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Presented by /
Mahmoud Mohamed Farid

Presented to /
Dr/ Tamer Ismail
Dr / Khaled Ramzy
1. What is natural gas?

Natural gas consists mainly of methane, a compound with one carbon atom and four
hydrogen atoms. Natural gas also contains small amounts of hydrocarbon gas liquids and
nonhydrocarbon gases. We use natural gas as a fuel and to make materials and chemicals.

2. What is difference between conventional fuel and natural Gas?

Points Gasoline Natural Gas

Cost Cheap Costlier

Prop. is made of eight carbon atoms chained - consists mostly of methane and
together with 18 hydrogen atoms bonded hydrocarbons or ethane
to the chain - The molecule is very small. There
is one carbon atom with four
hydrogen atoms bonded to it
Usage as a fuel in vehicles  as a fuel in vehicles
 used for cooking and heating
 used for fertilizers because it
produces ammonia which is very
helpful for the plants’ growth
Pollution polluting The cleanest fuel ever

Storage Can be easily stored harder to store where Compressing

natural gas requires energy, and a
tank of compressed natural gas is
much larger than a tank of gasoline
that contains the same amount of
3. How to convert cars fuel to natural gas instead of oil.
It doesn't take much besides a new fuel tank to convert a gasoline-burning engine to one that also
runs on natural gas. Attached to the fuel tank [1] is the regulator [2], which reduces tank pressure
from 3600 psi to 125 psi. Fuel is then fed to a parallel fuel rail [3] and to new, secondary injectors
plugged into an adapter [4]. A wiring harness [5] plugs into the factory engine-control unit and
intercepts throttle information, sending it to a new fuelling computer [6], which slightly alters the data
and passes it to the CNG injectors [7] through a parallel wiring harness [8].

4. What is natural gas advantages and disadvantages.

advantages disadvantages

Economy: Natural gas is cheaper compared to Flammable and Toxic: Natural gas leaks can be
other fossil fuels and cheaper than electricity when proven to be extremely dangerous. Such leaks
used for supplying home appliances. Natural gas may be the cause of fire or explosions. The gas
appliances are also cheaper compared to electrical itself is extremely toxic when inhaled. The main
ones risk comes from the fact that it is naturally
odourless and cannot be detected by smell, unless
an odorant has been added to the gas mixture
Environment: It does not pollute the ground or the Environmental Impact: When natural gas burns,
underground water because its by-products are in carbon dioxide, monoxide, and other carbon
gaseous form. Another important fact is that natural compounds are emitted in the atmosphere
gas burns without releasing any soot or sulphur contributing to the greenhouse effect.
dioxide. It also emits 45% less carbon dioxide than
coal and 30% less than oil
Transportation: Transportation is made via sea Processing: In order to use it as a fuel, all
(tankers) and land (pipelines and small tanks). This constituents other than methane have to be
fact allows natural gas to be easily transferred from extracted. The processing results in several by-
power plants to residential areas. products: hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, etc.),
sulphur, water vapour, carbon dioxide, and even
helium and nitrogen
Multi-uses: Natural gas is a multi-use fuel. It is used Non-Renewable: It is a finite source of energy and
inside the house for cooking, heating, drying, etc. It cannot be considered a long-term solution to our
can be used for generating electric power, powering energy supply problem.
vehicles (by substituting for diesel and gasoline),
producing plastics, paints, fertilizers, and many more
Availability: It is abundant and almost worldwide Installation: The whole pipe installation may be
available. very expensive to construct since long pipes,
specialized tanks, and separate plumbing systems
need to be used. Pipe leakage may also be very
expensive to detect and fix

Conversion to Hydrogen Fuel: It is currently the Efficiency in Transportation: When natural gas is
cheapest fossil fuel source for producing hydrogen. used as a fuel in cars, the mileage is lower than

5. The Benefits of Natural Gas Boilers

Natural gas has its advantages. If you are thinking about switching from a fuel oil boiler to a natural
gas boiler, here is a list of reasons detailing how switching can benefit you, your home, and your

 No more oil
Natural gas is typically piped into your home, cutting down on maintaining the oil in the
boiler and eliminating the need to run out and buy some in an emergency. Oil also
smells and produces lots of soot. Natural gas is odorless when in use and produces very
few emissions, helping out the environment and cutting down on cleaning time.
 Save money
Natural gas costs less than oil. Because natural gas is also far more efficient, it will also
cost less to heat your home, saving you hundreds of dollars a year in heating costs. A
natural gas boiler also tends to cost less; the units are cheaper to produce than oil
burning boilers.
 Help the environment
Natural gas is cleaner than oil to burn, produces less soot, and the way it is obtained is
better for the environment. Natural gas is gathered from pipes run deep underground;
no oil wells or drills are required.
6. Natural gas liquefaction Technology

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of
ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage
or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state (at standard
conditions for temperature and pressure). It is odourless, colourless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The
liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium,
water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then
condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately −162 °C
(−260 °F); maximum transport pressure is set at around 25 kPa (4 psi).

Natural gas is mainly converted in to LNG to achieve the natural gas transport over the seas where
laying pipelines is not feasible technically and economically.[1] LNG achieves a higher reduction in
volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4
times greater than that of CNG (at 250 bar) or 60 percent that of diesel fuel.[2] This makes LNG cost
efficient in marine transport over long distances. However, CNG carrier can be used economically up
to medium distances in marine transport. [3] Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers)
or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural
gas to markets, where it is degasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It can be used in
natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas.
Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have
hindered widespread commercial use. Despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is
expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020. (See LNG Trade).