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Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and

Information in Engineering Conference


IDETC/CIE 2007
September 4-7, 2007, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

DETC2007-34032

DRAFT: EFFECT OF PRESHAVED FORM AND CUTTER PERFORMANCE IN PLUNGE CUT


SHAVING

Shimpei Nakada Ichiro Moriwaki


Gear Cutting Tool Department Department of Mechanical and System Engineering
Mitsubishi Materials Kobe Tools. Co., Ltd. Kyoto Institute of Technology
179-1, Nishioike, Kanagasaki, Uozumi-cho, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, 606-8585 Kyoto, JAPAN
674-0071 Akashi, JAPAN

ABSTRACT Thus, computer simulation programs have developed [1-4].


The present paper describes a new method of simulation These programs enable a shaving process to be simulated well,
program for plunge cut gear shaving. The developed program in order to reduce and then get rid of the trial process.
estimates the shaved form as follows. First is generation of However, some parameters had been required for the
tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter from gear simulation programs. The present paper describes the latest
data. Second is estimation of initial mismatches between tooth version of the simulation program. The feature of the new
flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter as depth of cut. version is a following point: a delay or lead of the work gear
Third is calculation of stock removal of work tooth flanks rotation and deflections of gear teeth in the shaving simulation.
from the depth of cut. The program can simulate in
consideration of an effect of preshaved form and the cutter
tooth form modification. In addition, the program can simulate 2 COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAM
in consideration of an effect of cutter performance. The cutter A process of the plunge cut shaving consists of a plunge
performance has been evaluated from slide velocity between process and a dwell process. In the plunge process, the
the tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter. The shaving cutter and the work gear are moved into slightly
effect of accuracy of preshaved form and cutter performance closer mesh. Then a center distance between axes of the
on the shaved form was investigated using the developed shaving cutter and the work gear is reduced by a plunge feed
program. As a result, requirement of accuracy of preshaved of the work gear. In the dwell process, the shaving cutter and
form and cutter performance are proposed. the work gear mesh in certain amount of center distance. Then
the center distance is not changed. The developed program
simulates these processes and calculates a shaved form as
1 INTRODUCTION
follows:
Gear shaving process is one of the important processes in gear
manufacturing of transmission for automobiles. In the shaving (1) Create flank film element on tooth flanks of the shaving
cutter and the work gear to be shaved. The flank film
process, a work gear to be shaved and a shaving cutter mesh
element is a new element for Finite Element Analysis
each other without backlash and under crossed axes. Then,
(FEA) of meshing gear tooth stress.
cutting edges on tooth flanks of the shaving cutter finally
(2) Set coordinate transformation matrix between the shaving
remove tens of micrometers of tooth flanks of the shaved gear.
cutter and the work gear. The matrix depends on a center
In order to improve the shaved gear tooth form, i.e. obtain a
required one, the shaving cutter tooth forms are appropriately distance and a shaft angle between the shaving cutter and
the work gear axes.
modified and transcribe into the shaved form. Because a
(3) Calculate initial mismatch between the shaving cutter and
cutting mechanism of the shaving processing is complex, the
the work gear tooth flanks. The initial mismatch means
relationship between an amount of the cutter tooth form
geometrical overlap of tooth flanks of the shaving cutter
modification and the shaved form improvement is nonlinear.
and the work gear.
Therefore, a few times of trial-and-error process is required to
(4) Calculate contact stress works on the tooth flanks and
determine the cutter tooth form modification. To reduce the
transmission torque from the initial mismatch and radii of
trial-and-error process, a computer simulation program has
been required instead of the process. curvature of the flanks.

Phone: +81-78-936-1555, Fax: +81-78-936-1497, Email: snakada@mmc.co.jp.

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(5) Compare transmission torque acts on driven side and (9) Simulate the dwell process after the end of plunge feed.
followed side of the work gear. Then, these torque are not Then repeat (2) to (7) until the shaved form has not been
balanced, modify rotational angle of the work gear. converged.
(6) Calculate stock removal of the work gear flank from the (10) At the end of the simulation, out put the shaved form.
initial mismatch as a depth of cut and update cumulative Figure 1 shows a flow chart of the developed simulation
removal as a shaved form. program.
(7) Then a target tooth of the work gear in mesh, increase
rotational angles of the shaving cutter and the work gear. If 3 EVALUATION OF STOCK REMOVAL
not so, copy each sides of shaved forms from target tooth In order to simulate the shaving process and calculate the
to other teeth simultaneously mesh with the target one. shaved form, it is necessary to evaluate the depth of cut of
(8) Reduce a center distance when a plunge feed has not cutting edges on the shaving cutter flank and calculate stock
finished and repeat (2) to (7). removal of the work gear tooth flank from the depth of cut. In
the developed simulation program, the depth of cut is
estimated from the initial mismatch. The initial mismatch is
geometrical overlap between the shaving cutter and the work
gear tooth flanks. Let us consider the relationship between the
depth of cut and the stock removal. If the depth of cut would
be less than a certain value, the cutting edge could only slide
on work tooth flank; i.e. the stock removal could not be
induced. Therefore, there should be a criterion of the depth of
cut for the stock removal. In addition, the criterion would not
have a definite value. It should depend on the some
conditions; e.g., microstructure of cutting edges and sub-
surface of a tooth flank, and film of cutting fluid. As a result,
it should change at random. Therefore, we should evaluate
stock removal through expected value. Furthermore, we could
determine only geometrical depth of cut, so that we must
estimate the actual depth of cut from the geometrical one.
Consequently, we evaluate the stock removal from
2
K R t1 1 t mt
R K Rt1 exp 2
dt (1)
2 t
2 t

Three unknown parameters are introduced here. Let us


consider physical meanings of these parameters. The
parameters mt and σt represent the cutter performance of
cutting edges. The parameter KR compensates the difference
between the initial mismatch and the actual depth of cut. How
to determine these parameters strongly affects calculated tooth
forms of shaved gears. Figure 2 shows the relationship
between depth of cut and stock removal following Eq.(1). As
shown in figure 2, evaluated stock removal increases with a
value of initial mismatch. As shown in figure 2 (a), evaluated
stock removal increases with a value of parameter KR. As
shown in figure 2 (b), evaluated stock removal decreases with
a value of parameter mt.

4 LEAD OR DELAY OF WORK GEAR ROTATION


As shown in figure 3, in the shaving process, the shaving
cutter and the work gear mesh under a certain amount of
relative pressure on their tooth flanks. Usually, the shaving
cutter is drive gear and the work gear is driven gear in these
shaving processes, i.e. rotation of the work gear is not
controlled. Therefore, it can be considered that transmission
torque acts on each sides of the work gear flank statically
balances at all moment. The transmission torque acts on
driven side Td and followed side Tf is given by
Td rb Pd
Figure 1. Flow chart of simulation program. (2)
Tf rb Pf

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(a) Stock removal changes in KR

Figure 3. Contact stress act on work gear tooth flanks.

(b) Stock removal changes in mt

Figure 2. Relationship between stock removal and


initial mismatch.

Where, Pd and Pf is a contact stress acts on driven side and


followed side of the work gear flank. In the developed
program, the contact stress is calculated with the equation for
circular contact in Hertzian contact theory. In the Hertzian
contact theory for hemispheres is follows:
2 2
Figure 4. Relationship between transmission torque
9 w c 1 w 1 c and lead or delay of rotational angle of the work gear.
t
3
1 P 2
(3)
16 w c Ew Ec

Then, we have Table 1. Gear data 1.

Td Tf 0 (4)

as an equation of equilibrium of transmission torque. Where, ρ


is radius of curvature at the contact point of the flanks, E is
Young’s modulus and ν is Poisson’s ratio of materials of the
work gear or the shaving cutter. The subscript w is the work
gear and c is the shaving cutter.
Figure 4 shows example of relationship between transmission
torque acts on driven and followed side and lead or delay of
rotational angle of the work gear. Gear data is shown in table 1. Td Tf
FP d w (5)
As shown in figure 4, transmission torque acts on driven side Td Tf
decrease with lead of rotational angle of the work gear. On the
other hand, the transmission torque on followed side increase where, dθ w is lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work
with the lead of the work gear. Therefore, the transmission gear. Figure 5 shows relationship between parameter Fp and
torque depends on lead or delay of rotational angle of the work lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work gear. As
gear. In order to solve Eq.(4), a new parameter FP represents a shown in figure 5, FP is monotone increasing function with
balance of these transmission torques is calculated by lead or delay of the rotational angle of the work gear. Then

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these transmission torques are in equilibrium position, Eq.(5)
is represented by
FP d w 0 (6)
The developed simulation program solve Eq.(6) and fix initial
mismatch at every moment of calculation of stock removal.
Figure 6 shows change of calculated of the lead or delay on
pitch circle of the work gear in mesh. As shown in figure 6,
the lead or delay has periodicity and its frequency in a rotation
is number of teeth of the work gear, i.e. 360/52 degree.

5 DEFLECTION OF GEAR TEETH


As shown in figure 7, in the shaving process, contact stress act
on each side of the shaving cutter and the work gear teeth.
Therefore, there are tooth deflection of the shaving cutter and
the work gear. A direction of the deflection depends on scalar Figure 6. Change of lead or delay of rotational angle.
of these contact stresses. The deflection can be calculated
from Finite Element Analysis (FEA). However, FEA requires
a lot of calculation time for each meshing condition. So, it is
very difficult for the shaving simulation to apply FEA in a
problem of calculation time. In order to evaluate tooth
deflection easily, the developed program introduced plate
model of the shaving cutter and work gear teeth. Figure 8 (a)
shows plate model of the work gear. Where, b w is facewidth,
hw is whole depth, sw is chordal tooth thickness on shaving
diameter. Figure 8 (b) shows plate model of the shaving cutter.
Where, b c is facewidth, hc is height from tip to drilled hole
pitch circle, sc is chordal tooth thickness on drilled hole pitch
circle. Then the deflections of these plates are calculated by
(a) Contact stress acts on driven side is greater than
M 2
h (7) followed side
D
where, M is resultant of moment and D is flexural rigidity of
these plates. The resultant moment is calculated by
M Ph (8)

and the flexural rigidities of these plates are calculated by


Es 3
D 2
(9)
12 1

(b) Contact stress acts on driven side is equals to


followed side

(c) Contact stress acts on driven side is less than


followed side
Figure 5. Relationship between balance torque and
lead or delay of the work gear. Figure 7. Tooth deflection.

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However, the tooth deflection of the work gear or the shaving
cutter Δ is not same as δ. Due to fix error between Δ and δ, we
introduce a new parameter kw and kc as follows:
w kw w
(10)
c kc c

these parameters are determined from


k mt (11)
where, κ is parameters due to fix the tooth deflection. In the
developed simulation program, parameter κ is determined as
follows:
w 0.05
(12)
c 0.01

Then, the initial mismatch, which is considered tooth


deflection t1b is calculated from
t1b t1 wr wo cr co (13)
Where, t1 is the initial mismatch that is not considered tooth
deflection and subscript r is referred side of calculation, and o
is opposite side.
6 CUTTER PERFORMANCE
The parameter mt represents the cutter performance. In the
previous paper, mt calculated from direction of sliding
between tooth flanks of the work gear and the shaving cutter
(a) Work gear [4]. However, according to our experience, the cutter
performance depends on not only cutting action but also
cutting speed. Therefore, the cutter performance would be
evaluated from direction and scalar of sliding.
In order to consider the cutting speed, we introduce screw
parameter [5]. The screw parameter p shows motion of an
axode and it is calculated from
au cos
p u (14)
1 2u sin u2
where, u is gear ratio, a is center distance and Σ is shaft angle
between the work gear and the shaving cutter. Figure 9 shows
relationship between screw parameter, gear ratio and shaft
angle. As shown in figure 9, the screw parameter has peak
value in gear ratio equals to 1.0. Then slide velocity vs at pitch
point is determined as follows:
vs pω s (15)

(b) Shaving cutter


Figure 9. Relationship between screw parameter, gear
Figure 8. Plate model. ratio and shaft angle. (a = 1.0)

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Table 2. Gear data 2.

Table 3. Gear data 3.

(a) Gear data 1

where, ωs is relative rotational velocity. As shown in Eq.(15),


slide velocity increases with an amount of the screw parameter.
Therefore, in the latest version of developed simulation
program, a range of the parameter mt depends on the screw
parameter. The parameter m t is evaluated from

mt mt min mta p v / vm (16)

where, mt min is minimum value of parameter mt, mta is range of


parameter mt and vm is new parameter due to evaluate cutter
performance from slide velocity. In the simulation program,
these parameters determined as follows:
mt min 0.003
mta 0.004 (17)
(b) Gear data 2 vm 66.0

7 COMPARISON OF CALCULATED SHAVED


TOOTH PROFILES WITH MEASURE ONE
Figure 10 shows the comparison between the shaved tooth
profiles calculated with the latest and the previous version of
the developed programs. Gear data of the work gear and the
shaving cutter are listed in table 1 - 3. As shown in figure 10
(a) and (b), although profile slope deviation of shaved tooth
profiles calculated by the previous version of the program are
different from measured one, they are improved by the latest
version of the program. As shown in figure 10 (c), slope
deviation of calculated tooth profiles by the previous and the
latest version of the program are good agreement with
measured one. On the other hand, position of convex /
concave of calculated profiles are good agreement with
measured ones. There are neither improved nor not improved
between the previous version and the latest version of the
simulation programs.
(c) Gear data 3
Therefore, we believe that the latest version of the developed
program for gear shaving simulation is more reliable than the
Figure 10. Simulation results
previous one.

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8 PRESHAVED TOOTH FORM Figure 11 shows preshaved tooth forms of gear data 1, which
In the shaving process, the shaved gear tooth forms are are shown in table 1. Figure 12 shows the effect of accuracy of
depends on its preshaved form and cutter performance of the preshaved tooth form and cutter performance to the shave
shaving cutter. In order to find requirement of accuracy of tooth form in the developed simulation program. As shown in
preshaved form, the effect of accuracy preshaved tooth form figure 11 and 12, it requires less than 25μm of tooth form
and cutter performance to the shaved tooth form are deviation for preshaved tooth form to operate shaving process.
investigated using by the developed simulation program. The As shown in figure 12, the preshaved tooth forms are effect to
preshaved forms are generated by Box-Muller method and set the calculated shaved tooth forms in cutting performance is
to the work gear to be shaved. The cutter performance are deteriorated.
changed in average of the parameter mt in Eq.(1). Increase of
average of parameter mt means deterioration of cutting 9 CONCLUSIONS
performance because of tool wear. A new method for evaluating the depth of cut to calculate the
stock removal in a computer simulation program of plunge cut
shaving process is proposed. Using the latest version of the
simulation program, which includes the new method, the
usefulness of the method was discussed, and the following
results were obtained:
(1) Although the previous version required at least one trial
for determine the simulation parameters, the latest version
requires no optimization. In the latest version, depth of
cut is fixed by delay or lead of the work gear rotation and
tooth deflections of the work gear and the shaving cutter.
(2) Profile slope deviations of calculated shaved tooth forms
are improved than the previous one. In order to get the
calculated shaved forms, which are good agreements with
measured one, simulation parameters for tooth deflections
are optimized.
Figure 11. Preshaved tooth form

Figure 12. Simulation results

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(3) An effect of preshaved tooth form and cutter performance
to the shaved tooth form is discussed. Both the tooth form
deviations of preshaved form and cutter performance
effects on the calculated shaved tooth form.

10 REFERENCES
[1] Moriwaki, I., and Fujita, M., 1994, “Effect of Cutter
Performance on Finished Tooth Form in Gear Shaving”,
Tran. ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design, 116, pp.
701-705.
[2] Moriwaki, I., 1993, “Numerical Analysis of Tooth Forms
of Shaved Gears (4th Report, Simplified Calculation
Method)”, Tran. JSME (in Japanese), C, 59-568,
pp.3888-3894.
[3] Moriwaki, I., 1993, “Numerical Analysis of Tooth Forms
of Shaved Gears (5th Report, Cutting Model in
Simplified Calculation Method)”, Tran. JSME (in
Japanese), C, 59-568, pp.3895-3901.
[4] Moriwaki, I., and Nakada, S., et.al. 2002, “A NEW
METHOD OF GEAR SHAVING SIMULATION”, Proc.
ESDA2002, ESDA2002/MAN001, CD-ROM.
[5] F.L.Litvin, 1994, “Gear Geometry and Applied Theory”,
PTR Prentice Hall, pp.57-62.

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