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20.1 Progressive Waves

20.2 Wave Intensity
20.3 Principle of Superposition
Chapter 20. Wave motion 20.4 Standing Waves
20.5 Electromagnetic Waves
Liew Sau Poh

Objectives Objectives
a) interpret and use the progressive wave g) describe the variation of intensity with
equation, y = a sin ( t kx) or y = a cos ( t distance of a point source in space
kx) h) state the principle of superposition
b) sketch and interpret the displacement-time i) use the principle of superposition to explain
graph and the displacement-distance graph the formation of standing waves
c) use the formula = 2 x/ j) derive and interpret the standing wave
d) derive and use the relationship v = f equation
e) define intensity and use the relationship I k) distinguish between progressive and
A2 standing waves

3 4

l) state that electromagnetic waves are made up of
electrical vibrations E = E0 sin ( t - kx) and
magnetic vibrations B = B0 sin ( t - kx)
m) state the characteristics of electromagnetic waves
n) compare electromagnetic waves with mechanical
20.1 Progressive waves
o) state the formula c = ( 0 0)1/2 and explain its
p) state the orders of the magnitude of wavelengths
and frequencies for different types of
electromagnetic waves.
5 6

Wave motion Wave motion

All types of traveling waves transport
energy Study of a single wave
pulse shows that it is
begun with a vibration
and transmitted through
internal forces in the
A wave travels
along its medium,
but the individual Continuous waves start
particles just move with vibrations too. If the
vibration is SHM, then the
up and down.
wave will be sinusoidal.
7 8
Wave characteristics Wave characteristics
Amplitude, A
between any two identical points on
adjacent waves
Frequency f and period T
Period T: the time required for two
Wave velocity, v = f identical points of adjacent waves to pass
by a point.

9 10

Wave characteristics Wave characteristics

Frequency f: the inverse of the period. The motion of particles in a wave can either
Amplitude A: The maximum displacement be perpendicular to the wave direction
(transverse) or parallel to it (longitudinal).
Wave velocity, v = f

11 12

Progressive waves Progressive waves

is defined as the one in which the wave There are two types of progressive wave,
profile propagates. a. Transverse progressive waves
The progressive waves have a definite speed b. Longitudinal progressive waves.
called the speed of propagation or wave
The direction of the wave speed is always
in the same direction of the wave
propagation .

13 14

Progressive waves Progressive waves

If the tension in the The wave speed is :
string is T, and its
mass per unit length = 0.002 kg/m

The wave speed is : T mg

V 2 string

15 16
Progressive waves
Traveling in the
positive x-direction
1 2
T 2 f
f T
V f
T k 2 k

k (wave number) 2
D ( x, 0) A sin( x o )
D( x, t ) A sin(kx t )

17 18

Longitudinal and Transverse Waves Longitudinal and Transverse Waves

Sound waves are longitudinal waves:

The motion of particles in a wave can

either be perpendicular to the wave
direction (transverse) or parallel to it
19 20

Reflection and Transmission of

Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
Earthquakes produce both longitudinal and A wave reaching
transverse waves. Both types can travel through the end of its
solid material, but only longitudinal waves can medium, but
where the
propagate through a fluid in the transverse medium is still
direction, a fluid has no restoring force. free to move, will
Surface waves are waves that travel along the be reflected (b),
and its reflection
boundary between two media. will be upright.
A wave hitting an
obstacle will be
reflected (a), and
its reflection will
be inverted.
21 22

Reflection and Transmission of Reflection and Transmission of

Waves Waves
A wave encountering Two- or three-
a denser medium dimensional waves can
be represented by wave
will be partly fronts, which are curves
reflected and partly of surfaces where all the
transmitted; if the waves have the same
wave speed is less in phase.
the denser medium, Lines perpendicular to
the wavelength will the wave fronts are
called rays; they point
be shorter. in the direction of
FT FT propagation of the
v wave.
M /L
23 24
Reflection and Transmission of
The law of reflection: the angle of
incidence equals the angle of reflection.

20.2 Wave Intensity

25 26

Wave Power and Intensity 20.2 Wave Intensity

The power carried by a wave is Definition: the amount of energy transferred
given by 2
by waves that passes through unit area per
P aA v second of any plane surface normal to the
direction of propagation of the waves.
where a is a constant that depends
on the kind of wave. The intensity
Unit: Js-1m-2 , or W m-2
of a wave is the power per unit area
at the wavefront. Area (sphere), A = 4 r2
P P spherical
Area 4 r2 wavefront
of wave
27 28

20.2 Wave Intensity 20.2 Wave Intensity

A point source of disturbance generates waves Wavefront: a surface on which all particles
that propagate outwards in three dimensions vibrate in phase with one another.
in a homogenous medium. It can radiate
energy of P joules per second (P watts). Spherical wavefront
Since the source of disturbance is a point
source, the waves radiated from the source
travel outwards in all possible directions, Direction of the
resulting in wavefronts being spherical in propagation
shape, with the source as the centre.

29 30

20.2 Wave Intensity 20.2 Wave Intensity

At a particular instance, let the radius of one Therefore, the amount of energy crossing unit
spherical wavefront be r. The surface area A of area is P/ 4 r2.
the wavefront is equal to the surface of a By definition, this amount of energy is equal
sphere given by to the intensity I at distance r from the
A = 4 r2 source.
The amount of energy crossing the entire Thus, the intensity, I = P/A = P/4 r2.
spherical surface of this wavefront every Hence,
second must be P joules (the power radiated I P
by the source).
I 1/r2

31 32
Sound and the Human Ear Wave Intensities
The human ear is an amazing instrument. It can Wave Intensity,
respond to sound intensities that differ by a factor of W/m2
a trillion!
A whisper at 1m 10-10
The ear can do this because of its non-linear
response to intensity. It turns out to be better to
describe sound intensities in terms of decibels (dB): TV signal, 5km from 50 kW 1.6 x 10-4
where I is in W/m2 and transmitter
I I0 = 10-12 W/m2. An increase of 10 Sound, 4m from a loud rock band 1
I0 dB corresponds to an intensity Sound, 50 m from a jet aircraft 10
increase of a factor or 10.
Pain threshold ~ 130 dB
33 Microwaves,
34 inside a microwave oven 6000
33 34

20.3 Superposition
The superposition principle says that when two
waves pass through the same point, the
displacement is the arithmetic sum of the
individual displacements.
20.3 Principle of Superposition

35 36

20.3 Superposition 20.3 Superposition

37 38

20.3 Superposition 20.3 Superposition

(a) exhibits destructive interference These figures show the sum of two waves.
In (a) they add constructively; in (b) they
(b) exhibits constructive interference.
add destructively; and in (c) they add
partially destructively.

39 40
In Phase 41
180o out of phase 42

20.4 Standing Waves

Between in phase and 180o out of phase 43 43 44

20.4 Standing /Stationary waves 20.4 Standing /Stationary waves

The frequencies of Standing waves occur
when both ends of a
the standing waves string are fixed. In that
on a particular case, only waves which
string are called are motionless at the
resonant ends of the string can
persist. There are
frequencies. nodes, where the
They are also amplitude is always
referred to as the zero, and antinodes,
where the amplitude
fundamental and varies from zero to the
harmonics. maximum value.
45 46

20.4 Standing /Stationary waves 20.4 Standing /Stationary waves

The characteristics of Stationary wave
The wavelengths and frequencies of
Nodes and antinodes are appear at particular time that
standing waves are: is determine by the equation of the stationary wave.

Node (N) is defined as a

N A N A N A N point at which the
displacement is zero where
the destructive interference
Antinode (A) is defined as a
point at which the
displacement is maximum
4 where the constructive
interference occurred.
The distance between adjacent nodes or antinodes is?
The distance between a node and an adjacent antinode
= 2(the distance between adjacent nodes or antinodes)

47 48
20.4 Standing /Stationary waves 20.4 Standing /Stationary waves
The pattern of the stationary wave is fixed hence the The Equation of Stationary wave
amplitude of each points along the medium are By considering wave functions(equations) for two
different. progressive sinusoidal waves having the same
Thus the nodes and antinodes appear at particular amplitude, frequency and wavelength but travelling
distance and determine by the equation of the in opposite directions in the same medium as shown
stationary wave. below.
y1 a sin( t k x )
y2 a sin( t k x )
where y1 represents a wave travelling in the +x
direction and y2 represents one travelling in the x
direction. By applying the principle of superposition

49 50

20.4 Standing /Stationary waves 20.4 Standing /Stationary waves

y y1 y 2 Description of the equation of stationary wave
y a s in t k x a s in t k x
A cos k x
y a s in t c o s k x c o s t s in k x a s in t c o s k x c o s t s in k x determine the amplitude for any point along
y 2 a s in t c o s k x the stationary wave.
The general equation of stationary wave is given by It is called the amplitude formula.
Its value depend on the distance, x
y A c o s k x sin t and A 2a
where A : the amplitude of the stationary wave
a : the amplitude of the progressive wave
: the angular frequency
k : the wave number
51 52

20.4 Standing /Stationary waves

Antinodes The point with minimum displacement = 0
The point with maximum displacement = A A cos kx 0
A cos kx A cos kx 0
cos kx 1 kx cos 1 0
kx 1
cos 1 3 5
kx , , ,...
kx 0 , , 2 , 3 ,. .. 2 2 2
n where n 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , .. .
kx m where m 0 ,1 , 2 , 3 ,... kx
m 2 2
x and k n and 2
k x k
m 2k
Therefore x Antinodes are occur when
2 3 n Nodes are
3 5
Therefore x x ,, ,...
x 0, , , ,... 4 occur when 4 4 4
2 2
53 54

sin t
determine the time for antinodes and nodes will occur The point with minimum displacement = 0
in the stationary wave. All the point in the stationary wave at the
Antinodes equilibrium position (y = 0)
The point with maximum displacement = A
A sin t A A s in t 0
s in t 1 s in t 0
t sin 1
1 t sin 1 0
3 5
, , ,... t 0 , , 2 , 3 ,...
2 2 2 t m where m 0 ,1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ,...
t where n 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 ,... 2
2 m and
n 2 t
t and T
2 T Nodes occur when the time are

Therefore t
T Antinodes T 3T 5T m T 3T
4 occur when t , , ,... Therefore t T t 0, , T , ,...
the time are 4 4 4 2 2 2
55 56
20.4 Standing /Stationary waves Characteristics of Standing Waves
Displacement-distance graph for stationary Nodes and antinodes remain stationary
wave Nodes points of least amplitude
Antinodes points of maximum amplitude
y T
t Resulting from interference
4 Waves of
t 0, ,T Equal amplitude
0 x Equal wavelength
3 5 3 7 2 3T
t Pass thru each other
A 4 2 4 4 2 4 4
In opposite directions
Out of phase at nodes (regions of stable destructive

57 58

20.5 Electromagnetic Waves


Introduction: EM Waves Introduction: EM Waves

Waves that can transmit energy without Electromagnetic waves are transverse
a medium or material to travel through waves.
(light waves, heat waves, any waves in They consist of both a changing electric
space, etc.) field and a changing magnetic field.
The fields are at right angles to each
other and to the direction of the wave. leu16_img01.jpg

61 62

Introduction: EM Waves James Clerk Maxwell

1831 1879
Developed the
electromagnetic theory of
Developed the kinetic theory
of gases
Explained the nature of color
Explained the nature of

Died of cancer
63 64
Electromagnetic Waves
In empty space, q = 0 and I = 0
In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell provided a
mathematical theory that showed a close Maxwell predicted the existence of electromagnetic
relationship between all electric and magnetic
The electromagnetic waves consist of oscillating
electric and magnetic fields
The changing fields induce each other which
existence of electromagnetic waves that maintains the propagation of the wave
propagate through space A changing electric field induces a magnetic
Einstein showed these equations are in field
agreement with the special theory of relativity A changing magnetic field induces an electric
65 66

Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves are formed when an When you listen to the radio, watch TV,
electric field couples with a magnetic field. or cook dinner in a microwave oven, you
The magnetic and electric fields of an are using electromagnetic waves.
electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to
Radio waves, television waves, and
each other and to the direction of the wave.
microwaves are all types of
James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz
studied how electromagnetic waves are
electromagnetic waves. They differ from
formed and how fast they travel. each other in wavelength.
Wavelength is the distance between
wave crests.
67 68

Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic Radiation: Scientists have observed that
Electromagnetic waves are produced by electromagnetic radiation has a dual
the motion of electrically charged "personality."
Besides acting like waves, it acts like a
These waves are also called
"electromagnetic radiation" because they stream of particles (called "photons")
radiate from the electrically charged that have no mass.
particles. The photons with the highest energy
They travel through empty space as well correspond to the shortest wavelengths.
as through air and other substances.
69 70

Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves

When matter is heated, it gives off light.
For example, turning on an ordinary light wrong, it still provided insight as to why
bulb causes an electric current to flow electromagnetic radiation is given off.
through a metal filament that heats the It is due to accelerating electrons,
filament and produces light.
The electrical energy absorbed by the contribution is that the radius of the
filament excites the atoms' electrons, causing orbit of the electrons must be
them to "wiggle". constrained to certain values, and not
This absorbed energy released from the atoms just any value. At such a place the
in the form of light. electron could orbit the nucleus and not
give off any radiation. 72
Plane em Waves Plane em Waves
Assume that the Assume an em wave
vectors for the that travels in the x
electric and direction with the
magnetic fields in an electric field in the y
em wave have a direction and the
specific space-time magnetic field in the
behavior that is z direction
consistent with

73 74

Plane em Waves, cont Rays

The x-direction is the direction of A ray is a line along which the wave travels
propagation All the rays for the type of linearly polarized
Waves in which the electric and waves that have been discussed are parallel
magnetic fields are restricted to being The collection of waves is called a plane
parallel to a pair of perpendicular axes
are said to be linearly polarized waves A surface connecting points of equal phase on
all waves, called the wave front, is a
Assume that at any point in space, the geometric plane
magnitudes E and B of the fields depend
upon x and t only
75 76

Comparing EM vs Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Vibrations

EM Waves Mechanical Waves Electric vibration, E = E0sin (wt kx)
Can propagate Need a medium Magnetic vibration, B = B0 sin (wt kx)
through vacuum E is perpendicular to B

Transverse waves Transverse or

Originate from Originate from the
changing electric / oscillation of the

magnetic fields particles of a

medium 77 78

EM wave

No charges, no EdA 0
currents closed surface

BdA 0
Changing magnetic closed surface
E B Ey E0 sin( kx t)
field creates electric
Bz B0 sin(kx t)
d B vx v
Edl E v E/B v

field closed path

dt 2 f

Changing electric B v f v
d E
field creates Bdl 0 0
dt 1 1
magnetic field closed path
v 3.0 108 m / s
12 7
79 0 0 8.85 10 4 10 The speed of light!!
EM spectrum Energy in EM wave
EM waves transport energy 1 1
u 0 E2 B2
Energy density: 2 2 0

1 2 1 2
0 E0 B0
2 2
f B0 E0 / c

Poynting vector (energy transported by EM wave per

c f unit time per unit area) 1
c speed of light (m/s)
Average energy per unit time per unit area
f frequency (Hz=1/s) 1
S Erms Brms
wavelength (m) 0
81 82

Average intensity Energy transported by waves

Displacement D follows harmonic oscillation: Intensity of oscillation I
D D0 sin( t ) (energy per unit area/ per
Intensity (brightness for light) I is proportional to sec) is proportional to
electric field squared amplitude squared D2
2 2
I D I I 0 sin ( t ) 3D wave (from energy
Average over time (one period of oscillation) I: conservation):
T D12 4pr12= D22 4pr22
I I0 sin 2 ( t )dt I0 sin 2 ( t )d t
T0 T 0
1 1
I0 Amplitude of the wave is
I0 sin 2 xdx I0 (1 cos 2 x)dx inversely proportional to
2 2 2 0 2 1
the distance to the source: D
83 84

Properties of EM Waves Properties of em Waves

-like, The components of the electric and
with both E and B satisfying a wave magnetic fields of plane electromagnetic
equation waves are perpendicular to each other
Electromagnetic waves travel at the and perpendicular to the direction of
speed of light propagation
1 This can be summarized by saying that
c electromagnetic waves are transverse
o o
This comes from the solution of

85 86

Derivation of Speed: Some

Properties of em Waves
The magnitudes of the fields in empty
space are related by the expression space, the following partial derivatives can be
c E 2
E 2
B 2
B x2
o o
t2 x2
o o
This also comes from the solution of These are in the form of a general wave
the partial differentials obtained from equation, with
v c 1 o o
Substituting the values for and gives
Electromagnetic waves obey the c = 2.99792 x 108 m/s
o o

superposition principle
87 88
E to B Ratio Some Details E to B Ratio Details, cont
The simplest solution to the partial The speed of the electromagnetic
differential equations is a sinusoidal wave is
wave: 2 ?
E = Emax cos (kx t) E0 E0 sin(kx t) k 2
B = Bmax cos (kx t) B0 B0 sin(kx t)
Taking partial derivations also gives
The angular wave number is k = 2
Emax E
is the wavelength c
The angular frequency is = 2 Bmax k B
89 90

em Wave Representation Doppler Effect for Light

This is a pictorial Light exhibits a Doppler effect
representation, at Remember, the Doppler effect is an
one instant, of a apparent change in frequency due to
sinusoidal, the motion of an observer or the
linearly polarized source
plane wave Since there is no medium required for
moving in the x light waves, only the relative speed, v,
direction between the source and the observer can
E and B vary be identified
sinusoidally with x 91 92

Doppler Effect Doppler Effect

The equation also depends on the laws For galaxies receding from the Earth v is
of relativity entered as a negative number
c v
? ?
c v
v is the relative speed between the wavelength,
source and the observer actual wavelength
c is the speed of light The light is shifted toward the red end
of the spectrum
light seen by the observer
This is what is observed in the red shift
93 94

Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves

When normal white light, such as that from
the sun, is passed through a prism, the light
separates into a continuous spectrum of
Continuous (white light) spectra
Bohr knew that when pure elements were
excited by heat or electricity, they gave off
distinct colors rather than white light.
This phenomenon is most commonly seen
in modern-day neon lights, tubes filled with
gaseous elements (most commonly neon).
95 96
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum
The EM spectrum is the entire range of
White light spectra: wavelengths (or frequencies) of EM waves,
including the visible spectrum

97 98

The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Spectrum of EM Waves

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths Various types of electromagnetic waves make
between 400 nm and 700 nm is visible. In order of up the em spectrum
decreasing wavelength (increasing frequency), the
There is no sharp division between one kind
colors are red (700 nm), orange, yellow, green,
of em wave and the next
blue, violet (400 nm).
All forms of the various types of radiation are
ray X-ray UV Infrared wave radio produced by the same phenomenon
accelerating charges

4000Å 7000Å
99 100

The spectrum of electromagnetic waves The spectrum of electromagnetic waves

Various types of Visible (700 nm to 400
electromagnetic waves, nm): Different
distinguished by frequency or
wavelength, make up the EM wavelengths = different
spectrum. colors
Radio waves (104 m to ~ 0.1 m Ultraviolet (4×10-7 m to 6
): Radio and television
communication ×10-10 m)
Microwaves (0.3 m to 10-4 m): X-rays (10-8 m to 10-12 m)
Radar systems, microwave
ovens Gamma rays (10-10 m to 10-
14 m)
Infrared waves (10-3 m to 7 ×10-
7 m): Produced by hot objects
Emitted by radioactive
and molecules nuclei
101 102

The EM Spectrum Notes on The EM Spectrum

Note the overlap Radio Waves
between types of
Wavelengths of more than 104 m to
about 0.1 m
Visible light is a
small portion of Used in radio and television
the spectrum communication systems
Types are Microwaves
distinguished by Wavelengths from about 0.3 m to 10-4m
frequency or
wavelength Well suited for radar systems
Microwave ovens are an application 104
Notes on the EM Spectrum, 2 More About Visible Light
Infrared waves Different
Wavelengths of about 10-3 m to 7 x 10-7 m wavelengths
correspond to
Produced by hot objects and molecules different colors
Readily absorbed by most materials The range is from
Visible light red ( ~7 x 10-7 m)
Part of the spectrum detected by the human to violet ( ~4 x 10-
eye 7 m)
Most sensitive at about 5.5 x 10-7 m (yellow-
105 106

Visible Light Specific Notes on the EM Spectrum

Wavelengths and Colors Ultraviolet light
Covers about 4 x 10-7 m to 6 x10-10 m
Sun is an important source of uv light
Most uv light from the sun is absorbed in
the stratosphere by ozone
Wavelengths of about 10-8 m to 10-12 m
Most common source is acceleration of
high-energy electrons striking a metal
Used as a diagnostic tool in medicine
107 108

Notes on the EM Spectrum Wavelengths and Information

Gamma rays These are images of
Wavelengths of about 10-10m to 10-14 m the Crab Nebula
Emitted by radioactive nuclei They are (clockwise
Highly penetrating and cause serious from upper left)
damage when absorbed by living tissue taken with
Looking at objects in different portions x-rays
of the spectrum can produce different visible light
information radio waves
infrared waves
109 110

Vibrating objects are sources of waves,
which may be either a pulse or
Summary Wavelength: distance between successive
Frequency: number of crests that pass a
given point per unit time.
Amplitude: maximum height of crest.
Wave velocity, v = f

Electromagnetic Vibrations c
Electric vibration, E = E0sin (wt kx)
Magnetic vibration, B = B0 sin (wt kx) c
E is perpendicular to B o o

C = 2.998 X 108 ms-1

-12 Fm-1 (Free space permittivity)
0 = 8.85 X 10
-7 -1
0 = 4 x 10 Hm (Free space permittivity)

113 114

Electromagnetic Waves Spectrum Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation

Region Wavelength Wavelength Frequency Energ
Electromagnetic waves come in many (Angstroms) (centimeters) (Hz) y
wavelengths and frequencies.
Radio > 109 > 10 < 3 x 109 < 10-5
Each one is useful in different ways.
10-5 -
Microwave 109 - 106 10 - 0.01 3 x 109 - 3 x 1012
0.01 -
Infrared 106 - 7000 0.01 - 7 x 10-5 3 x 1012 - 4.3 x 1014
7 x 10-5 - 4 x 10- 4.3 x 1014 - 7.5 x
Visible 7000 - 4000 5 2-3

Ultraviolet 4000 - 10 4 x 10-5 - 10-7 7.5 x 1014 - 3 x 1017 3 - 103

103 -
X-Rays 10 - 0.1 10-7 - 10-9 3 x 1017 - 3 x 1019
http://science.h q.n ds/imagers/ems/in dex.html
< 0.1 < 10-9 > 3 x 1019 > 105
115 Rays 116