RC Design

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RC Design

© All Rights Reserved

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- Cantilever Retaining Wall
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TITLE

RETAINING WALL

INTRODUCTION

• Retaining wall are used to retain earth or other

material in a vertical or nearly vertical position at

locations where an abrupt change in ground

level occurs.

• The wall, therefore prevents the retain earth

from assuming its natural angle of response.

• This caused the retained earth to exert a lateral

pressure on the wall, thereby tending to

overturn, slide and settle the retaining wall

structure.

Overturning Sliding Settlement

therefore suitably designed to be stable under

the effects of the lateral pressure, and also to

satisfy the usual requirements of strength and

serviceability.

• The wall

including its

support base,

must therefore

suitably designed

to be stable

under the effects

of the lateral

pressure, and

also to satisfy the

usual

requirements of

strength and

serviceability.

GL2

• The geotechnical design

of retaining wall is

covered by EC7.

BACK

• Walls that retain soil or SOIL

water and do not involve

GL1

exceptional risk or difficult

soil or loading conditions

are classified as

Gravity retaining wall

Geotechnical Category 2

in EC7 Part 1

5

Types of Retaining Wall

There are many types of retaining structures and

they are generally divided into two main categories

namely gravity wall and the cantilevered wall. The

following are some commonly used walls in

Malaysia:

A. Gravity Wall

• The gravity retaining wall depends entirely on its

own weight to provide the necessary stability, its

rather massive in size.

• It is usually constructed of plain concrete or

stone masonry.

• Plain concrete gravity walls are not used for

height exceeding about 3m, for economic

reasons.

• Design of this wall is concerned chiefly in

keeping the thrust line within the middle third of

the base width so that no tensile stress is

developed.

B. Cantilever Wall

• Cantilever wall is the most common type of

retaining structure and its generally economical

for height up to 8m.

• The structure consists of a vertical cantilever

spanning from a large rigid base slab.

• The stability of the wall is maintained essentially

by the weight of the soil on the base slab plus

the self weight of the structure.

C. Counterfort Wall

• Counterfort wall will probably used where the

overall height of wall is too large to be

constructed economically as a cantilever.

• The wall and the base are tied together at

intervals by counterfort or bracing walls.

• This type of wall becomes economical for a high

walls usually above 6-7m backfill.

D. Buttress Wall

• Similar to counterfort wall but the bracing is

constructed in front of the wall.

• In this case the bracing is in compression rather

than tension.

• Although buttress are structurally more efficient

than counterforts, the later is generally preferred

to the counterforts wall as it provides free usable

space in the front of the wall.

E. Gabion Wall

• Gabion wall is a retaining wall made of

rectangular containers (baskets) fabricated of

heavily galvanized wire, which are filled with

stone and stacked on one another, usually in

tiers that step back with the slope rather than

vertical.

• Gabions have advantages over more rigid

structures because they can conform to ground

movement, dissipate energy from flowing water

and drain freely.

Pressure on Retaining Wall

Analysis and Design

• The design of the reinforced retaining wall

can be divided into two fundamental

stages as follows:

– Stability Analysis

– Element Design and Detailing

Ultimate Limit State

The design of reinforced concrete

retaining walls requires verification

that the following ultimate states are

not exceeded:

a. Overall failure of the ground

containing the wall

b. Failure of the wall by sliding

c. Failure of the ground by topping

(usually only relevant to walls

founded on rock)

d. Bearing failure of the ground

beneath the wall (which may

involve settlement and rotation of

the wall)

e. Structure failure of the wall

Stability Analysis

• The lateral force due to earth pressure

constitutes the main factor acting on the

retaining wall, tending to make it overturn, slide

and settle.

• The safety of the wall depends on the stability

against these 3 modes of failure under the

Ultimate Limit State as defined in EN 1990:2002

Eurocode as follows:

– EQU : Loss of equilibrium

– STR : Failure of the structure

– GEO : Failure of the ground

Stability Analysis

• In UK the checks against failure in the Ground

(GEO) and the Structure (STR) must be checked

using Design Approach 1 (DA1) which requires

that two checks are performed:

– Design Combination 1 (DA1/1)

– Design Combination 2 (DA1/2)

• The 3rd combination must be taken into account

when considering possible loss of equilibrium

(EQU) of a structure such as overturning.

Stability Analysis

• Different factors are applied if loads

(Actions) are :

– Permanent

– Variable

– Accidental

• Different factors are applied if loads

(Actions) are:

– Favorable

– Unfavorable

i.e assists to resists collapse

Stability Analysis

“In the expression used here, when sliding and

topping were considered, the self-weight of the

wall stem, wall base and backfill are favorable

actions but are typically unfavorable actions for

bearing (but since they reduce the inclination and

eccentricity of the total action, they must be

favorable-both situations should be checked). “

Partial safety factor at the ultimate limit state

Partial safety factor at the ultimate limit state

Persistent or Permanent actions Leading variable Accompanying

transient design actions variable actions

situation Unfavorable Favorable Unfavorable Favorable Unfavorable Favorable

(a)For

consideration of

structural or

geotechnical 1.35 1.00 1.50 0.00 1.50 0.00

failure :

Combination 1

(STR & GEO)

(b)For

consideration of

structural or

geotechnical 1.00 1.00 1.30 0.00 1.30 0.00

failure :

Combination 2

(STR & GEO)

(b)For checking

static equilibrium 1.10 0.90 1.50 0.00 1.50 0.00

(EQU)

DESIGN APPROACH 1

(STR & GEO)

Combination 1 (DA1/1) Combination 2 (DA1/2)

• Partial factors > 1 are • Partial factors > 1 are

applied to actions and applied to variable actions

structural materials only: only and to the strength of

– Self weight of the wall and the ground and structure to

backfill (treated as

permanent actions) the soil’s undrained

– Any imposed load or strength in short-term

surcharges at the top of the undrained situations; and to

wall (permanent or variable

actions) the soil’s angle of shearing

– Earth and pore water resistance and effective

pressures acting on the wall ‘s cohesion in long-term

boundary (permanent drained situations.

actions)

Design Procedure

an essential part of the

geotechnical design of

retaining structures is

checking the stability of the

site against overall rotational

failure and other form of

overall ground failure.

Design Procedure

Initial Sizing:

- The base width,B of a RC

cantilever retaining wall is

usually between 0.5 and 0.7

times its overall height,h

- The breath of the wall stem, bs

is normally h/15 to h/10 as is

the thickness of the wall base

t b.

- The breath of the wall toe, bt is

typically equal to B/4 to B/3.

- For a basement wall, the

thickness of 300mm is used to

consider by the waterproof

requirements.

Design Procedure

Materials properties:

- The properties chosen for the

backfill behind the retaining

wall are critical to the

geotechnical design of the wall.

- Characteristic geotechnical

parameters should be

determined by an experienced

geotechnical engineer and

recorded in the Geotechnical

Design Report.

- The foundation beneath the

wall base is critical to the wall’s

sliding and bearing resistance

and its properties should be

chosen carefully.

Design Procedure

Design against Toppling/Overturning

• This occurs because of unbalanced moments and when

overturning moment about toe due to lateral pressure is

larger than the resisting moment due to the weights of

wall and weight of soil above the heel slab. The critical

conditions are when maximum horizontal force acts with

a minimum vertical load.

Design against Toppling/Overturning

• A partial safety factor of 0.9 is applied to the permanent

vertical load ∑Vk (weight of the wall + weight of the soil)

if its effect is ‘favorable’.

• The ‘unfavorable’ effects of the permanent earth

pressure loading Hk at the rear face of the wall are

multiplied by a partial safety factor of 1.1.

• The ‘unfavorable’ effects of the variable surcharge

loading, if any, are multiplied by a partial safety factor of

1.5.

• The stability requirement against overturning then

become:

0.9 𝑉𝑘 𝑥 ≥ 𝛾𝑓 𝐻𝑘 y

Design against Toppling/Overturning

Design against Sliding

• The resistance against sliding is essentially

provided by the friction between the bottom

surface of the base slab and soil beneath it.

• Resistance provided by the passive earth

pressure on the front face of the base may make

some contribution, but since this material is often

back filled against the face, its resistance cannot

be guaranteed and is usually ignored.

Design against Sliding

• A partial safety factor of 1.0 is applied to the

permanent vertical load ∑Vk if its effect is

‘favorable’ (i.e contribution to sliding resistance)

and the unfavorable effect of the permanent

earth and surcharge pressure at the rear of the

wall are multiplied by partial safety factor of 1.35

and 1.5 respectively.

• Thus the coefficient of friction between the base

and the soil is µ, the stability requirement

against sliding become:

Design against Sliding

the force due to passive earth pressure over the face area of

the heel may be included in resisting the sliding force

Design against

Sliding

Design against Settlement/ Bearing

Failure

• The width of base slab must be adequate to

distribute the vertical force to the foundation soil

without causing excessive settlement or rotation.

• To determine the required size of the base the

bearing pressure underneath it is assessed on

the basis of the ultimate limit state (GEO).

• Since the base slab of the wall is subjected to

the combined effects of an eccentric vertical load

coupled with an overturning moment, the

analysis is similar to that for foundation design.

Design against Settlement/ Bearing

Failure

• The distribution of bearing pressure will be as

shown in the figure below, provided the effective

eccentricity e lies within the middle third of the

base. The bearing pressure is then given by:

Design against Settlement/ Bearing

Failure

• Two sets of load combinations must be

considered at the ULS.

• For Load Combination 1:

– Moment due to the horizontal load on the maximum

bearing pressure at the toe of the wall is ‘unfavorable’

whilst the moments of the weight of the wall and the

earth acting on the heel of the wall act in the opposite

sense and are thus ‘favorable’.

– Partial safety factor for the lateral earth pressure and

lateral surcharge are 1.35 and 1.5 respectively

– Partial safety factor for the effect of weight of wall and

soil is 1.0

– Partial safety factor for the weight of surcharge is 0

Design against Settlement/ Bearing

Failure

• For Load Combination 2:

– Partial safety factor for permanent action is 1.0 for

both ‘unfavorable’ and ‘favorable’ effects

– Partial safety factor for permanent action is 1.3 and 0

for ‘unfavorable’ and ‘favorable’ effects respectively.

Design against Settlement/

Bearing Failure

Structural Design & Detailing

• The three elements of the retaining wall, ie stem, toe

slab and heel slab are designed as cantilever slabs to

resists the designed moments and shear forces.

Structural Design & Detailing

• The stem is designed to resists the moment caused by

the force γf Hf with γf value taken for load combination

1 if this load combination is deemed to be critical. The

flexural reinforcement is provided near the rear face of

the stem and may be curtailed in stages for economy.

• In the case of toe slab, the net pressure is obtained by

deducting the weight of the concrete in the toe slab from

the upward acting soil pressure. The net pressure acts

upward and the flexural reinforcement has to be

provided at the bottom of the toe slab.

• The heel slab must be designed to resists the moment

due to downward pressure from the weight of the

retained earth (plus surcharge, if any) and concrete slab.

Since the net pressure acts upward, the flexural

reinforcement is provided at the top of the heel slab.

EAS 356/2

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN II

RETAINING WALL

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE 1

• Design of a retaining wall

show at the figure supports

a granular material of

saturated density

1700kg/m2. it is required to:

– Check the stability of the

wall

– Determine the bearing

pressure at ULS

– Design the bending

reinforcement using

high-yield steel, fyk =

500kN/m2 and concrete

class C30/37

(1)Stability

Horizontal Force

Assuming active pressure Ka = 0.33 (typical granular

material).

Hence the earth pressure is given by :

𝒑𝒂 = 𝑲𝒂 𝝆𝒈𝒉

additional pressure of

Acts uniformly over the whole depth h.

Therefore, the horizontal force on 1m length of wall is given by:

Hk (earth) = 0.5pah

= 0.5 (27.0) (4.9) = 66.1kN from the active earth

pressure

and

Hk (sur) = psh

= (3.3) (4.9) = 16.2kN from the surcharge pressure.

Vertical Load

(a) Permanent load

Base/heel = 0.4 x 3.4 x 25 = 34.0kN

Earth/toe =2.2 x 4.5 x 1700 x 10-3 x 9.81 = 165kN

Total = 238.5kN

Variable loads

Surcharge = 2.2 x 10 = 22.0kN

(i) Overturning

Taking moment at point A (EQU)

For the overturning (unfavorable) moment a factor of 1.1 is

applied to the earth pressure and factor of 1.5 to the

surcharge pressure.

= (1.1 x 66.1 x 4.9/3) + (1.5 x 16.2 x 4.9/2)

= 178kNm

For the restraining (favorable) moment a factor of 0.9 is

applied to the permanent loads and 0 to the variable

surcharge load

= 0.9 x 476.9

= 429kNm

Thus the criterion for overturning is satisfied.

(ii) Sliding

From equation 10.10 (Mosley):

𝜇 1.0 𝐺𝑘 + 1.0𝑉𝑘 ≥ 𝛾𝑓 𝐻𝑘

For the sliding (unfavorable) effects a factor of 1.35 is

applied to the earth pressure and a factor of 1.5 to the

surcharge pressure.

= 113.5kN

applied to the permanent loads and 0 to the variable

surcharge load. Assuming a value of coefficient of friction,

µ = 0.45

= 107.3kN

Since the sliding force exceeds the frictional force, resistance

must also be provided by the passive earth pressure action

against the heel beam and this force is given by:

𝑯𝒑 = 𝜸𝒇 x 0.5𝑲𝒑 𝝆𝒈𝒂𝟐

granular material

a = depth of the heel below 0.5m ‘trench’ allowance in front of

the base

= 7.3 kN

(2) Bearing Pressure at ULS (STR & GEO)

pressure at the toe of the wall

loading exerts a moment about the base centerline that

will reduce the maximum pressure at the toe of the wall.

favorable effect (𝜸𝒇 = 1.0) and the weight of the surcharge

load is also take as a favorable effects (𝜸𝒇 = 0) within the

calculation below.

the lateral surcharge pressure are multiplied by factor 𝜸𝒇 =

1.35 and 𝜸𝒇 = 1.5, respectively.

From Eqn 10.13 and 10.14 (Mosley) the bearing pressure are

given by:

𝑵 𝟔𝑴

𝒑= ± 𝟐

𝑫 𝑫

- 𝜸𝒇 (165.1 (2.3-1.7))

= (1.35 x 107.9) + (1.5 x 39.7) + (1.35 x 27.6) – (1.0 x 99.1)

= 145.7 + 59.6 + 37.3 – 99.1

= 143.5kNm

Therefore, bearing pressure at toe and heel of the wall

𝑝1 = ±

3.4 3.4 2

= 77.7 ± 74.5

= 152.3kN/m2, 3.2kN/m2

< Soil bearing capacity

Capacity = 200kN/m2

(3) Bending Reinforcement

(i) Wall

Horizontal force

= 𝛾𝑓 0.5𝐾𝑎 𝜌𝑔ℎ2 + 𝛾𝑓 𝑝𝑠 h

= 1.35 x 0.5 x 0.33 x 1700 x 10-3 x 9.81 x 4.52 + 1.50 x 3.3 x 4.5

= 75.2 + 22.3

= 97.5kN

𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 75.2 x (0.2 + 4.5/3) + 22.3 x (0.2 + 4.5/2)

= 182.5 kNm

2 = 2 = 0.058 = k < 0.167

𝑏𝑑 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1000 𝑥 325 𝑥 30

Z = 0.95d

𝐴𝑠 = M/0.87 𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑘 z

= 182.5 x 106 / (0.87 x 500 x 0.95 x 325)

= 1359 mm2/m

(ii) Base

pressure check) of this calculation. Using the figure from part 2:

p2 = 3.2 kN/m2

p3 = 3.2 + (152.2 – 3.2) 2.2/3.4 = 99.6kN/m2

Heel: taking moments about the stem centerline for the vertical

loads and bearing pressures

3.4

𝑀𝐸𝑑 =𝛾𝑓 x 34.0 x −1 + 𝛾𝑓 𝑥 165.1 𝑥 1.3 − 3.2 𝑥 2.2 𝑥 1.3 −

2

2.2 2.2

99.6 − 3.2 𝑥 𝑥 +2

2 3

= 1.35 x 23.8 + 1.0 x 214.6 – 9.2 – 99.0

= 139 kNm

Therefore

2

= 2

= 0.044 = k < 0.167

𝑏𝑑 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1000 𝑥 325 𝑥 30

Z = 0.95d

𝐴𝑠 = M/0.87 𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑘 z

= 139 x 106 / (0.87 x 500 x 0.95 x 325)

= 1035 mm2/m

(iii) Toe

≈ 1.35 x 4.8 – 73.1

≈ - 67kNm

Therefore,

𝑀𝐸𝑑 67 𝑥 106

2

= 2

= 0.021 = k < 0.167

𝑏𝑑 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1000 𝑥 325 𝑥 30

Z = 0.95d

𝐴𝑠 = M/0.87 𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑘 z

= 139 x 106 / (0.87 x 500 x 0.95 x 325)

= 1035 mm2/m

Z = 0.95d

𝐴𝑠 = M/0.87 𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑘 z

= 67 x 106 / (0.87 x 500 x 0.95 x 325)

= 499 mm2/m

The minimum area for this and for longitudinal distribution steel

which is also required in the wall and the base

0.15𝑏𝑡 𝑑

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 =

100

= 0.0015 x 1000 x 325

= 488 mm2

Thus provide H12 at 200 centers (As = 566 mm2/m bottom and

distribution steel.

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