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5/17/2018 Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

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Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

dc.creator Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.); 2016-10-03T18:54:29Z 2016-10-03T18:54:29Z 1956

dc.identifier 3-441

dc.identifier Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.). Technical report;

dc.identifier 4557308

dc.identifier 2439



dc.description TA 7 *W34 1,1. 3-4 4 1, MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION THE CBR RELATIONS

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 3-441 November 1956 Waterways Experiment Station
UW#. MIsS. OF iii Preface The information presented in this report was developed as
part of the CBR relation development work being carried out at the Waterways Ex-
periment Station. Authority for this investigation is contained in In-structions and
Outline for the Review of Design Curves. The project was initiated in October 1953
under the title "Design Curves for Less Than Capacity Operations." The work is being
done for the Airfields Branch, Engineering Division, Military Construction, Office of the
Chief of Engi-neers. Engineers engaged in the direction and accomplishment of this
work include Messrs. W. J. Turnbull, C. R. Foster, and R. G. Ahlvin. V Contents Page
Preface .... iii Summary . .... ....... ...... .. .. . vii Background ...................... .... 1
Mathematical Developments ................... 1 References ................... .... .... 8 vii mmary
This paper presents mathematical developments leading to general equations which
represent the pattern of present CBR relations for air-field pavement design in the
range of CBR values below about 10 to 12. These equations are: 1 P A t = P Ct and =
where t = thickness in inches, P = total load in pounds, p = tire pres-sure in pounds
per square inch, and A = tire contact area in square inches. MATHEMATICAL
EXPRESSION OF THE CBR RELATIONS Background 1. The CBR test is an 1/5
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empirical tool used to evaluate materials in flexible pavement systems. The CBR
values are considered to be indica-tive of the resistance of subgrade and base course
materials to the stresses that may be imposed upon them by repetitive wheel loads.
The design curves used with the CBR method express relationships between loads,
protective thickness of superior material, and CBR of the pertinent layer in the flexible
pavement system. 2. Theoretical shear-stress relationships, allowable deformations,
and relationships between relative sizes of loaded areas were used to ex-trapolate the
basic California Highway Department curves to airplane loadings. Subsequently,
theoretical relationships such as shear stresses, vertical stresses, and vertical
deflections have been used to study the pattern of the CBR design curves. Graphical
relationships have also been used. These studies and service behavior records show
that the CBR de-sign curves can be divided into two parts. At the greater depths
beneath the surface of flexible pavements, required strengths are governed pri-marily
by the gross magnitudes of applied loads. These greater depths are the zone in which
the smaller CBR values are usually encountered. At the lesser depths beneath the
pavement surface, on the other hand, the intensity of applied loads is the primary
governing factor in the deter-mination of required strengths. These lesser depths are
the zone in which the larger CBR values are usually encountered. 3. The
developments presented in this report are concerned with the small CBR range
(greater depths) for which they establish a firm mathematical pattern interrelating the
various pertinent factors. Mathematical Developments 4. Prior work has already
established a relation between design thickness, wheel load, and a constant
dependent on the CBR for single 2 wheel loads having the same contact pressure
(tire pressure).1, 4* This relation is expressed as follows: t = K (1) where: t = thickness
P = wheel load K = a constant dependent on the CBR. The formula is arrived at in the
following manner: Relations obtained from the theory of elasticity for homogeneous-
isotropic material under a uniformly loaded circular area show that for a given intensity
of sur-face load the stresses beneath total loads of different magnitudes will be equal
at homologous points. Homologous points are points beneath two loads of the same
intensity for which the ratio of the depth to the radius of the load is a constant. It is
reasonable to assume that the needed strength and therefore the required CBR will
be the same at depths at which the stresses are identical. Therefore, it may be as-
sumed that for a given CBR and intensity of load, the depth of cover or thickness of
protective layer for any magnitude of load must be such that the ratio of the thickness,
t , to the radius of contact area, r , is a constant, C , or = . (2) r The relation between
load, P , load intensity, p , and radius of con-tact area, r , is: P=pnr2 or r =V x - . (3)
Combining equations 2 and 3 gives: * Raised numbers refer to the list of references at
the end of the text. C X VT.(4) Now being a constant can be designated as K . Thus, K
is a constant dependent on the CBR for a given intensity of pressure. Sub-stituting K
for results in equation 1. t = K . (1) This is the expression presented in earlier work.11
Use of this rela-tion permits the development of increasingly larger wheel load CBR
curves from existing CBR curves. The relation has been shown to give values in good
agreement with those determined by service behavior and empirical tests for CBR
values below about 15 to 20. In the initial development of the CBR relations, tire
pressure was not considered. However, tire pressures used originally in developing
service behavior records for airplane loadings ranged from 60 to slightly above 100
psi. Therefore, when preparation of design curves for 200-psi tires became necessary
the established relationships were assumed to be valid for tire pres-sures up to 100
psi. The simple relation for equal stress at homologous points applies only for a single 2/5
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intensity of applied load and would not serve for extrapolating the design curves from
100- to 200-psi tire pressures, but it was found that the relations of the theory of elas-
ticity for deflection beneath the center of a uniform circular load could be used.1 The
pertinent relation is: 2 w = 1.5 E x r (5) m Yr 2 +t 2 r + t where: w = deflection E =
modulus of elasticity m p, r, and t are the same as in equations 2 and 3. By
considering that an increase in tire pressure would require an in-crease in protective
thickness (depth) such that the theoretical de-flections would be equal, CBR relations
were developed for higher tire pressures. These have since been validated by field
test results.3 5. Equation 5 can be combined with equation 3 to give the following: P 1
2 2 W = 1.5- 1.5 x p x or r + t= (6) xE wnE m 2 2m For a given situation E can be
considered to have a single value, and m if the total load is considered to be constant
and tire pressure per-mitted to vary, the right-hand side of equation 6 is constant when
the deflection is constant and the following expression can be written: r2 +2 =C' (7)
where r and t are as defined previously and C' is a constant. 6. It is now possible to
examine the effect on thickness require-ments of changes in gross load and of
changes in tire pressure. First, consider a change in gross load from Pa to Pb. at
equal tire pres-sure. From equation 1, the following can be written: ta = K =tb or tb- =
b where pa = b (8) a ( a a Now consider a change in tire pressure from pb to pc with
no change in gross load (P = Pc ) . From equation 7, the following can be written: r +
=+Ct' =rc +tc oorr t+t r = tb + b - re wwhheerree Pb == PP . ((99)) Squaring equations
8 and 9 and combining gives: 2 2 b 2 2 tc =t + rb rc (10) This can be developed in the
following manner to give an expression for the combined effect of variations in total
load and tire pressure: 2 2 2 2 Pb xpb rb c re t =t + c a Pb a P P 5 but, npr2 = P,
therefore: 2 2 b Pb Pc t =t +--- - --- c a a spb spc and since, pa -=b and Pb P c P P 2 2
c c 1 1 c a P- p p Sa P This may be written: tc + Pc Pa1 Pc1 (11) a2 It may also be
written: t 2 2 a +--- 1 = c + ---1- . P n Pc Pc a a C c Since the subscripts represent
arbitrary sets of values, the following more general expression can be written: 2 t 2 t 2
2 a 1 c 1 e 1 n 1 -+ - = + = .... - + - a a c c e e n n Or, since any set of values
combined in this way must equal any other set so combined, it follows that the
expression must equal a constant: -t-2 + 1 = D ,where D is a constant . (12) P pit 7.
This expression is similar to equation 1 except that it will accommodate variations in
tire pressure as well as in gross load. The similarity of equations 1 and 12 is readily
apparent, and their combina-tion provides a relation between the constants D and K .
This relation is: D = K + -p-1n (13) 6 Reference to paragraph 4 will show that K can be
considered to have the in. in. 2 units --- and therefore D will have the units in. . Since
K is dependent on the CBR, it follows that D is also dependent on CBR. 8. Values for
the constant K were carefully developed as shown in reference 4. The values
developed in that reference and in reference 1 are shown in the following table. These
are from single-wheel CBR curves for design (or evaluation) of flexible airfield
pavements for capacity operation (5000 coverages). In evaluation of the constant K ,
units must be assigned to the various quantities, therefore t has been taken in inches,
P in pounds, and K in pounds per square inch. Values of K For 100-p For 200-psi R
curves CER curves 0.195 0.199 0.166 0.171 0.147 0.152 0.132 0.138 0.120 0.126
0.111 0.118 0.103 0.110 0.096 0o. 104 0.085 0.093 0.073 0.082 0.067 0.075 0.059
0.068 Values of K2 For 100-psi For 200-psi CER curves CR curves 0.03803 0.03961
0.02755 0.02923 0.02161 0.02311 0.01742 0.01905 0.01440o 0.01588 0.01232
0.01392 0.01060 0.01210 0.00921 0.01o81 0.00723 0.00865 0.00533 0.00672
0.00oo49 0.00563 0.00348 0.00oo462 Values of D = + For 100-psi For 200-psai CBR
curves CBR curves 0.04121 0.04120 0.03073 0.03082 0.02479 0.02470 0.02060 3/5
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0.02064 0.01758 0.01747 0.01550 0.01551 0.01378 0.01369 0.01239 0.01239

0.olo41 0.01024 0.00851 0.00831 0.00767 0.00722 0.00666 0.00621 Values of D x
CMR For 100-psi For 200-psi CBR curves CER curves 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.123 0.124
0.124 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.122 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.124 0.124 0.125 0.123
0.128 0.124 0.130 0.123 0.133 0.124 The above table also develops values for the
constant D from those for the constant K . Study of the values developed showed a
relationship between D and the CBR. Their simple product was found to be substan-
tially constant for CER values below about 10 to 12. The last column in the table
shows this. The resulting constant has an average value of 2 0.1236 and has the units
of . Thus the following relation can be written: DX CBR = 0.1236 or D = 001=61 2 in
CESR i Ib . (14) This may also be written as : 1 in. D=b 8.1 CER 34 5678 9 10 12 15
17 20 7 9. This value for D can now be substituted in equation 12 and the result
solved for t to give a general relation directly involving gross load, load intensity
required, thickness, and CBR as follows: t = 1 - . 8.1 CBR pi (15) This expression then
is a representation of the CBR design relations for values of CBR less than about 10
to 12. 10. In more recent CBR work, it has become desirable to develop relations for
constant contact areas. Equation 15 can easily be reshaped to permit this by
recognizing that P = Ap , where A is the tire con-tact area. Then: t P -P A (16) 8.1
CBR In these equations t = thickness in inches, P = total load in pounds, p = tire
pressure in pounds per square inch, A = tire contact area in square inches, and the
constant, 8.1, has the units pounds per square inch. 11. It will quickly be noted that for
some combinations of CBR and loading, zero and negative values result. These
merely indicate no need for increasing subgrade strength through use of a base
course. It might also be well to point out that the 10 to 12 CBR upper limit of validity
applies in the 100-psi tire pressure range. For greater pressures the limit of validity is
higher and conversely for lower pressures may be somewhat lower. 8 References 1.
Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Collection of Letter Reports on
Flexible Pavement Design Curves. Miscellaneous Paper No. 4-61, Vicksburg, Miss.,
June 1951. 2. , Investigations of Pressures and Deflections for Flexible Pavements,
Report No. 3, Theoretical Stresses Induced by Uniform Circular Loads. Technical
Memorandum No. 3-323, Vicksburg, Miss., September 1953. 3. , Design of Upper
Base Courses for High-pressure Tires, Report No. 1, Base Course Requirements as
Related to Contact Pres-sures. Technical Memorandum No. 3-373, Vicksburg, Miss.,
December 1953. +. Fergus, S. M., Development of CBR Flexible Pavement Design
Method for Airfields (A Symposium). ASCE Transactions, vol 115, pp 564-565, 1950.

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dc.publisher Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station

dc.rights This document was published by a federal government agency and is in the public

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dc.subject Soil mechanics; Pavements; Design and construction;

dc.title Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

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