Anda di halaman 1dari 52

Chapter 46 - Lighting


Richard Forster

A lamp is an energy converter. Although it may carry out secondary functions, its
prime purpose is the transformation of electrical energy into visible electromagnetic
radiation. There are many ways to create light. The standard method for creating
general lighting is the conversion of electrical energy into light.

Types of Light


When solids and liquids are heated, they emit visible radiation at temperatures above
1,000 K; this is known as incandescence.

Such heating is the basis of light generation in filament lamps: an electrical current
passes through a thin tungsten wire, whose temperature rises to around 2,500 to 3,200
K, depending upon the type of lamp and its application.

There is a limit to this method, which is described by Planck’s Law for the
performance of a black body radiator, according to which the spectral distribution of
energy radiated increases with temperature. At about 3,600 K and above, there is a
marked gain in emission of visible radiation, and the wavelength of maximum power
shifts into the visible band. This temperature is close to the melting point of tungsten,
which is used for the filament, so the practical temperature limit is around 2,700 K,
above which filament evaporation becomes excessive. One result of these spectral
shifts is that a large part of the radiation emitted is not given off as light but as heat in
the infrared region. Filament lamps can thus be effective heating devices and are used
in lamps designed for print drying, food preparation and animal rearing.

Electric discharge

Electrical discharge is a technique used in modern light sources for commerce and
industry because of the more efficient production of light. Some lamp types combine
the electrical discharge with photoluminescence.

An electric current passed through a gas will excite the atoms and molecules to emit
radiation of a spectrum which is characteristic of the elements present. Two metals are
commonly used, sodium and mercury, because their characteristics give useful
radiations within the visible spectrum. Neither metal emits a continuous spectrum, and
discharge lamps have selective spectra. Their colour rendering will never be identical
to continuous spectra. Discharge lamps are often classed as high pressure or low
pressure, although these terms are only relative, and a high-pressure sodium lamp
operates at below one atmosphere.

Types of Luminescence

Photoluminescence occurs when radiation is absorbed by a solid and is then re-

emitted at a different wavelength. When the re-emitted radiation is within the visible
spectrum the process is called fluorescence or phosphorescence.

Electroluminescence occurs when light is generated by an electric current passed

through certain solids, such as phosphor materials. It is used for self-illuminated signs
and instrument panels but has not proved to be a practical light source for the lighting
of buildings or exteriors.

Evolution of Electric Lamps

Although technological progress has enabled different lamps to be produced, the main
factors influencing their development have been external market forces. For example,
the production of filament lamps in use at the start of this century was possible only
after the availability of good vacuum pumps and the drawing of tungsten wire.
However, it was the large-scale generation and distribution of electricity to meet the
demand for electric lighting that determined market growth. Electric lighting offered
many advantages over gas- or oil-generated light, such as steady light that requires
infrequent maintenance as well as the increased safety of having no exposed flame,
and no local by-products of combustion.

During the period of recovery after the Second World War, the emphasis was on
productivity. The fluorescent tubular lamp became the dominant light source because
it made possible the shadow-free and comparatively heat-free lighting of factories and
offices, allowing maximum use of the space. The light output and wattage
requirements for a typical 1,500 mm fluorescent tubular lamp is given in table 46.1 .

Table 46.1 Improved light output and wattage requirements of some typical 1,500 mm
fluorescent tube lamps

Rating (W) Diameter (mm) Gas fill Light output (lumens)

80 38 argon 4,800
65 38 argon 4,900
58 25 krypton 5,100
50 25 argon 5,100 (high frequency

By the 1970s oil prices rose and energy costs became a significant part of operating
costs. Fluorescent lamps that produce the same amount of light with less electrical
consumption were demanded by the market. Lamp design was refined in several
ways. As the century closes there is a growing awareness of global environment
issues. Better use of declining raw materials, recycling or safe disposal of products
and the continuing concern over energy consumption (particularly energy generated
from fossil fuels) are impacting on current lamp designs.

Performance Criteria

Performance criteria vary by application. In general, there is no particular hierarchy of

importance of these criteria.

Light output: The lumen output of a lamp will determine its suitability in relation to
the scale of the installation and the quantity of illumination required.

Colour appearance and colour rendering: Separate scales and numerical values apply
to colour appearance and colour rendering. It is important to remember that the figures
provide guidance only, and some are only approximations. Whenever possible,
assessments of suitability should be made with actual lamps and with the colours or
materials that apply to the situation.

Lamp life: Most lamps will require replacement several times during the life of the
lighting installation, and designers should minimize the inconvenience to the
occupants of odd failures and maintenance. Lamps are used in a wide variety of
applications. The anticipated average life is often a compromise between cost and
performance. For example, the lamp for a slide projector will have a life of a few
hundred hours because the maximum light output is important to the quality of the
image. By contrast, some roadway lighting lamps may be changed every two years,
and this represents some 8,000 burning hours.

Further, lamp life is affected by operating conditions, and thus there is no simple
figure that will apply in all conditions. Also, the effective lamp life may be
determined by different failure modes. Physical failure such as filament or lamp
rupture may be preceded by reduction in light output or changes in colour appearance.
Lamp life is affected by external environmental conditions such as temperature,
vibration, frequency of starting, supply voltage fluctuations, orientation and so on.

It should be noted that the average life quoted for a lamp type is the time for 50%
failures from a batch of test lamps. This definition of life is not likely to be applicable
to many commercial or industrial installations; thus practical lamp life is usually less
than published values, which should be used for comparison only.

Efficiency: As a general rule the efficiency of a given type of lamp improves as the
power rating increases, because most lamps have some fixed loss. However, different
types of lamps have marked variation in efficiency. Lamps of the highest efficiency
should be used, provided that the criteria of size, colour and lifetime are also met.
Energy savings should not be at the expense of the visual comfort or the performance
ability of the occupants. Some typical efficacies are given in table 46.2 .

Table 46.2 Typical lamp efficacies

Lamp efficacies
100W filament lamp 14 lumens/watt
58W fluorescent tube 89 lumens/watt
400W high-pressure sodium 125 lumens/watt
131W low-pressure sodium 198 lumens/watt

Main lamp types

Over the years, several nomenclature systems have been developed by national and
international standards and registers.

In 1993, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) published a new

International Lamp Coding System (ILCOS) intended to replace existing national and
regional coding systems. A list of some ILCOS short form codes for various lamps is
given in table 46.3 .

Table 46.3 International Lamp Coding System (ILCOS) short form coding system for some
lamp types

Type (code) Common ratings (watts) Colour rendering Colour te

Compact fluorescent lamps (FS) 5–55 good 2,700–5,0
High-pressure mercury lamps (QE) 80–750 fair 3,300–3,8
High-pressure sodium lamps (S-) 50–1,000 poor to good 2,000–2,5
Incandescent lamps (I) 5–500 good 2,700
Induction lamps (XF) 23–85 good 3,000–4,0
Low-pressure sodium lamps (LS) 26–180 monochromatic yellow colour 1,800
Low-voltage tungsten halogen lamps 12–100 good 3,000
Metal halide lamps (M-) 35–2,000 good to excellent 3,000–5,0
Tubular fluorescent lamps (FD) 4–100 fair to good 2,700–6,5
Tungsten halogen lamps (HS) 100–2,000 good 3,000

Incandescent lamps

These lamps use a tungsten filament in an inert gas or vacuum with a glass envelope.
The inert gas suppresses tungsten evaporation and lessens the envelope blackening.
There is a large variety of lamp shapes, which are largely decorative in appearance.
The construction of a typical General Lighting Service (GLS) lamp is given in figure
46.1 .

Figure 46.1 Construction of a GLS lamp

Incandescent lamps are also available with a wide range of colours and finishes. The
ILCOS codes and some typical shapes include those shown in table 46.4 .

Table 46.4 Common colours and shapes of incandescent lamps, with their ILCOS codes

Colour/Shape Code
Clear /C
Frosted /F
White /W
Red /R
Blue /B
Green /G
Yellow /Y
Pear shaped (GLS) IA
Candle IB
Conical IC
Globular IG
Mushroom IM

Incandescent lamps are still popular for domestic lighting because of their low cost
and compact size. However, for commercial and industrial lighting the low efficacy
generates very high operating costs, so discharge lamps are the normal choice. A 100
W lamp has a typical efficacy of 14 lumens/watt compared with 96 lumens/watt for a
36 W fluorescent lamp.

Incandescent lamps are simple to dim by reducing the supply voltage, and are still
used where dimming is a desired control feature.

The tungsten filament is a compact light source, easily focused by reflectors or lenses.
Incandescent lamps are useful for display lighting where directional control is needed.

Tungsten halogen lamps

These are similar to incandescent lamps and produce light in the same manner from a
tungsten filament. However the bulb contains halogen gas (bromine or iodine) which
is active in controlling tungsten evaporation. See figure 46.2 .

Figure 46.2 The halogen cycle

Fundamental to the halogen cycle is a minimum bulb wall temperature of 250 °C to
ensure that the tungsten halide remains in a gaseous state and does not condense on
the bulb wall. This temperature means bulbs made from quartz in place of glass. With
quartz it is possible to reduce the bulb size.

Most tungsten halogen lamps have an improved life over incandescent equivalents
and the filament is at a higher temperature, creating more light and whiter colour.

Tungsten halogen lamps have become popular where small size and high performance
are the main requirement. Typical examples are stage lighting, including film and TV,
where directional control and dimming are common requirements.

Low-voltage tungsten halogen lamps

These were originally designed for slide and film projectors. At 12 V the filament for
the same wattage as 230 V becomes smaller and thicker. This can be more efficiently
focused, and the larger filament mass allows a higher operating temperature,
increasing light output. The thick filament is more robust. These benefits were
realized as being useful for the commercial display market, and even though it is
necessary to have a step-down transformer, these lamps now dominate shop-window
lighting. See figure 46.3.

Figure 46.3 Low-voltage dichroic reflector lamp

Although users of film projectors want as much light as possible, too much heat
damages the transparency medium. A special type of reflector has been developed,
which reflects only the visible radiation, allowing infrared radiation (heat) to pass
through the back of the lamp. This feature is now part of many low-voltage reflector
lamps for display lighting as well as projector equipment.

Voltage sensitivity: All filament lamps are sensitive to voltage variation, and light
output and life are affected. The move to “harmonize” the supply voltage throughout
Europe at 230 V is being achieved by widening the tolerances to which the generating
authorities can operate. The move is towards ±10%, which is a voltage range of 207 to
253 V. Incandescent and tungsten halogen lamps cannot be operated sensibly over this
range, so it will be necessary to match actual supply voltage to lamp ratings.
See figure 46.4 .

Figure 46.4 GLS filament lamps and supply voltage

Discharge lamps will also be affected by this wide voltage variation, so the correct
specification of control gear becomes important.

Tubular fluorescent lamps

These are low pressure mercury lamps and are available as “hot cathode” and “cold
cathode” versions. The former is the conventional fluorescent tube for offices and
factories; “hot cathode” relates to the starting of the lamp by pre-heating the
electrodes to create sufficient ionization of the gas and mercury vapour to establish
the discharge.

Cold cathode lamps are mainly used for signage and advertising. See figure 46.5 .

Figure 46.5 Principle of fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamps require external control gear for starting and to control the lamp
current. In addition to the small amount of mercury vapour, there is a starting gas
(argon or krypton).

The low pressure of mercury generates a discharge of pale blue light. The major part
of the radiation is in the UV region at 254 nm, a characteristic radiation frequency for
mercury. Inside of the tube wall is a thin phosphor coating, which absorbs the UV and
radiates the energy as visible light. The colour quality of the light is determined by the
phosphor coating. A range of phosphors are available of varying colour appearance
and colour rendering.

During the 1950s phosphors available offered a choice of reasonable efficacy (60
lumens/watt) with light deficient in reds and blues, or improved colour rendering from
“deluxe” phosphors of lower efficiency (40 lumens/watt).

By the 1970s new, narrow-band phosphors had been developed. These separately
radiated red, blue and green light but, combined, produced white light. Adjusting the
proportions gave a range of different colour appearances, all with similar excellent
colour rendering. These tri-phosphors are more efficient than the earlier types and
represent the best economic lighting solution, even though the lamps are more
expensive. Improved efficacy reduces operating and installation costs.

The tri-phosphor principle has been extended by multi-phosphor lamps where critical
colour rendering is necessary, such as for art galleries and industrial colour matching.

The modern narrow-band phosphors are more durable, have better lumen
maintenance, and increase lamp life.

Compact fluorescent lamps

The fluorescent tube is not a practical replacement for the incandescent lamp because
of its linear shape. Small, narrow-bore tubes can be configured to approximately the
same size as the incandescent lamp, but this imposes a much higher electrical loading
on the phosphor material. The use of tri-phosphors is essential to achieve acceptable
lamp life. See figure 46.6 .

Figure 46.6 Four-leg compact fluorescent

All compact fluorescent lamps use tri-phosphors, so, when they are used together with
linear fluorescent lamps, the latter should also be tri-phosphor to ensure colour
Some compact lamps include the operating control gear to form retro-fit devices for
incandescent lamps. The range is increasing and enables easy upgrading of existing
installations to more energy-efficient lighting. These integral units are not suitable for
dimming where that was part of the original controls.

High-frequency electronic control gear: If the normal supply frequency of 50 or 60 Hz

is increased to 30 kHz, there is a 10% gain in efficacy of fluorescent tubes. Electronic
circuits can operate individual lamps at such frequencies. The electronic circuit is
designed to provide the same light output as wire-wound control gear, from reduced
lamp power. This offers compatibility of lumen package with the advantage that
reduced lamp loading will increase lamp life significantly. Electronic control gear is
capable of operating over a range of supply voltages.

There is no common standard for electronic control gear, and lamp performance may
differ from the published information issued by the lamp makers.

The use of high-frequency electronic gear removes the normal problem of flicker, to
which some occupants may be sensitive.

Induction lamps

Lamps using the principle of induction have recently appeared on the market. They
are low-pressure mercury lamps with tri-phosphor coating and as light producers are
similar to fluorescent lamps. The energy is transferred to the lamp by high-frequency
radiation, at approximately 2.5 MHz from an antenna positioned centrally within the
lamp. There is no physical connection between the lamp bulb and the coil. Without
electrodes or other wire connections the construction of the discharge vessel is simpler
and more durable. Lamp life is mainly determined by the reliability of the electronic
components and the lumen maintenance of the phosphor coating.

High-pressure mercury lamps

High-pressure discharges are more compact and have higher electrical loads;
therefore, they require quartz arc tubes to withstand the pressure and temperature. The
arc tube is contained in an outer glass envelope with a nitrogen or argon-nitrogen
atmosphere to reduce oxidation and arcing. The bulb effectively filters the UV
radiation from the arc tube. See figure 46.7 .

Figure 46.7 Mercury lamp construction

At high pressure, the mercury discharge is mainly blue and green radiation. To
improve the colour a phosphor coating of the outer bulb adds red light. There are
deluxe versions with an increased red content, which give higher light output and
improved colour rendering.

All high-pressure discharge lamps take time to reach full output. The initial discharge
is via the conducting gas fill, and the metal evaporates as the lamp temperature

At the stable pressure the lamp will not immediately restart without special control
gear. There is a delay while the lamp cools sufficiently and the pressure reduces, so
that the normal supply voltage or ignitor circuit is adequate to re-establish the arc.

Discharge lamps have a negative resistance characteristic, and so the external control
gear is necessary to control the current. There are losses due to these control gear
components so the user should consider total watts when considering operating costs
and electrical installation. There is an exception for high-pressure mercury lamps, and
one type contains a tungsten filament which both acts as the current limiting device
and adds warm colours to the blue/green discharge. This enables the direct
replacement of incandescent lamps.

Although mercury lamps have a long life of about 20,000 hours, the light output will
fall to about 55% of the initial output at the end of this period, and therefore the
economic life can be shorter.
Metal halide lamps

The colour and light output of mercury discharge lamps can be improved by adding
different metals to the mercury arc. For each lamp the dose is small, and for accurate
application it is more convenient to handle the metals in powder form as halides. This
breaks down as the lamp warms up and releases the metal.

A metal halide lamp can use a number of different metals, each of which give off a
specific characteristic colour. These include:

· dysprosium—broad blue-green

· indium—narrow blue

· lithium—narrow red

· scandium—broad blue-green

· sodium—narrow yellow

· thallium—narrow green

· tin—broad orange-red

There is no standard mixture of metals, so metal halide lamps from different

manufacturers may not be compatible in appearance or operating performance. For
lamps with the lower wattage ratings, 35 to 150 W, there is closer physical and
electrical compatibility with a common standard.

Metal halide lamps require control gear, but the lack of compatibility means that it is
necessary to match each combination of lamp and gear to ensure correct starting and
running conditions.

Low-pressure sodium lamps

The arc tube is similar in size to the fluorescent tube but is made of special ply glass
with an inner sodium resistant coating. The arc tube is formed in a narrow “U” shape
and is contained in an outer vacuum jacket to ensure thermal stability. During starting,
the lamps have a strong red glow from the neon gas fill.

The characteristic radiation from low-pressure sodium vapour is a monochromatic

yellow. This is close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye, and low-pressure
sodium lamps are the most efficient lamps available at nearly 200 lumens/watt.
However the applications are limited to where colour discrimination is of no visual
importance, such as trunk roads and underpasses, and residential streets.

In many situations these lamps are being replaced by high-pressure sodium lamps.
Their smaller size offers better optical control, particularly for roadway lighting where
there is growing concern over excessive sky glow.

High-pressure sodium lamps

These lamps are similar to high-pressure mercury lamps but offer better efficacy (over
100 lumens/watt) and excellent lumen maintenance. The reactive nature of sodium
requires the arc tube to be manufactured from translucent polycrystalline alumina, as
glass or quartz are unsuitable. The outer glass bulb contains a vacuum to prevent
arcing and oxidation. There is no UV radiation from the sodium discharge so
phosphor coatings are of no value. Some bulbs are frosted or coated to diffuse the
light source. See figure 46.8 .

Figure 46.8 High-pressure sodium lamp construction

As the sodium pressure is increased, the radiation becomes a broad band around the
yellow peak, and the appearance is golden white. However, as the pressure increases,
the efficiency decreases. There are currently three separate types of high-pressure
sodium lamps available, as shown in table 46.5 .

Table 46.5 Types of high-pressure sodium lamp

Lamp type (code) Colour (K) Efficacy (lumens/watt) Life (hours)
Standard 2,000 110 24,000
Deluxe 2,200 80 14,000
White (SON) 2,500 50

Generally the standard lamps are used for exterior lighting, deluxe lamps for industrial
interiors, and White SON for commercial/display applications.

Dimming of Discharge Lamps

The high-pressure lamps cannot be satisfactorily dimmed, as changing the lamp power
changes the pressure and thus the fundamental characteristics of the lamp.

Fluorescent lamps can be dimmed using high-frequency supplies generated typically

within the electronic control gear. The colour appearance remains very constant. In
addition, the light output is approximately proportional to the lamp power, with
consequent saving in electrical power when the light output is reduced. By integrating
the light output from the lamp with the prevailing level of natural daylight, a near
constant level of illuminance can be provided in an interior.


Fernando Ramos Pérez and Ana Hernández Calleja

Human beings possess an extraordinary capacity to adapt to their environment and to

their immediate surroundings. Of all the types of energy that humans can utilize, light
is the most important. Light is a key element in our capacity to see, and it is necessary
to appreciate the form, the colour and the perspective of the objects that surround us in
our daily lives. Most of the information we obtain through our senses we obtain
through sight—close to 80%. Very often, and because we are so used to having it
available, we take it for granted. We should not fail to keep in mind, however, that
aspects of human welfare, like our state of mind or our level of fatigue, are affected by
illumination and the colour of the things that surround us. From the point of view of
safety at work, visual capacity and visual comfort are extraordinarily important. This
is because many accidents are due to, among other reasons, illumination deficiencies
or errors made by the worker because he or she finds it hard to identify objects or the
risks associated with machinery, conveyances, dangerous containers and so on.
Visual disorders associated with deficiencies in the illumination system are common
in the workplace. Due to the ability of sight to adapt to situations with deficient
lighting, these aspects are sometimes not considered as seriously as they should be.

The correct design of an illumination system should offer the optimal conditions for
visual comfort. For the attainment of this goal an early line of collaboration between
architects, lighting designers and those responsible for hygiene at the worksite should
be established. This collaboration should precede the beginning of the project, to
avoid errors that would be difficult to correct once the project is completed. Among
the most important aspects that should be kept in mind are the type of lamp that will
be used and the lighting system that will be installed, the distribution of luminance,
illumination efficiencies and the spectral composition of light.

The fact that light and colour affect the productivity and the psycho-physiological
well-being of the worker should encourage the initiatives of illumination technicians,
physiologists and ergonomists, to study and determine the most favourable conditions
of light and colour at each work station. The combination of illumination, the contrast
of luminances, the colour of light, the reproduction of colour or the selection of
colours are the elements that determine colour climate and visual comfort.

Factors that Determine Visual Comfort

The prerequisites that an illumination system must fulfil in order to provide the
conditions necessary for visual comfort are the following:

· uniform illumination

· optimal luminance

· no glare

· adequate contrast conditions

· correct colours

· absence of stroboscopic effect or intermittent light.

It is important to consider light in the workplace not only by quantitative criteria, but
also by qualitative criteria. The first step is to study the work station, the precision
required of the tasks performed, the amount of work, the mobility of the worker and
so on. Light should include components both of diffuse and of direct radiation. The
result of the combination will produce shadows of greater or lesser intensity that will
allow the worker to perceive the form and position of objects at the work station.
Annoying reflections, which make it harder to perceive details, should be eliminated,
as well as excessive glare or deep shadows.

The periodic maintenance of the lighting installation is very important. The goal is to
prevent the ageing of lamps and the accumulation of dust on the luminaries that will
result in a constant loss of light. For this reason it is important to select lamps and
systems that are easy to maintain. An incandescent light bulb maintains its efficiency
until the moments before failure, but this is not the case with fluorescent tubes, which
may lower their output down to 75% after a thousand hours of use.

Levels of illumination

Each activity requires a specific level of illumination in the area where the activity
takes place. In general, the higher the difficulty for visual perception, the higher the
average level of illumination should be as well. Guidelines for minimal levels of
illumination associated with different tasks exist in various publications. Concretely,
those listed in figure 46.9 have been gleaned from European norms CENTC 169, and
are based more on experience than on scientific knowledge.

Figure 46.9 Levels of illumination as a function of tasks performed

The level of illumination is measured with a luxometer that converts luminous energy
into an electrical signal, which is then amplified and offers an easy reading on a
calibrated scale of lux. When selecting a certain level of illumination for a particular
work station the following points should be studied:

· the nature of the work

· reflectance of the object and of the immediate surroundings

· differences with natural light and the need for daytime illumination

· the worker’s age.

Units and magnitudes of illumination

Several magnitudes are commonly used in the field of illumination. The basic ones

Luminous flux: Luminous energy emitted per unit of time by a light source. Unit:
lumen (lm).

Luminous intensity: Luminous flux emitted in a given direction by a light that is not
equally distributed. Unit: candela (cd).

Level of illumination: Level of illumination of a surface of one square metre when it

receives a luminous flux of one lumen. Unit: lux = lm/m2.

Luminance or photometric brilliance: Is defined for a surface in a particular direction,

and is the relation between luminous intensity and the surface seen by an observer
situated in the same direction (apparent surface). Unit: cd/m2.

Contrast: Difference in luminance between an object and its surroundings or between

different parts of an object.

Reflectance: Proportion of light that is reflected by a surface. It is a non-dimensional

quantity. Its value ranges between 0 and 1.

Factors that affect the visibility of objects

The degree of safety with which a task is executed depends, in large part, on the
quality of illumination and on visual capacities. The visibility of an object can be
altered in many ways. One of the most important is the contrast of luminances due to
reflection factors, to shadows, or to colours of the object itself, and to the reflection
factors of colour. What the eye really perceives are the differences of luminance
between an object and its surroundings, or between different parts of the same
object. Table 46.6 lists the contrasts between colours in descending order.

Table 46.6 Colour contrasts

Colour contrasts in descending order

Colour of the object Colour of the background
Black Yellow
Green White
Red White
Blue White
White Blue
Black White
Yellow Black
White Red
White Green
White Black

The luminance of an object, of its surroundings, and of the work area influence the
ease with which an object is seen. It is therefore of key importance that the area where
the visual task is performed, and its surroundings, be carefully analysed.

The size of the object that must be observed, which may be adequate or not depending
on the distance and the angle of vision of the observer, is another factor. These last
two factors determine the arrangement of the work station, classifying different zones
according to their ease of vision. We can establish five zones in the work area
(see figure 46.10).

Figure 46.10 Distribution of visual zones in the work station

Another factor is the time frame during which vision occurs. The time of exposure
will be greater or smaller depending on whether the object and the observer are static,
or whether one or both of them are moving. The adaptive capacity of the eye to adjust
automatically to the different illuminations of objects can also have considerable
influence on visibility.

Light distribution; glare

Key factors in the conditions that affect vision are the distribution of light and the
contrast of luminances. In so far as the distribution of light is concerned, it is
preferable to have good general illumination instead of localized illumination in order
to avoid glare. For this reason, electrical accessories should be distributed as
uniformly as possible in order to avoid differences in luminous intensity. Constant
shuttling through zones that are not uniformly illuminated causes eye fatigue, and
with time this can lead to reduced visual output.

Glare is produced when a brilliant source of light is present in the visual field; the
result is a diminution in the capacity to distinguish objects. Workers who suffer the
effects of glare constantly and successively can suffer from eye strain as well as from
functional disorders, even though in many cases they are not aware of it.

Glare can be direct when its origin is bright sources of light directly in the line of
vision, or by reflection when light is reflected on surfaces with high reflectance. The
factors involved in glare are:

1. Luminance of the source of light: The maximum tolerable lumi nance by direct
observation is 7,500 cd/m2. Figure 46.11 shows some of the approximate values of
luminance for several sources of light.

Figure 46.11 Approximate values of luminance

2. Location of the source of light: This kind of glare occurs when the source of light
is within a 45-degree angle of the observer’s line of sight, and will be minimized to
the degree that the source of light is placed beyond that angle. Ways and methods of
avoiding direct and reflective glare can be seen in the following figures (see figure
Figure 46.12 Factors that affect glare

In general, there is more glare when sources of light are mounted at lower elevations
or when installed in large rooms, because sources of light in large rooms or sources of
light that are too low can easily fall within the angle of vision that produces glare.

3. Distribution of luminance among different objects and surfaces: The greater the
differences in luminance are among the objects within the field of vision, the greater
will be the glare created and the greater will be the deterioration in the capacity to see
due to the effects on the adaptive processes of sight. The maximum recommended
luminance disparities are:

· visual task—work surface: 3:1

· visual task—surroundings: 10:1

4. Time frame of the exposure: Even light sources with a low luminance can cause
glare if the length of the exposure is prolonged too much.

Avoiding glare is a relatively simple proposition and can be achieved in different

ways. One way, for example, is by placing grilles under the sources of illumination, or
by using enveloping diffusers or parabolic reflectors that can direct light properly, or
by installing the sources of light in such a way that they will not interfere with the
angle of vision. When designing the work site, the correct distribution of luminance is
as important as the illumination itself, but it is also important to consider that a
distribution of luminance that is too uniform makes the three-dimensional and spatial
perception of objects more difficult.

Lighting Systems

The interest in natural illumination has increased recently. This is due less to the
quality of illumination it affords than to the well-being that it provides. But since the
level of illumination from natural sources is not uniform, an artificial lighting system
is required.

The most common lighting systems used are the following:

General uniform illumination

In this system light sources are spread out evenly without regard to the location of the
work stations. The average level of illumination should be equal to the level of
illumination required for the task that will be carried out. These systems are used
mainly in workplaces where work stations are not fixed.

It should conform to three fundamental characteristics: The first is to be equipped

with anti-glare devices (grilles, diffusers, reflectors and so on). The second is that it
should distribute a fraction of the light toward the ceiling and the upper part of the
walls. And the third is that the light sources should be installed as high as possible, to
minimize glare and achieve illumination that is as homogeneous as possible.
(See figure 46.13)

Figure 46.13 Lighting systems

Local illumination and general illumination
This system tries to reinforce the general illumination scheme by placing lamps close
to the work surfaces. These types of lamps often produce glare, and reflectors should
be placed in such a way that they block the source of light from the direct sight of the
worker. The use of localized illumination is recommended for those applications
where visual demands are very critical, such as levels of illumination of 1,000 lux or
greater. Generally, visual capacity deteriorates with the age of the worker, which
makes it necessary to increase the level of general illumination or to second it with
localized illumination. This phenomenon can be clearly appreciated in figure 46.14 .

Figure 46.14 Loss of visual acuity with age

General localized illumination

This type of illumination consists of ceiling sources distributed with two things in
mind—the illumination characteristics of the equipment and the illumination needs of
each work station. This type of illumination is indicated for those spaces or work
areas that will require a high level of illumination, and it requires knowing the future
location of each work station in advance of the design stage.

Colour: Basic Concepts

Selecting an adequate colour for a worksite contributes a great deal to the efficiency,
safety and general well-being of the employees. In the same way, the finish of the
surfaces and of the equipment found in the work environment contributes to creating
pleasant visual conditions and a pleasant work environment.
Ordinary light consists of electromagnetic radiations of different wavelengths that
correspond to each of the bands of the visible spectrum. By mixing red, yellow and
blue light we can obtain most of the visible colours, including white. Our perception
of the colour of an object depends on the colour of the light with which it is
illuminated and on the way the object itself reflects light.

Lamps can be classified into three categories depending on the appearance of the light
they emit:

· colour with a warm appearance: a white, reddish light recommended for

residential use

· colour with intermediate appearance: a white light recommended for worksites

· colour with a cold appearance: a white, bluish light recommended for tasks that
require a high level of illumination or for hot climates.

Colours may also be classified as warm or cold according to their tonality (see figure

Figure 46.15 Tonality of "warm" and "cold" colours

Contrast and temperature of different colours

Colour contrasts are influenced by the colour of the light selected, and for that reason
the quality of illumination will depend on the colour of the light chosen for an
application. The selection of the colour of light to be used should be made based on
the task that will be carried out under it. If the colour is close to white, the rendition of
colour and the diffusion of light will be better. The more light approaches the red end
of the spectrum the worse the reproduction of colour will be, but the environment will
be warmer and more inviting.

The colour appearance of illumination depends not only on the colour of light, but
also on the level of luminous intensity. A colour temperature is associated with the
different forms of illumination. The sensation of satisfaction with the illumination of a
given environment depends on this colour temperature. In this way, for example, a
100 W incandescent filament light bulb has a colour temperature of 2,800 K, a
fluorescent tube has a colour temperature of 4,000 K and an overcast sky has a colour
temperature of 10,000 K.

Kruithof defined, through empirical observations, a diagram of well-being for

different levels of illumination and colour temperatures in a given environment
(see figure 46.16). In this way, he demonstrated that it is possible to feel comfortable
in certain environments with low levels of illumination if the colour temperature is
also low—if the level of illumination is one candle, for example, with a colour
temperature of 1,750 K.

Figure 46.16 Comfort diagram as a function of illumination and colour temperatures

The colours of electric lamps can be subdivided into three groups related to their
colour temperatures:

· daylight white—around 6,000 K

· neutral white—around 4,000 K

· warm white—around 3,000 K

Combination and selection of colours

The selection of colours is very relevant when we consider it together with those
functions where identifying the objects that must be manipulated is important. It is
also relevant when delimiting avenues of communication and in those tasks that
require sharp contrast.

The selection of tonality is not as important a question as the selection of the proper
reflective qualities of a surface. There are several recommendations that apply to this
aspect of work surfaces:
Ceilings: The surface of a ceiling should be as white as possible (with a reflection
factor of 75%), because light will then reflect from it in a diffuse way, dissipating
darkness and reducing the glare from other surfaces. This will also mean a savings in
artificial lighting.

Walls and floors: The surfaces of walls at eye level can produce glare. Pale colours
with reflective factors of 50 to 75% tend to be adequate for walls. While glossy paints
tend to last longer than matte colours, they are more reflective. Walls should therefore
have a matte or semi-gloss finish.

Floors should be finished in slightly darker colours than walls and ceilings to avoid
glare. The reflective factor of floors should be between 20 and 25%.

Equipment: Work surfaces, machinery and tables should have reflective factors of
between 20 and 40%. Equipment should have a lasting finish of pure colour—light
browns or greys—and the material should not be shiny.

The proper use of colours in the work environment facilitates well-being, increases
productivity and can have a positive impact on quality. It can also contribute to better
organization and the prevention of accidents.

There is a generalized belief that whitening the walls and ceilings and supplying
adequate levels of illumination is all that can possibly be done as far as the visual
comfort of employees is concerned. But these comfort factors can be improved by
combining white with other colours, thus avoiding the fatigue and the boredom that
characterize monochromatic environments. Colours also have an effect on a person’s
level of stimulation; warm colours tend to activate and relax, while cold colours are
used to induce the individual to release or liberate his or her energy.

The colour of light, its distribution, and the colours used in a given space are, among
others, key factors that influence the sensations a person feels. Given the many
colours and comfort factors that exist, it is impossible to set precise guidelines,
especially considering that all these factors must be combined according to the
characteristics and the requirements of a particular work station. A number of basic
and general practical rules can be listed, however, that can help create a liveable

· Bright colours produce comfortable, stimulating and serene feelings, while dark
colours tend to have a depressing effect.

· Sources of warm-coloured light help reproduce warm colours well. Warm-

coloured objects are more pleasing to the eye in warm light than in cold light.
· Clear and dull colours (like pastels) are very appropriate as background colours,
while objects should have rich and saturated colours.

· Warm colours excite the nervous system and give the sensation that temperature is

· Cold colours are preferable for objects. They have a calming effect and can be
used to produce the effect of curvature. Cold colours help create the sensation that
temperature is dropping.

· The sensation of colour of an object depends on the background colour and on the
effect of the light source on its surface.

· Environments that are physically cold or hot can be tempered by using warm or
cold lighting, respectively.

· The intensity of a colour will be inversely proportional to the part of the normal
visual field that it occupies.

· The spatial appearance of a room can be influenced by colour. A room will seem
to have a lower ceiling if its walls are painted a bright colour and the floor and ceiling
are darker, and it will seem to have a higher ceiling if the walls are darker and the
ceiling is bright.

Identifying objects through colour

The selection of colours can influence the effectiveness of lighting systems by

influencing the fraction of light that is reflected. But colour also plays a key role when
it comes to identifying objects. We can use brilliant and eye-catching colours or
colour contrasts to highlight situations or objects that require special attention. Table
46.7 lists some of the factors of reflection for different colours and materials.

Table 46.7 Reflection factors of different colours and materials illuminated with white

Colour/material Reflection factor (%)

White 100
White paper 80–85
Ivory, lime-yellow 70–75
Bright yellow, light ochre, light green, pastel blue, light pink, 60–65
Lime-green, pale gray, pink, orange, blue-gray 50–55
Blond wood, blue sky 40–45
Oak, dry concrete 30–35
Deep red, leaf-green, olive-green, meadow-green 20–25
Dark blue, purple 10–15
Black 0

In any case, identification by colour should be employed only when it is truly

necessary, since identification by colour will work properly only if there are not too
many objects that are highlighted by colour. The following are some
recommendations for identifying different elements by colour:

· Fire and safety equipment: It is advisable to identify this equipment by placing a

recognizable graphic on the nearest wall so that it can be found quickly.

· Machinery: The colouring of stop or emergency devices with bright colours on all
machinery is critical. It is also advisable to mark with colour the areas that need
lubrication or periodic maintenance, which can add ease and functionality to these

· Tubing and pipes: If they are important or carry dangerous substances the best
advice is to colour them completely. In some cases it may be enough to colour only a
line along their length.

· Stairways: In order to make descent easier, one band for every step is preferable to

· Risks: Colour should be used to identify a risk only when the risk cannot be
eliminated. Identification will be much more effective if it is carried out according to
a predetermined colour code.


N. Alan Smith

Lighting is provided within interiors in order to satisfy the following requirements:

· to assist in providing a safe working environment

· to assist in the performance of visual tasks

· to develop an appropriate visual environment.

The provision of a safe working environment has to be at the top of the list of
priorities, and, in general, safety is increased by making hazards clearly visible. The
order of priority of the other two requirements will depend to a large extent upon the
use to which the interior is put. Task performance can be improved by ensuring that
task detail is easier to see, while appropriate visual environments are developed by
varying the lighting emphasis given to objects and surfaces within an interior.

Our general feeling of well-being, including morale and fatigue, is influenced by light
and colour. Under low lighting levels, objects would have little or no colour or shape
and there would be a loss in perspective. Conversely an excess of light may be just as
unwanted as too little light.

In general, people prefer a room with daylight to a room which is windowless.

Furthermore, contact with the outside world is considered to aid the feeling of well-
being. The introduction of automatic lighting controls, together with high-frequency
dimming of fluorescent lamps, has made it possible to provide interiors with a
controlled combination of daylight and artificial light. This has the added benefit of
saving on energy costs.

Perception of the character of an interior is influenced by both the brightness and

colour of visible surfaces, both interior and exterior. The general lighting conditions
within an interior can be achieved by using daylight or artificial lighting, or more
likely by a combination of both.

Evaluation of Lighting

General requirements

Lighting systems used in commercial interiors can be sub-divided into three major
categories—general lighting, localized lighting and local lighting.

General lighting installations typically provide an approximately uniform illuminance

over the whole of the working plane. Such systems are often based upon the lumen
method of design, where an average illuminance is:

Average illuminance (lux) =

Localized lighting systems provide illuminance on general work areas with a
simultaneous reduced level of illuminance in adjacent areas.

Local lighting systems provide illuminance for relatively small areas incorporating
visual tasks. Such systems are normally complemented by a specified level of general
lighting. Figure 46.17 illustrates the typical differences between the systems

Figure 46.17 Lighting systems

Where visual tasks are to be performed it is essential to achieve a demanded level of

illuminance and to consider the circumstances that influence its quality.
The use of daylight to illuminate tasks has both merits and limitations. Windows
admitting daylight into an interior provide good three-dimensional modelling, and
though the spectral distribution of daylight varies throughout the day, its colour
rendering is generally considered to be excellent.

However, a constant illuminance on a task cannot be provided by natural daylight

only, due to its wide variability, and if the task is within the same field of view as a
bright sky, then disabling glare is likely to occur, thereby impairing task performance.
The use of daylight for task illuminance has only partial success, and artificial
lighting, over which greater control can be exercised, has a major role to play.

Since the human eye will perceive surfaces and objects only through light which is
reflected from them, it follows that surface characteristics and reflectance values
together with the quantity and quality of light will influence the appearance of the

When considering the lighting of an interior it is essential to determine the

illuminance level and to compare it with recommended levels for different tasks
(see table 46.8).

Table 46.8 Typical recommended levels of maintained illuminance for different locations or
visual tasks

Location/Task Typical recommended level of maintained

illuminance (lux)
General offices 500
Computer workstations 500
Factory assembly areas
Rough work 300
Medium work 500
Fine work 750
Very fine work
Instrument assembly 1,000
Jewellery assembly/repairs 1,500
Hospital operating theatres 50,000

Lighting for visual tasks

The ability of the eye to discern detail—visual acuity—is significantly influenced by
task size, contrast and the viewer’s visual performance. Increase in the quantity and
quality of lighting will also significantly improve visual performance. The effect of
lighting on task performance is influenced by the size of the critical details of the task
and upon the contrast between task and surrounding background. Figure 46.18 shows
the effects of illuminance upon visual activity. When considering visual task lighting
it is important to consider the ability of the eye to carry out the visual task with both
speed and accuracy. This combination is known as visual performance. Figure
46.19 gives typical effects of illuminance on the visual performance of a given task.

Figure 46.18 Typical relationship between visual acuity and illuminance

Figure 46.19 Typical relationship between visual performance and illuminance

The prediction of illuminance reaching a working surface is of prime importance in
lighting design. However, the human visual system responds to the distribution of
luminance within the field of view. The scene within a visual field is interpreted by
differentiating between surface colour, reflectance and illumination. Luminance
depends upon both the illuminance on, and reflectance of, a surface. Both illuminance
and luminance are objective quantities. The response to brightness, however, is

In order to produce an environment which provides visual satisfaction, comfort and

performance, luminances within the field of view need to be balanced. Ideally the
luminances surrounding a task should decrease gradually, thereby avoiding harsh
contrasts. Suggested variation in luminance across a task is shown in figure 46.20 .

Figure 46.20 Variation in luminance across a task

The lumen method of lighting design leads to an average horizontal plane illuminance
on the working plane, and it is possible to use the method to establish average
illuminance values on the walls and ceilings within an interior. It is possible to
convert average illuminance values into average luminance values from details of the
mean reflectance value of the room surfaces.

The equation relating luminance and illuminance is:

Figure 46.21 shows a typical office with relative illuminance values (from an
overhead general lighting system) on the main room surfaces together with suggested
reflectances. The human eye tends to be drawn to that part of the visual scene which is
brightest. It follows that higher luminance values usually occur at a visual task area.
The eye acknowledges detail within a visual task by discriminating between lighter
and darker parts of the task.

The variation in brightness of a visual task is determined from calculation of the

luminance contrast:

Lt = Luminance of the task

Lb = Luminance of the background

and both luminances are measured in cd·m–2

The vertical lines in this equation signify that all values of luminance contrast are to
be considered positive.

The contrast of a visual task will be influenced by the reflectance properties of the
task itself. See figure 46.21 .

Figure 46.21 Typical relative illuminance values together with suggested

reflectance values

Optical Control of Lighting

If a bare lamp is used in a luminaire, the distribution of light is unlikely to be

acceptable and the system will almost certainly be uneconomical. In such situations
the bare lamp is likely to be a source of glare to the room occupants, and while some
light may eventually reach the working plane, the effectiveness of the installation is
likely to be seriously reduced because of the glare.
It will be evident that some form of light control is required, and the methods most
frequently employed are detailed below.


If a lamp is installed within an opaque enclosure with only a single aperture for the
light to escape, then the light distribution will be very limited, as shown in figure
46.22 .

Figure 46.22 Lighting output control by obstruction


This method uses reflective surfaces, which may vary from a highly matt finish to a
highly specular or mirror-like finish. This method of control is more efficient than
obstruction, since stray light is collected and redirected to where it is required. The
principle involved is shown in figure 46.23 .

Figure 46.23 Light output control by reflection


If a lamp is installed within a translucent material, the apparent size of the light source
is increased with a simultaneous reduction in its brightness. Practical diffusers
unfortunately absorb some of the emitted light, which consequently reduces the
overall efficiency of the luminaire. Figure 46.24 illustrates the principle of diffusion.

Figure 46.24 Light output control by diffusion

This method uses the “prism” effect, where typically a prism material of glass or
plastic “bends” the rays of light and in so doing redirects the light to where it is
required. This method is extremely suitable for general interior lighting. It has the
advantage of combining good glare control with an acceptable efficiency. Figure
46.25 shows how refraction assists in optical control.

Figure 46.25 Light output control by refraction

In many cases a luminaire will use a combination of the methods of optical control

Luminance distribution

The light output distribution from a luminaire is significant in determining the visual
conditions subsequently experienced. Each of the four methods of optical control
described will produce differing light output distribution properties from the

Veiling reflections often occur in areas where VDUs are installed. The usual
symptoms experienced in such situations are reduced ability to read correctly from the
text on a screen due to the appearance of unwanted high-luminance images on the
screen itself, typically from overhead luminaires. A situation can develop where
veiling reflections also appear on paper on a desk in an interior.

If the luminaires in an interior have a strong vertically downward component of light

output, then any paper on a desk beneath such a luminaire will reflect the light source
into the eyes of an observer who is reading from or working on the paper. If the paper
has a gloss finish, the situation is aggravated.

The solution to the problem is to arrange for the luminaires used to have a light output
distribution which is predominantly at an angle to the downward vertical, so that
following the basic laws of physics (angle of incidence = angle of reflection) the
reflected glare will be minimized. Figure 46.26 shows a typical example of both the
problem and the cure. The light output distribution from the luminaire used to
overcome the problem is referred to as a batwing distribution.

Figure 46.26 Veiling reflections

Light distribution from luminaires can also lead to direct glare, and in an attempt to
overcome this problem, local lighting units should be installed outside the 45-degree
“forbidden angle”, as shown in figure 46.27 .

Figure 46.27 Diagrammatic representation of the forbidden angle

Optimal Lighting Conditions for Visual Comfort and Performance

It is appropriate when investigating lighting conditions for visual comfort and

performance to consider those factors affecting the ability to see detail. These can be
sub-divided into two categories—characteristics of the observer and characteristics of
the task.
Characteristics of the observer.

These include:

· sensitivity of the individual’s visual system to size, contrast, exposure time

· transient adaptation characteristics

· susceptibility to glare

· age

· motivational and psychological characteristics.

Characteristics of the task.

These include:

· configuration of detail
· contrast of detail/background

· background luminance

· specularity of detail.

With reference to particular tasks, the following questions need to be answered:

· Are the task details easy to see?

· Is the task likely to be undertaken for lengthy periods?

· If errors result from the performance of the task, are the consequences considered
to be serious?

In order to produce optimal workplace lighting conditions it is important to consider

the requirements placed upon the lighting installation. Ideally task lighting should
reveal colour, size, relief and surface qualities of a task while simultaneously avoiding
the creation of potentially dangerous shadows, glare and “harsh” surroundings to the
task itself.

Glare occurs when there is excessive luminance in the field of view. The effects of
glare on vision can be divided into two groups, termed disability glare and discomfort

Consider the example of glare from the headlights of an oncoming vehicle during
darkness. The eye cannot adapt simultaneously to the headlights of the vehicle and to
the much lower brightness of the road. This is an example of disability glare, since the
high luminance light sources produce a disabling effect due to the scattering of light in
the optic media. Disability glare is proportional to the intensity of the offending
source of light.

Discomfort glare, which is more likely to occur in interiors, can be reduced or even
totally eliminated by reducing the contrast between the task and its surroundings.
Matt, diffusely reflecting finishes on work surfaces are to be preferred to gloss or
specularly reflecting finishes, and the position of any offending light source should be
outside the normal field of vision. In general, successful visual performance occurs
when the task itself is brighter than its immediate surrounds, but not excessively.

The magnitude of discomfort glare is given a numerical value and compared with
reference values in order to predict whether the level of discomfort glare will be
acceptable. The method of calculation of glare index values used in the UK and
elsewhere is considered under “Measurement”.


Lighting surveys

One survey technique often used relies upon a grid of measuring points over the
whole area under consideration. The basis of this technique is to divide the whole of
the interior into a number of equal areas, each ideally square. The illuminance at the
centre of each of the areas is measured at desk-top height (typically 0.85 metres above
floor level), and an average value of illuminance is calculated. The accuracy of the
value of average illuminance is influenced by the number of measuring points used.

A relationship exists which enables the minimum number of measuring points to be

calculated from the value of room index applicable to the interior under consideration.

Here, length and width refer to the room dimensions, and mounting height is the
vertical distance between the centre of the light source and the working plane.

The relationship referred to is given as:

where “x” is the value of the room index taken to the next highest whole number,
except that for all values of RI equal to or greater than 3, x is taken as 4. This equation
gives the minimum number of measuring points, but conditions often require more
than this minimum number of points to be used.

When considering the lighting of a task area and its immediate surround, variance in
illuminance or uniformity of illuminance must be considered.

Over any task area and its immediate surround, uniformity should be not less than 0.8.
In many workplaces it is unnecessary to illuminate all areas to the same level.
Localized or local lighting may provide some degree of energy saving, but whichever
system is used the variance in illuminance across an interior must not be excessive.

The diversity of illuminance is expressed as:

At any point in the major area of the interior, the diversity of illuminance should not
exceed 5:1.

Instruments used for measuring illuminance and luminance typically have spectral
responses which vary from the response of the human visual system. The responses
are corrected, often by the use of filters. When filters are incorporated, the instruments
are referred to as colour corrected.

Illuminance meters have a further correction applied which compensates for the
direction of incident light falling upon the detector cell. Instruments which are capable
of accurately measuring illuminance from varying directions of incident light are said
to be cosine corrected.

Measurement of glare index

The system used frequently in the UK, with variations elsewhere, is essentially a two-
stage process. The first stage establishes an uncorrected glare index value
(UGI). Figure 46.28 provides an example.

Figure 46.28 Elevation and plan views of typical interior used in example
The height H is the vertical distance between the centre of the light source and the eye
level of a seated observer, which is normally taken as 1.2 metres above floor level.
The major dimensions of the room are then converted into multiples of H. Thus, since
H = 3.0 metres, then length = 4H and width = 3H. Four separate calculations of UGI
have to be made in order to determine the worst case scenario in accordance with the
layouts shown in figure 46.29 .

Figure 46.29 Possible combinations of luminaire orientation and viewing direction within
the interior considered in the example
Tables are produced by lighting equipment manufacturers which specify, for given
values of fabric reflectance within a room, values of uncorrected glare index for each
combination of values of X and Y.

The second stage of the process is to apply correction factors to the UGI values
depending upon values of lamp output flux and deviation in value of height (H).

The final glare index value is then compared with the Limiting Glare Index value for
specific interiors, given in references such as the CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). 1993. Lighting Guide.
London: CIBSE.

—. 1994. Code for Interior Lighting. London: CIBSE.

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE). 1992. Maintenance of Indoor

Electric Lighting Systems. CIE Technical Report No. 97. Austria: CIE.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 1993. International Lamp Coding

System. IEC document no. 123-93. London: IEC.

Lighting Industry Federation. 1994. Lighting Industry Federation Lamp Guide.

London: Lighting Industry Federation.


Association française de normalisation. 1975. Couleurs d’ambiance pour les lieux de
travail. Norme française enregistrée NF X 08-004. CIS document No. 76-1288. Paris:
Tour Europe.

Bestratén, M, R Chavarria, A Hernandez, P Luna, C Nogareda, S Nogareda, M

Oncins, and MG Solé. 1994. Ergonomía. Centro Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo.
Barcelona: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo.

Cayless, MA and AM Marsden. 1983. Lamps and Lighting. London: E Arnold.

Commission for the European Communities (CEC). 1989. Framework Directive. EC

Directive No. 89/391/EEC. Brussels: CEC.
De Boer, JB and D Fischer. 1981. Interior Lighting. Antwerp: Philips Technical

Department of Productivity. 1979. Artificial Light at Work. Occupational Safety and

Health Working Environment, No. 6. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing

—. 1980. Colour at work. Occupational Safety and Health Working Environment, No.
8. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Gardiner, K and JM Harrington. 1995. Occupational Hygiene. Oxford: Blackwell


Grandjean, E. 1988. Fitting the Task to the Man. London: Taylor & Francis.

Greene, TC and PA Bell. 1980. Additional Considerations Concerning the Effect of

‘Warm’ and ‘Cool’ Wall Colours On Energy Conservation. London: Ergonomics.

Illuminating Engineers Society of North America. 1979. American National Standard

Institute. Practice of Industrial Lighting. ANSI/IES RP-7-1979. New York:
Illuminating Engineers Society of North America.

—. 1981. Lighting Handbook. New York: Illuminating Engineers Society of North


International Labour Organization (ILO). N.d. Artificial Lighting in Factory and

Office. CIS Information Sheet No. 11. Geneva: ILO.

Mandelo, P. 1994. Fundamentos De Ergonomia. Barcelona: Universidad Politécnica

de Barcelona.

Moon, P. 1961. Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering. London: Dover


Walsh, JWT. N.d. Textbook of Illuminating Engineering. London: Pitman.