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# ARTICLE IN PRESS

## Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

www.elsevier.com/locate/marstruc

## Thermal expansion of pipe-in-pipe systems

A. Bokaian
PCL, 42 Southwood Close, Worcester Park, Surrey KT4 8QH, UK
Received 6 June 2003; received in revised form 7 September 2004; accepted 7 December 2004

Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model for the thermal expansion of
pipe-in-pipe and bundle systems that are used in the offshore oil and gas industry. The inner
pipe and the outer pipes are assumed to have structural connections through bulkheads at
extremities and spacers or centralisers to prevent contact of the inner and the outer pipes. The
aim is to calculate the displacement and forces on the bulkheads and axial force in the inner
pipe.
In addition to protective pipe-in-pipes, short and long pipe-in-pipes are deﬁned and the
limits between the two are clearly delineated. Analytical methods are extended to study the
effects of exponential temperature gradients along both the inner and the outer pipes, the pipe-
in-pipe length, tie-in spoolpieces, inner pipe weight, seabed and spacer friction and relative
axial stiffness of the inner and the outer pipes on the thermal expansion characteristics. The
iterative approach to solve thermal expansion characteristics proposed can be replaced by
analytical calculation in most practical situations. Simple analytical formulae are suggested
when the outer pipe temperature is constant. Analytical solutions indicate good agreement
with ﬁnite element numerical results.

Keywords: Pipe-in-pipe; Bundle; Thermal expansion; Carrier pipe; Jacket pipe; Inner pipe; Outer pipe

## Tel.:/fax: +44 208 330 3983.

doi:10.1016/j.marstruc.2004.12.002
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Nomenclature

## A parameter as deﬁned in text

Ac outer pipe steel cross-sectional area
Ap inner pipe steel cross-sectional area
Dc outer pipe nominal outer diameter
Dp inner pipe nominal outer diameter
Ec Young’s modulus of elasticity of outer pipe
Ep Young’s modulus of elasticity of inner pipe
Fs tie-in spool friction force (symmetric expansion)
Fs1 upstream tie-in spool friction force
Fs2 downstream tie-in spool friction force
L pipe-in-pipe length
Lo limit length between short and long pipe-in-pipe
L1 length at upstream end over which spacers friction act
L2 length at downstream end over which spacers friction act
Nc force in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
Nc1 force in outer pipe at upstream bulkhead location
Nc2 force in outer pipe at downstream bulkhead location
NT,p1 thermal force in inner pipe at upstream end
NT,p2 thermal force in inner pipe at downstream end
NE end cap force on bulkhead
NE,p end cap force on inner pipe
Neff,p effective axial force in inner pipe
NT,c thermal force on outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
Ntot,p total force in inner pipe
NT,p thermal force in inner pipe
NT,p1 thermal force in inner pipe at upstream end
NT,p2 thermal force in inner pipe at downstream end
Nn,c force due to Poisson’s effect in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
Nn,p force due to Poisson’s effect in inner pipe (symmetric expansion)
N d; force in inner pipe due to displacement of bulkheads
pd,p inner pipe internal design pressure
pamb outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure
pans annulus pressure
Ta ambient temperature
Td,c outer pipe design temperature
Td,p inner pipe design temperature (symmetric expansion)
Ti,c inlet temperature of outer pipe
Ti,p inlet temperature of inner pipe
To,c outlet temperature of outer pipe
To,p outlet temperature of inner pipe
Tz,c temperature in outer pipe at distance z from inlet
Tz,p temperature in inner pipe at distance z from inlet
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## tc outer pipe wall thickness

tp inner pipe wall thickness
Wpip submerged weight of pipe-in-pipe
Wp weight of inner pipe in air
x anchor length (symmetric expansion)
x1 anchor length at upstream end
x2 anchor length at downstream end
n Poisson’s ratio of steel
a thermal expansion coefﬁcient of steel
bc decay constant for outer pipe temperature proﬁle
bp decay constant for inner pipe temperature proﬁle
f soil friction strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
E end cap strain
dtot total displacement (symmetric expansion)
dtot1 total displacement at upstream end
dtot2 total displacement at downstream end
d1 ; d2 upstream and downstream bulkhead displacement, respectively
sh;c hoop stress in outer pipe
sh;p hoop stress in inner pipe
c outer pipe tensile strain
n;p strain in inner pipe due to Poisson’s effect
n;c strain in outer pipe due to Poisson’s effect
net net strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
net1 net strain in outer pipe at upstream end
net1a net strain in outer pipe at upstream end in ﬁrst segment
net1b net strain in outer pipe at upstream end in second segment
net2 total net strain in outer pipe at downstream end
T;c thermal strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)
T;p thermal strain in inner pipe (symmetric expansion)
tot total strain in pipe-in-pipe (symmetric expansion)
tot1 total strain in outer pipe at upstream end
tot2 total strain in outer pipe at downstream end
m seabed longitudinal friction coefﬁcient
ms spacer friction coefﬁcient
mo reduced longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient
m1 increased longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient
SN T sum of thermal force of inner and outer pipes (symmetric expansion)
SN T1 sum of thermal forces of inner and outer pipes at upstream end
SN T2 sum of thermal forces of inner and outer pipes at downstream end
SN n sum of Poisson’s forces of inner and outer pipes as deﬁned in text
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1. Introduction

## The main features of a pipe-in-pipe are a concentric insulated inner pipe

or ﬂowline (sometimes called production or carrier pipe) and a protective
outer pipe (sometimes known as sleeve or jacket pipe) [1–8]. Insulation material
is applied to the inner pipe to prevent the heat loss [9–12]. This is done by
placing thermal insulation materials within the annulus of the two pipes. The
outer pipe protects the insulation material from external hydrostatic pressure
and mechanical damage. Pipe-in-pipe insulation dictates that the outer
pipe wall temperature is low, therefore conventional and relatively inex-
pensive corrosion coatings and cathodic protection systems may be employed [9].
Pipe-in-pipe may be installed by reeling [11–16] rather than conventional lay
barge.
Pipe-in-pipe systems can be divided into two categories, namely, compliant and
non-compliant systems [5]. The compliant systems have a connection between the
inner and outer pipes at close intervals either every two pipe joints by tulip [17–20],
or by donut plate [21]. In this case, the inner and the outer pipes expand uniformly
along the pipeline and load transfer is continuous. In non-compliant systems, the
inner and the outer pipes have structural connections through the bulkheads [1,5].
The bulkheads may either be placed at the pipeline extremities or at discrete
locations, usually at intervals of a few kilometres along the pipeline length to transfer
axial loads. The inner and outer pipes move relative to each other. Water stops may
also be required in the event of a wet buckle to limit sea water ingress within the
annulus [4,11,12].
In addition, in both categories, spacers or centralisers are used to prevent contact
of the inner and the outer pipes [11,12]. The centralisers are used mainly to maintain
the ﬂowline concentric within the outer pipe and are typically spaced 1–3 m apart.
However an alternative system has been used whereby insulation foam is employed
along the pipeline’s length [4].
This paper is concerned with non-compliant systems and investigates a
structurally symmetric pipe-in-pipe with equidistant regular spacers along its
length and a bulkhead at each end. Some ﬁnite element results of pipe-in-pipe
are reported in [5] whilst some limited analytical formulations can be found in
[21–23]. This paper presents a complete mathematical model for the bulkhead forces
and axial displacements, inner pipe axial force and outer pipe tension under
temperature variation of both the inner and the outer pipes. The concept of
protective, short and long pipe-in-pipe is deﬁned and investigated in great detail. The
mathematical model presented herein is also of direct relevance to the thermal
expansion of pipeline bundles which generally consist of one or more production
pipes (along with other lines such as heat-up lines and methanol lines) placed
together within a larger diameter pipe (sleeve) with an external insulation layer.
The sleeve in turn is placed into an outer pipe, known as carrier, with spacers
positioned throughout to ensure that inner lines are well kept in position within the
outer pipe [24,25]. A comparison is presented between analytical results and ﬁnite
element solutions.
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2. Theory

## The pipe-in-pipe system considered is assumed to have two identical tie-in

spoolpieces [26–29] at the two ends. This ensures a static point at the centre of the
pipe-in-pipe system, as shown in Fig. 1b. From the force equilibrium on the

## N T;p þ N n;p  N E þ F s þ N d þ N c ¼ 0 (2.1)

in which, N T;p is the thermal force in inner pipe, N n;p the force due to Poisson’s effect
in inner pipe, N E the end cap force on bulkhead, F s the tie-in spool frictional
resistance, N d; the force in inner pipe due to displacement of bulkheads, and N c the
tension force in outer pipe.
Throughout this paper, sufﬁces p and c denote inner pipe and the outer pipe,
respectively.
The thermal force in the inner pipe is calculated as [30,31]:

## N T;p ¼ E p Ap aðT d;p  T a Þ, (2.2)

where, E p is the inner pipe Young’s modulus of elasticity, Ap the inner pipe steel
cross-sectional area, a the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel pipeline, T d;p the
strain

tot
T,c
c
v,c z
net distance along pipe-in-pipe

f
x (anchor length) pote
ntial

## (a) Strain in outer pipe

¢ displaced
Nc (outer pipe tension)

## NT,p (inner pipe temperature force)

spacer
Nδ (inner pipe deflection force)

inner pipe

## Nv,p (inner pipe Poisson’s force)

FS (tie-in spool seabed friction force) Anchor region x (anchor length) (expansion)
seabed friction force on outer pipe
L/2

## (b) Forces on bulkhead, inner and outer pipes

Fig. 1. Thermal expansion of symmetric pipe-in-pipe system. (a) Strain in outer pipe. (b) Forces on
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480 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

inner pipe design temperature, and T a the ambient temperature which is assumed to
be equal to installation temperature.
The force in the inner pipe due to Poisson’s effect is evaluated from [30,31]:
N n;p ¼ sh;p Ap n, (2.3)
where, n is the Poisson’s ratio, and sh;p the hoop stress in inner pipe which is
calculated from [32]:
 
Dp  tp
sh;p ¼ ðpd;p  pans Þ (2.4)
2tp
in which, Dp is the inner pipe nominal outer diameter, tp the inner pipe wall
thickness, pd;p the inner pipe internal design pressure, and pans the annulus design
pressure.
The end cap force on the bulkhead is evaluated from the following relationship:
N E ¼ pd;p  inner area of inner pipe
þ pans  annular area between inner and outer pipes
 pamb  outer area of bulkhead; ð2:5Þ
where, pamb is the outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure.
The end cap force N E is shared by both the inner and the outer pipes in proportion
to the axial stiffness as:
E p Ap
N E;p ¼ NE, (2.6)
E p Ap þ E c Ac
where, N E;p is the end cap force on inner pipe, E c the outer pipe Young’s modulus of
elasticity, and Ac the outer pipe steel cross-sectional area.
The end cap strain is:
NE
E ¼ . (2.7)
E p Ap þ E c Ac
The tie-in spoolpiece frictional resistance F s is obtained by multiplying its
submerged weight by the seabed longitudinal friction coefﬁcient.
The tensile force in the inner pipe can be evaluated from:
N d ¼ 2E p Ap d=L (2.8)
where d is the bulkhead displacement (see Fig. 1b), and L the pipe-in-pipe length.
If the outer pipe suffers an increased temperature because of heat convection from
the inner pipe, the thermal strain in the outer pipe may similarly be written as:
T;c ¼ aðT d;c  T a Þ, (2.9)
where T d;c is the outer pipe design temperature.
The hoop stress in the outer pipe is similarly calculated as:
 
D c  tc
sh;c ¼ ðpans  pamb Þ , (2.10)
2tc
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where Dc is the outer pipe nominal diameter, tc the outer pipe wall thickness, and
pamb the outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure.
The total strain acting along the outer pipe is deﬁned as (tensile strain positive
otherwise compressive):
tot ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c , (2.11)
where, T;c is the thermal strain in outer pipe, n;c the outer pipe strain due to
Poisson’s effect ¼ nsh;c =E c ; and c the tensile strain in outer pipe as a result of
bulkhead displacement ¼ N c =E c Ac :
As shown in Fig. 1a, the strain in the outer pipe as a result of soil friction f [30,31]
and the net strain net are:
mW pip
f ¼ z,
E c Ac

## net ¼ tot  f , (2.12)

where, m is the longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient, W pip the pipe-in-pipe
submerged weight, and z the distance measured from bulkhead.
The anchor length at each end of the pipe-in-pipe system x is obtained by equating
the net strain to:
mW pip Nc mW pip
net ¼ tot  f ¼ tot  x ¼ T;c þ n;c þ  x ¼ 0. (2.13)
E c Ac E c Ac E c Ac
From the above relationship N c may be rewritten as:
N c ¼ mW pip x  ðT;c þ n;c ÞE c Ac ¼ mW pip x  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ, (2.14)
where
N T;c ¼ E c Ac T;c ¼ E c Ac aðT d;c  T a Þ; and N n;c ¼ E c Ac n;c ¼ nsh;c Ac :
(2.15)
The bulkhead displacement d may be written in terms of x as:
Z x Z x 
mW pip mW pip 2 mW pip 2
d¼ net dz ¼ tot  z dz ¼ tot x  x ¼ x .
0 0 E c Ac 2E c Ac 2E c Ac
(2.16)
Rewriting Eq. (2.1) in terms of the above relationships results in an equation for x:
E c Ac L E c Ac  
x2 þ L xþ ðN T;p þ N n;p  N E þ F s Þ  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ ¼ 0.
E p Ap mW pip E p Ap
(2.17)
Effects of spacer friction: The effects of friction between the inner pipe and the
spacers imposes a compressive distributed force with intensity of ms W p on the inner
pipe (see Fig. 2b) where W p is the weight per unit length of inner pipe in air and ms
the friction coefﬁcient between inner pipe and spacers.
This means in Fig. 1b and Eqs. (2.1) and (2.17), ms LW p =2 should be deducted
from N T;p : Furthermore the above friction force creates a tension in the outer pipe.
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482 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

(Ti,p – Ta)

(Ti,p – Ta)e–pz
(To,p – Ta)
displaced

L1 L2
x1 x2

(Td,p – Ta)

inner pipe

## (b) Constant temperature

Fig. 2. Inner pipe temperature variation and spacer friction force. (a) Variable temperature. (b) Constant
temperature.

Its effect can be incorporated in the above formulae by using the reduced seabed
friction coefﬁcient deﬁned as:
 
ms W p
m0 ¼ m 1  . (2.18)
m W pip
Eq. (2.17) may be rewritten as:
E c Ac L E c Ac
x2 þ L xþ ðSN T þ ms W p L=2 þ SN n  N E þ F s Þ ¼ 0
E p Ap mo W pip E p Ap
(2.19)
in which
SN T ¼ N T;p þ N T;c ¼ sum of thermal forces on bulkhead

## SN n ¼ N n;p  N n;c ¼ sum of Poisson’s forces on bulkhead (2.20)

The solution to Eq. (2.19) may be written as:
qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
ðSN T ms W p L=2SN n þN E F s Þ E p Ap
L 1 þ 1 þ 4 m0 LW pip E c Ac
x¼ (2.21)
2 E p Ap =E c Ac
The necessary and sufﬁcient condition for the solution to exist is 0oxpL=2: This
F s pSN T  ms W p L=2  SN n þ N E ,
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## ð1=m0 W pip ÞðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap ÞðSN T  SN n þ N E  F s Þ

LXLo ¼ 1
, (2.22)
4 þ ðE c Ac =2E p Ap Þð1 þ ðms =m0 ÞðW p =W pip ÞÞ

## where Lo is the limit length between short and long pipe-in-pipe.

The total force N tot;p and the effective axial force N eff ;p in the inner pipe are:
N tot;p ¼ N T;p  ms W p L=2 þ N d þ N n;p ,

## N eff ;p ¼ N tot;p  N E;p . (2.23)

The bulkhead displacement and the inner and the outer pipe forces are simpliﬁed
as:
m0 W pip 2 m0 W pip E p Ap 2
d¼ x ; Nd ¼ x ,
2E c Ac L E c Ac

## 2.1.1. Short pipe-in-pipes

Eq. (2.21) delineates the limit between the long and short pipe-in-pipe systems. For
the latter, the forces and displacements based on the anchor length of L=2 will not be
enough to balance the forces on the bulkhead. As a result, an additional amount of
bulkhead displacement must occur to result in a balance of forces on the bulkhead.
The force due to the extra displacement is not inﬂuenced by the soil friction as this is
generating its maximum value m0 W pip L=2 on each side. With reference to Fig. 3a, the
bulkhead displacement and the inner pipe force become, respectively:
Z L=2 Z L=2    
m W pip m W pip L L
d¼ net dz ¼ tot  0 z dz ¼ tot  0 ,
0 0 E c Ac E c Ac 4 2
 
m0 W pip L
N d ¼ E p Ap tot  . (2.25)
E c Ac 4
From Eq. (2.11), the strain in the outer pipe may be written as:
c ¼ tot  T;c  n;c . (2.26)
Using the above expressions and substituting N c ¼ E c Ac c into Eq. (2.1) leads to:
SN T  ms W p L=2  SN n þ N E  F s þ ðE p Ap =E c Ac Þðm0 W pip L=4Þ
tot ¼ .
E p Ap þ E c Ac
(2.27)
Based on the above equation d; N d; and the force in the outer pipe at bulkhead
location become:
 
SN T  ms W p L=2  SN n þ N E  F s  ðm0 W pip L=4Þ L
d¼ ,
E p Ap þ E c Ac 2
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484 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

strain
tot

net

anchor
upstream point downstream

L /2 L /2

tot

εnet

anchor
point

x1 L-x1

net
tot

anchor
point
x1 L-x1

## (c) Inner and outer pipe temperature variation

Fig. 3. Thermal expansion of short pipe-in-pipes. (a) Uniform temperature. (b) Temperature gradient in
inner pipe. (c) Inner and outer pipe temperature variation.

## SN T  ms W p L=2  SN n þ N E  F s  ðm0 W pip L=4Þ

Nd ¼ ,
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ
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Nc
ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap ÞðN T;p  ms W p L=2  N n;p þ N E  F s Þ  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ þ ðm0 W pip L=4Þ
¼ .
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ
ð2:28Þ

## 2.1.2. Protective pipe-in-pipes

In most engineering situations, ðE p Ap Þ4ðE c Ac Þ: However in some cases the
opposite may be true. This happens when the primary purpose of the outer pipe
is to protect the inner pipe from the effects of dropped objects in areas close to
the platforms [33]. For a long protective pipe-in-pipe, the anchor length may be
written as:

SN T  ms W p L=2  SN n þ N E  F s
x . (2.29)
m0 W pip

The ﬂow through a pipe-in-pipe system causes a temperature gradient along the
length of the system, as shown in Figs. 2a. The exponential distribution represents a
realistic simulation of the temperature variation in the inner pipe due to heat loss and
may be written as [34,35]:

## T z;p  T a ¼ ðT i;p  T a Þebp z , (2.30)

where, z is the distance measured from inner pipe inlet (upstream end), T i;p the inlet
temperature (at hot end of inner pipe), T z;p the temperature at distance z from inlet,
and bp the heat loss coefﬁcient (decay constant) for inner pipe. bp is a function of the
pipeline and coating conductivity properties, internal ﬂuid properties and external
convection and may be written as:

1 T i;p  T a
bp ¼ ln , (2.31)
L T o;p  T a

where, To,p is the outlet temperature (at cold end of inner pipe).
The thermal force in the inner pipe varies from a maximum of N T;p1 ¼
E p Ap aðT i;p  T a Þ at the inlet to a minimum of N T;p2 ¼ E p Ap aðT o;p  T a Þ at the
outlet. The difference is balanced by the frictional forces generated by the spacers on
the inner pipe, as shown in Fig. 2a, according to which:

## E p Ap aðT i;p  T o;p Þ ¼ ms W p ðL2  L1 Þ,

L1 þ L2 ¼ L, ð2:32Þ

where, L1 ; L2 is the upstream and downstream length, respectively, over which two
opposing spacer friction forces act (see Fig. 2a).
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486 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

## From the above relationships:



E p Ap a
L1 ¼ L  ðT i;p  T o;p Þ 2,
ms W p


E p Ap a
L2 ¼ L þ ðT i;p  T o;p Þ 2,
ms W p
L2 4L1 . ð2:33Þ
Throughout this paper, sufﬁxes 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and the downstream
end of the pipe-in-pipe system, respectively.
The equilibrium of forces on the bulkheads results in:
N T;p1 þ ms W p L1 þ N n;p  N E þ F s1 þ N d þ N c1 ¼ 0,

## N T;p2 þ ms W p L2 þ N n;p  N E þ F s2 þ N d þ N c2 ¼ 0, (2.34)

where
ðd1 þ d2 Þ
N d ¼ E p Ap . (2.35)
L
By subtracting the above two relationships, the following expression is
obtained:
N c1  N c2 ¼ ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ  ms W pip ðL1  L2 Þ  ðF s1  F s2 Þ. (2.36)
For the case of a long pipe-in-pipe system, two cases are considered. Case 1 relates
to L1 4x1 : Case 2 deﬁnes the opposite situation of L1 ox1 ; as shown for example in
Fig. 2a.

## 2.2.1. Uniform outer pipe temperature

(a) Long pipe-in-pipe
Case 1 : x1 oL1 In this case, the net strain, the outer pipe force and the bulkhead
displacement at the upstream end become, respectively:
m0 W pip
net1 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1  z; 0ozoL1 ,
E c Ac

## N c1 ¼ m0 W pip x1  ðT;c þ n;c ÞE c Ac ¼ m0 W pip x1  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ,

m0 W pip x21
d1 ¼ . (2.37)
2E c Ac
The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the downstream end may
similarly be written as:
m0 W pip
net2 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c2  x2 ¼ 0,
E c Ac
Z x2
m0 W pip 2
d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ x . (2.38)
0 2E c Ac 2
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## Eq. (2.38) may be rewritten as:

N c2 ¼ m0 W pip x2  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ. (2.39)
Substitution of N c1 and N c2 in Eq. (2.36) by their equivalents results in:
ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ þ ðF s1  F s2 Þ
x2 ¼ x1 þ (2.40)
m0 W pip
Using Eqs. (2.37) and (2.38), the inner pipe force may be written as:
m0 W pip E p Ap 2
Nd ¼ ðx þ x22 Þ. (2.41)
2L E c Ac 1
By substituting N d; from Eq. (2.41) and N c1 from Eq. (2.37) into Eq. (2.34) and
making use of Eq. (2.40), the following relationship is obtained for x1 :

E c Ac ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ þ ðF s1  F s2 Þ
x21 þ L þ x1
E p Ap m0 W pip
L E c Ac
þ ðSN T1 þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 Þ
m0 W pip E p Ap

1 ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ þ ðF s1  F s2 Þ 2
þ ¼ 0, ð2:42Þ
2 m0 W pip

where SN T1 ¼ N T;p1 þ N T;c is the sum of thermal forces on the upstream
For a uniform temperature pipe-in-pipe system but with different tie-in spool
weights, L1 ¼ L2 ¼ L=2 and the above relationships are simpliﬁed as:
F s1  F s2
x2 ¼ x1 þ ,
m0 W pip

 
E c Ac F s1  F s2 L E c Ac
x21 þ L þ x1 þ
E p Ap m0 W pip m0 W pip E p Ap
 ðSN T1 þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L=2Þ
 
1 F s1  F s2 2
þ ¼ 0. ð2:43Þ
2 m0 W pip
The above solution is valid when x1 oL1 and x1 þ x2 pL:
Case 2 : x1 4L1 With reference to Fig. 2a, the net strain at the upstream end is:
m0 W pip
net1a ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1  z; 0ozoL1 ,
E c Ac

## ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip

net1b ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1   z; L1 ozox1 , (2.44)
E c Ac E c Ac
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488 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

## where, m1 is the enhanced seabed friction coefﬁcient deﬁned as:

 
m Wp
m1 ¼ m 1 þ s . (2.45)
m W pip
The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the upstream end are:
ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip
net1b ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1   x1 ¼ 0,
E c Ac E c Ac
Z x1 Z L1 Z x1
d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz
0 o L1

W pip L2 m
¼ ðm0  3m1 Þ 1 þ m1 L1 x1 þ 1 x21 . ð2:46Þ
E c Ac 2 2
From Eq. (2.44), the outer pipe force at the upstream end may be written as:
N c1 ¼ m1 W pip x1 þ ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ. (2.47)
Substitution of N c1 from the above equation and N c2 from Eq. (2.39) into Eq.
m1
x2 ¼ x1
m0
ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ þ ðF s1  F s2 Þ þ ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1
þ ,
m0 W pip
|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}
A

ð2:48Þ
where A refers to the second term on right-hand side of Eq. (2.48).
Using Eq. (2.48), the inner pipe force becomes:

E p Ap W pip mm1 2 1 m A2
Nd ¼ x1 þ m1 ðL1 þ AÞx1 þ ðm0  3m1 ÞL21 þ 0 . (2.49)
E c Ac L m0 2 2
By substituting N d; from the above and N c1 from Eq. (2.47) into the balance of
forces on the upstream bulkhead of Eq. (2.34), the following equation is obtained for
the calculation of x1 :
 
mm0 2 E c Ac
x1 þ m 1 L 1 þ A þ L x1
m E p Ap

E c Ac L
þ ½SN T1 þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1
E p Ap W pip

1
þðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 þ ½ðm0  3m1 ÞL21 þ m0 A2 ¼ 0. ð2:50Þ
2
The solution is valid when x1 4L1 and x1 þ x2 pL: Note that m0 þ m1 ¼ 2m and
m1  m0 ¼ 2ms ðW p =W pip Þ:
(b) Short pipe-in-pipe
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In cases where x1 þ x2 4L (see Fig. 3b), by equating the anchor point strain at the
downstream end from Eq. (2.38) to that at the upstream end from Eq. (2.44) and by
substituting x2 ¼ L  x1 ; the following relationship is obtained:
 
N c1  N c2 ¼ W pip ðm0 þ m1 Þx1 þ m0 ðL1  LÞ  m1 L1 . (2.51)
By equating the above relationship with that of 2.36, the following expression is
obtained for x1 :
ðN T;p1  N T;p2 Þ  ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ  ðF s1  F s2 Þ mo L2 þ m1 L1
x1 ¼ þ .
2mW pip 2m
(2.52)
Z x1 Z L1 Z x1
d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz
0 0 L1
2 
ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 ðm  m1 ÞW pip L1 m W pip 2
¼ þ T;c þ n;c þ c1  0 x1  1 x,
2E c Ac E c Ac 2E c Ac 1
Z Lx1 Z Lx1  
m W pip
d2 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c2  0
net2 dz ¼ z dz
0 0 E c Ac
2 
m0 W pip L m0 W pip L
¼ ðT;c þ n;c þ c2 ÞL  þ ðT;c þ n;c þ c2 Þ þ
2E c Ac E c Ac
m W pip 2
 x1  0 x . ð2:53Þ
2E c Ac 1
Thus the inner pipe force may be written in terms of x1 and Nc2 as:
E p Ap
Nd ¼ ðd1 þ d2 Þ
L
  
E p Ap W pip ðm0  m1 ÞL21  m0 L2 2
¼ þ mx1 þ ðN T;c þ N n;c þ N c2 Þ .
E c Ac L 2
ð2:54Þ
Substitution of N d; in the balance of forces on the downstream bulkhead of Eq.
(2.34) and the subsequent use of Eq. (2.51) result in the following expressions for
N c1 and N c2 :
E c Ac
E p Ap ½N T;p2  ms W p L2  N n;p þ N E  F s2 þ W pip ð2mx1  m0 L2  m1 L1 Þ
ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ
N c1 ¼
1 þ EEpc A
Ap
c

n h 2 2
i o
1 m0 L þðm1 m0 ÞL1
W pip L 2  mx21 þ 2mx1  m0 L2  m1 L1
þ ,
1 þ EEpc A
Ap
c
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E c Ac
E p Ap ðN T;p2  ms W p L2  N n;p þ N E  F s2 Þ  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ
þðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1  m0 ÞL21 =2Þ  mx21
N c2 ¼ . (2.55)
1 þ EEpc A
Ap
c

## N d can be rewritten as:

h i
m0 L2 þðm1 m0 ÞL21
SN T2  ms W p L2  SN n þ N E  F s2  ðW pip =LÞ 2  mx21
Nd ¼ .
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ
(2.56)

## 2.2.2. Outer pipe temperature gradient

In most cases, the temperature in the outer pipe is the almost the same as the
ambient temperature. However if there is any variation, this may similarly be
approximated as (see Fig. 4):

## T z;c  T a ¼ ðT i;c  T a Þebc z , (2.57)

where T i;c is the inlet temperature (at hot end of outer pipe), T z;c the temperature
at distance z from inlet, and bc the heat loss coefﬁcient for outer pipe similarly
strain

tot1
strain
T,c–1 tot2
c-1 T,c–1
v,c c–2
v,c
net1 net2

f
f
pote
ntial
l
ntia
pote
(a) Strain in outer pipe

## (Ti,c – Ta) (Ti,c – Ta)e−c z

(To,c – Ta)
z
(b) Outer pipe temperature profile
displaced
spacer inner pipe

1 x1 x2 2
anchor region
L
(c) Thermal expansion

Fig. 4. Pipe-in-pipe expansion under temperature variation. (a) Strain in outer pipe. (b) Outer pipe
temperature proﬁle. (c) Thermal expansion.
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deﬁned as:
1 T i;c  T a
bc ¼ ln . (2.58)
L T o;c  T a
(a) Long pipe-in-pipe
Case 1 : x1 oL1
With reference to Fig. 4(a), the upstream anchor point and bulkhead displacement
are obtained from:
net1 ¼ tot1  f ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1  f 1 ¼ aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1
m W pip
þ n;c þ c1  0 x1 ¼ 0,
E c Ac

Z x1   
1 1 m W pip 2
d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ aðT i;c  T a Þ  þ x1 e bc x1
þ 0 x , (2.59)
0 bc bc 2E c Ac 1

where tot1 is the total strain at upstream end, deﬁned similar to Eq. (2.11).
The ﬁrst equation may be rewritten as:
N c1 ¼ m0 W pip x1  aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 E c Ac  N n;c . (2.60)
With the above relationship, Eq. (2.34) for the equilibrium of forces on the
ðd1 þ d2 Þ
 aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 E c Ac  N T;p1 þ m0 W pip x1 þ E p Ap
L
þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 ¼ 0. ð2:61Þ

## The temperature in the outer pipe may alternatively be written as:

T z;c  T a ¼ ðT o;c  T a Þebc z , (2.62)

where z is the distance from inner pipe outlet and T z;c the temperature at distance z
from outlet.
The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the downstream end may
similarly be calculated from:
m0 W pip
net2 ¼ tot2  f ¼ aðT o;c  T a Þebc x2 þ n;c þ c2  x2 ¼ 0,
E c Ac
Z x2   
1 1 m W pip 2
d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ aðT o;c  T a Þ    þ x2 e bc x2
þ 0 x ,
0 bc bc 2E c Ac 2
(2.63)
where tot2 is the total strain at downstream end.
From Eq. (2.63), the outer pipe force at the downstream end becomes:
N c2 ¼ m0 W pip x2  aðT o;c  T a Þebc x2 E c Ac  N n;c . (2.64)
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## The balance of forces on the downstream bulkhead results in:

ðd1 þ d2 Þ
 aðT o;c  T a Þebc x2 E c Ac  N T;p2 þ m0 W pip x2 þ E p Ap
L
þ SN n  N E þ F s2 þ ms W pip L2 ¼ 0. ð2:65Þ
Substitution of d1 from Eq. (2.59) and d2 from Eq. (2.63) into Eqs. (2.61) and
(2.65) results in the following two relationships in terms of x1 and x2 :
 
E c Ac m0 W pip 1 x1 bc x1
 aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 þ x1  aðT i;c  T a Þ þ e
E p Ap E p Ap Lbc L
 
1 x2 bc x2 m0 W pip 2 aðT i;c  T o;c Þ
 aðT o;c  T a Þ  þ e þ ðx þ x22 Þ þ
Lbc L 2E c Ac L 1 Lbc
N T;p1 þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1
þ ¼ 0, ð2:66aÞ
E p Ap
 
E c Ac m0 W pip
bc x2 1 x1 bc x1
 aðT o;c  T a Þe þ x2  aðT i;c  T a Þ þ e
E p Ap E p Ap Lbc L
 
1 x2 bc x2 m0 W pip 2 aðT i;c  T o;c Þ
 aðT o;c  T a Þ  þ e þ ðx þ x22 Þ þ
Lbc L 2E c Ac L 1 Lbc
N T;p2 þ SN n  N E þ F s2 þ ms W p L2
þ ¼ 0. ð2:66bÞ
E p Ap
The above pair of equations can be solved iteratively [36]. The solution is valid
when x1 oL1 and x1 þ x2 pL:
In most practical cases bc x1 51 and bc x2 51: Based on this, an alternative but
slightly approximate method which simpliﬁes the solution to the above equations, is
to expand the exponential terms as [37]:
1
ebc x1  1  bc x1 þ ðbc x1 Þ2 ,
2
1
e bc x2
 1 þ bc x2 þ ðbc x2 Þ2 . ð2:67Þ
2
If the outer pipe temperature rapidly declines to ambient, then the d2 and Nc2 are
simpliﬁed as:
m0 W pip 2
d2 ¼ x,
2E c Ac 2

## N c2 ¼ m0 W pip x2  ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ. (2.68)

The balance of forces on the downstream bulkhead is also simpliﬁed as:
d1 þ d2
SN T2 þ m0 W pip x2 þ E p Ap þ SN n  N E þ F s2 þ ms W p L2 ¼ 0,
L
(2.69)
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## where SN T2 ¼ N T;p2 þ N T;c is the sum of thermal forces on downstream

The solution is valid when ðT o:c  T a Þebc x2  0:
Case 2: x1 4L1
The net strain at the upstream end may be written as:
m0 W pip
net1a ¼ aðT i;c  T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c1  E c Ac z; 0ozoL1 ;
ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip
net1b ¼ aðT i;c  T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c1  E c Ac  E c Ac z; L1 ozox1 :
(2.70)
The upstream anchor point and bulkhead displacement can be calculated from:
ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip
net1b ¼ aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 þ n;c þ c1   x1 ¼ 0,
E c Ac E c Ac

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1
d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz
0 0 L1
  
1 1 W pip
¼ aðT i;c  T a Þ  þ x1 ebc x1 þ ½ðm  m1 ÞL21 þ m1 x21 . ð2:71Þ
bc bc 2E c Ac 0
Eq. (2.70) may be rewritten as:
N c1 ¼ m1 W pip x1  aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 E c Ac  N n;c þ ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 . (2.72)
With the above, Eq. (2.34) is reduced to:
ðd1 þ d2 Þ
 aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 E c Ac  N T;p1 þ m1 W pip x1 þ E p Ap
L
þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 þ ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 ¼ 0. ð2:73Þ
Eqs. (2.63) and (2.65) remain valid for the downstream bulkhead displacement
and balance of forces.
Substitution of d1 from Eq. (2.71) and d2 from Eq. (2.63) into Eq. (2.73) results in
the following expression in terms of x1 and x2 :
 
bc x1 E c Ac m1 W pip 1 x1 bc x1
 aðT i;c  T a Þe þ x1  aðT i;c  T a Þ þ e
E p Ap E p Ap bc L L
 
1 x2 bc x2 W pip
 aðT o;c  T a Þ  þ e þ ½m x2 þ m0 x22 þ ðm0  m1 ÞL21
bc L L 2E c Ac L 1 1
aðT i;c  T o;c Þ
þ
bc L
N T;p1 þ SN n  N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 þ ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1
þ ¼ 0. ð2:74Þ
E p Ap
Eqs. (2.66b) and (2.74) can similarly be solved in terms of x1 and x2 : The solution
is valid when x1 4L1 and x1 þ x2 pL:
(b) Short pipe-in-pipe
ARTICLE IN PRESS
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With reference to Fig 3c, by equating the anchor point strain at the upstream end
from Eq. (2.70) to that at the downstream end from Eq. (2.63), and by substituting
x2 ¼ L  x1 ; the following relationship is obtained:
N c1 ðm0  m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip
aðT i;c  T a Þebc x1 þ n;c þ   x1
E c Ac E c Ac E c Ac
N c2 m0 W pip
¼ aðT o;c  T a Þebc ðLx1 Þ þ n;c þ  ðL  x1 Þ. ð2:75Þ
E c Ac E c Ac

## Using Eq. (2.61), the above relationship is reduced to:

N c1  N c2 ¼ W pip ½ðm0 þ m1 Þx1 þ m0 ðL1  LÞ  m1 L1 (2.76)

which is identical to Eq. (2.51) for uniform temperature. Equating the above
relationship with Eq. (2.36) results in the following equation for x1 :

## ðN T1  N T2 Þ  ms W p ðL1  L2 Þ  ðF s1  F s2 Þ m1 L1 þ m0 L2

x1 ¼ þ .
2mW pip 2m
(2.77)

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1
d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz
0 0 0
aðT i;c  T o Þ W pip L21
¼ ð1  ebc x1 Þ þ ðmo  m1 Þ
b 2E c Ac
 c
ðm0 þ m1 ÞW pip L1 m W pip 2
þ ðn;c þ c1 Þ þ x1  1 x ,
E c Ac 2E c Ac 1

Z x2 Z ðLx1 Þ 
m0 W pip
d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ aðT o;c  T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c2  z dz
0 0 E c Ac
ðT i;c  T a Þ bc ðLx1 Þ
¼ aebc L ½e  1 þ ðn;c þ c2 ÞðL  x1 Þ
bc
m W pip
 0 ðL  x1 Þ2 . ð2:78Þ
2E c Ac

## Using Eq. (2.35), the inner pipe force becomes:

E p Ap
Nd ¼ ðd1 þ d2 Þ
L

aðT i;c  T o;c Þ E p Ap W pip ðm0  m1 ÞL21  m0 L2
¼ E p Ap þ þ mx21
Lbc E c Ac L 2
þ N n;c þ N c2 . ð2:79Þ
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Substitution of N d in Eq. (2.34) and the subsequent use of Eq. (2.76) result in the
following relationships for N c1 and N c2 :

## ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ½N T;p2  ms W p L2  N n;p þ N E  F s2

þW pip ð2mx1  m0 L2  m1 L1 Þ  ½ðE c Ac aðT i;c  T o;cÞ =Lbc Þ þ N n;c
N c1 ¼
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ
1 2

W pip L ½ððm0 L þ ðm1  m0 ÞL21 Þ=2Þ  mx21 þ 2mx1  m0 L2  m1 L1
þ ,
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap ÞðN T;p2  ms W p L2  N n;p þ N E  F s2 Þ  ½ðE c Ac aðT i;c  T o;cÞ =Lbc Þ þ N n;c
þðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1  m0 ÞL21 =2Þ  mx21
N c2 ¼ .
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ
(2.80)

## Thus Nd may be rewritten as:

 
E c Ac ðaT i;c T o;cÞ
Lbc þ N T;p2  ms W pip L2  SN n þ N E  F s2
ðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1  m0 ÞL21 Þ=2  mx21
Nd ¼ . (2.81)
1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

It should be noted that the ﬁrst quotient in the numerator represents the average
temperature in the outer pipe.

3. Application

The above mathematical model was applied to two pipe-in-pipe systems whose
characteristics are summarised in Table 1. A long pipe-in-pipe of length 11,000 m
and short one of 6000 m are considered. All thermal expansion cases discussed in this
paper are considered. The ﬁndings are tabulated in Tables 2 and 3 along with
corresponding ﬁnite element analysis results.

4. Conclusions

Based on simple columb friction between the inner pipe and the spacers, analytical
formulas were developed for thermal expansion of non-compliant pipe-in-pipe
systems. It was concluded that the anchor length ratio increases with both a decrease
in pipe-in-pipe length and an increase in the square root of the resultant force that
tends to displace the bulkhead whereas for a long protective pipe-in-pipe with thin
outer pipe wall thickness, the anchor length is directly proportional to this force.
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Table 1
Pipe-in-pipe data

## 1000 Inner pipe

(a) Geometric and material properties
Outer diameter Dp mm 273.1
Wall thickness tp mm 14.3
Coating thickness — mm 3
Coating density — kg/m3 900
Steel Young modulus of elasticity Ep N/m2 2.07  1011
Steel density — kg/m3 7850
Poisson’s ratio of steel n dimensionless 0.3
Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel a 1/1C 11.7  106
Fluid density — kg/m3 900
Design pressure pd,p bar 400
1400 Outer pipe
Outer diameter Dc mm 355.6
Wall thickness tc mm 12.7
Coating thickness — mm 2.5
Coating density — kg/m3 1000
Steel Young modulus of elasticity Ec N/m2 2.07  1011
Mass per unit length of insulation, spacers and — kg/m 3
other appurtenances
Spacers friction coefﬁcient ms dimensionless 0.22
Mass of tie-in spoolpiece — te 11.52
Annulus design pressure pans bar 1
(b) Environmental and soil data
Water depth — m 300
Sea water density — kg/m3 1025
Longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient m dimensionless 0.6
Ambient (installation) temperature Ta 1C 5

Table 2
Hoop stress

## Inner pipe sh MPa 361.1

Outer pipe sc MPa 39.4

For short pipe-in-pipe systems, the effect of outer pipe temperature variation on
the inner pipe axial force and outer pipe tension can be replaced by its average over
the pipe-in-pipe length. The inner pipe axial force increases with increase in the
For the case of exponentially varying outer pipe temperature, iterative methods
should be employed to calculate the thermal expansion characteristics. The iteration
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Table 3
Pipe-in-pipe thermal expansion characteristics

## Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Temperature data
(a) Uniform temperature
Inner pipe design temperature Td,p 1C 95
Outer pipe design temperature Td,c 1C 15

Long pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L m 11,000
Anchor length x m 4110
Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe Lo m 8491oL

## Bulkhead displacement d mm 1190 1189

Inner pipe force N d; kN 521 520.5
Total axial force in inner pipe Ntotal,p kN 1865 1863
Effective axial force in inner pipe Neff,p kN 2588 2584
Outer pipe force at bulkhead location Nc kN 1148 1146

Short pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo

## Bulkhead displacement d mm 1184 1186

Inner pipe force N d; kN 950 954
Total axial force in inner pipe Ntotal,p kN 931 937
Effective axial force in inner pipe Neff,p kN 1653 1658
Outer pipe force at bulkhead location Nc kN 1224 1227

## Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Temperature data
(b) Inner pipe non-uniform temperature– outer pipe uniform temperature
Inner pipe inlet temperature Ti,p 1C 95
Inner pipe outlet temperature To,p 1C 85
Outer pipe design temperature Td,c 1C 15
Long pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L km 11,000
Heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.071  105
Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe(1) Lo m 7760oL
Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 M 4803
Reduced friction coefﬁcient mo dimensionless 0.4
Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

## Anchor length at upstream end x1 M 4569 4565

Anchor length at downstream end x2 Mm 3158 3154
Bulkhead displacement at upstream end d1 mm 1471 1469
Bulkhead displacement at downstream end d2 mm 703 700
Inner pipe force N d; kN 476 472
Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 1331 1328
Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 768 765
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Table 3 (continued)

## Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Short pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo
Heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.963  105
Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 2303
Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

## Anchor length at upstream end x1 m 4177 4181

Inner pipe force Nd kN 1202 1208
Inner pipe total deﬂection d1 þ d2 mm 2996 3000
Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 2108 2112
Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 549 554
Note: (1) Based on inner pipe minimum uniform temperature of 85 1C
Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Temperature data
(c) Inner pipe non-uniform temperature– outer pipe non-uniform temperature
Inner pipe inlet temperature Ti,p 1C 95
Inner pipe outlet temperature To,p 1C 85
Outer pipe inlet temperature Ti,c 1C 15
Outer pipe outlet temperature To,c 1C 10
Long pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L m 11,000
Inner pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.071  105
Outer pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bc 1/m 6.301  105
Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe(1) Lo m 6331oL
Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 4803
Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

## Anchor length at upstream end x1 mm 4449 4445

Anchor length at downstream end x2 mm 2910 2907
Bulkhead displacement at upstream end d1 mm 1456 1453
Bulkhead displacement at downstream end d2 mm 579 576
Inner pipe force N d; kN 445 442
Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 1364 1362
Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 801 798
Short pipe-in-pipe
Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo
Inner pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.963  105
Outer pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bc 1/m 1.155  105
Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 2303
Anchor length at upstream end x1 m 4177
Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

## Inner pipe total deﬂection d1 þ d2 mm 2890 2894

Inner pipe force N d; kN 1159 1163
Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 2150 2154
Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 592 596

Note: (1) Based on inner and outer pipe minimum uniform temperature of 85 and 10 1C, respectively.
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A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 499

## can be replaced by analytical calculation in most practical situations. Simple

analytical formulae can describe thermal expansion characteristics when the outer
pipe temperature is constant. Analytical ﬁndings indicated good agreement with
ﬁnite element results.

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