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www.elsevier.com/locate/marstruc

A. Bokaian

PCL, 42 Southwood Close, Worcester Park, Surrey KT4 8QH, UK

Received 6 June 2003; received in revised form 7 September 2004; accepted 7 December 2004

Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model for the thermal expansion of

pipe-in-pipe and bundle systems that are used in the offshore oil and gas industry. The inner

pipe and the outer pipes are assumed to have structural connections through bulkheads at

extremities and spacers or centralisers to prevent contact of the inner and the outer pipes. The

aim is to calculate the displacement and forces on the bulkheads and axial force in the inner

pipe.

In addition to protective pipe-in-pipes, short and long pipe-in-pipes are deﬁned and the

limits between the two are clearly delineated. Analytical methods are extended to study the

effects of exponential temperature gradients along both the inner and the outer pipes, the pipe-

in-pipe length, tie-in spoolpieces, inner pipe weight, seabed and spacer friction and relative

axial stiffness of the inner and the outer pipes on the thermal expansion characteristics. The

iterative approach to solve thermal expansion characteristics proposed can be replaced by

analytical calculation in most practical situations. Simple analytical formulae are suggested

when the outer pipe temperature is constant. Analytical solutions indicate good agreement

with ﬁnite element numerical results.

r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Pipe-in-pipe; Bundle; Thermal expansion; Carrier pipe; Jacket pipe; Inner pipe; Outer pipe

E-mail address: bokaian@hotmail.com.

0951-8339/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.marstruc.2004.12.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

476 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

Nomenclature

Ac outer pipe steel cross-sectional area

Ap inner pipe steel cross-sectional area

Dc outer pipe nominal outer diameter

Dp inner pipe nominal outer diameter

Ec Young’s modulus of elasticity of outer pipe

Ep Young’s modulus of elasticity of inner pipe

Fs tie-in spool friction force (symmetric expansion)

Fs1 upstream tie-in spool friction force

Fs2 downstream tie-in spool friction force

L pipe-in-pipe length

Lo limit length between short and long pipe-in-pipe

L1 length at upstream end over which spacers friction act

L2 length at downstream end over which spacers friction act

Nc force in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

Nc1 force in outer pipe at upstream bulkhead location

Nc2 force in outer pipe at downstream bulkhead location

NT,p1 thermal force in inner pipe at upstream end

NT,p2 thermal force in inner pipe at downstream end

NE end cap force on bulkhead

NE,p end cap force on inner pipe

Neff,p effective axial force in inner pipe

NT,c thermal force on outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

Ntot,p total force in inner pipe

NT,p thermal force in inner pipe

NT,p1 thermal force in inner pipe at upstream end

NT,p2 thermal force in inner pipe at downstream end

Nn,c force due to Poisson’s effect in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

Nn,p force due to Poisson’s effect in inner pipe (symmetric expansion)

N d; force in inner pipe due to displacement of bulkheads

pd,p inner pipe internal design pressure

pamb outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure

pans annulus pressure

Ta ambient temperature

Td,c outer pipe design temperature

Td,p inner pipe design temperature (symmetric expansion)

Ti,c inlet temperature of outer pipe

Ti,p inlet temperature of inner pipe

To,c outlet temperature of outer pipe

To,p outlet temperature of inner pipe

Tz,c temperature in outer pipe at distance z from inlet

Tz,p temperature in inner pipe at distance z from inlet

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 477

tp inner pipe wall thickness

Wpip submerged weight of pipe-in-pipe

Wp weight of inner pipe in air

x anchor length (symmetric expansion)

x1 anchor length at upstream end

x2 anchor length at downstream end

z distance measured from bulkhead

n Poisson’s ratio of steel

a thermal expansion coefﬁcient of steel

bc decay constant for outer pipe temperature proﬁle

bp decay constant for inner pipe temperature proﬁle

f soil friction strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

E end cap strain

dtot total displacement (symmetric expansion)

dtot1 total displacement at upstream end

dtot2 total displacement at downstream end

d1 ; d2 upstream and downstream bulkhead displacement, respectively

sh;c hoop stress in outer pipe

sh;p hoop stress in inner pipe

c outer pipe tensile strain

n;p strain in inner pipe due to Poisson’s effect

n;c strain in outer pipe due to Poisson’s effect

net net strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

net1 net strain in outer pipe at upstream end

net1a net strain in outer pipe at upstream end in ﬁrst segment

net1b net strain in outer pipe at upstream end in second segment

net2 total net strain in outer pipe at downstream end

T;c thermal strain in outer pipe (symmetric expansion)

T;p thermal strain in inner pipe (symmetric expansion)

tot total strain in pipe-in-pipe (symmetric expansion)

tot1 total strain in outer pipe at upstream end

tot2 total strain in outer pipe at downstream end

m seabed longitudinal friction coefﬁcient

ms spacer friction coefﬁcient

mo reduced longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient

m1 increased longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient

SN T sum of thermal force of inner and outer pipes (symmetric expansion)

SN T1 sum of thermal forces of inner and outer pipes at upstream end

SN T2 sum of thermal forces of inner and outer pipes at downstream end

SN n sum of Poisson’s forces of inner and outer pipes as deﬁned in text

ARTICLE IN PRESS

478 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

1. Introduction

or ﬂowline (sometimes called production or carrier pipe) and a protective

outer pipe (sometimes known as sleeve or jacket pipe) [1–8]. Insulation material

is applied to the inner pipe to prevent the heat loss [9–12]. This is done by

placing thermal insulation materials within the annulus of the two pipes. The

outer pipe protects the insulation material from external hydrostatic pressure

and mechanical damage. Pipe-in-pipe insulation dictates that the outer

pipe wall temperature is low, therefore conventional and relatively inex-

pensive corrosion coatings and cathodic protection systems may be employed [9].

Pipe-in-pipe may be installed by reeling [11–16] rather than conventional lay

barge.

Pipe-in-pipe systems can be divided into two categories, namely, compliant and

non-compliant systems [5]. The compliant systems have a connection between the

inner and outer pipes at close intervals either every two pipe joints by tulip [17–20],

or by donut plate [21]. In this case, the inner and the outer pipes expand uniformly

along the pipeline and load transfer is continuous. In non-compliant systems, the

inner and the outer pipes have structural connections through the bulkheads [1,5].

The bulkheads may either be placed at the pipeline extremities or at discrete

locations, usually at intervals of a few kilometres along the pipeline length to transfer

axial loads. The inner and outer pipes move relative to each other. Water stops may

also be required in the event of a wet buckle to limit sea water ingress within the

annulus [4,11,12].

In addition, in both categories, spacers or centralisers are used to prevent contact

of the inner and the outer pipes [11,12]. The centralisers are used mainly to maintain

the ﬂowline concentric within the outer pipe and are typically spaced 1–3 m apart.

However an alternative system has been used whereby insulation foam is employed

along the pipeline’s length [4].

This paper is concerned with non-compliant systems and investigates a

structurally symmetric pipe-in-pipe with equidistant regular spacers along its

length and a bulkhead at each end. Some ﬁnite element results of pipe-in-pipe

are reported in [5] whilst some limited analytical formulations can be found in

[21–23]. This paper presents a complete mathematical model for the bulkhead forces

and axial displacements, inner pipe axial force and outer pipe tension under

temperature variation of both the inner and the outer pipes. The concept of

protective, short and long pipe-in-pipe is deﬁned and investigated in great detail. The

mathematical model presented herein is also of direct relevance to the thermal

expansion of pipeline bundles which generally consist of one or more production

pipes (along with other lines such as heat-up lines and methanol lines) placed

together within a larger diameter pipe (sleeve) with an external insulation layer.

The sleeve in turn is placed into an outer pipe, known as carrier, with spacers

positioned throughout to ensure that inner lines are well kept in position within the

outer pipe [24,25]. A comparison is presented between analytical results and ﬁnite

element solutions.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 479

2. Theory

spoolpieces [26–29] at the two ends. This ensures a static point at the centre of the

pipe-in-pipe system, as shown in Fig. 1b. From the force equilibrium on the

bulkhead, the following equality applies:

in which, N T;p is the thermal force in inner pipe, N n;p the force due to Poisson’s effect

in inner pipe, N E the end cap force on bulkhead, F s the tie-in spool frictional

resistance, N d; the force in inner pipe due to displacement of bulkheads, and N c the

tension force in outer pipe.

Throughout this paper, sufﬁces p and c denote inner pipe and the outer pipe,

respectively.

The thermal force in the inner pipe is calculated as [30,31]:

where, E p is the inner pipe Young’s modulus of elasticity, Ap the inner pipe steel

cross-sectional area, a the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel pipeline, T d;p the

strain

tot

T,c

c

v,c z

net distance along pipe-in-pipe

f

x (anchor length) pote

ntial

¢ displaced

outer pipe bulkhead bulkhead

Nc (outer pipe tension)

spacer

Nδ (inner pipe deflection force)

inner pipe

FS (tie-in spool seabed friction force) Anchor region x (anchor length) (expansion)

seabed friction force on outer pipe

L/2

Fig. 1. Thermal expansion of symmetric pipe-in-pipe system. (a) Strain in outer pipe. (b) Forces on

bulkhead, inner and outer pipes.

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480 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

inner pipe design temperature, and T a the ambient temperature which is assumed to

be equal to installation temperature.

The force in the inner pipe due to Poisson’s effect is evaluated from [30,31]:

N n;p ¼ sh;p Ap n, (2.3)

where, n is the Poisson’s ratio, and sh;p the hoop stress in inner pipe which is

calculated from [32]:

Dp tp

sh;p ¼ ðpd;p pans Þ (2.4)

2tp

in which, Dp is the inner pipe nominal outer diameter, tp the inner pipe wall

thickness, pd;p the inner pipe internal design pressure, and pans the annulus design

pressure.

The end cap force on the bulkhead is evaluated from the following relationship:

N E ¼ pd;p inner area of inner pipe

þ pans annular area between inner and outer pipes

pamb outer area of bulkhead; ð2:5Þ

where, pamb is the outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure.

The end cap force N E is shared by both the inner and the outer pipes in proportion

to the axial stiffness as:

E p Ap

N E;p ¼ NE, (2.6)

E p Ap þ E c Ac

where, N E;p is the end cap force on inner pipe, E c the outer pipe Young’s modulus of

elasticity, and Ac the outer pipe steel cross-sectional area.

The end cap strain is:

NE

E ¼ . (2.7)

E p Ap þ E c Ac

The tie-in spoolpiece frictional resistance F s is obtained by multiplying its

submerged weight by the seabed longitudinal friction coefﬁcient.

The tensile force in the inner pipe can be evaluated from:

N d ¼ 2E p Ap d=L (2.8)

where d is the bulkhead displacement (see Fig. 1b), and L the pipe-in-pipe length.

If the outer pipe suffers an increased temperature because of heat convection from

the inner pipe, the thermal strain in the outer pipe may similarly be written as:

T;c ¼ aðT d;c T a Þ, (2.9)

where T d;c is the outer pipe design temperature.

The hoop stress in the outer pipe is similarly calculated as:

D c tc

sh;c ¼ ðpans pamb Þ , (2.10)

2tc

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 481

where Dc is the outer pipe nominal diameter, tc the outer pipe wall thickness, and

pamb the outer pipe external hydrostatic pressure.

The total strain acting along the outer pipe is deﬁned as (tensile strain positive

otherwise compressive):

tot ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c , (2.11)

where, T;c is the thermal strain in outer pipe, n;c the outer pipe strain due to

Poisson’s effect ¼ nsh;c =E c ; and c the tensile strain in outer pipe as a result of

bulkhead displacement ¼ N c =E c Ac :

As shown in Fig. 1a, the strain in the outer pipe as a result of soil friction f [30,31]

and the net strain net are:

mW pip

f ¼ z,

E c Ac

where, m is the longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient, W pip the pipe-in-pipe

submerged weight, and z the distance measured from bulkhead.

The anchor length at each end of the pipe-in-pipe system x is obtained by equating

the net strain to:

mW pip Nc mW pip

net ¼ tot f ¼ tot x ¼ T;c þ n;c þ x ¼ 0. (2.13)

E c Ac E c Ac E c Ac

From the above relationship N c may be rewritten as:

N c ¼ mW pip x ðT;c þ n;c ÞE c Ac ¼ mW pip x ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ, (2.14)

where

N T;c ¼ E c Ac T;c ¼ E c Ac aðT d;c T a Þ; and N n;c ¼ E c Ac n;c ¼ nsh;c Ac :

(2.15)

The bulkhead displacement d may be written in terms of x as:

Z x Z x

mW pip mW pip 2 mW pip 2

d¼ net dz ¼ tot z dz ¼ tot x x ¼ x .

0 0 E c Ac 2E c Ac 2E c Ac

(2.16)

Rewriting Eq. (2.1) in terms of the above relationships results in an equation for x:

E c Ac L E c Ac

x2 þ L xþ ðN T;p þ N n;p N E þ F s Þ ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ ¼ 0.

E p Ap mW pip E p Ap

(2.17)

Effects of spacer friction: The effects of friction between the inner pipe and the

spacers imposes a compressive distributed force with intensity of ms W p on the inner

pipe (see Fig. 2b) where W p is the weight per unit length of inner pipe in air and ms

the friction coefﬁcient between inner pipe and spacers.

This means in Fig. 1b and Eqs. (2.1) and (2.17), ms LW p =2 should be deducted

from N T;p : Furthermore the above friction force creates a tension in the outer pipe.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

482 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

(Ti,p – Ta)

(Ti,p – Ta)e–pz

(To,p – Ta)

displaced

bulkhead spacer outer pipe bulkhead

L1 L2

x1 x2

(Td,p – Ta)

inner pipe

Fig. 2. Inner pipe temperature variation and spacer friction force. (a) Variable temperature. (b) Constant

temperature.

Its effect can be incorporated in the above formulae by using the reduced seabed

friction coefﬁcient deﬁned as:

ms W p

m0 ¼ m 1 . (2.18)

m W pip

Eq. (2.17) may be rewritten as:

E c Ac L E c Ac

x2 þ L xþ ðSN T þ ms W p L=2 þ SN n N E þ F s Þ ¼ 0

E p Ap mo W pip E p Ap

(2.19)

in which

SN T ¼ N T;p þ N T;c ¼ sum of thermal forces on bulkhead

The solution to Eq. (2.19) may be written as:

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ðSN T ms W p L=2SN n þN E F s Þ E p Ap

L 1 þ 1 þ 4 m0 LW pip E c Ac

x¼ (2.21)

2 E p Ap =E c Ac

The necessary and sufﬁcient condition for the solution to exist is 0oxpL=2: This

leads to:

F s pSN T ms W p L=2 SN n þ N E ,

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 483

LXLo ¼ 1

, (2.22)

4 þ ðE c Ac =2E p Ap Þð1 þ ðms =m0 ÞðW p =W pip ÞÞ

The total force N tot;p and the effective axial force N eff ;p in the inner pipe are:

N tot;p ¼ N T;p ms W p L=2 þ N d þ N n;p ,

The bulkhead displacement and the inner and the outer pipe forces are simpliﬁed

as:

m0 W pip 2 m0 W pip E p Ap 2

d¼ x ; Nd ¼ x ,

2E c Ac L E c Ac

Eq. (2.21) delineates the limit between the long and short pipe-in-pipe systems. For

the latter, the forces and displacements based on the anchor length of L=2 will not be

enough to balance the forces on the bulkhead. As a result, an additional amount of

bulkhead displacement must occur to result in a balance of forces on the bulkhead.

The force due to the extra displacement is not inﬂuenced by the soil friction as this is

generating its maximum value m0 W pip L=2 on each side. With reference to Fig. 3a, the

bulkhead displacement and the inner pipe force become, respectively:

Z L=2 Z L=2

m W pip m W pip L L

d¼ net dz ¼ tot 0 z dz ¼ tot 0 ,

0 0 E c Ac E c Ac 4 2

m0 W pip L

N d ¼ E p Ap tot . (2.25)

E c Ac 4

From Eq. (2.11), the strain in the outer pipe may be written as:

c ¼ tot T;c n;c . (2.26)

Using the above expressions and substituting N c ¼ E c Ac c into Eq. (2.1) leads to:

SN T ms W p L=2 SN n þ N E F s þ ðE p Ap =E c Ac Þðm0 W pip L=4Þ

tot ¼ .

E p Ap þ E c Ac

(2.27)

Based on the above equation d; N d; and the force in the outer pipe at bulkhead

location become:

SN T ms W p L=2 SN n þ N E F s ðm0 W pip L=4Þ L

d¼ ,

E p Ap þ E c Ac 2

ARTICLE IN PRESS

484 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

strain

tot

net

anchor

upstream point downstream

bulkhead f bulkhead

L /2 L /2

tot

εnet

anchor

point

x1 L-x1

net

tot

anchor

point

x1 L-x1

Fig. 3. Thermal expansion of short pipe-in-pipes. (a) Uniform temperature. (b) Temperature gradient in

inner pipe. (c) Inner and outer pipe temperature variation.

Nd ¼ ,

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

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A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 485

Nc

ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap ÞðN T;p ms W p L=2 N n;p þ N E F s Þ ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ þ ðm0 W pip L=4Þ

¼ .

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

ð2:28Þ

In most engineering situations, ðE p Ap Þ4ðE c Ac Þ: However in some cases the

opposite may be true. This happens when the primary purpose of the outer pipe

is to protect the inner pipe from the effects of dropped objects in areas close to

the platforms [33]. For a long protective pipe-in-pipe, the anchor length may be

written as:

SN T ms W p L=2 SN n þ N E F s

x . (2.29)

m0 W pip

The ﬂow through a pipe-in-pipe system causes a temperature gradient along the

length of the system, as shown in Figs. 2a. The exponential distribution represents a

realistic simulation of the temperature variation in the inner pipe due to heat loss and

may be written as [34,35]:

where, z is the distance measured from inner pipe inlet (upstream end), T i;p the inlet

temperature (at hot end of inner pipe), T z;p the temperature at distance z from inlet,

and bp the heat loss coefﬁcient (decay constant) for inner pipe. bp is a function of the

pipeline and coating conductivity properties, internal ﬂuid properties and external

convection and may be written as:

1 T i;p T a

bp ¼ ln , (2.31)

L T o;p T a

where, To,p is the outlet temperature (at cold end of inner pipe).

The thermal force in the inner pipe varies from a maximum of N T;p1 ¼

E p Ap aðT i;p T a Þ at the inlet to a minimum of N T;p2 ¼ E p Ap aðT o;p T a Þ at the

outlet. The difference is balanced by the frictional forces generated by the spacers on

the inner pipe, as shown in Fig. 2a, according to which:

L1 þ L2 ¼ L, ð2:32Þ

where, L1 ; L2 is the upstream and downstream length, respectively, over which two

opposing spacer friction forces act (see Fig. 2a).

ARTICLE IN PRESS

486 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

E p Ap a

L1 ¼ L ðT i;p T o;p Þ 2,

ms W p

E p Ap a

L2 ¼ L þ ðT i;p T o;p Þ 2,

ms W p

L2 4L1 . ð2:33Þ

Throughout this paper, sufﬁxes 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and the downstream

end of the pipe-in-pipe system, respectively.

The equilibrium of forces on the bulkheads results in:

N T;p1 þ ms W p L1 þ N n;p N E þ F s1 þ N d þ N c1 ¼ 0,

where

ðd1 þ d2 Þ

N d ¼ E p Ap . (2.35)

L

By subtracting the above two relationships, the following expression is

obtained:

N c1 N c2 ¼ ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ ms W pip ðL1 L2 Þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ. (2.36)

For the case of a long pipe-in-pipe system, two cases are considered. Case 1 relates

to L1 4x1 : Case 2 deﬁnes the opposite situation of L1 ox1 ; as shown for example in

Fig. 2a.

(a) Long pipe-in-pipe

Case 1 : x1 oL1 In this case, the net strain, the outer pipe force and the bulkhead

displacement at the upstream end become, respectively:

m0 W pip

net1 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1 z; 0ozoL1 ,

E c Ac

m0 W pip x21

d1 ¼ . (2.37)

2E c Ac

The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the downstream end may

similarly be written as:

m0 W pip

net2 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c2 x2 ¼ 0,

E c Ac

Z x2

m0 W pip 2

d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ x . (2.38)

0 2E c Ac 2

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A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 487

N c2 ¼ m0 W pip x2 ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ. (2.39)

Substitution of N c1 and N c2 in Eq. (2.36) by their equivalents results in:

ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1 L2 Þ þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ

x2 ¼ x1 þ (2.40)

m0 W pip

Using Eqs. (2.37) and (2.38), the inner pipe force may be written as:

m0 W pip E p Ap 2

Nd ¼ ðx þ x22 Þ. (2.41)

2L E c Ac 1

By substituting N d; from Eq. (2.41) and N c1 from Eq. (2.37) into Eq. (2.34) and

making use of Eq. (2.40), the following relationship is obtained for x1 :

E c Ac ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1 L2 Þ þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ

x21 þ L þ x1

E p Ap m0 W pip

L E c Ac

þ ðSN T1 þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 Þ

m0 W pip E p Ap

1 ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1 L2 Þ þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ 2

þ ¼ 0, ð2:42Þ

2 m0 W pip

where SN T1 ¼ N T;p1 þ N T;c is the sum of thermal forces on the upstream

bulkhead.

For a uniform temperature pipe-in-pipe system but with different tie-in spool

weights, L1 ¼ L2 ¼ L=2 and the above relationships are simpliﬁed as:

F s1 F s2

x2 ¼ x1 þ ,

m0 W pip

E c Ac F s1 F s2 L E c Ac

x21 þ L þ x1 þ

E p Ap m0 W pip m0 W pip E p Ap

ðSN T1 þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L=2Þ

1 F s1 F s2 2

þ ¼ 0. ð2:43Þ

2 m0 W pip

The above solution is valid when x1 oL1 and x1 þ x2 pL:

Case 2 : x1 4L1 With reference to Fig. 2a, the net strain at the upstream end is:

m0 W pip

net1a ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1 z; 0ozoL1 ,

E c Ac

net1b ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1 z; L1 ozox1 , (2.44)

E c Ac E c Ac

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488 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

m Wp

m1 ¼ m 1 þ s . (2.45)

m W pip

The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the upstream end are:

ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip

net1b ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1 x1 ¼ 0,

E c Ac E c Ac

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1

d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz

0 o L1

W pip L2 m

¼ ðm0 3m1 Þ 1 þ m1 L1 x1 þ 1 x21 . ð2:46Þ

E c Ac 2 2

From Eq. (2.44), the outer pipe force at the upstream end may be written as:

N c1 ¼ m1 W pip x1 þ ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ. (2.47)

Substitution of N c1 from the above equation and N c2 from Eq. (2.39) into Eq.

(2.36) leads to:

m1

x2 ¼ x1

m0

ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ þ ms W p ðL1 L2 Þ þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ þ ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1

þ ,

m0 W pip

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

A

ð2:48Þ

where A refers to the second term on right-hand side of Eq. (2.48).

Using Eq. (2.48), the inner pipe force becomes:

E p Ap W pip mm1 2 1 m A2

Nd ¼ x1 þ m1 ðL1 þ AÞx1 þ ðm0 3m1 ÞL21 þ 0 . (2.49)

E c Ac L m0 2 2

By substituting N d; from the above and N c1 from Eq. (2.47) into the balance of

forces on the upstream bulkhead of Eq. (2.34), the following equation is obtained for

the calculation of x1 :

mm0 2 E c Ac

x1 þ m 1 L 1 þ A þ L x1

m E p Ap

E c Ac L

þ ½SN T1 þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1

E p Ap W pip

1

þðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 þ ½ðm0 3m1 ÞL21 þ m0 A2 ¼ 0. ð2:50Þ

2

The solution is valid when x1 4L1 and x1 þ x2 pL: Note that m0 þ m1 ¼ 2m and

m1 m0 ¼ 2ms ðW p =W pip Þ:

(b) Short pipe-in-pipe

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A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500 489

In cases where x1 þ x2 4L (see Fig. 3b), by equating the anchor point strain at the

downstream end from Eq. (2.38) to that at the upstream end from Eq. (2.44) and by

substituting x2 ¼ L x1 ; the following relationship is obtained:

N c1 N c2 ¼ W pip ðm0 þ m1 Þx1 þ m0 ðL1 LÞ m1 L1 . (2.51)

By equating the above relationship with that of 2.36, the following expression is

obtained for x1 :

ðN T;p1 N T;p2 Þ ms W p ðL1 L2 Þ ðF s1 F s2 Þ mo L2 þ m1 L1

x1 ¼ þ .

2mW pip 2m

(2.52)

The bulkheads’ displacements become:

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1

d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz

0 0 L1

2

ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 ðm m1 ÞW pip L1 m W pip 2

¼ þ T;c þ n;c þ c1 0 x1 1 x,

2E c Ac E c Ac 2E c Ac 1

Z Lx1 Z Lx1

m W pip

d2 ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c2 0

net2 dz ¼ z dz

0 0 E c Ac

2

m0 W pip L m0 W pip L

¼ ðT;c þ n;c þ c2 ÞL þ ðT;c þ n;c þ c2 Þ þ

2E c Ac E c Ac

m W pip 2

x1 0 x . ð2:53Þ

2E c Ac 1

Thus the inner pipe force may be written in terms of x1 and Nc2 as:

E p Ap

Nd ¼ ðd1 þ d2 Þ

L

E p Ap W pip ðm0 m1 ÞL21 m0 L2 2

¼ þ mx1 þ ðN T;c þ N n;c þ N c2 Þ .

E c Ac L 2

ð2:54Þ

Substitution of N d; in the balance of forces on the downstream bulkhead of Eq.

(2.34) and the subsequent use of Eq. (2.51) result in the following expressions for

N c1 and N c2 :

E c Ac

E p Ap ½N T;p2 ms W p L2 N n;p þ N E F s2 þ W pip ð2mx1 m0 L2 m1 L1 Þ

ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ

N c1 ¼

1 þ EEpc A

Ap

c

n h 2 2

i o

1 m0 L þðm1 m0 ÞL1

W pip L 2 mx21 þ 2mx1 m0 L2 m1 L1

þ ,

1 þ EEpc A

Ap

c

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490 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

E c Ac

E p Ap ðN T;p2 ms W p L2 N n;p þ N E F s2 Þ ðN T;c þ N n;c Þ

þðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1 m0 ÞL21 =2Þ mx21

N c2 ¼ . (2.55)

1 þ EEpc A

Ap

c

h i

m0 L2 þðm1 m0 ÞL21

SN T2 ms W p L2 SN n þ N E F s2 ðW pip =LÞ 2 mx21

Nd ¼ .

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

(2.56)

In most cases, the temperature in the outer pipe is the almost the same as the

ambient temperature. However if there is any variation, this may similarly be

approximated as (see Fig. 4):

where T i;c is the inlet temperature (at hot end of outer pipe), T z;c the temperature

at distance z from inlet, and bc the heat loss coefﬁcient for outer pipe similarly

strain

tot1

strain

T,c–1 tot2

c-1 T,c–1

v,c c–2

v,c

net1 net2

f

f

pote

ntial

l

ntia

pote

(a) Strain in outer pipe

(To,c – Ta)

z

(b) Outer pipe temperature profile

displaced

bulkhead outer pipe bulkhead

spacer inner pipe

1 x1 x2 2

anchor region

L

(c) Thermal expansion

Fig. 4. Pipe-in-pipe expansion under temperature variation. (a) Strain in outer pipe. (b) Outer pipe

temperature proﬁle. (c) Thermal expansion.

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deﬁned as:

1 T i;c T a

bc ¼ ln . (2.58)

L T o;c T a

(a) Long pipe-in-pipe

Case 1 : x1 oL1

With reference to Fig. 4(a), the upstream anchor point and bulkhead displacement

are obtained from:

net1 ¼ tot1 f ¼ T;c þ n;c þ c1 f 1 ¼ aðT i;c T a Þebc x1

m W pip

þ n;c þ c1 0 x1 ¼ 0,

E c Ac

Z x1

1 1 m W pip 2

d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ aðT i;c T a Þ þ x1 e bc x1

þ 0 x , (2.59)

0 bc bc 2E c Ac 1

where tot1 is the total strain at upstream end, deﬁned similar to Eq. (2.11).

The ﬁrst equation may be rewritten as:

N c1 ¼ m0 W pip x1 aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 E c Ac N n;c . (2.60)

With the above relationship, Eq. (2.34) for the equilibrium of forces on the

upstream bulkhead is reduced to:

ðd1 þ d2 Þ

aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 E c Ac N T;p1 þ m0 W pip x1 þ E p Ap

L

þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 ¼ 0. ð2:61Þ

T z;c T a ¼ ðT o;c T a Þebc z , (2.62)

where z is the distance from inner pipe outlet and T z;c the temperature at distance z

from outlet.

The anchor point and the bulkhead displacement at the downstream end may

similarly be calculated from:

m0 W pip

net2 ¼ tot2 f ¼ aðT o;c T a Þebc x2 þ n;c þ c2 x2 ¼ 0,

E c Ac

Z x2

1 1 m W pip 2

d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ aðT o;c T a Þ þ x2 e bc x2

þ 0 x ,

0 bc bc 2E c Ac 2

(2.63)

where tot2 is the total strain at downstream end.

From Eq. (2.63), the outer pipe force at the downstream end becomes:

N c2 ¼ m0 W pip x2 aðT o;c T a Þebc x2 E c Ac N n;c . (2.64)

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492 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

ðd1 þ d2 Þ

aðT o;c T a Þebc x2 E c Ac N T;p2 þ m0 W pip x2 þ E p Ap

L

þ SN n N E þ F s2 þ ms W pip L2 ¼ 0. ð2:65Þ

Substitution of d1 from Eq. (2.59) and d2 from Eq. (2.63) into Eqs. (2.61) and

(2.65) results in the following two relationships in terms of x1 and x2 :

E c Ac m0 W pip 1 x1 bc x1

aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 þ x1 aðT i;c T a Þ þ e

E p Ap E p Ap Lbc L

1 x2 bc x2 m0 W pip 2 aðT i;c T o;c Þ

aðT o;c T a Þ þ e þ ðx þ x22 Þ þ

Lbc L 2E c Ac L 1 Lbc

N T;p1 þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1

þ ¼ 0, ð2:66aÞ

E p Ap

E c Ac m0 W pip

bc x2 1 x1 bc x1

aðT o;c T a Þe þ x2 aðT i;c T a Þ þ e

E p Ap E p Ap Lbc L

1 x2 bc x2 m0 W pip 2 aðT i;c T o;c Þ

aðT o;c T a Þ þ e þ ðx þ x22 Þ þ

Lbc L 2E c Ac L 1 Lbc

N T;p2 þ SN n N E þ F s2 þ ms W p L2

þ ¼ 0. ð2:66bÞ

E p Ap

The above pair of equations can be solved iteratively [36]. The solution is valid

when x1 oL1 and x1 þ x2 pL:

In most practical cases bc x1 51 and bc x2 51: Based on this, an alternative but

slightly approximate method which simpliﬁes the solution to the above equations, is

to expand the exponential terms as [37]:

1

ebc x1 1 bc x1 þ ðbc x1 Þ2 ,

2

1

e bc x2

1 þ bc x2 þ ðbc x2 Þ2 . ð2:67Þ

2

If the outer pipe temperature rapidly declines to ambient, then the d2 and Nc2 are

simpliﬁed as:

m0 W pip 2

d2 ¼ x,

2E c Ac 2

The balance of forces on the downstream bulkhead is also simpliﬁed as:

d1 þ d2

SN T2 þ m0 W pip x2 þ E p Ap þ SN n N E þ F s2 þ ms W p L2 ¼ 0,

L

(2.69)

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bulkhead.

The solution is valid when ðT o:c T a Þebc x2 0:

Case 2: x1 4L1

The net strain at the upstream end may be written as:

m0 W pip

net1a ¼ aðT i;c T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c1 E c Ac z; 0ozoL1 ;

ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip

net1b ¼ aðT i;c T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c1 E c Ac E c Ac z; L1 ozox1 :

(2.70)

The upstream anchor point and bulkhead displacement can be calculated from:

ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip

net1b ¼ aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 þ n;c þ c1 x1 ¼ 0,

E c Ac E c Ac

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1

d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz

0 0 L1

1 1 W pip

¼ aðT i;c T a Þ þ x1 ebc x1 þ ½ðm m1 ÞL21 þ m1 x21 . ð2:71Þ

bc bc 2E c Ac 0

Eq. (2.70) may be rewritten as:

N c1 ¼ m1 W pip x1 aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 E c Ac N n;c þ ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 . (2.72)

With the above, Eq. (2.34) is reduced to:

ðd1 þ d2 Þ

aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 E c Ac N T;p1 þ m1 W pip x1 þ E p Ap

L

þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 þ ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 ¼ 0. ð2:73Þ

Eqs. (2.63) and (2.65) remain valid for the downstream bulkhead displacement

and balance of forces.

Substitution of d1 from Eq. (2.71) and d2 from Eq. (2.63) into Eq. (2.73) results in

the following expression in terms of x1 and x2 :

bc x1 E c Ac m1 W pip 1 x1 bc x1

aðT i;c T a Þe þ x1 aðT i;c T a Þ þ e

E p Ap E p Ap bc L L

1 x2 bc x2 W pip

aðT o;c T a Þ þ e þ ½m x2 þ m0 x22 þ ðm0 m1 ÞL21

bc L L 2E c Ac L 1 1

aðT i;c T o;c Þ

þ

bc L

N T;p1 þ SN n N E þ F s1 þ ms W p L1 þ ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1

þ ¼ 0. ð2:74Þ

E p Ap

Eqs. (2.66b) and (2.74) can similarly be solved in terms of x1 and x2 : The solution

is valid when x1 4L1 and x1 þ x2 pL:

(b) Short pipe-in-pipe

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494 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

With reference to Fig 3c, by equating the anchor point strain at the upstream end

from Eq. (2.70) to that at the downstream end from Eq. (2.63), and by substituting

x2 ¼ L x1 ; the following relationship is obtained:

N c1 ðm0 m1 ÞW pip L1 m1 W pip

aðT i;c T a Þebc x1 þ n;c þ x1

E c Ac E c Ac E c Ac

N c2 m0 W pip

¼ aðT o;c T a Þebc ðLx1 Þ þ n;c þ ðL x1 Þ. ð2:75Þ

E c Ac E c Ac

N c1 N c2 ¼ W pip ½ðm0 þ m1 Þx1 þ m0 ðL1 LÞ m1 L1 (2.76)

which is identical to Eq. (2.51) for uniform temperature. Equating the above

relationship with Eq. (2.36) results in the following equation for x1 :

x1 ¼ þ .

2mW pip 2m

(2.77)

Z x1 Z L1 Z x1

d1 ¼ net1 dz ¼ net1a dz þ net1b dz

0 0 0

aðT i;c T o Þ W pip L21

¼ ð1 ebc x1 Þ þ ðmo m1 Þ

b 2E c Ac

c

ðm0 þ m1 ÞW pip L1 m W pip 2

þ ðn;c þ c1 Þ þ x1 1 x ,

E c Ac 2E c Ac 1

Z x2 Z ðLx1 Þ

m0 W pip

d2 ¼ net2 dz ¼ aðT o;c T a Þebc z þ n;c þ c2 z dz

0 0 E c Ac

ðT i;c T a Þ bc ðLx1 Þ

¼ aebc L ½e 1 þ ðn;c þ c2 ÞðL x1 Þ

bc

m W pip

0 ðL x1 Þ2 . ð2:78Þ

2E c Ac

E p Ap

Nd ¼ ðd1 þ d2 Þ

L

aðT i;c T o;c Þ E p Ap W pip ðm0 m1 ÞL21 m0 L2

¼ E p Ap þ þ mx21

Lbc E c Ac L 2

þ N n;c þ N c2 . ð2:79Þ

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Substitution of N d in Eq. (2.34) and the subsequent use of Eq. (2.76) result in the

following relationships for N c1 and N c2 :

þW pip ð2mx1 m0 L2 m1 L1 Þ ½ðE c Ac aðT i;c T o;cÞ =Lbc Þ þ N n;c

N c1 ¼

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

1 2

W pip L ½ððm0 L þ ðm1 m0 ÞL21 Þ=2Þ mx21 þ 2mx1 m0 L2 m1 L1

þ ,

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap ÞðN T;p2 ms W p L2 N n;p þ N E F s2 Þ ½ðE c Ac aðT i;c T o;cÞ =Lbc Þ þ N n;c

þðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1 m0 ÞL21 =2Þ mx21

N c2 ¼ .

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

(2.80)

E c Ac ðaT i;c T o;cÞ

Lbc þ N T;p2 ms W pip L2 SN n þ N E F s2

ðW pip =LÞ½ðm0 L2 þ ðm1 m0 ÞL21 Þ=2 mx21

Nd ¼ . (2.81)

1 þ ðE c Ac Þ=ðE p Ap Þ

It should be noted that the ﬁrst quotient in the numerator represents the average

temperature in the outer pipe.

3. Application

The above mathematical model was applied to two pipe-in-pipe systems whose

characteristics are summarised in Table 1. A long pipe-in-pipe of length 11,000 m

and short one of 6000 m are considered. All thermal expansion cases discussed in this

paper are considered. The ﬁndings are tabulated in Tables 2 and 3 along with

corresponding ﬁnite element analysis results.

4. Conclusions

Based on simple columb friction between the inner pipe and the spacers, analytical

formulas were developed for thermal expansion of non-compliant pipe-in-pipe

systems. It was concluded that the anchor length ratio increases with both a decrease

in pipe-in-pipe length and an increase in the square root of the resultant force that

tends to displace the bulkhead whereas for a long protective pipe-in-pipe with thin

outer pipe wall thickness, the anchor length is directly proportional to this force.

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496 A. Bokaian / Marine Structures 17 (2004) 475–500

Table 1

Pipe-in-pipe data

(a) Geometric and material properties

Outer diameter Dp mm 273.1

Wall thickness tp mm 14.3

Coating thickness — mm 3

Coating density — kg/m3 900

Steel Young modulus of elasticity Ep N/m2 2.07 1011

Steel density — kg/m3 7850

Poisson’s ratio of steel n dimensionless 0.3

Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel a 1/1C 11.7 106

Fluid density — kg/m3 900

Design pressure pd,p bar 400

1400 Outer pipe

Outer diameter Dc mm 355.6

Wall thickness tc mm 12.7

Coating thickness — mm 2.5

Coating density — kg/m3 1000

Steel Young modulus of elasticity Ec N/m2 2.07 1011

Mass per unit length of insulation, spacers and — kg/m 3

other appurtenances

Spacers friction coefﬁcient ms dimensionless 0.22

Mass of tie-in spoolpiece — te 11.52

Annulus design pressure pans bar 1

(b) Environmental and soil data

Water depth — m 300

Sea water density — kg/m3 1025

Longitudinal seabed friction coefﬁcient m dimensionless 0.6

Ambient (installation) temperature Ta 1C 5

Table 2

Hoop stress

Outer pipe sc MPa 39.4

For short pipe-in-pipe systems, the effect of outer pipe temperature variation on

the inner pipe axial force and outer pipe tension can be replaced by its average over

the pipe-in-pipe length. The inner pipe axial force increases with increase in the

resultant force on the bulkhead.

For the case of exponentially varying outer pipe temperature, iterative methods

should be employed to calculate the thermal expansion characteristics. The iteration

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Table 3

Pipe-in-pipe thermal expansion characteristics

Temperature data

(a) Uniform temperature

Inner pipe design temperature Td,p 1C 95

Outer pipe design temperature Td,c 1C 15

Long pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L m 11,000

Anchor length x m 4110

Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe Lo m 8491oL

Inner pipe force N d; kN 521 520.5

Total axial force in inner pipe Ntotal,p kN 1865 1863

Effective axial force in inner pipe Neff,p kN 2588 2584

Outer pipe force at bulkhead location Nc kN 1148 1146

Short pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo

Inner pipe force N d; kN 950 954

Total axial force in inner pipe Ntotal,p kN 931 937

Effective axial force in inner pipe Neff,p kN 1653 1658

Outer pipe force at bulkhead location Nc kN 1224 1227

Temperature data

(b) Inner pipe non-uniform temperature– outer pipe uniform temperature

Inner pipe inlet temperature Ti,p 1C 95

Inner pipe outlet temperature To,p 1C 85

Outer pipe design temperature Td,c 1C 15

Long pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L km 11,000

Heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.071 105

Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe(1) Lo m 7760oL

Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 M 4803

Reduced friction coefﬁcient mo dimensionless 0.4

Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

Anchor length at downstream end x2 Mm 3158 3154

Bulkhead displacement at upstream end d1 mm 1471 1469

Bulkhead displacement at downstream end d2 mm 703 700

Inner pipe force N d; kN 476 472

Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 1331 1328

Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 768 765

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Table 3 (continued)

Short pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo

Heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.963 105

Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 2303

Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

Inner pipe force Nd kN 1202 1208

Inner pipe total deﬂection d1 þ d2 mm 2996 3000

Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 2108 2112

Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 549 554

Note: (1) Based on inner pipe minimum uniform temperature of 85 1C

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Temperature data

(c) Inner pipe non-uniform temperature– outer pipe non-uniform temperature

Inner pipe inlet temperature Ti,p 1C 95

Inner pipe outlet temperature To,p 1C 85

Outer pipe inlet temperature Ti,c 1C 15

Outer pipe outlet temperature To,c 1C 10

Long pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L m 11,000

Inner pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.071 105

Outer pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bc 1/m 6.301 105

Limit between short and long pipe-in-pipe(1) Lo m 6331oL

Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 4803

Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

Anchor length at downstream end x2 mm 2910 2907

Bulkhead displacement at upstream end d1 mm 1456 1453

Bulkhead displacement at downstream end d2 mm 579 576

Inner pipe force N d; kN 445 442

Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 1364 1362

Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 801 798

Short pipe-in-pipe

Pipe-in-pipe length L km 6000oLo

Inner pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bp 1/m 1.963 105

Outer pipe heat loss coefﬁcient bc 1/m 1.155 105

Upstream length over which spacers friction acts L1 m 2303

Anchor length at upstream end x1 m 4177

Results — dimensionless Analytical Finite element

Inner pipe force N d; kN 1159 1163

Outer pipe force at upstream bulkhead location Nc1 kN 2150 2154

Outer pipe force at downstream bulkhead location Nc2 kN 592 596

Note: (1) Based on inner and outer pipe minimum uniform temperature of 85 and 10 1C, respectively.

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analytical formulae can describe thermal expansion characteristics when the outer

pipe temperature is constant. Analytical ﬁndings indicated good agreement with

ﬁnite element results.

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