Laser

LED Imager

1) Single Point LED : This technology is exclusive to the barcode wand reader and the barcode slot reader. The illumination of the barcode comes from either a single or pair of LED’s and is focused through a single ball-type opening. This technology requires the ball to physically touch the barcode being scanned.

point led.png

Figure 1.7: Single Point LED

2) Linear Multiple LED : Expanding on the single-point illumination system, placing multiple LED’s in a line give the ability to light the entire width of the

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

barcode. This type of illumination is used in CCD scanners and Linear Imagers. When used in CCD scanners, the LED’s are paired with a line of photocells to detect the reflected light from the barcode Since the LED’s are relatively low in power, and the photocells are low in sensitivity, the range of CCD barcode scanners is generally limited from being in contact with the barcode to 1” away.

led.png

Figure 1.8: Linear Multiple LED

3) Laser : This type of illumination system achieves the maximum range as compared to single point LED and multiple LED illuminators. It covers a range from 1” to 18”. By increasing the power of the laser and decreasing the angle of oscillation, ranges of over 20 feet can be obtained. 4)LED Imager : Expanding on the single-point illumination system, placing multiple LED’s in a line give the ability to light the entire width of the barcode. This type of illumination is used in CCD scanners and Linear Imagers. When used in CCD scanners, the LED’s are paired with a line of photocells to detect the reflected light from the barcode Since the LED’s are relatively low in power, and the photo- cells are low in sensitivity, the range of CCD barcode scanners is generally limited from being in contact with the barcode to 1” away.

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.3.2 Sensor / Converter

The photo detector sensor detects the reflected light from the white spaces and con- verts it into an analog signal of varying voltage. The voltage waveform consist of peaks at the white spaces and troughs at the black bars .

signal.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.3.2 Sensor / Converter The photo detector sensor detects the reflected light

Figure 1.9: Electrical Signal

The converter converts the analog signal to a digital form with the peaks repre- sented by bit 1 and troughs by bit 0.

code.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.3.2 Sensor / Converter The photo detector sensor detects the reflected light

Figure 1.10: Digital Code

  • 1.3.3 Decoder

Decoder - The decoder in a barcode scanner performs a variety of functions. First, it analyses the digital signal from the sensor, and tests to see if it can be interpreted as a valid barcode. In this test, it looks for uniformity of the white space (high signal) on each side of the digital signal, and uniformity between the peaks and valleys of the digital signal itself. Then, it tests the digital signal for conformance with any and all of the barcode symbologies it’s designed and set up to read.

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

Barcodes and RFID Tags Figure 1.11: Decoder Department of EC Engineering,ITNU, Ahmedabad 8

Figure 1.11: Decoder

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

1.4

Symbologies

Mapping of barcode pattern to characters is termed as symbology.

  • 1.4.1 Uniform product code(UPC)

It comes in 2 formats the most widely known is UPC- A . Less recognised is UPC-E, which is a short form representation of the same data. a) UPC-A this format is a 12 digit numeric symbology . This symbol consist 11 data digit and one check digit. It allows room for 99999 products.

A.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4 Symbologies Mapping of barcode pattern to characters is termed as symbology.

Figure 1.12: UPC A

b) UPC-E this consist of 6 data digits and one check digit. It is used on small packages where there is not enough room for the larger UPC-A to fit .

E.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4 Symbologies Mapping of barcode pattern to characters is termed as symbology.

Figure 1.13: UPC E

UPC numbers are assigned to specific manufacturers by the uniform code coun- cil (UCC) both UPC-A and UPC-E allow a supplemental 2 or 5 digit number to be appended to the main barcode symbol this supplementary message was designed for the use on publication and periodicals.

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  • 1.4.2 European article number (EAN)

This is the European extension for the UPC .EAN-13 is derived from the UPC-A with an additional digit. This digit along with the 12th digit usually represents the country ,this improves the UCCS ability to deal with international trade items. The EAN-13 symbology is also used by the publishing industry to represent ISBN no.s for books . ISBN is a barcode in EAN-13 format. Its first 3 digits 978.

13.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4.2 European article number (EAN) This is the European extension for the

Figure 1.14: EAN 13

  • 1.4.3 Code 39(code 3 of 9)

In code 39 full ASCII encodes all 128 characters of the ASCII character set. Unlike UPC codes ,It can be as long as necessary. Each character is made up of 9 bars , 3 of which are wider than the others.

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4.2 European article number (EAN) This is the European extension for the

Figure 1.15: CODE 39

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.4.4 Code 128

It is a variable length , high density, alpha numeric symbology ,it has 106 differ- ent bars and space patterns. And each pattern can have 1of 3 different meanings , depending on the character set employed.

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4.4 Code 128 It is a variable length , high density, alpha
  • 1.4.5 PDF417

Figure 1.16: Code 128

It stands for portable data file as it can encode as many as 2725 data characters in a single barcode, and any number of barcodes may be placed on the item and logically linked together. There is no theoretical limit to its capacity. It consist of stacked set of smaller barcodes , it is a high density 2d barcode symbology. It is used to encode the contact information on badges . An individual code word consists of a bar and space pattern 17 module wide. 9 different error correction level are available with each higher level adding additional overhead to the printed symbol.

417.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4.4 Code 128 It is a variable length , high density, alpha

Figure 1.17: PDF 417

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 1.4.6 Data Matrix

It is 2D matrix code designed to store a large amount of info in very small space. It can store between 1 and 500 characters . it has a maximum theoretical density of 500 million characters to the inch.

MATRIX.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 1.4.6 Data Matrix It is 2D matrix code designed to store a

Figure 1.18: DATA MATRIX

  • 1.5 Advantages of Barcode

Speed

Accuracy

Inventory Control

Cost Effective

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

Chapter 2 RFID Tags

  • 2.1 Introduction

RFID is a term that describes any system of identification where in electronic de- vice that uses radio frequency or magnetic field variation to communicate is attached to an item . The 2 most talked about components of an RFID system are the tags ,which is the identification device attached to the item we want to track, and the reader which is a device that recognizes the presence of RFID tags and reads the information stored in there . The reader can then inform another system about the presence of the tagged items.

  • 2.2 Transponder or A tag

There are 3 main types of Tags:

Active Tags

Passive Tags

Battery Assisted Passive Tags

  • 2.2.1 Active Tags

An Active Tag contains a battery mounted on the tag which is a partial or a com- plete source of power for the tag and the antenna. These tags have their own RF emitter on board. Since generating RF signals require a lot of energy , therefore it has its own power supply.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Active Tags

Advantages:

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

It has a range of 100 feet or more thereby improving the utility of device.

It is very useful when more sensors are added since the circuit ha its own power supply.

Good communication range.

Disadvantages

The tag cannot function without battery.

Due to the presence of battery the tag is expensive.

The tag is large in size.

The maintenance of an active rfid tag is greater as compared to passive tag.

  • 2.2.2 Passive Tags

A passive tag doesnot contain battery and the power to the circuitry is through the process of back-scattering through the reader.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Passive Tags

Advantages:

It tag has a life of 20 years or more.

It is less expensive as compared to active tags.

Because of the absence of battery the tag is smaller.

Disadvantages

The tag can be read at very short distances.

It is not possible to include sensors that can use electricity for power.

  • 2.2.3 Battery Assisted Passive Tags

Battery assisted passive (BAP) tags have an embedded battery (rechargeable or not) to supply internal circuitry or connected sensors or actuators. This power source is not used the create any RF signal as the tag is always passive (backscatter only incoming RF signal from interrogator).

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 2.3 Readers

There are 3 main types of readers:

Passive Reader Active Tag(PRAT): A system that only receives radio informa- tion from the tag.

Active Reader Passive Tag(ARPT): A system that transmits as well as recieves the signals . Tag draws sufficient power from the reader.

Active Reader Active Tag(ARAT): A system different from ARPT since it con- tains a battery mounted on board .

  • 2.4 Coupling of RFID Tags

The RFID tag communicates with the reader with the reader through the process of coupling . There are two main types of coupling mainly: capacitive coupling and inductive coupling .

Barcodes and RFID Tags 2.3 Readers There are 3 main types of readers: • Passive Reader

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

  • 2.4.1 Capacitive Coupling

This method has a range of 1-2 cm. The systems that use capacitive coupling use electric currents instead of magnetic fields to couple.This type of coupling is used for LF(low frequency) communication because this type of coupling is only possible for small proximity . One application example is access control/smart cards.

coupling1.png

Barcodes and RFID Tags 2.4.1 Capacitive Coupling This method has a range of 1-2 cm. The

Figure 2.1: Capacitive Coupling

  • 2.4.2 Inductive Coupling

Range - 1cm to 1m. Inductive coupling relies on the magnetic field of the reader, which means that this coupling only occurs in the near-field. The size of the near- field is dependent on the reader, but can be generally defined as touch up to a meter. Inductive coupling is seen in LF, HF, and UHF applications that include coils/anten- nas in the tag infrastructure. Increasing the amount of loops of wire (coils) in a tag that uses inductive coupling increases the amount of current that would be generated in the tag. In turn, this would increase the power of the transmitted signal from the tag back to the reader. Some example applications include NFC Smart Posters, cer- tain access control applications, and any UHF application with a read range under 1 meter in length.

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

coupling.jpg

Barcodes and RFID Tags coupling.jpg Figure 2.2: Inductive Coupling 2.4.3 Radiative coupling / Backscaterring Using backscatter

Figure 2.2: Inductive Coupling

  • 2.4.3 Radiative coupling / Backscaterring

Using backscatter to communicate between readers and tags is not a true method of coupling; it is actually a communication method involving electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are sent through the air from the reader antenna to the tag antenna. The energy is received by the tag antenna and a small amount energy is then reflected back to the reader. Most UHF systems use backscatter in order to communicate between tag and reader. One common exception is when the tag and reader are in close proximity. When in close proximity, UHF RFID systems will elect to couple magnetically/inductively. Race timing, asset tracking, and file tracking are three applications that use backscatter for reader tag communication. Range - 1 m to +4m.

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

Chapter 3 Difference between barcodes and RFID

  • a. Barcodes uses a sensor and light to read the data on the tag while RFID uses radio frequency waves, to get the data.

  • b. Barcodes rely on users to make contact with reader while RFID have a good communication range so doesnot need user to make contact with the reader.

  • c. Once the data is written on the barcodes its cannot be rewritten while in RFID data can be updated whenever needed.

  • d. Barcode scanners can only process tags one at a time while RFID scanners can process dozens of tags in a single second.

  • e. Barcodes are really simple and can be easily replicated or counterfeited while RFID is more complex and secure.

    • f. Barcodes are much easier to use as they are lighter than RFID.

  • g. RFID tags can be hidden to protect against the environment while barcodes need to be exposed.

  • h. Barcodes are very cheap while RFID tags are substantially pricier.

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Barcodes and RFID Tags

Chapter 4 Conclusion and Future Scope

  • 4.1 Conclusion

Through this project we came to know about many notable facts about barcodes and rfid tags as follows: 1) The working of a barcode scanner. 2) The binary coding used in barcodes as black bars and white spaces. 3) Various types of barcode scan- ners. 4) Introduction and working of an RFID tag. 5) Working of RFID tags , its advantages and disadvantages. 6) Various Modulation and demodulation techniques in RFID tags. 7) Difference between barcodes and rfid tags and their various real life applications.

  • 4.2 Future Scope

Photo racognition is growing at a very large scale today. Instead of scanning a barcode at the billing counter nearly in future years the vendor shall scan the whole image of the product in order to recognise the product. Nowadays instead of 1D barcodes 2D barcodes are more preferable and also efficient when it comes to the storage of more and more characters. The best example of it being QR codes . With the introduction of digimarc barcodes the checkout becomes far more faster and easier with cashier not hunting for the traditional barcode on the package. In the next 5 to 7 years the applications of barcodes are said to increase from 50The logos we see will no more be there just for advertisement of the product but will also tell us where the product was manufactured , how much it costs and when it expires.

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