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Our deep gratitude is only conveyed to Allah, the Lord of the Universe that this the
second revised book “REACH ENGLISH TEXTBOOK LEVEL 3” has been completed. The
content of this book ranges from diverse topics as the means for students to
communicate in English both in oral and written form. The topics are intended to be
developed within the four language skills and accompanied with grammatical points
as the tool of communication.

This book was written to meet the concept of Communicative Language Teaching
(CLT). After the completion of this level, students are expected to be able to use
English language for advanced communication in the EFL context. The topics were
designed to represent the combination of General English coverage and the student
subject areas covering the field of Islamic studies, Education and Teacher Training,
Economics, and Sciences.

The sequence of this book writing of each topic comprises pre-view of vocabulary,
language expressions, language components and practices for language skills
development. The reading skills consist of up-to-dated contexts; the speaking skills
cover language functional expressions; the listening skills are accompanied with
audios; and the writing skills contain how to develop essay writings. The grammatical
points were presented as language components that in need of the text
comprehension as well as vocabulary development.

Finally, the writer appreciates all parties, those who have participated in the
completion of this book, especially Fabio de Oliveira Coelho, English Language
Fellow/RELO lecturer assigned to teach English at State Islamic University of Sultan
Syarif Kasim Riau for his countless time to review this book, and other lecturers of
Language Development Center such as Muhammad Fauzan Ansyari, Dodi Settiawan,
Iswahyudi and Jonri Kasdi.

Pekanbaru, May 2016

Head of Language Development Center,

Drs. H. Kalayo Hasibuan, M. Ed-TESOL

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 1

Textbook Level 3 Syllabus

Department/Faculty : Language Centre

Course Title : Advanced English (Level III)
Credit Hours : 2 SKS
Course Description :
This course is intended to develop students’ advanced communicative competence
in English speaking environment through comprehension of relevant ideas and
mastery of necessary language components. Students will be exposed to sample
forms of communication in English, practice using necessary grammar, vocabulary,
and pronunciation in context, and have the opportunity to use English for advanced
communication on their own in the EFL context.

Standard Competence:
Students are able to utilize relevant ideas and language components in a culturally
appropriate setting in order to communicate for advanced English in EFL context.

Time allocation/
Session : 50 minutes per session and two sessions per topic.

Evaluation : Class Lecturer’s assessment (30%), Final Test – oral (40%) and
written (30%).

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List of Content

Topics Page Appendices Page

Common oral expressions 82

Unit 1: The Media 5
Comparisons 83
Participles, gerunds, and infinitive 85
Unit 2: Running a business 13
Collocation 93
Verbs with prepositions 95
Unit 3: Discovery and invention 23
Simple past and present perfect 102
Degree of comparison.
Unit 4: Education 35
Conditional sentences. 107
Clauses 104
Unit 5: Job and profession 53
Sentences 106

Unit 6: Globalization 63 Modals 112

Active and passive 115

Unit 7: Islam and science 75
Correlative conjunctions 116
Subject verb agreement 116
Affixes (Prefixes and Suffixes) 119
References 123

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No Topic Basic Competence Learning experiences/Indicators

1 The media SS are able to 1. Listening for specific details about media.
communicate in 2. Reading comprehension about media
3. Speaking for debate about media
written and oral
4. Comparing two objects
about media 5. Reading for questions about media
6. Writing about the impact of social media
2 Running a SS are able to 1. Completing sentences using infinitives
business communicate in 2. Identifying statements using participles and gerunds
3. Speaking: interviewing about going into business
oral and written
4. Expressing using collocation
about running a 5. Listening through conversation
business. 6. Reading for questions about money

3 Discovery and SS are able to 1. Exchanging questions about discovery and invention
invention communicate in 2. Listening for specific information about invention
3. Identifying verbs with prepositions from texts
oral and written
4. Speaking through reading about invention
about discovery 5. Completing a text using simple past or present perfect
and invention tense
6. writing a paragraph about a new technology

4 Education SS are able to 1. Listening for specific details about education

communicate in 2. Recognizing statements using comparisons
3. Comparing two items or more
oral and written
4. Completing sentences using conditionals
about education. 5. Writing a paragraph about education
6. Speaking for debate about roles and benefits of
certain kinds of Education
7. Reading comprehension about universities
5 Job and SS are able to 1. Reading comprehension about job and profession
profession communicate in 2. Speaking about profession
3. Role play between two applicants through CV
oral and written job
4. Writing for job application
and profession. 5. Listening through job interview
6.Identifying clauses and sentences
6 The SS are able to 1. Writing sentences using the given vocabulary
globalization communicate in 2. Reading to identify global effects and the use of
oral and written
3. Reading for questions
English about 4. Listening for specific information about free trade
globalization. 5. Speaking through questions and answers about
6. Speaking for debate about the effects of globalization

7 Islam and SS are able to 1. Reading for questions about Islam

Science communicate in 2. Identifying active and passive sentences
3. Writing sentences using correlative conjunctions
oral and written
4. Reading comprehension
English about the 5. Analyzing subject verb agreement and affixes.
Islam and Science.

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1 The Media

Snapshot Study the pictures below and answer the questions.

Preview questions.

1. What kinds of media are depicted by the pictures?

2. What printed media is there in the picture?
3. What digital media are shown in the picture?
4. Are you familiar with them?
5. Which is the newest kind of media?
6. What kind of media do you use?
7. Why do you use them?
8. Is a television more expensive than a camera?

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below

Headline Feature Sources Broadcast

Documentary Prime time Breaking news Communication
Advertise Announce Listen to Commercial break
Digital On air Electronic Journalist
Online Magazine Newspaper Entertaintment
Channel Page Message Information
Browse Social Media Printed Media Tool
Program Dialogue Press Shows

PRACTICE : (www. learnenglishmyenglishlab/lesson-7-topic/reading)

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Reading Read the article below and answer the given questions.


”Why should I read newspapers and magazines? I get news on TV and
radio.” You may have heard people say that. They don’t know that there is much
more fun than just news in a newspaper or a magazine. You enjoy reading special
articles about hobbies, home, sport, and movie stars. Maybe you’ll like comics. You
read where to buy what you need at a lowest price, what happened yesterday in
your town and around the world. Newspapers also tell you where to go for fun. They
also tell you about shows and sports. Lots of events happen to people, and
newspapers tell you what happened, who did it, where it happened, why it
happened and how it happened. No one can read everything in the newspaper every
day. But if you read a part of your newspaper every day, you will know a lot. The first
American newspaper was published in Boston in 1690. Now lots of magazines and
newspapers are published in the USA. They keep up with all the new discoveries and
events that are happening every day and bring the world of events into your home.
Magazines and newspapers can be divided into two large groups - mass and
specialized. Mass magazines and newspapers are intended for large group of people,
living in different places and having many different interests. Among them are
newspapers and magazines for teachers, for cat lovers, for stamp collectors. In fact,
there is a magazine and a newspaper to fit any interest. Most U.S. cities today have
only one newspaper publisher. In more than 170 American cities, a single publisher
produces both a morning and an evening newspaper. But some cities (fewer than 30)
have different owners. The “New York Times,” “USA Today” and “Washington Post”
can be read everywhere in the United States. Do you want to know the price? Today
most sell for 45 cents or more a copy. Surprisingly, many people buy newspaper
more for the advertising than for the news. Advertising accounts for 65 percent of
newspaper revenues.

Here are some of the magazines you might read.

News magazines. “Time” and “Newsweek.” They come out once a week and
give summaries of world and national news and background information on the
news. Digests. They are magazines that print articles that have already been
published some- where else.
Fiction magazines. They print short stories. Two popular ones are “Ellery
Queen’s Mystery Magazine” and “Fantasy and Science Fiction.” Magazines for
African Americans have articles about African Americans and news of interest to
black persons. Some of them are “Sepia” and “Ebony.”
Women’s magazines deal with many subjects: family life, child care, health,
home decorating, beauty, marriage, divorce, and do-it-yourself projects. There are
also advice columns, short stories and articles about famous women. Other
magazines specialize in beauty, or other tips on face make-up and hair-does. There
are magazines for brides and for teenage girls.
Sports. “Sport Illustrated” is one of the most popular sports magazines. It
deals with amateur and professional sports.
If you are interested in model trains, antiques, sewing, cooking, crafts and
magic, you can find some magazines for yourself. There are plenty of other
magazines to choose from, too.

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Answer the questions by speaking.

1. Do you and your family read 7. What are Russian newspapers that
newspapers and magazines? can be read everywhere in Russia?
2. What information can you find in 8. What about the price of your local
them? newspaper?
3. You read newspapers every day, 9. What are mass magazines and
don’t you? newspapers?
4. Do you buy them or do you subscribe 10. What magazine would you choose if
to them? you were interested in sports?
5. Many newspapers and magazines 11. Do you personally have a
are published in Russia, aren’t they? newspaper or magazine to fit your
6. Do you know when the first Russian interests?
newspaper was published? 12. What newspapers and magazines
are the most popular in your
country or town?

Listen to the audio about media effects

Listening (learnenglishmyenglishlab/lesson-7-topic/listening).

Language Focus “Comparison” Study the comparisons below.

Note : Comparing two things

More explanation in My laptop is heavier than yours.
the appendices page This is simpler/more simple.
83. Last assignment was more difficult.
Comparing three or more things
He is the best student in his class.
It is the most expensive car in the world.
This detergent is the most economical of all.
Expressing similarities
Both solutions are about the same.
There is not much difference between the two editions.
There is not much difference among students.

Practice A
Use the words in parentheses (…) to complete the conversations with comparative
adjectives or adverbs. Add than where necessary.
Matt: My phone is working (1) worse than (badly) ever. And it’s (2) __________ (old)
all the other phones I see, too. I want a (3) __________ (modern) phone.
Lara: Take a look at my phone. It was (4) ___________ (cheap) my last phone, and
I’m much (5) __________ (happy) with it. When I’m traveling, I listen to music
(6) ____________ often) I do when I’m at home, so I wanted a phone with a
(7) ____________ (big) memory card.
Matt: Wow, it’s much (8) ____________ (nice) mine! The screen is a lot __________
(large), too. I want one like that!
Lara: Yeah, you need a big screen, because you watch videos on your phone_______
(frequently) I do.

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Complete the blanks with a suitable word or phrase from
Practice B the box.

average popular agency almost now adult reasons surf

way addicted level because work groups digital anti.

People in Britain (1) ____________ spend more time watching TV, gaming,
and using their mobile phones and computers than sleeping. Research by the British
communications (2) ____________ Ofcom found that Britons use technology for 20
minutes longer than they spend sleeping. The average U.K. (3) ____________ uses
technology for eight hours and 41 minutes a day. They sleep for an (4) ____________
of eight hours and 21 minutes. One of the biggest (5) ____________ for this is
broadband and wi-fi. People can get online (6) ____________ anywhere, so they
spend more time online. Many people make telephone calls or (7) ____________ the
web while watching television. Television was the most (8) ____________ activity.
Adults watched an average of three hours a day.
The study looked at technology and different age (9) ____________. It found
that six-year-olds understand how to use technology at the same (10) ____________
as 45-year-olds. Another finding was that people understand (11) ____________
technology most when they are 14 or 15. A doctor said technology is changing the
(12) ____________ people communicate with each other. Dr Arthur Cassidy warned
that we are becoming more and more (13) ____________ -social. He said we are
moving away from face-to-face conversations (14) ____________ of technology. He
added that people are becoming (15) ____________ to their smart phones.
Technology also means people are working at home after they get home from (16)

Reading In group, read the texts and answer the given questions.

Social Media Impacts on Young Generation

Media is an important source of such information. Media are of many forms of
communication, which comprised of print media, electronic media, and information
technology. Print media includes newspapers, magazines, etc. and electronic media
includes radio, television, while information technology includes computer, internet,
etc. Since the commencement of these technological advancements, our lives have
become significantly more convenient. All media have a common ability to provide
information and make communication possible over larger distance. However, as
technology has considerably developed, it has had detrimental effects on members of
society, especially on youth.
Today’s youth can be either positively or negatively affected by media. Media has
the greatest impact on young generation more that family or school has. Through
email, face book, and twitter for instance, teenager can communicate with teenagers
in other countries and find other ways of thinking and behaving in society. Teenagers
find out about fashion from the internet and they like to navigate on the internet to
see which trends have appeared lately. They can also read about sports, music, and
culture. Apart from this, mass-media represents an essential source of enrichment and
education for the young generation as they receive informal education from a variety
of sources, from books to internet.
Media however, does not always inform and manipulate teenagers on a positive
way, because it also represents a source of violence through movies or news. Negative
8 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
effects of internet such as internet addiction, and plagiarism are not unusual in today’s
culture, if not used properly, the Internet may be severely damaging to the mental and
physical health of young adults. One of the most obvious problems with young
generation using the internet is the chance of getting addicted. This computer overuse
results in less time for them to study, do homework, read, exercise, or participate in
any co curriculum activities. As a result, internet addiction directly affected their day
today’s lifestyle.

Social Media
We live in the age of social media, an age where unlimited, up-to-date
information travels the net and hundreds of millions of people are engaged with a
wide online community. Today’s media outlets provide haven for millions looking to
reconnect, network and share information.
Two of these most popular outlets, Facebook and LinkedIn, continue to demand
an ever growing audience. What’s interesting is not their growing popularity, but the
new wave of groups to which they’re appealing. Environmental, innovative,
sustainable-driven groups are gaining presence on these social media outlets.
Facebook has come a long way since its creation in 2004. Once simply a space to share
posts, photos and videos with all your ‘friends,’ today’s Facebook includes “groups”
which allows users to share information with a specific community. Offering more than
the traditional Facebook, group participants are not only able to share posts, photos
and videos; but can also create and edit group documents, “engage in real-time group
chat” and send “emails to the entire group using a custom e-mail address” according to
Yahoo! News.
According to Facebook, the “average user is connected to 80 community pages,
groups and events.” Where exactly do environmentalists tie in? Well, search Facebook
for less than a minute and you’ll be introduced to a plethora of green, innovative
groups. Take the group Green Business Innovators; fostering an audience of nearly
3,000, this group provides a forum for green innovators to share, learn and collaborate
on how to enhance business sustainability. Group members offer each other personal
tips, raise questions for debate and are informed of upcoming related events. Though
generating a smaller, yet active, following, the groups Green Business and Green
Business Networking echo similar messages.
But Facebook certainly isn’t the only networking tool to catch green; LinkedIn
has developed quite the green scene of its own; geared more towards business
professionals, several groups dive into CSR, sustainability and triple bottom line type
issues. With over 5,000 members, the Sustainability Working Group offers exciting
discussions and networking with leading professionals committed to sustainability. If
environmental sustainability is up your alley, countless other groups provide forums to
network and discuss all sorts of green issues, including: Sustainability Professionals,
Chief Sustainability Officers Network, Green & Sustainability Innovators & Innovation
Network,—Green Business Professionals, and Green.
With over 500 million Facebook users and over 100 million LinkedIn members
globally, it’s no secret where our audience is and environmentalists are catching on.
While social media isn’t the be-all-end-all, it is one powerful tool; a tool that provides
excellent networking, sharing and crowd sourcing opportunities, which foster growth,
development and innovation.

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Questions :

1. How many forms are media?

2. What are print, electronic media and information technology?
3. What does commencement mean?
4. When have our lives become significantly more convenient?
5. Who can be positively or negatively affected by media?
6. What has the greatest impact on young generation?
7. What is the most obvious problem with young generation using internet?
8. What are the positive and negative effects of internet?
9. Write 10 comprehension questions of the two texts.
10. Discuss and speak the following issues.

Time Before Social Media Time After Social Media

The Disadvantages of Social Media The Advantages of Social Media

Study the Essay writing below. Then write your own essay
about the “Impact of social media”.

Note : Study the bold sentencces in the essay below.

Why People Shouldn't Watch Too Much Television

Watching television is an experience shared by most adults and children. It is
cheap, appealing, and within the reach of the general public. In this way, TV has
become an important mass media around the world. Sadly, this resource isn’t used in
a way that people could get the best possible benefits from it. The purpose of this
essay is to persuade the reader that people shouldn’t watch too much television
because the content of many TV programs is not educational; it makes people
waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities; and it negatively affects
people’s mental development.
The first reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is because
the content of many TV programs is not educational. Nowadays, we can see movies,
series, and shows that present scenes of violence, sex, and drugs. This has
established wrong concepts among the audience that influence them into having a
negative behavior. Moreover, the impact this tendency has on children is worse
because they grow up with the idea of a world where women must be slender and
blonde to stand out, where problems can only be solved with money and violence,
and where wars are inevitable.
The second reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is
because it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial
activities. The time we spend watching TV could be applied to useful activities like
exercise, reading, interacting with friends and family, activities that are a crucial for a
healthy lifestyle.
The third reason why people shouldn’t watch too much television is because
it negatively affects people’s mental development. According to several scientific
studies, watching TV for prolonged periods of time has a negative effect over the
intellectual development of children and leads to deterioration of the mental
capacity in older people by causing both attention and memory problems in the long

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In conclusion, people shouldn’t watch too much television because the
content of many TV programs is not educational; it makes people waste time that
could be used in more beneficial activities; and it affects people’s mental
development. However, this doesn’t mean that we should ban TV, but if we are
going to watch it, we should do it with moderation. Television is a resource that we
should learn to use through the right selection of programs by taking an active and
critical attitude towards it. (

Impact of Social Media


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2 Running a business

Snapshot Observe the pictures then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. Do you know what we can talk about the pictures?

2. Who are the people in the pictures?
3. What are the people in the pictures doing?
4. Where are the people?
5. Do you have a business? Do you know how to run a business?
6. How much money do you need to run a business?
7. If you have some money how do you spend it?
8. Do you think cooperation is important to run a business?
9. Do you think running a business is easy? Give your reasons.

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below

Salary Tax Bank account Business Cash

Financial Lucky Customer Risky Invest
Hopeless Successful Safe Ruined Offer
Survival Poverty Greed Stock Charge
Share Company Afford Cooperate Budget
Calculate Currency Demand Estimate Finance
Maintain Management Profit Negotiate Supply

12 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Reading Read the following text and answer the given assignments.


Have you ever wondered why some people are successful in business and
others are not? Here’s a story about one successful business person. He started out
washing dishes and today he owns 168 restaurants.
Zubair Kazi was born in Bathkal, a small town in southwest India. His dream
was to be an airplane pilot, and when he was 16 years old, he learned to fly a small
plane. At the age of 23 and with just a little money in his pocket, Mr. Kazi moved to
the United States. He hoped to get a job in the airplane industry in California.
Instead, he ended up working for a company that rented cars.
While Mr. Kazi was working at the car rental company, he frequently ate at a
nearby KFC restaurant. To save money on food, he decided to get a job with KFC. For
two months, he worked as a cook's assistant. His job was to clean the kitchen and
help the cook. "I didn't like it," Mr. Kazi says, "but I always did the best I could.
One day, Mr. Kazi's two co-workers failed to come to work. That day, Mr. Kazi did the
work of all three people in the kitchen. This really impressed the owners of the
restaurant. A few months later, the owners needed a manager for a new restaurant.
They gave the job to Mr. Kazi. He worked hard as the manager and soon the
restaurant was making a profit.
A few years later, Mr. Kazi heard about a restaurant that was losing money.
The restaurant was Dirty inside and the food was terrible – greasy and undercooked.
Mr. Kazi borrowed money from a bank and bought the restaurant. For the first six
months, Mr. Kazi worked in the restaurant from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m., seven days a
week. He and his wife cleaned up the restaurant, remodeled the front of the
building, and improved the cooking. They also tried hard to please the customers. If
someone had to wait more than ten minutes for their food, Mrs. Kazi gave them a
free soda. Before long the restaurant was making a profit.
A year later, Mr. Kazi sold his restaurant for a profit. With the money he
earned, he bought three More restaurants that were losing money. Again, he
cleaned them up, improved the food, and retrained the employees. Before long
these restaurants were making a profit, too.
Today Mr. Kazi owns 168 restaurants, but he isn't planning to stop there.
He's looking for more poorly managed restaurants to buy. "I love it when I go to buy
a restaurant and find it's a mess," Mr. Kazi says. "The only way it can go is up.
(This article was adapted from the Wall Street Journal)

A Number these events in Mr. Kazi’s life from 1 (the first) to 9 (the last).

He sold his first restaurant at a profit.

He bought his 168th restaurant. 9
He got a job at a car rental company.
He bought his first restaurants.
He became the manager of a restaurant.
He got job as a cook’s helper.
He moved to the United States.
He learned to fly a plane. 1
He bought three more restaurants.
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 13
B Read the statements below and check () which statement is true or flase.

Statements True False

Mr. Kazi moved to the United States because he wanted to be
a restaurant manager.
He got a job in a restaurant because he wanted to save money
on food.
His first restaurant job was as a cook's helper.
Mr. Kazi enjoyed working as a cook's helper.
To buy his first restaurant, Mr.Kazi borrowed money from his
Mr.Kazi was married while he owned his first restaurant.
The first restaurant Mr. Kazi bought was a mess.
Mr. Kazi lost money when he sold his first restaurant.

C Work with a partner to correct the false statements.

Language Focus Participles, Gerunds & Infinitives

Note : Participles, Gerunds and Infinitives are called verbals.

See more explanation Verbals are words which are formed from a verb but which
in the appendices page function as a different part of speech.
85. PARTICIPLE is usually formed by adding –ing or –ed to a
verb. It functions as an adjective.
1. The singing bird was the main attraction at the event.
2. The movie was really boring. John wanted to leave.
3. The employee was annoying. He was always late.
4. The injured man was waiting for the doctor.
5. The school trip was exciting.
6. The gift was surprising.

GERUND is formed by adding – ing to a verb. It functions

as a noun.
1. Running a business demands challenging efforts.
2. He started out washing dishes and today he owns 168
3. He ended up working.

INFINITIVE is formed by using the word ‘to’ before the verb

in its stem word (to be, to make, to see, to go, to travel).
Infinitive can be used to identify something you hope, want,
plant, or need to do.
Examples :
1. Mr. Kazi hoped to become an airplane pilot.
2. He wanted to be a pilot.
3. To buy the restaurant, he borrowed money from the bank.
4. To please customers, Mr. Kazi gave them a free soda.
14 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
Practice A Choose a verb from the box to complete each sentence.

to buy to come to fly to find

to please to save to give to improve

1. When Mr. Kazi was 16, he learned _________ an airplane.

2. When he came to the United States, he hoped _________ a job in the airline
3. _________ money on food, Mr.Kazi got a job at a restaurant.
4. One day his co-workers failed _________ to work.
5. The owners of the restaurant decided _________ Mr. Kazi the manager’s job.
6. _________ their first restaurant, Mr. Kazi and his wife remodeled the front of the
building and made the food better.
7. Mr. Kazi tried hard _________ the customers in his restaurant.
8. Mr. Kazi is planning _________ more restaurants.

Practice B Identify gerund or participle in the sentences below.

State whether the –ing forms given in the following sentences are participles or
gerunds. In the case of participles, name the noun or pronoun they qualify. In the
case of gerunds, state what function they serve in the sentence.

1. Hearing a loud noise, we ran to the window.

2. The motorcyclist was fatally injured in the accident and is now fighting for
his life.
3. He ruined his sight by watching TV all day.
4. We saw a clown standing on his head.
5. Asking questions is a whole lot easier than answering them.
6. Waving their hands, the audience cheered the winner.
7. Plucking flowers is forbidden.
8. Jumping over the fence, the thief escaped.
9. I was surprised at John’s being absent.
10. We spent the whole day playing cards.
11. A miser hates spending his money.
12. John was angry at Alice trying to lie to her.
13. Praising all alike is praising none.
14. Are you afraid of speaking the truth?
15. Singing to herself is her chief delight.

Point out the present participles and gerunds in the following

Practice C

1. He hates spending money. 5. We are fighting a losing battle.

2. It is freezing cold. 6. Can you teach me painting?
3. We are confident of winning the 7. He is ruining his lungs by smoking.
election. 8. They are waving their hand to us.
4. The boy cried thinking that he would 9. We saw clown standing on his head?
be whipped.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 15

Practice D

Complete the blanks by providing the correct form of the verb in brackets. Remember
you can choose a gerund, an infinitive or a bare infinitive.

Fighting continues (1) ______ (rage) in Xeronia despite the attempts of the
UN Secretary-General to bring the warring factions to a meeting. When interviewed
today he said he had spent a considerable amount of time (2) ______ (discuss) the
situation with the Commander of the UN peace-keeping force but they had decided
not (3) ______ (intervene) in the fighting since they anticipated (4) ______ (meet)
fierce resistance from both sides.
According to official sources, troops loyal to General Yores had managed (5)
______ (capture) two key positions but militia groups loyal to the freedom
movement had attempted (6) ______ (retake) the position several times today.
In an interview this afternoon, General Yores denied (7) ______ (use)
chemical weapons against the freedom fighters but would not (8) ______ (comment)
on reports that his forces planned (9) ______ (mount) a huge offensive over the next
48 hours and that certain of his elite guard had volunteered (10) ______ (go) on
suicide missions to kill key figures within the freedom movement.
Our special correspondent in Xeronia tried (11) _____ (talk) to members of
the Central Committee of the freedom movement but security around them was so
tight that we regret (12) ______ (say) that so far they have refused (13) _____ (see)
any representatives of the international press. However, sources close to the Central
Committee denied (14) ______ (lose) any positions today and reiterated that the
freedom fighters would (15) ______ (fight) until the last man to liberate their
beloved Xeronia.

Speaking With a partner, act out the coversation below.

Interviewer : When did you first go into business?

Harris : I set up a small business selling office supplies in 1989, filling systems,
office equipment, that sort of thing. In 1991 I went into partnership
with my old friend, James Britten. We made a loss for the first two
years, but then things got better and we’ve made a profit most years
ever since. But there have been bad times too.
Interviewer : In what way?
Harris : Well, during the economic recession of the early 1997, a lot of small
business were going under, and I thought our business would fold, but
we survived. All around us, small firms were going bankrupt. But in
1999 we won a contract, despite of stiff competition, to supply the
local government offices, and that was an important moment for us.
We took on staff and expanded. And we were proud that we had
created jobs for local people at a time when unemployment was high.
Our sales figures improved steadily, and soon we had an annual
turnover of more than ten million pounds.
Interviewer : So what’s the secret of your success?
Harris : Well we’re quite cautious. For instance, we always carry out market
research before launching a new product. But also, we set a high value
on customer services, especially after-sales service. But at the end of

16 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

the day, running a successful business is a combination of hard work,
luck and intuition.
Interviewer : Finally, there are rumours that you may float the company on the stock
Harris : At the moment we have no attention of going public, and people
shouldn’t believe everything they read in the newspapers!

Language Focus 2 Collocation (See more explanation in the appendix page 93).

A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often used together. These
combinations sound natural to native speakers, but students of English have to make
a special effort to learn them because they are often difficult to guess.

Example :
We Say.. We do not say..
do business make business
make an effort do an effort
The most common collocation with the verb make are :
1. make sure 4. make a decision
2. make sense 5. make a mistake
3. make a difference 6. make money

Learning Tip
When you learn a new collocation (expression), use it in a sentence to help you
remember it. Add another sentence to clarify or paraphrase the meaning.
Example :
My brother can not make a living as a musician.
He does not earn enough money.

Practice E Complete the sentences with the words in the box

do my best make a difference make a good impression
1. I'm going to try to __________ on my new boss. I want her to have a good
opinion of me.
2. I'd like to do something useful in life. I want to __________ in people's lives.
3. I find exams very stressful, but I always __________. I try very hard to do well.

Follow Up
On the website you can find business reports on
several million companies. Look up a company that interest you and make a note of
any interesting collocations that you find.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 17

Practice F Complete these collocations based on the conversation.

1. to ……………… a company on the stock 6. to ………… into partnership

market 7. to ……………… market research
2. to ……………… a new product 8. to ……………… public
3. to ……………… a profit 9. to ……………… up a business
4. to ……………… bankrupt 10. to ……………… a loss
5. to ……………… into business

Listening Listen to the audio and fill in the blank with correct words.

The customer’s always right!

Tracy has recently bought a new dining set at a local department store, but when it
was delivered she noticed some scratches on the tabletop. She's very unhappy
because she paid a lot of money for the table and would like to exchange it. Listen to
the Tracy’s conversation in the department store to practice your listening

Clerk: Did you need some help?

Tracy: Yes. I bought a dining room table and chairs here two weeks ago. It was
delivered yesterday, but there are two big gashes on the surface. I've
bought furniture from you before and I've always been satisfied with the
quality and the service. But now I just don't know.
Clerk: Oh, I'm sorry ma'am. But did you notice whether the scratches were there
when the table arrived?
Tracy: Um, actually, no. I wasn't home when they brought them in.
Clerk: Who signed for the delivery?
Tracy: My husband. But he's not very observant. He wouldn't have noticed. But I
saw the gashes right away.
Clerk: Well, ma'am, we have a policy. That's why you sign for the delivery. You
are acknowledging that the product is delivered in good condition.
Tracy: So you're saying you can't do anything?
Clerk: I'm afraid we can't.
Tracy: Well, look. I'm really disappointed about this. I'm a good customer. I've
bought several pieces of furniture from you before ______Can I speak to
the manager?
Clerk: Sure ______ One minute.
Manager: Hello, I'm Bob Mack, the department manager. What can I do for you?
Tracy: Hi. I'm Tracy Bell. Well, as I was saying to the clerk, I'm a regular
customer. I've bought furniture from you before, and I've always been
satisfied with the quality of your products and the service. But I bought a
table from you that was delivered yesterday. My husband signed for it,
but he never notices anything, and when I got home yesterday, I saw two
big gashes on the tabletop.
Manager: No problem, ma'am. We can send out another one and pick up the
damaged one. Let's see. Let me check the delivery schedule. OK, we can
deliver your replacement table next week, next Friday. How's that? Are
the chairs OK?
Tracy: Oh, thank you so much. I really appreciate this! Yes, the chairs are fine.

18 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Tracy: Oh, thank you so much. I really appreciate this! Yes, the chairs are fine.
Manager: Good, so we'll just send out a new table ______ We really appreciate your
business, Ms. Bell. I'm very sorry for the inconvenience. Just have that
table ready for pickup on Friday the 21st between 9:00 and noon, and
we'll bring the new one at the same time.
Tracy: Thanks. It'll be in my dining room waiting for you.

Now let’s listen to the Tracy’s story when waiting for her new table.

1. Why did Tracy get up early?

a) She wanted to go to the new department store in Southcrest.
b) She wanted to be ready for her new table.
c) She had to go to the dentist.
2. What time did Lucy call Tracy?
a) 10:05
b) 2:00
c) 2:15
3. How many phone calls did Tracy get that day?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
4. Why did Tracy think it was important for her to be at home when the new table
a) She was excited about getting her new table.
b) Her husband wouldn't be home.
c) She wanted to be sure the table was in good condition.
5. What time will the table arrive?
a) Around 2:00
b) At 11:45
c) Between 9:00 and noon
6. Where will Tracy be when the table arrives?
a) At home
b) At the dentist

Practice G

A manager supervises a group of employees. What do you think a good manager is

like? Check () your answers below. Then add one or more of your own ideas.

It is important for It’s not important

Manager’s Attitudes a manager to for a manager to

Be honest
Be hardworking
Be kind
Make a profit
Be able to make difficult decision
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 19
Communicate well
Write well
Treat the employees well
Reduce stress in the workplace
Listen to others
Understand new technologies
Hold parties for the employees
Save profit for himself
Does not care about the employees


Give two reasons to complete the sentences below and write your own essay by
developing the two reasons that you have written. Follow the example.

I think I would be a good manager because ...................

1. ...................................................................
2. ...................................................................

I don’t think I would be a good manager because ....................

1. ...................................................................
2. ...................................................................

Example :
I think I would be a good manager because I am smart (First reason) and I
can communicate well with other people (Second reason).

(Describe your first reason into a paragraph)

A good manager must be smart. I can be a good manager because I am
smart. In addition, smart people can handle every work easily. For example,
........................ (Give an example for your first reason). (add one/two sentences to
conlude your paragraph and to connect this paragraph to the next paragraph).

(Describe your second reason into a paragraph)

Communication is one of the important quality for a good manager. My
ability to communicate well with other people can help me be a good manager. For
example, ............................................ (Give an example for your second reason). (Add
one/two sentences to conlude your paragraph).

(Conclude your two reasons into a paragraph. Restate your two reasons in

20 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Reading With partner, read the text and write ten question.

Money makes the world go round.” I wonder if this famous English
expression is very true. If you have money, the world goes round very gently and you
are happy. If you don’t have money, the world might not go round so smoothly. They
also say that “money is the root of all evil”. I think this is so true. Money makes
people kill and steal. Greed means there are things in the world like blackmail,
corruption, slave labor and a lot more terrible things.
Another common saying in English is “money can’t buy happiness”. I’m not so
sure about this one. I know if I had loads of money I’d be pretty happy. I think if all
the world’s money was shared out, the world would go round more happily, and
there would be less evil and more happiness.
Money plays an important role in our lives. Talking about money in English is
an important topic to learn . Many students know what to call the money we get
from a job. We call that our "salary". Of course, we hope to get a high salary, but we
usually have to start at a low salary and work our way up. In most countries, some of
our salary is taken out and given to the government. This money is called "taxes". We
also might pay taxes when we buy things. Taxes are such a big part of life that
someone once said "Nothing is certain in life except death, and taxes".
A common expression in English that describes our job and making money is
"earning a living". When we earn money at our job, it allows us to eat and pay for a
place to live. We also talk about money in a more creative way. We say, for example,
that something that is successful is like "money in the bank". It's safe and sure and
will help us in the future! In the same way, a person who is successful, even though
he or she has had to work very hard, could be said to be "laughing all the way to the
bank". Even though life is hard, the work was worth it because now the bank account
has grown so much.

1. .......................................................................
2. .......................................................................
3. .......................................................................
4. .......................................................................
5. .......................................................................
6. .......................................................................
7. .......................................................................
8. .......................................................................
9. .......................................................................
10. .......................................................................

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 21

3 Discovery and Invention

Snapshot Observe the pictures then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. What do the pictures depict?

2. What are discoveries shown in the pictures above?
3. Which is the cutting-edge technology?
4. What are inventions shown in the pictures above?
4. What does the sun contribute the earth?
5. What are renewable kinds of energy?
6. From the picture, which are the works of archeologist?
7. From the picture, which are the works of scientist?
8. Which pictures shows many contributions to mankind?

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below

Cellular Computer Cutting edge Discover earth

Electricity Energy Engine Generate Power
Predict Produce Recent Renewable Science
Space Sustainable Transform Universe Invent
Patent Prototype Idea Conduct Element

22 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Reading Read the following text and answer the given questions.

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi

A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and
enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded
in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered
for numerous advances in medicine through his
observations and discoveries. An early proponent of
experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor,
and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Rey
hospitals. As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students
of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be
compassionate and devoted compassionate
to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor.
He was among the first to use humorism to distinguish one contagious
disease from another, and wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles
providing clinical characterization of the diseases. He also discovered numerous
compounds and chemicals including Alcohol, kerosene, among others.
Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among
medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the
Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely "On Surgery" and "A
General Book on Therapy", became part of the medical curriculum in Western
universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and
most original of all the Muslim physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author"
and has been described as a doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer
of ophthalmology.
Source :


1. Mention 4 informations about Al-razi that you can get from the text above.
2. What are Al-razi’s discoveries?
3. Al-razi discovered medical curriculum for western University.
a. True
b. False
4. Al-razi did not discover
a. Clinical characterization of the diseases.
b. Psychology therapy.
c. The diseases distinction by using humorism

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 23

Practice A Read the following text and answer the given assignments.

Top 7 Outstanding Muslim Inventions

1. Surgery
Around the year 1,000, the celebrated doctor Al Zahrawi published a 1,500 page
illustrated encyclopedia of surgery that was used in Europe as a medical reference
for the next 500 years. Among his many inventions, Zahrawi discovered the use of
dissolving cat gut to stitch wounds beforehand a second surgery had to be
performed to remove sutures. He also reportedly performed the first caesarean
operation and created the first pair of forceps.

2. Coffee
Now the Western world's drink du jour, coffee was first brewed in Yemen around the
9th century. In its earliest days, coffee helped Sufis stay up during late nights of
devotion. Later brought to Cairo by a group of students, the coffee buzz soon caught
on around the empire. By the 13th century it reached Turkey, but not until the 16th
century did the beans start boiling in Europe, brought to Italy by a Venetian trader.

3. Flying machine
"Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to make a real attempt to construct a flying
machine and fly," said Hassani. In the 9th century he designed a winged apparatus,
roughly resembling a bird costume. In his most famous trial near Cordoba in Spain,
Firnas flew upward for a few moments, before falling to the ground and partially
breaking his back. His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed
Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci's hundreds of years later, said Hassani.

4. Algebra
The word algebra comes from the title of a Persian mathematician's famous 9th
century treatise "Kitab al-Jabr Wa l-Mugabala" which translates roughly as "The Book
of Reasoning and Balancing." Built on the roots of Greek and Hindu systems, the new
algebraic order was a unifying system for rational numbers, irrational numbers and
geometrical magnitudes. The same mathematician, Al-Khwarizmi, was also the first
to introduce the concept of raising a number to a power.

5. Optics
"Many of the most important advances in the study of optics come from the Muslim
world," says Hassani. Around the year 1000 Ibn al-Haitham proved that humans see
objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye, dismissing Euclid and
Ptolemy's theories that light was emitted from the eye itself. This great Muslim
physicist also discovered the camera obscura phenomenon, which explains how the
eye sees images upright due to the connection between the optic nerve and the

6. Toothbrush
According to Hassani, the Prophet Mohammed popularized the use of the first
toothbrush in around 600. Using a twig from the Meswak tree, he cleaned his teeth
and freshened his breath. Substances similar to Meswak are used in modern

24 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

7. The crank
Many of the basics of modern automatics were first put to use in the Muslim world,
including the revolutionary crank-connecting rod system. By converting rotary
motion to linear motion, the crank enables the lifting of heavy objects with relative
ease. This technology, discovered by Al-Jazari in the 12th century, exploded across
the globe, leading to everything from the bicycle to the internal combustion engine.

Make groups consist of four or five people. With your groups, discuss the text
* above and do the assignments below:
1. Write ten questions for the texts above that will be answered by the other
2. Prepare your group’s answers for the questions that will be asked by the other
groups related to text above.
3. For each groups, make comment/s related to text above and express it to the
other groups.
4. For each groups, give your opinion for the other groups comment/s

Listening Listen to audio and fill in the blank.

Cloned dogs in training to sniff for drugs

The world’s first (1) ……..-cloned dogs have started training for their future careers.
South Korea’s customs service (2) ………… clones of its very best sniffer dog last year.
It hopes the cloned canines will become (3) ………… at finding explosives and drugs at
its airports. The cloning will reduce the costs (4) ………….. in the months of training
normal dogs. Only thirty per cent of dogs selected for training actually make the (5)
……….. and become a sniffer dog. The seven cloned puppies, all named Toppy (short
for Tomorrow’s Puppy), were born in October and November 2007. Cells were
taken from their Labrador retriever (6) ……….. , called Chase, to clone them. Project
manager Lim Jae-Yong believes the clones will be easier to train than ordinary dogs,
because of their (7) ……… from expert sniffer Chase.

The $300,000 project was (8) ………… out by Lee Byung-Chun, who cloned the world’s
first dog from a three-year-old Afghan hound. Each Toppy cost $60,000, which is (9)
………… the cost of training a normal sniffer dog. All seven Toppies have been in
training (10) ………. they were born. They have successfully passed their first (11)
……….. of sniffer-dog tests, although one had to (12) …….. out with a bad leg. The
dogs train together and all come running when their name is called. Their trainers
only know who’s (13) ……… via a microchip in each puppy’s ear. Lead trainer Kim
Nak-seung said: "The differences [between them] are so small that I really can't tell
the puppies (14) ………..." The Toppies should complete their training by early 2009
and start work sniffing (15) ……….. in the nation’s airports soon after.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 25

Language Focus 1 Verbs with prepositions.
Note : See more explanation in the appendices page 95.
The following are the verbs with prepositions that commonly appear:
agree on (topic) hide (something) from (someone)
agree with (someone) insist (up)on (something)
apologize to (someone) for (doing) introduce (someone) to (someone else)
something) invite (someone) to (an event)
apply to (a place) for (something) keep (something) for (someone)
approve of (something) matter to (someone)
argue with (someone) about (topic) object to (something)
arrive at (a building, room, site, event) participate in (something)
arrive in (a city, country) pay (price) for (something)
ask (someone) about (someone/topic) pray for (someone/something)
ask (someone) for (something) prefer (something) to (something else)
believe in (something) prevent (someone) from ([doing]
belong to (someone) something)
blame (someone) for ([doing] recover from (something)
something) rely (up)on (someone/something)
borrow (something) from (someone) remind (someone) of (something)
care about (someone/something/topic) rescue (someone) from (something)
comment on (topic) respond to (someone/something)
compare (something) to/with save (someone) from (something)
(something else) search for (something)
complain to (someone) about separate (something) from (something
(something) else)
concentrate on ([doing] something) scold (someone) for ([doing] something)
decide on (topic) smile at (someone) for ([doing]
depend on (someone) for (something) something)
discuss (something) with (someone) speak to/with (someone) about (topic)
distinguish (something) from stare at (something/someone)
(something else) take advantage of
dream about/of (someone/something) (someone/something/ situation)
escape from (somewhere) take care of (something/someone)
explain (topic) to (someone) talk to/with (someone) about (topic)
excuse (someone) for ([doing] thank (someone) for ([doing] something)
something) travel to (somewhere)
forgive (someone for ([doing] vote for (someone)
something) vouch for (someone)
get rid of (something) wait for (someone/something)
graduate from (a place) wish for (something)
happen to (someone) work for
help (someone) with (something) (company/something/someone)

26 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Practice B Underline the verbs with prepositions in the text below.

Text 1:
Although she admits to sometimes watching her favorite reality shows before
attending to her homework, Mary objects to procrastination. She insists on
completing her assignments before the assigned due dates. She cares about her
education and has confessed to wanting good grades. Mary also believes in working
hard because she relies on grade-based scholarships for financial aid. She often
argues about quiet time with her roommate because her roommate listens to music
loudly while Mary is studying. But, Mary secretly gloats at her own success when her
roommate worries about upcoming tests.

Text 2:
When Scott woke up this morning, he discovered that his toddler had thrown up in
her crib last night. He, therefore, cleaned her bedding up before he chowed down on
breakfast. While he was tucking into his food, however, his daughter started acting
up. She just suddenly broke down and threw a tantrum on the kitchen floor. After
falling apart for only a few minutes, the tantrum blew over and his daughter calmed
down. Scott then finished eating and logged onto his computer. But, before he could
access the Internet, the computer blew up. Scott looked the phone number up,
called for technical help, and told the IT technician off. He only eased up when the
tech threatened to put him on hold.

Text 3:
The situation did not add up. Espen depended on Julia to pick him up but she had not
shown up. He worried about what might have happened to her. Perhaps she had
been taken away by a notoriously bad band of ninjas. Espen hoped Julia would fight
against such evildoers. Or, perhaps she had just forgotten about him. Could she let
him down like that? If she had simply failed to remember him, he promised that he
would lay in on her when he saw her next. But, then again, what if Julia had been
knocked out by conniving bank robbers? What if she had refused to give them her
car for a getaway vehicle? What if she had passed out in her attempts to get to him?
Just then, when Espen had decided to not give up on her, Julie pulled up to the curb.
She was just running late. She gazed at Espen, and Espen blushed, thinking about his
unfounded anger. He got into the car, but, before he could apologize, she started
yammering on about how bad traffic had been. Espen silently vowed to wait
patiently for her tomorrow.

Read the following texts and write down your questions to

speak about each topic.

Nuclear Energy
Many scientists say nuclear energy is our future. Many normal people aren’t so sure.
I think most of us worry about nuclear energy. We hear on the news about the
dangers of nuclear power. Many years ago there was a big accident in Chernobyl,
Russia. A nuclear reactor caught fire and melted. Because of this, deadly radiation
spread across the whole of Europe. There were reports that sheep in England caught
radiation sickness. I think things are safer now. Many countries trust nuclear energy.
France and Japan each has dozens of nuclear power stations. I think it’s probably
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 27
a good idea. We really need to stop using fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a lot less
harmful to the environment. Perhaps we need to spend more money on making it
The Universe
The universe is a big place. I don’t think anyone can understand just how big. The
universe never, ever ends. It is infinite in size. It’s funny when scientists say they
want to unlock the secrets of the universe. That’s impossible. There are way too
many secrets out there. The universe has given us an adjective in English that is
misused. When we say something is universal, it doesn’t make sense. That’s because
we’re saying it takes place or happens all around the universe, when in fact, it only
happens on Earth. Another strange use of the word universe is that people talk about
their universe. Sometimes they say their universe collapsed when something sad
happened. Scientists even call our brain a mini universe.
Science is one of the most important subjects we study at school. I loved it. I thought
it was so interesting. Time in my science lessons went very quickly because I was
always working on things and doing experiments. I liked all of the sciences, physics,
biology and chemistry. I wish I continued studying science. I would love to be a
scientist now. I think being a computer scientist would be great. Science is so
important for our life and our world. All of the world’s problems can be solved with
science. We can go to different planets because of science. I hope governments
pump lots of money into science so we have more and better scientists in the future.
It’s interesting to think about what future science will be like.
The sun
Without the Sun we wouldn’t be here. It is the source of our heat, light and energy. It
is enormous, bigger than we could imagine; yet it’s very small compared to other
suns in the universe. It’s unbelievable to think how much the sun burns. It’s just a
giant ball of exploding gas. One day it will die out because all the gas will be gone.
But for today and perhaps the next 15 billion years, there’s enough gas to light and
heat our part of the solar system. Scientists have been studying the sun for decades
but know little about it. The problem is that few space probes can get too close to it.
The sun fries anything and everything to a cinder, in an instant. The Sun is important
to us, but it’s important we don’t spend too long in it.

Language Focus 2 Simple Past and Present Perfect Tense

See more explanation in the appendix, page 102.

Write the correct form of the given verb using simple past
or present perfect tense to complete the text.

Jack (be) …1…. my friend for over 20 years. We (know) … 2 … each other since we
were children. Recently, he and his family (move) … 3 ….. to a house on the same
street as me, and now our children play together almost every day. For the last ten
years, Jack and I (play) … 4… for the same hockey team every Saturday. Jack is a
better player than I am, but in the last few months he (have) … 5 … some trouble
with his left knee, and he (find) … 6 … it hard to play a full game. He (see) … 7 … the
doctor several times about his knee, but the doctor doesn't know what is causing his
pain. Jack (decide) … 8 … to take a break from hockey for a while, so that his knee
can recover. It's going to be lonely on the team without him!

28 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Write a paragraph about a new technology invention that
you know.

Practice C Read the text below and work on the given assignment.

The Discovery of Borobudur Temple

Borobudur lay hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and jungle
growth. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery. It is not known when
active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage to it ceased. Sometime
between 928 and 1006, King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the Medang Kingdom
to the region of East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions; it is not certain whether
this influenced the abandonment, but several sources mention this as the most likely
period of abandonment. The monument is mentioned vaguely as late as c. 1365, in
Mpu Prapanca's Nagarakretagama, written during the Majapahit era and mentioning
"the vihara in Budur". Soekmono (1976) also mentions the popular belief that the
temples were disbanded when the population converted to Islam in the 15th
The monument was not forgotten completely, though folk stories gradually
shifted from its past glory into more superstitious beliefs associated with bad luck
and misery. Two old Javanese chronicles (babad) from the 18th century mention
cases of bad luck associated with the monument. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi
(or the History of Java), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who
revolted against Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709. It was mentioned that
the "Redi Borobudur" hill was besieged and the insurgents were defeated and
sentenced to death by the king. In the Babad Mataram (or the History of the
Mataram Kingdom), the monument was associated with the misfortune of Prince
Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1757. In spite of a
taboo against visiting the monument, "he took what is written as the knight who was
captured in a cage (a statue in one of the perforated stupas)". Upon returning to his
palace, he fell ill and died one day later.
Following its capture, Java was under British administration from 1811 to
1816. The appointed governor was Lieutenant Governor-General Thomas Stamford
Raffles, who took great interest in the history of Java. He collected Javanese antiques

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 29

and made notes through contacts with local inhabitants during his tour throughout
the island. On an inspection tour to Semarang in 1814, he was informed about a big
monument deep in a jungle near the village of Bumisegoro. He was not able to make
the discovery himself and sent H.C. Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate. In
two months, Cornelius and his 200 men cut down trees, burned down vegetation
and dug away the earth to reveal the monument. Due to the danger of collapse, he
could not unearth all galleries. He reported his findings to Raffles, including various
drawings. Although the discovery is only mentioned by a few sentences, Raffles has
been credited with the monument's recovery, as one who had brought it to the
world's attention.
Hartmann, a Dutch administrator of the Kedu region, continued Cornelius's
work, and in 1835, the whole complex was finally unearthed. His interest in
Borobudur was more personal than official. Hartmann did not write any reports of
his activities, in particular, the alleged story that he discovered the large statue of
Buddha in the main stupa. In 1842, Hartmann investigated the main dome, although
what he discovered is unknown and the main stupa remains empty.
The Dutch East Indies government then commissioned F.C. Wilsen, a Dutch
engineering official, who studied the monument and drew hundreds of relief
sketches. J.F.G. Brumund was also appointed to make a detailed study of the
monument, which was completed in 1859. The government intended to publish an
article based on Brumund's study supplemented by Wilsen's drawings, but Brumund
refused to cooperate. The government then commissioned another scholar, C.
Leemans, who compiled a monograph based on Brumund's and Wilsen's sources. In
1873, the first monograph of the detailed study of Borobudur was published,
followed by its French translation a year later. The first photograph of the monument
was taken in 1872 by a Dutch-Flemish engraver, Isidore van Kinsbergen.
Appreciation of the site developed slowly, and it served for some time
largely as a source of souvenirs and income for "souvenir hunters" and thieves. In
1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts recommended that Borobudur be
entirely disassembled with the relocation of reliefs into museums due to the
unstable condition of the monument. As a result, the government appointed
Groenveldt, an archeologist, to undertake a thorough investigation of the site and to
assess the actual condition of the complex; his report found that these fears were
unjustified and recommended it be left intact.
Borobudur was considered as the source of souvenirs, and parts of its
sculptures were looted, some even with colonial-government consent. In 1896 King
Chulalongkorn of Siam visited Java and requested and was allowed to take home
eight cartloads of sculptures taken from Borobudur. These include thirty pieces taken
from a number of relief panels, five buddha images, two lions, one gargoyle, several
kala motifs from the stairs and gateways, and a guardian statue (dvarapala). Several
of these artifacts, most notably the lions, dvarapala, kala, makara and giant
waterspouts are now on display in the Java Art room in The National Museum in
Bangkok. Source :

30 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

The Inventions of Soap, Shampoo, Cleanliness and Cosmetics
The medieval times, was known for its lack of cleanliness and hygiene,
leading to illnesses and diseases, and one of the Crusaders most striking
characteristics were that they didn’t wash. Only a few Muslims, as early as the 7th
century, had developed a sophisticated and hygienic way of life, and methods to
keep themselves clean and away from diseases. In Islam, cleanliness is considered as
half of a Muslims relegion. This was motivation for Muslims, also the fact that not
keeping clean led to diseases and bad health. The greatest thing done for cleanliness
by Muslims, is probably the invention of soap. The credit for this goes to Muslim
Before the invention of soap, people used oils to clean themselves, but all
people didn’t have these oils. Soap was made by mixing oil (usually olive oil) with al-
qali (a salt like substance). This was then boiled to achieve the right mix, and left to
harden, before used in homes and public baths. Various recipies for soap were
written by many Muslim chemists, icluding Al-Razi.
A recetly discovered manuscript dating back to the 13th century, containes
the recipie to soap. One of the leading cosmetologists of the time, Al-Zahrawi, known
to the west as Abulcassis, wrote a medical encyclopedia called Al-Tasrif. It was
written in thirty volumes. Inside the 19th volume, there contains a whole chapter
devoted to cosmetics. This was the first original contribution to cosmetology.
Beutification of the body with purfumes etc was there way before Zahrawi,
but Zahrawi considered cosmetics to be a branch of medication apart from
beutification. Zahrawi’s contribution to the subject include ; under arm deodorants,
hair removing sticks. hair care and also hand lotions. For turning blond hair to black,
hair dyes are mentioned. Also, the benefts of suntan lotions are mentioned, also
describing their ingredients in detail. His translations into Latin of his books were
used as main university textbooks in many European universities.
In the beutification part of cosmetics, Zahrawi dealt with perfumes, scented
aromatics and incense. There are many hadith’s (quotations of the prophet) of the
Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), refering to cleanliness, care of hair and
other parts of the body. Al-Zahrawi described these all within the limitations of Islam.
“Adhan”, and oily substance, was used for medication and beautification. Zahrawi
dealt with perfumed stocks, rolled up and pressed into special moulds. These were
probably the earliest and nearest representations of present day lipsticks and
The greeks contributed a lot to cosmetics, but that was in the beutification
part. It is the hygiene aspects that realy matters and affects us. Islam brought
forward the method of cleaning yourself, which is practiced by every muslim, prior to
praying five times a day called wudu. It was also the muslims who introduced the
quarintine of sick patients, so the illness of the patient would not spread. This was
done due to the discovery and whole idea of germs (also discovered by muslims). So
out of all this, it was the muslims who contributed the most to the health part of

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 31


1. Write a summary for each of the text above.

The Discovery of Borobudur Temple
The Inventions of Soap, Shampoo, Cleanliness and Cosmetics
2. Present your summary to the class.
3. Prepare some questions that you will ask to your friends about their summary.
4. Exchange your idea about the texts above, give suggestion and comment to
improve the summary of you friend.

32 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Practice D Exchange questions for each of text below.
New technology
What would we do without technology? Would we still be living in caves?
Probably, I think there are two main kinds of technology, the kinds before and after
computers. When we think about technology before computers, it was quite basic. It
was all mechanical. Things like steam trains and fridges. At the time, that was cutting
edge technology. But, today’s technology is really cutting edge. It’s the kind of
technology that is out of date as soon as it hits the shelves. I love this. It’s so exciting
seeing it all happen. I love reading about what technology we’ll have in the future,
and then buy it a few years later. It’s like buying technology from science fiction
movies. I’d love to live to be 200 so I can see what technology is around then.

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have
discovered a new way of capturing the Sun’s energy. A team from MIT has created a
new technique that involves coating windows with special chemical dyes. The dyes
help trap the light from the Sun and send it to special storage cells that then convert
the light into electricity. The team’s discovery could transform buildings into energy
plants. It could even one day mean that the windows in our houses could power our
homes. The scientists say their dyes can produce ten times more power than the
traditional solar panels used around the world today. They predict that this clean and
renewable energy technology could be available within the next three years.
The idea was first developed in the 1970s but was abandoned. Scientists
then found that too much of the collected sunlight failed to reach the solar storage
units at the edges of the window. The MIT engineers revived the idea and used
colored dyes to stop the light from escaping. MIT’s development also does away with
the need for hundreds of bulky solar cells. Instead, their method only requires cells
around the edges of the window. MIT’s Professor Baldo explained: "The coated glass
would let through about 10 per cent of the Sun to light up the room, and the
remainder would be captured and funneled to the edges to solar cells to generate
electricity…It would look like smoked glass because of the dyes." The new discovery
could help fight climate change.

Questions and notes:


Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 33

4 Education
Snapshot Observe the pictures then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. Who are the people in the pictures above?

2. What levels of education are they?
3. What should students do to be able to graduate on time?
4. How many years did you attend college?
5. Who teaches university students?
6. What efforts do students have to do to complete their studies earlier?
7. What levels of education are available?
8. What is the renowned university in your country?
9. Do you think that education is important?

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below

attend college compulsory difficult

examination lecture curiosity encourage
experiment graduate impact instruction
opposite pass pressure primary
science undergraduate post-graduate degree
bachelor degree lecturer master
research thesis project tuition fees
homework lesson course attendance
grade register qualification campus

34 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Reading Read the following text and work on the given assignment.

Making schoolchildren take tests is harming students’ interest in science, as

well as having a negative impact on kids’ natural curiosity. This is the conclusion of a
British university report into science teaching and testing in primary schools.
Researchers from Durham University warned that too many schools were teaching
science just so students could pass tests. There is a lot of pressure for students to get
to better schools. The experts said there was very little real science teaching going
on that encouraged students to find out things for themselves. Learning by doing,
experimenting and seeing should be at the heart of all physics, chemistry and biology
lessons. The Durham University team found the opposite; that there was little hands-
on, practical work taking place in Britain’s schools.
Lead researcher Professor, Peter Tymms, said it was important to develop
new approaches to primary school science. He compared today’s teaching with that
of the past sixty years and found that testing was harming children’s natural desire to
ask questions about science: “We suspect that the current national approach to
science in primary schools is not impacting on children’s scientific thought and
curiosity as much as is possible,” he said. Professor Tymms made it clear what
schools and science teachers need to focus on, saying: “The purpose of science in
primary schools should be to foster a sense of curiosity and positive attitudes in the
young child. It should also guide the child in solving problems to do with the physical,
natural and human worlds.”

Make at least ten questions related to the text above.

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 35

Listening Listen to the audio or your lecturer to complete the text.

U.K. students in university fees protest

Tens of thousands of students across the U.K. took part in protests on Wednesday …
(1) … their government’s increase in tuition fees. They were speaking out against the
three … (2) … rise in the prices universities can charge, and voicing their opposition
to the scrapping of benefits that will … (3) ... poor students. The nationwide protest
was organized by the National Campaign Against Fees and Cuts (NCAFC). High school
and university students, teachers and … (4) … took to the streets to demonstrate.
Around 10,000 protestors rallied in London, where there were arrests after … (5) …
clashes left a police officer with a broken arm. The protests were largely trouble …
(6) …, unlike those two weeks earlier in which the ruling Conservative Party
headquarters was … (7) … Britain’s … (8) ... coalition government have made many
cuts to university education, while at the same time … (9) ... universities to increase
tuition fees from $5,624 a year to $14,400. They say these measures are necessary to
… (10) … the country’s budget deficit. Most of the public fury is directed at the junior
coalition partner, the Liberal Democrats, whose election … (11) … earlier this year
was to … (12) ... tuition and maintain transport benefits for students from low-
income families. Their leader has done a total U-turn and … (13) ... broken these
promises. Until the late 1990s, British students did not need to pay tuition, and many
poorer students received … (14) ... living allowances from the government. Many
protestors believe this will … (15) … opportunities for the poor. They carried banners
saying: “R.I.P. My Degree.”

Language Focus 1 Degree of Comparison.

Recognizing Degrees of Comparison Most adjectives and adverbs have three

different forms to show degrees of comparison.

Degrees of Comparison
Positive Comparative Superlative
Adjective smooth smoother smoothest
luxurious more luxurious most luxurious
many more most
Adverb close closer closest
rapidly more rapidly most rapidly
far further furthest

Regular Forms of Comparison Use -er or more to form the comparative degree and -
est or most to form the superlative degree of comparison of most one- and two-
syllable modifiers. Use more and most to form the comparative and superlative
degrees of all modifiers with three or more syllables.

36 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Positive Comparative Superlative
One and two Strange stranger strangest
syllable Silly sillier silliest
Graceful more graceful most graceful
Three or more Amazing more amazing most amazing
syllable Happily more happily most happily
Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful

Practice A Recognizing Degrees of Comparison.

Identify the degree of comparison of the underlined word by writing pos. (positive),
comp. (comparative), or sup. (superlative).
Example: Amy is shorter than her younger sister. comperative.

1. The baby’s fever is lower this morning. __________________

2. The weather has been perfectly beautiful all week. __________________
3. This has been the wettest June on record. __________________
4. The Jacksons’ house is the oldest one on our street. _________________
5. Kevin took the news more calmly than the rest of us. ________________
6. The Smiths have the most carefully trimmed shrubs on the block. _____________
7. The host greeted each guest warmly. __________________
8. Pete just ate the biggest sandwich I had ever seen. ________________
9. Louise felt better after she had talked things over. _________________
10. The crowd gave an enthusiastic roar. ______________________

Practice B Discuss the pictures below.

Which things are better? Discuss and compare the picture below, stating the
advantages of one over the other, using comparatives and superlatives.


Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 37

Language Focus 2 Conditional Sentences.

1. Open Present or Future Conditional.

IF + present simple / will + infinitive

Basic Form

if- clause main clause

If I go out I’ll buy a newspaper
If you don’t study you won’t pass your exams
If they offer you the job what will you do

This structure is often called the “first conditional”.

• We use this structure when there is a possibility that the situation in the if-clause
will happen in the future.
• We also use this structure when there is a possibility that the situation in the if-
clause is true in the present.
• We can also use shall instead of will with I and we in the main clause.
• In this structure, we can use a modal verb e.g. Can, may, instead of will in the
main clause.
• We can also use the imperative in the main clause.
• We can use the present perfect or present continuous instead of the present
simple in the if- clause.
• We can also use should after if when we are less sure about a possibility
• We can also begin with should when we are less sure.
Example: If I have enough time, we’ll visit Robert.

2. Unreal Present or Future Conditionals.

IF + past simple / would + infinitive

38 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Basic Form

if- clause main clause

If I had a lot of money I’d travel round the world
If he got up earlier he wouldn’t be late for work
If you didn’t pass the exam would you take it again?

This structure is often called the “second conditional”.

• We use this structure to talk about unreal present or future situations.
E.g. If I had a lot of money, I’d travel round the world. But I do not have a lot of
• We also use sentences like these to talk about unlikely present or future
E.g. If I won a lot of money, I’d take a long holiday.
The past form: had, loved ....., does not have a past meaning in these sentences, it
has a hypothetical present or future meaning, SUBJUNCTIVE.
• We often use were instead of was after if, especially in a more formal style.
E.g. If the weather were nice, I’d go to the beach.
• We often use “If I were you” to give advice.
E.g. If I were you, I’d apply for the job.
• We can use the modal verbs might, could instead of would in the main clause.
E.g. If I won a lot of money, I might stop working.

3. Unreal Past Conditionals

IF + past perfect/ would have + past participle

Basic Form

if- clause main clause

If the weather had been nice yesterday I would have gone to the beach
If I had studied hard I would have passed the exam

This structure is often called the “third conditional”.

The contraction of both had and would is‘d: I would / I had = I’d
• We use this structure to talk about unreal past situations.
E.g. If you hadn’t missed your bus, you wouldn’t have been late for school. (but you
missed the bus)
Other Forms
• We can use the modal verbs might, could instead of would in the main clause.
E.g. If you had taken the exam, you might have passed it.
I could have repaired the car if I’d had the right tools.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 39

4. General Conditionals

IF + present simple / present simple

Basic Form

if- clause main clause

If I have a big lunch it makes me sleepy
If you mix yellow and blue you get green

We use this structure to talk about habits and general truths.

Conditional Sentences.
Practice C Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1. If the machine ___________ (stop), press this button.

2. Why didn’t you tell me? If you ___________ (tell) me, I would have helped you.
3. I can’t understand what he sees in her! If anyone treated me like that,
I ___________ (be) extremely angry!
4. If you help me with this exercise, I ___________(do) the same for you one day.
5. If Bill hadn’t stolen the car, he ___________ (not be) in prison now.
6. According to the timetable, if the train ___________ (leave) on time, we will
arrive at 5.30.
7. Let me give you some advice. If you ___________(smoke) less, you wouldn’t feel
so tired.
8. If it ___________ (be) fine tomorrow, we will go to the coast.
9. If we find a taxi, we ___________ (get) there before the play starts.
10. If you ___________ (invite) me, I would have been able to come.
11. I don’t know how to play baseball, but I am sure that if I did, I ___________ (play)
a lot better than anyone in this awful team.
12. If I phone you tonight, ___________ (you / be) in?
13. What bad luck! If Alan hadn’t fallen over, he ___________ (win) the race.
14. We have a suggestion to make. How would you feel if we ___________ (offer)
you the job of assistant manager?
15. We would have visited the Prado Gallery if we ___________ (have) time.

Writing An example of Paragraph

A University Lecturer
A university lecturer has many duties. In the classroom, he or she lectures to the
students and answers questions. If he or she lectures in science, he or she also
conducts laboratory experiments. During office hour, he or she may help students
who have difficulties in their studies. In addition, a lecturer may work for many hours
in a laboratory doing a research project. Another lecturer may spend his or her time
40 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
time writing a scholarly paper for a professional journal. Still another one may spend
time writing a textbook. In conclusion, a lecturer is always a very busy person.
(Oshima & Hogue, 1988)

Components of a good paragraph:

1. Topic Sentence : Topic + Controlling idea
A university lecturer has many duties.
2. Supporting Sentences : Major and Minor
In the classroom, he or she lectures to the students and answers questions. If he
or she lectures in science, he or she also conducts laboratory experiments. During
office hour, he or she may help students who have difficulties in their studies. In
addition, a lecturer may work for many hours in a laboratory doing a research
project. Another lecturer may spend his or her time writing a scholarly paper for a
professional journal. Still another one may spend time writing a textbook
3. Concluding Sentence/s
In conclusion, a lecturer is always a very busy person.

Practice D Write a paragraph about education. Follow the above example.


Speaking Speaking for debate.

1. Should female have high education as male has? What do you think?
• Students A strongly agree that female should have high education.
• Students B strongly disagrees female should have high education.
2. Education should be free
• Students A strongly believe university should be free.
• Students B strongly believe the opposite
• Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
3. Which of these should be free? Rank them and share your rankings with your
partner. Put the most important at the top.
a. education e. hospitals
b. public transport f. dentists
c. school meals g. water
d. housing e. internet

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 41

Practice E Answer the questions below.

Source : (
1. What are some important factors in determining which college to attend?
2. What classes would you take?
3. What do you study? What's your major?
4. What is the average age of a high school graduate?
5. What is your favorite class? Why do you like it?
6. Who selected the college you are attending -- you or your parents?
7. Why are you studying a foreign language?
8. Why is it sometimes very difficult to speak another language?
9. Would you consider studying abroad?
10. What do you think of home-schooling?
11. Do you know anyone who was home-schooled?
12. Do you think that most parents influence what university their child will attend?
13. Once you graduate from a university should you stop learning?
14. What are some ways a person can continue to learn?
15. Which high schools and colleges are the best in your country?
16. Should education be free?
17. Does your country have good public universities? If not, why do you think there is
a lack of funding for education in your country?
18. Why do students cheat during tests and exams?
19. What are the dangers of cheating?
20. Should people go straight from school to university?
21. How much tuition do you pay?
22. What kinds of scholarships are there for students at your school?
23. What must you do to receive a college diploma?
24. Where is the best place for you to study? Why?
25. How many hours do you spend on homework or studying each night?
26. What do you do on campus when you're not studying?
27. Which class or subject is most important for your future job?
28. How can a student receive a scholarship?
29. Why are you attending college?
30. After your grade point average (GPA), what is the 2nd most important thing in
31. Do most of your professors or instructors take attendance? Why?
32. What time does your first class begin tomorrow?
33. How can we make the cost of education more affordable to the general public?

42 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Read the following texts to speak about roles and benefits of
Speaking kinds of educations.

Homeschooling or homeschool (also called home education or home based
learning) is the education of children at home, typically by parents but sometimes by
tutors, rather than in other formal settings of public or private school. Although prior
to the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education
occurred within the family or community, homeschooling in the modern sense is an
alternative in developed countries to attending public or private schools.
Homeschooling is a legal option for parents in many countries, allowing them to
provide their children with a learning environment as an alternative to public or
private schools outside the home. Parents cite numerous reasons as motivations to
homeschool their children. The three reasons that are selected by the majority of
homeschooling parents in the United States are concern about the traditional school
environment, to provide religious or moral instruction, and dissatisfaction with
academic instruction at traditional public and private schools. Homeschooling may
also be a factor in the choice of parenting style. Homeschooling can be an option for
families living in isolated rural locations, living temporarily abroad, and to allow for
more traveling; also many young athletes and actors are taught at home.
Homeschooling can be about mentorship and apprenticeship, where a tutor or
teacher is with the child for many years and then knows the child very well.
Homeschooling can be used as a form of supplementary education, a way of
helping children learn, in specific circumstances. For instance, children that attend
downgraded schools can greatly benefit from homeschooling ways of learning, using
the immediacy and low cost of the internet. As a synonym to e-learning,
homeschooling can be combined with traditional education and lead to better and
more complete results.
Homeschooling may also refer to instruction in the home under the supervision
of correspondence schools or umbrella schools. In some places, an approved
curriculum is legally required if children are to be home-schooled. A curriculum-free
philosophy of homeschooling may be called unschooling, a term coined in 1977 by
American educator and author John Holt in his magazine Growing Without Schooling.
Distance education
Distance education dates to at least as early as 1728, when "an
advertisement in the Boston Gazette... [named] 'Caleb Phillips, Teacher of the new
method of Short Hand" was seeking students for lessons to be sent weekly.
Modern distance education initially relied on the development of postal
services in the 19th century and has been practiced at least since Isaac Pitman taught
shorthand in Great Britain via correspondence in the 1840s. The University of London
claims to be the first university to offer distance learning degrees, establishing its
External Program in 1858. This program is now known as the University of London
International Programs and includes Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Diploma
degrees created by colleges such as the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 43
and Goldsmiths. In the United States William Rainey Harper, first president of the
University of Chicago developed the concept of extended education, whereby the
research university had satellite colleges of education in the wider community, and
in 1892 he also encouraged the concept of correspondence school courses to further
promote education, an idea that was put into practice by Columbia University. In
Australia, the University of Queensland established its Department of
Correspondence Studies in 1911.
More recently, Charles Wedemeyer of the University of Wisconsin–Madison is
considered significant in promoting methods other than the postal service to deliver
distance education in America. From 1964 to 1968, the Carnegie Foundation funded
Wedemeyer's Articulated Instructional Media Project (AIM) which brought in a
variety of communications technologies aimed at providing learning to an off-
campus population. According to Moore's recounting, AIM impressed the UK which
imported these ideas when establishing in 1969 The Open University, which initially
relied on radio and television broadcasts for much of its delivery. Athabasca
University, Canada's Open University, was created in 1970 and followed a similar,
though independently developed, pattern. Germany's Fern Universität in Hagen
followed in 1974 and there are now many similar institutions around the world,
often with the name Open University (in English or in the local language). All "open
universities" use distance education technologies as delivery methodologies and
some have grown to become 'mega-universities', a term coined to denote
institutions with more than 100,000 students. In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched
Coastline Community College as a college beyond walls, combining computer
assisted instruction with telecourses proceed by KOCE TV, the Coast Community
College District public television station. Coastline has been a landmark strategic
success in helping to establish online distance learning using modern technology for
The development of computers and the internet have made distance learning
distribution easier and faster and have given rise to the 'virtual university, the entire
educational offerings of which are conducted online. In 1996 Jones International
University was launched and claims to be the first fully online university accredited
by a regional accrediting association in the US.
In 2006, the Sloan Consortium, a body which arguably has a conflict of
interest in the matter, reported that:More than 96 percent of the very largest
institutions (more than 15,000 total enrollments) have some online offerings, which
is more than double the rate observed for the smallest institutions. and that almost
3.2 million US students were taking at least one online course during the fall term of
2005. A study published in 2011 by the U.S. Department of Education found that
"From 2000 to 2008, the percentage of undergraduates enrolled in at least one
distance education class expanded from 8 percent to 20 percent, and the percentage
enrolled in a distance education degree program increased from 2 percent to 4
Today, there are many private and public, non-profit and for-profit
44 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
institutions worldwide offering distance education courses from the most basic
instruction through to the highest levels of degree and doctoral programs. Levels of
accreditation vary: some of the institutions receive little outside oversight, and some
may be fraudulent diploma mills, although in many jurisdictions, an institution may
not use terms such as "university" without accreditation and authorization, often
overseen by the national government – for example, the Quality Assurance Agency in
the UK. In the US, the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) specializes in
the accreditation of distance education institutions.
Open University
The Open University (also commonly referred to by its initialism OU) is a
distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United
Kingdom. The university is funded by a combination of student fees, contract
income, and allocations for teaching and research by the higher education funding
bodies in each of the four countries of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland). It is notable for having an open entry policy, i.e. students' previous
academic achievements are not taken into account for entry to most undergraduate
courses. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United
Kingdom and principally study off-campus, but many of its courses (both
undergraduate and postgraduate) can be studied off-campus anywhere in the world.
There are a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48
hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as
more than 1000 members of academic and research staff and over 2500
administrative, operational and support staff.
The OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971.
The University administration is based at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes in
Buckinghamshire, but has regional centers in each of its thirteen regions around the
United Kingdom. It also has offices and regional examination centers in most other
European countries. The University awards undergraduate and postgraduate
degrees, as well as non-degree qualifications such as diplomas and certificates, or
continuing education units.
With more than 250,000 students enrolled, including around 32,000 aged under
25 and more than 50,000 overseas students,[12] it is the largest academic institution
in the United Kingdom (and one of the largest in Europe) by student number, and
qualifies as one of the world's largest universities. Since it was founded, more than
1.5 million students have studied its courses. It was rated top university in England
and Wales for student satisfaction in the 2005 and 2006[ United Kingdom
government national student satisfaction survey, and second in the 2007 survey. Out
of 132 universities and colleges, the OU was ranked 43rd in the Times Higher
Education Table of Excellence in 2008, between the University of Reading and
University of the Arts London; it was rated highly in specific subjects such as art
history, sociology (below Oxford and Cambridge) and development studies. It was
ranked overall as a nationally top forty, and globally top five hundred university by
the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2011, as well as being ranked 247 for

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 45

citations of its academics.
The Open University is also one of only three United Kingdom higher education
institutions to gain accreditation in the United States of America by the Middle
States Commission on Higher Education, an institutional accrediting agency,
recognized by the United States Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher
Education Accreditation.

Practice C Read the text below and work on the given assignment.

England is famous for its educational institutes. There were many different
kinds of schools in Medieval England and the English universities were one of the
most significant creations. The students who attended either Oxford or Cambridge
Universities set an intellectual standard that contrasted markedly with the norm of
Medieval England. Today both Universities are internationally renowned centers for
teaching and research, attracting students and scholars from all over the world.
The University of Oxford
It is located in the city of Oxford is one of the oldest and most highly revered
Universities in Europe. It was the first university established in Britain. Oxford is
situated about 57 miles (90 km) north-west of London in its own county of
Oxfordshire. The city lies at the confluence of the Rivers Cherwell and Thames, or
"Isis", as it is locally known, giving the opportunity to enjoy such pleasant pursuits as
boating and punting, or a stroll along river banks. The story of Oxford is one of a war,
plague, religious persecution, heroes and the emergence of one of the greatest
Universities in the world. Known as the city of "Dreaming Spires," Oxford is
dominated by the Medieval architecture of the University, and the exquisite gardens
According to legend Oxford University was founded by King Alfred the Great
in 872 when he happened to meet some monks there and had a scholarly debate
that lasted several days. A more realistic scenario is that it grew out of efforts begun
by Alfred to encourage education and establish schools throughout his territory.
Long after Alfred, during the late 11th or early 12th century, it is known that Oxford
became a centre of learning for clerics, from which a school or university could have
sprung or evolved. The university was given a boost in 1167 when, for political
reasons, Henry II of England ordered all English students at Paris to return to
England. Most of the returning students congregated at Oxford and the University
began a period of rapid development. Oxford, like Cambridge, differs from many
other universities in that there is no central university campus. Instead, the
University consists of a large number of colleges and associated buildings, scattered
throughout the city.
From the start there was friction between "town and gown". Most students took
lodgings with local people, who soon realized that they could charge high prices and
rents of the Academics. However it was a strain on the resources of the community
to have to provide for the influx of people from elsewhere. In the 13th century,
rioting between students and local people hastened the establishment of primitive
halls of residence. These were succeeded by the first of Oxford's colleges or
endowed houses whose architectural splendor, together with the University's
libraries and museums, give the city its unique character.
The first college, University College, was founded in 1249 by William of
46 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
Durham. Other notable colleges include All Souls (founded in 1438), Christ Church
(founded in 1546) and Lady Margaret Hall (founded in 1878), which was the first
women's college. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford's colleges have changed their
statutes to admit both men and women. St Hilda's remains the only women's college,
and the rest enroll both men and women.
Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars
involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a 14th-century Master of
Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the vernacular, against the wishes of the papacy. In
1530, Henry VIII forced the University to accept his divorce from Catherine of
Aragon. During the Reformation in the 16th century, the Anglican churchmen
Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley were tried for heresy and burnt at the stake in Oxford.
During the Civil War, Oxford was selected as the Royalist capital. The King stayed at
Christ Church, the Queen at Merton, and a passage was constructed to allow them to
meet. Most of the citizens were violently anti-Royalist, but not the University.
Today Oxford University is comprised of thirty-nine colleges and six
permanent private halls, founded between 1249 and 1996, whose architectural
grandeur, together with that of the University's libraries and museums, gives the city
its unique character. More than 130 nationalities are represented among a student
population of over 18,000. A range of scholarships offer support for international
students. Thirty colleges and all halls admit students for both undergraduate and
graduate degrees. Seven other colleges are for graduates only; one has Fellows only,
and one specializes in part-time and continuing education. Each college is practically
autonomous with its own set of rules. There is central administration, providing
services such as libraries, laboratories, lectures and examination.
There have been many famous people who have studied at Oxford University
and they include John Locke, Adam Smith, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lewis Carroll, Oscar
Wilde, J. R. Tolkien, Indira Gandhi, Baroness Margaret Thatcher, Bill Clinton, Rupert
Murdoch, Rowan Atkinson (Mr Bean), and Hugh Grant. All in all, Oxford has
produced four British and at least eight foreign kings, 47 Nobel prize-winners, 25
British Prime Ministers, 28 foreign presidents and prime ministers, seven saints, 86
archbishops, 18 cardinals, and one pope. Seven of the last eleven British Prime
Ministers have been Oxford graduates.
Oxford's teaching and research is consistently in the top rank nationally and
internationally, and is at the forefront of medical, scientific and technological
achievement. Amongst the University's old members are many widely influential
scientists. Contemporary scientists include Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins and
Nobel prize-winner Anthony James Leggett, and Tim Berners Lee, inventor of the
World Wide Web.
University of Cambridge
It is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after Oxford).
The start of the University is generally taken as 1209, when some masters and
students arrived in Cambridge after fleeing from rioting in Oxford.
Cambridge is situated about 50 miles (80 km) north of London. The town of
Cambridge originally took its name from the river on which it stood - the Granta.
Through a convoluted process of evolution, the name 'Grontabricc' became
'Cambridge', and the river became the 'Cam'. The town is referred to in Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales as 'Canterbridge'.
The university was basically established to study for religious purposes. The
earliest teaching sessions of the University were carried out in churches or private
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 47
houses. This was obviously unsatisfactory, and so the University authorities began to
establish buildings for its own use. Some of these early 'schools' still exist on the site
known, appropriately, as the 'Old Schools'. During the 14th and 15th Centuries, the
University gradually gained its independence from the church, with the Chancellor
taking on both religious and civil duties.
Cambridge University is composed of more than thirty constituent colleges,
one of the most illustrious of which is Emmanuel College. This college was founded in
1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Queen Elizabeth I. Many
Emmanuel graduates, including John Harvard, were among those who settled in New
England in the first half of the 17th century. The oldest building is in St John's College
but the oldest college as institution is Peterhouse, dates from 1284. King Henry VIII
founded the largest college, Trinity, in 1546.
Many of the University buildings are of historical or architectural interest,
and the University's museums contain many rare, valuable and beautiful items.
King's College Chapel, begun in 1446, is one of Britain's most magnificent buildings.
The mulberry tree under which the poet John Milton is reputed to have written
Lycidas is on the grounds of Christ's College. Samuel Pepys's library, housed in the
original cases, is at Magdalene College. Two of the colleges contain chapels designed
by Christopher Wren-Pembroke and Emmanuel. The gardens and grounds of the
colleges along the River Cam are known as the "Backs," and together they form a
unique combination of large-scale architecture, natural and formal gardens, and river
scenery with student boaters.
The University at present has more than 16,500 full-time students - over
11,600 undergraduates and nearly 5,000 graduates. About 17% of the student body
is from overseas, coming from over 100 different countries. Because of its high
academic reputation, admission to the University is highly competitive, and most
overseas students already have a good degree from a university in their own country.
The University also has a worldwide reputation for other aspects of its work.
Cambridge University Press (one of the world's oldest and largest publishers) and
UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate) are world leaders in
their respective fields and allow the University to make a direct educational and
academic contribution to the lives of millions of people around the world.
Cambridge University is more renowned than its rival for mathematics and
natural sciences, and has produced 80 Nobel-prize winners (33 more than Oxford
and the highest number of any university worldwide), 13 British Prime Ministers (12
less than the other place) and 8 Archbishops of Canterbury, among others.
The list of illustrious alumni is endless. Among the most famous are
Desiderius Erasmus, Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, Lord Byron, Charles
Darwin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vladimir Nabokov, Lee Kuan Yew
(PM of Singapore from 1959 to 1990), and Rajiv Gandhi. The great Russian scientist
Pavlov came to Cambridge to receive the degree of the Honorary Doctor of
Cambridge. University of Cambridge is known as a great centre of science, where
many famous scientists have worked.

48 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Write questions related to the text above based on the phrases below.

1. Location : Where is Oxford University located?

2. Year of establishment
3. Kinds of students’ stay
4. The period of rapid development
5. Most recognized story
6. Unique
7. Public figure to encourage education
8. The number of colleges
9. The number of nationalities and students
10.The famous graduates
11.The former presidents and prime minister
12.The well-known scientists
13.Most outstanding discipline areas
14.The nobel prize winners
15.The similarities and differences

What does it mean to be a student today? That is a question that Michael Wesch is
always asking. Wesch is a professor at Kansas State University, U.S.A. He explores
how the Internet and new media are changing the way we learn. "Technology is
connecting us in ways that have never been seen before in human history," he says.

Read the following interview questions. How do you think Michael Wesch will
answer them? Read the interview to check your ideas.

How has technology changed the way we learn?

Most importantly, the web now gives us the opportunity to publish
our own work. Instead of simply watching TV, we can create and edit
our own videos. Instead of just reading a magazine, we can write our
own articles and documents and publish them. There are now 1.4
Line 5 billion people connected online, so we can use the work we create to
reach out and connect with large numbers of people.
What advice would you give to today’s students and teachers?
Now is the time to rethink the meaning of the word "literacy." We
used to think of literacy as the ability to read and write. Now we
Line 10 need to think beyond reading and writing. We all need to learn how
to create and collaborate on videos, photos, blogs, wikis, online
forums, and other kinds of digital media.
This can be difficult when teachers and students do not have access
to the Internet, but the core skills can be practiced in classrooms
Line 15 without technology. One of the most important skills we must now
learn is collaboration, and this can be practiced on a chalkboard,
whiteboard, or even a simple piece of paper. We can learn to listen
to one another, use each other’s strengths, and practice working
together in any environment.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 49

TOEFL practice: Reading Comprehension

Choose the best answer for each question below.

Main Idea
1. What is the main idea of the first paragraph (from line 2)?
a. Most people now watch a lot of movies and TV on the Internet.
b. People used to read a lot of articles in the past, but not anymore.
c. People now spend too much time connecting with other people using the
d. The Internet allows us to create our own work and connect with many people.

2. The word them (line 5) refers to ___.
a. TV and video
b. articles and documents
c. 1.4 billion people
d. students and teachers

Main Idea
3. What is Michael Wesch's main idea in the second paragraph (from line 9)?
a. Most teachers today do not teach literacy.
b. Today's students no longer need to learn how to read and write.
c. Today's students need to learn more than just reading and writing.
d. Schools should teach digital literacy and not reading and writing.

4. What kind of digital media is NOT mentioned in the passage?
a. blogs c. e-mail messages
b. photos d. online forums

5. What would Michael Wesch probably say to a teacher without Internet access?
a. "Teach your students how to collaborate in other ways."
b. "Teach your students how to use other kinds of technology."
c. "Teach your students how to write on a whiteboard."
d. "Teach your students how to get access to the Internet."

50 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

5 Job and Profession
Snapshot Observe the picture then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. Who are the people in the picture?

2. What levels of education are they?
3. What are their jobs?
4. What are their professions?
5. Where do they work?
6. Which profession do you want to be?
7. What skills are needed for each profession in the picture?
8. Do you have the required skill to be in a profession?
9. Do you think job and profession are important? Why.

Related Terms Study the terms below.

to hire to quit one's job unemployed, jobless

resume staff member to look for a job employee
employer to apply for letter of application CV
freelancer work agreement temporary wages
income to work full-time to work part-time, pay
educations to be paid by monthly payment holiday
to fire annual pay gross pay taxes
interview fringe benefits maternity leave vacation
salary health insurance accident insurance bonus
expenses life insurance pension plan tips

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 51

Eight Important Job Skill :

Here are some skills that employers look for.

1) Use computer 5) Work well with people

2) Teach others how to do things 6) Solve problems
3) Speak other languages 7) Manage other people
4) Be good at science and math 8) manage money well

Which of these skills do you think are most important? Why?

Check () the skills that you think you have.
Look at the skills you checked. What jobs do you think you might be good at?

Reading Read the text below and answer the given questions.

I got my first job when I was 12 years old. I worked as a paperboy delivering
newspapers to people in my village every morning. I used to get up very early and
deliver the papers to half of the village while my friend Ben would deliver to the
other half. I used to love seeing the empty streets of the village before anyone got up
but I used to hate the job on rainy days. I would sometimes ride my bike to get the
job done faster. Ben was luckier than me, sometimes if he couldn’t be bothered to
do his paper round, his Dad would drive him around his route in his car!

1. What was his first job?

2. Did he work as a newspaper boy with his friend?
3. Where did he deliver newspapers?
4. Did he have to deliver papers to the whole village?
5. What did he enjoy about his job?
6. What didn’t he like about his job?
7. How did he do his job?
8. Who helped Ben do his job?
Look at this advertisement from a job website and answer
Practice A the questions.

52 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Practice B

Syariful is applying for the job advertised above. Read his letter of application below.
In what ways is he a good candidate for the post?

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing to apply for the post of European Sales Director advertised on you
‘Execnet’ website. I am 37 years old, Indonesian, with medical degree from the
Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim (2003), and a Masters in Business
Administration from the University of Los Angeles (2006). I joined my present
company, AVRC Pharmaceuticals, in 2011. After two years as Marketing Manager for
South America, I moved to Madrid to take up my present position as Regional
Director for Southern Europe.
Before joining AVRC I was in charge of clinical trials for new drugs at Medilab,
where I spent five years. I also have four years’ experience as a research scientist for
new drugs, first with Schering Plough (2006-10), then with Merck (2010-11). My
professional experience also includes four years as a doctor working for a medical
charity in Peru, before leaving to start my two-year MBA course.
Concerning my language ability, I am fluent in Indonesian, English, and
Spanish, and I am currently following an intensive course in French. I am hard-
working, creative, and ambitious, and after a number of years with the same
company, I would appreciate the opportunity of the new challenge.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully


Language Focus 1 The present perfect.

• The present perfect is formed with the present simple of the verb have, and the
past participle of the main verb. For a list of irregular past participles, see the
Appendix. For regular verbs, the past participle is the same as the past simple
form, e.g. to work – he worked – he has worked.
• We use the present perfect to talk about an action or situation which started in
the past, and is not finished now.
He’s (he has) lived in Bengkalis since 1999. (And he lives there now.)
I’ve worked for this company for five years. (And I still work there now.)
They’ve been married since 2010. (And they’re still married now.)
• We use since with a moment in time, and for with a period of time.
since 1992, since June, since two o’clock, for seven years, for half an hour.

1. He … a qualified doctor 2. He …. his MBA 3. He … for AVRC … 1997.

…. many years. (be) qualification …. 1998. (work)

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 53

Present perfect + for or since
4. How long has he lived in Europe?
5. How long has he been Regional Director for Southern Europe?
6. How long has he worked in the pharmaceutical industry?

Complete the missing sentences using the verb in the

Practice C
bracket as in the example.

Past simple Present perfect

I got married in 2011. I’ve been married since 2011. (be)

She joined Language Center in 2008. …………………………………(work)
………………………………………(move) They’ve lived here for 10 years.
He met his wife three years ago. ………………………………… (know)
…………………………………… (start) I’ve had this job since February.
We arrived here about an hour ago. …………………………………(be)

Now answer these questions:

1. How long have you lived in your present home, and when did you move there?
2. How long have you known your English lecturer, and when did you first meet
3. How long have you been in this classroom and what time did you arrive?

Role Play

1. Make a list of questions you have to ask to complete the missing information,
e.g. When was she born?
2. Ask your partner your questions and answer his or her questions.
3. When you’ve finished, discuss the following:
a. What similarities are there between Syariful’s and Patricia’s professional
b. Who do you think is the better candidate for the job? Look again at the job

Practice D look at the handouts on the following page.

Hand Out for Student A.

Name : Patricia Paganini
Date of birth : ………………………….
Nationality : England/Italian
Marital status : Married
1990 Obtained Degree in Pharmacology, University
of London.

54 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

1997 Obtained Diploma in Marketing Studies – London
Institute of Marketing.
19… - 1992 University of London Research scientist in
Pharmacology unit
1992 – 1994 European Commission, Brussels
Participated in European Community Drug
Development Programme, co-ordinating and
financing projects between hospitals and
European pharmaceutical companies.
1994 - 2001 AVRC Pharmaceuticals, Milan, Italy
As Head of Research (…… years), I was
responsible for the development of a new range
of anti-depressant drugs. Then, worked as
Marketing Manager for Italy (4 years).
2001 – present Pharmaline, Paris Pharmaline sells
pharmaceutical products over the Internet.I
joined the company as product consultant. Since
I have been Marketing Manager for Europe.

English / Italian (native speaker)
………………… (fluent).
Skiing, tennis, Modern European literature,

Hand Out for Student B.

Name : Patricia Paganini
Date of birth : 1st June 1966
Nationality : ………………………….
Marital status : Married
1990 Obtained Degree in Pharmacology, University
of London.
19…… Obtained Diploma in Marketing Studies –
London Institute of Marketing (2 – year
correspondence course)

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 55

1990 – 1992 University of London
Research scientist in Pharmacology unit
1992 – 1994 Participated in European Community Drug
Development Programme, co-ordinating and
financing projects between hospitals and
European pharmaceutical companies.
1994 – 2001 AVRC Pharmaceuticals, Milan, Italy
As Head of Research (3 years), I was
responsible for the development of a new
range of anti-depressant drugs.
I then worked as Marketing Manager for Italy
(…… years) – present Pharmaline, Paris
Pharmaline sells pharmaceutical products over
the Internet. I joined the company as product
consultant. Since 2003 I have been ……………..
for Europe.
English / Italian (native speaker)
French (fluent)
Skiing, tennis, Modern European literature,


Writing prompts:
A. Find a job advertisement you would like to do from a jobs website.
B. Write a letter of application and a short CV to apply for the advertised job.
C. Use the Syariful’s letter and Paganini’s CV as models.

Listening Number the steps for looking for a job in the right order.

a. Phone or email the company and ask for an application form.

b. Go for a job interview.
c. Read a job advertisement on a website or in a newspaper.
d. Start work.
e. Apply for the job - send the application form and a 01 to the company.
f. Receive and accept a job offer.

When we go for job interviews, we usually answer questions about our work
experience. Here are some questions that may be asked in a job’s interview.

56 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

a. Do you enjoy working with people?
b. How long have you been [in sales]?
c. Have you ever worked [in marketing]?
d. Have you ever lived in a different country?
e. What do you do in your free time?
f. Why do you want this job?
g. Can you tell me about your present job?

Listening Listen to the audio and work on the given assignment.

Listen to interview 1 and answer the questions.

1. What city and country is the job in?

2. What department is the job in?
3. What is the job title?
4. Has Ben prepared for the interview? Give reasons for your answer.

Listen to interview 2. Match the questions a – g above with the candidate’s

responses below.

1. _______ Yes, I was in Thailand for six months.

2. _______ Yes, I have studied marketing at university and worked for an advertising
company for a year.
3. _______ I work in sales and I’ve managed teams and projects.
4. _______ Oh, yes, it’s what I enjoy most about my job.
5. _______ I’ve worked in sales for three years.
6. _______ I play golf and tennis.
7. _______ I really want to work in marketing. This is a great opportunity for my
career and I think I have the right skills for the job.
Who do you think is the best person for the job – Ben or Denesh? Give reasons for
your answer.

Language Focus 2 Clauses and sentences.

For more explanation see appendices page 104.

Do the exercise below.

1. Determine whether the group of words is an independent or a subordinate clause.
a. It seemed like yesterday
b. Despite the fact you knew
c. If we could just see eye to eye
d. Wherever he might go
e. Before we leave

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 57

2. Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences.
a. I don't understand what he sees in this.
b. Phyllis's suggestion that we go through the Blue Ridge Mountains was a good
c. James was wondering what Wednesday's lineup is going to be.
d. Our intention is that we be able to visit the Eiffel Tower on our way through
e. Why you decided to switch careers this late in the game is hard to
3. Identify the adjective clause in each sentence.
a. Did you spill the glass of milk that was in the refrigerator?
b. The police are searching for the person who lives in this apartment.
c. The room on your left is where the supervisor works.
d. Do you remember when you fell and sprained your wrist?
e. I want to go on a ride that is fast, like a roller coaster.
4. Identify the adverb clause in each of the following sentences.
a. Because the book was old, it was kept behind glass.
b. This dining room set is yours provided that your payment goes through.
c. Mark is not allowed to leave even if he insists on going.
d. I was ready to go before the sun was up.
e. He acted as if he belonged there.

Identify each question whether it is a simple, compound, or complex sentence.

1. At what age would you like to retire?

2. Can you talk about what a typical day at your current job is like?
3. What was your first job?
4. Do you get paid more for overtime work?
5. Do you have a part-time job? If so, what do you do?
6. Do you have to attend a lot of meetings for your job?
7. Do you have to do a lot of paperwork?
8. Do you have to work overtime? If so, how often?
9. Do you have to work on Sundays?
10. Can women do this job or is it better for a man to be an undertaker?
11. Do you like your boss? Why or why not?
12. Have you ever worked?
13. Do you have a job? How did you get it? Did you have to go to university to get it?
14. What is the name of your job?
15. Is it a popular job? Is it a job mainly for men, or for women?
16. Did you need any special training to get your job?
17. What type of special training did you need?
18. How long and where was the training?
19. Is it an indoor, or outdoor job?
20. Which do you think most people prefer, indoor or outdoor jobs?
21. Does your job pay a good salary?
22. What are the advantages and disadvantages to your job?
23. Which do you think are some of the more demanding jobs?
24. Which are the least demanding jobs?

58 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Read the text below and underline the clauses from the

What are employers looking for?

Most employers say that they wish to employ the right person for the right
job. A recent report by Britain's independent Institute of Manpower Studies,
however, disagrees with this. The report states that most employers wish to avoid
employing the wrong person. Rather than looking for the right person, they are
looking for applicants to turn down.
The report also suggests that in Britain and in many other parts of the world,
the selection methods used to identify the right person for the job certainly do not
match up to those used to evaluate a piece of new equipment. Recruiters used three
main selection methods: interviewing, checking curriculum vitae or application forms
against predecided criteria, and examining references. Most of the recruiters
consulted in this survey stated that these selection methods were used more for
"weeding out" unsuitable candidates rather than for finding suitable ones.
Interviews were considered to be more reliable than either curriculum
checks or references from past employers. Research, however, proves otherwise.
Interviewers' decisions are often strongly influenced by their previous assessment of
the written application. Also, different recruiters interpret facts differently. One may
consider candidates who have frequently changed jobs as people with broad and
useful experience. Another will view such candidates as unreliable and unlikely to
stay for long in the new job.
Some employers place great importance on academic qualifications whereas
the link between this and success in management is not necessarily strong. Some
recruiters use handwriting as a criterion. The report states that there is little
evidence to support the validity of the latter for assessing working ability.
References, also, are sometime unreliable as they are rarely critical, whereas checks
on credit and security records and applicants' political leanings are often the
The report is more favorable towards trainability tests and those which test
personality and personal and mental skills. The report concludes by suggesting that
interviewing could become more reliable if the questions were more structured and
focused on the needs of the employing organization.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 59

6 The Globalization
Snapshot Observe the picture then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. Do you know what the pictures depict?

2. What is a global village? What does globalization mean?
3. What aspects of life can be affected by globalization?
4. Is globalization a good or bad thing?
5. What are the good things and bad things about globalization?
6. Do you think it’s possible to ignore globalization?
7. Do you think globalization will make us all the same in the future?
8. Has globalization improved people’s lives?
9. How has globalization affected your life?
10. What will globalization look like fifty years from now?
11. Do you think globalization will reduce or increase the poverty gap?
12. How would your life be different if globalization hadn’t happened?

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below.

Affect argue benefit compete

devastating expose happen impact
increase proponents prosperity reduce
spread worldwide trade dominate
emerge influence mix protest

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Vocabulary in context:

1. Globalization may strongly affect employment and trade.

2. It can also be argued that globalization has not benefited developing countries
very much.
3. Some workers might successfully compete globally and have seen an increase in
4. Globalization will have an increasingly larger impact on people's lives in the future.
5. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to
develop economically and raise their standards of living.

Language Focus Modals (can, may, might will, etc) and clause.

For more explanation, see appendices page 112.

1. There are many international bodies which are behind the globalization
2. It can also be argued that globalization has not benefited developing countries.
3. Some people think globalization is good, some people think it is bad.
4. The people who think globalization is a good thing argue that globalization helps
poorer people to become richer.
5. When trade decreases, jobs and businesses are lost.
6. Why do you think so many people oppose globalization?
7. If your region/country were an apple-growing region, for instance, would you be
willing to pay more for locally-grown apples than for imported ones?
8. No one knows whether globalization is good or bad for the future.

Practice A Write your sentences using the following words:

1. devastating: ………………………………………………………………………………….....
2. expose: ………………………………………………………………………………………
3. happen: ………………………………………………………………………………………
4. increase: ……………………………………………………………………………………..
5. prosperity: ………………………………………………………………………………….....
6. reduce: ………………………………………………………………………………………
7. spread: ………………………………………………………………………………………
8. worldwide: ……………………………………………………………………………………..

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Reading Read the texts below. Then, do the following activities:

(1) Identify which can be categorized as global effects, and

(2) Find out the clauses in each text.

Text 1:
Globalization is the process that makes economies and societies from all
around the world become more and more connected. This means that people, ideas,
technology, money, services, and many other things are moving between countries
and changing the way people think and act.
Good or Bad? Not everyone thinks the same way about globalization. Some
people think it is good, some people think it is bad. Some believe that globalization
helps rich people get richer and makes poor people poorer. These people say that
globalization helps big companies like Coca-Cola and McDonald's destroy local
businesses. The people who think globalization is a good thing argue that
globalization helps poorer people to become richer. They also think that it doesn't
damage local cultures. These people also believe globalization helps prevent conflicts
like wars. This is because countries that have economic connections will try hard to
maintain good relationships with each other so their economies aren't damaged.

Despite whether you think globalization is good or bad, it affects the world in
two important areas: jobs and culture.
Globalization has had a very strong effect on employment and jobs
throughout the world. For some workers, such as engineers, lawyers, and bankers,
globalization has been a good development. These workers are able to successfully
compete globally and have seen an increase in their salaries. But for those who work
in factories or in the service industry (at hotels, shops and restaurants), it has not
been good. These types of jobs have been exposed to increasing competition from
workers from poorer countries. A worker from a poorer country will do the same job
for less money. This decreases the salaries for that job, so people get paid less to do
Cultures have also been affected by globalization. Foods such as Japanese
noodles, Indian curry and French cheeses have spread around the world. We can also
see an increase in the use of Chinese characters in tattoos. Some people get these
tattoos without actually knowing what the characters mean. Another area affected
by globalization is the film industry. Most people have seen American movies. But
due to globalization, Korean, Indian and Japanese movies have become more
popular worldwide.
No one knows the future of globalization. Most experts agree that it will
continue to grow and have an increasingly larger impact on people's lives in the

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Text 2:
What exactly does "globalization" mean?
In its broadest terms the word simply means that "it relates to the whole
world". Simple!
So what does it mean in real terms?
Globalization, according to the pundits, means the facilitation of integration
between different nations and peoples, reduced transportation costs (e.g. cheaper
flights), easier and cheaper communication over great distances, more efficient trade
between different countries around the globe (thereby improving the economies of
developing countries), improved services and standardized quality of products (so
you can buy the same fast food, fizzy drink etc. anywhere in the world), shared
knowledge (in a variety of fields including medicine thereby reducing disease and
mortality in developing countries) and general progress to the benefit of all. Sounds
great, doesn't it!
Who makes globalization happen?
There are many international bodies who are behind the globalization
movement. To name but a few in the field of global economics there are:
- The IMF (the International Monetary Fund)
- The World Bank
- The WTO (the World Trade Organization)
Why are some people against globalization?
The opponents of globalization cite various reasons for their resistance to the
Some believe that the globalization trend leads to a loss of local traditions in the
form of global uniform clothing (such as jeans), globally similar eating patterns (such
as the fast food phenomenon) and globally popular music trends (such as western
pop music). They argue that individual national identities are diluted by these
It can also be argued that globalization has not benefited developing countries
that much. Globally speaking, the poor are still poor (with limited or no access to
basics such as electricity, clean drinking water and essential medical help) and the
wealthy countries seem to be maintaining or increasing their wealth quite efficiently.
Even the use of English as a global language has its detractors who argue that
the global use of English is affecting individual languages. Some countries even
endeavor to stop English words entering their everyday language.
Is globalization good for us?
In theory there are endless benefits to be gained from globalization if it is
handled sensitively and professionally. Whether we will all benefit equally is hard to
say. After all who can accurately predict the future?

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Text 3:
Trade and Globalization
The tremendous growth of international trade over the past several decades
has been both a primary cause and effect of globalization. The volume of world trade
has increased twenty-seven fold from $296 billion in 1950 to more than $8 trillion in
2005. Although international trade experienced a contraction of 12.2 percent in 2009
the steepest decline since World War II trade is again on the upswing.
As a result of international trade, consumers around the world enjoy a
broader selection of products than they would if they only had access to domestically
made products. Also, in response to the ever-growing flow of goods, services and
capital, a whole host of U.S. government agencies and international institutions has
been established to help manage these rapidly-developing trends.
Although increased international trade has spurred tremendous economic
growth across the globe raising incomes, creating jobs, reducing prices, and
increasing workers’ earning power trade can also bring about economic, political,
and social disruption.
Since the global economy is so interconnected, when large economies suffer
recessions, the effects are felt around the world. When trade decreases, jobs and
businesses are lost. In the same way that globalization can be a boon for
international trade; it can also have devastating effects.
The following Issue in Depth is designed to help you understand some of the
fundamental economic principles behind international trade, familiarize you with
some of the technical terms, and offer some insight into a few of the controversies
surrounding international trade policy both in the United States and abroad.

3. Write some questions after reading the text below.

Text 4:
What Is Globalization?
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people,
companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international
trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects
on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and
prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.
Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people and, later,
corporations have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great
distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected
China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centuries, people and
corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. In fact, many of the
features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing before
the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
But policy and technological developments of the past few decades have
64 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
spurred increases in cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that
many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its
economic development. Since 1950, for example, the volume of world trade has
increased by 20 times, and from just 1997 to 1999 flows of foreign investment nearly
doubled, from $468 billion to $827 billion. Distinguishing this current wave of
globalization from earlier ones, author Thomas Friedman has said that today
globalization is “farther, faster, cheaper, and deeper.”
This current wave of globalization has been driven by policies that have
opened economies domestically and internationally. In the years since the Second
World War, and especially during the past two decades, many governments have
adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive
potential and creating myriad new opportunities for international trade and
investment. Governments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to
commerce and have established international agreements to promote trade in
goods, services, and investment. Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign
markets, corporations have built foreign factories and established production and
marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature of globalization,
therefore, is an international industrial and financial business structure.
Technology has been the other principal driver of globalization. Advances in
information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life.
Information technologies have given all sorts of individual economic actors
consumers, investors, businesses valuable new tools for identifying and pursuing
economic opportunities, including faster and more informed analyses of economic
trends around the world, easy transfers of assets, and collaboration with far-flung
Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization
argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and
raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the
creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational
corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures,
and common people. Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a
popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the
flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of
To find the right balance between benefits and costs associated with
globalization, citizens of all nations need to understand how globalization works and
the policy choices facing them and their societies.

Questions :
1. .................................................................................................................
2. .................................................................................................................
3. .................................................................................................................

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4. .................................................................................................................
5. .................................................................................................................
6. .................................................................................................................
7. .................................................................................................................

Write down your own sentences using clauses about the

Writing issues of globalization.

1. Some people think (Sentence/main clause) that globalization has many negative effects.
(Sentence/subordinate clause)
2. ................................................................................................................................
3. ................................................................................................................................
4. ................................................................................................................................
5. ................................................................................................................................
6. ................................................................................................................................
7. ................................................................................................................................
8. ................................................................................................................................
9. ................................................................................................................................
10. ................................................................................................................................

Listening Listen to the audio and fill in the blank to complete the text.

The European Union and the USA (1) _______________________ talks on a free
trade agreement, paving the way for the biggest trade deal in history. The two trading
(2) _______________________ around half the world's economic output. European
Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said discussions (3)
_______________________ of June. The talks will involve rounds of negotiations on
the (4) _______________________ between the two economic powerhouses. Europe
is likely (5) ______________________ to many key American industries such as
telecommunications and transport. The USA forbids foreign ownership of these. The
USA will want more involvement in European agriculture, (6)
_______________________ farmers.
EU-US trade is presently worth around €455 billion / $613 billion a year. Estimates are
that a trade (7) _______________________ annual GDP by 0.5%. Mr Barroso said: "A
future deal between the world's two most important economic powers (8)
_______________________, giving a strong boost to our economies on both sides of
the Atlantic." He added: "These negotiations (9) _______________________ the
development of global trade rules." US President Barack Obama was (10)
_______________________ a deal, which he spoke about in his State of the Union
address to the US Congress on Tuesday. He said an (11) _______________________
American exports, support American jobs and (12) _______________________ in the
growing markets of Asia".

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Put the correct words from the table below to complete
Practice B the following text.

1. (a) formality (b) formalize (c) formal (d) formed

2. (a) blocs (b) pacts (c) axis (d) cliques
3. (a) account (b) bank (c) savings (d) consider
4. (a) sticking (b) glued (c) adhesive (d) cementing
5. (a) bids (b) forbids (c) inhibits (d) remits
6. (a) involves (b) involved (c) involving (d) involvement
7. (a) boast (b) bust (c) boost (d) burst
8. (a) play (b) pastime (c) match (d) game
9. (a) set (b) let (c) met (d) bet
10. (a) equally (b) equation (c) equated (d) equality
11. (a) mail (b) address (c) sermon (d) label
12. (a) pitch (b) table (c) field (d) imbalance

The European Union and the USA will soon begin (1) ______________ talks
on a free trade agreement, paving the way for the biggest trade deal in history. The
two trading (2) ______________ currently (3) ______________ for around half the
world's economic output. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said
discussions could start by the end of June. The talks will involve rounds of
negotiations on the many (4) ______________ points between the two economic
powerhouses. Europe is likely to want greater access to many key American
industries such as telecommunications and transport. The USA (5) ______________
foreign ownership of these. The USA will want more (6) ______________ in European
agriculture, which may not please EU farmers.
EU-US trade is presently worth around €455 billion / $613 billion a year.
Estimates are that a trade deal could (7) ______________ their annual GDP by 0.5%.
Mr Barroso said: "A future deal between the world's two most important economic
powers will be a (8) ______________ changer, giving a strong boost to our economies
on both sides of the Atlantic." He added: "These negotiations will (9)
______________ a standard…for the development of global trade rules." US
President Barack Obama was (10) ______________ enthusiastic about a deal, which
he spoke about in his State of the Union (11) ______________ to the US Congress on
Tuesday. He said an agreement would, "boost American exports, support American
jobs and level the playing (12) ______________ in the growing markets of Asia".

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With partner, discuss and answer the following questions
Practice C and exchange your opinion with your partner.

1. What are the pros and cons of globalization?

2. Why do you think so many people oppose it?
3. Do you think if it would be a good idea if all barriers to trade were removed from
the world and people could freely export and import without customs duties or
any other problems? What impact would such a change have?
4. Do you think it would be a good idea if people could live and work in any country
they liked without restriction? What impact would such a change have?
5. How would you react if a multinational employing several hundred people in your
area announced they were moving to another country where production costs
were lower?
6. Would your reaction be any different if that private company had previously
received large amounts of public money to set up their plant in your area?
Why/why not?
7. How would you react if a multinational employing several hundred people
announced they were moving to your country because production costs were
8. How much cheaper do you think goods are to produce in a developing country than
in a developed country? Why do you think this is?
9. How should developed countries respond to the challenges presented by
developing countries which have lower wage costs?

68 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

10. Do you think goods that you normally buy are cheaper/more expensive if
produced where you live rather than imported?
11. Do you think imported goods are better quality than locally-produced ones?
Why/why not?

With partner, discuss and answer the following questions

Speaking and exchange your opinion with your partner.

a. Think about what can be "Positives/good things" and "Negatives/bad things about
b. Have questions about the good and bad things associated with globalization.
c. Have a short debate on the good and bad things associated with globalization.

d. Share your ideas about globalization by studying the following examples:

(1) Yes I believe globalization is necessary as it helps raise the standard of living,
create jobs availability and ample income from multinationals investment, and
create cordial relations between nations.

(2) Globalization promotes competitiveness in domestic markets, helps in improving

standard and quality of products; moreover generate employment opportunity
for urban masses and suitable price of agricultural produce. It improves the
financial condition of the farmers. And it also leads to overall growth of economy.

(3) Globalization has many benefits which can affect us living comfortably. We can get
another country's products even if we are in a different country. Japanese people
couldn't have gotten Apple products, BMW, Macdonald's and so on, if
globalization didn't exist.

(4) In Japan, there are many people who are interested in other countries culture. It is
good for us to understand and feel different culture, because Japan is an island
and we can't visit other countries easily. However people sometimes tend to lose
their nationalism because of globalization. We should be proud of our nation by

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Writing Answer the questions below in an essay.

Choose a question and answer in an essay by giving two reasons.

1. Do you think that globliazation is good?

2. Do you think that globliazation is bad?

Paragraph 1 (write your introduction and put your thesis statement)

_____. I think globalization is good because reason 1 and reason 2. (thesis satement)

Paragraph 2 (Describe your first reason and give example/s for you first reason)

Paragraph 3 (Describe your second reason and give example/s for you second reason)

Paragraph 4 (Write your conclusion and restate your thesis satement. Give little description of
your above paragraph)

See the explanation of paragraph writing in appendices page
Ask your instructure if you find any problem in writing your essay.

70 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

7 Islam and Sicence
Snapshot Observe the pictures then answer the questions that follow.

Preview questions.

1. Do you like studying science? Why or why not?

2. Do you know some Muslims scientists?
3. What's your favorite branch of science? (For example, biology, physics, astronomy.)
4. In your opinion what has been the most important scientific discovery ever? Why?
5. Do science and religion fit well together?
6. Do you think Islam and sciences fit well together?
7. Do you always trust science?
8. How important is science?

Vocabulary Study the vocabulary below

charity conscious circumference divine discrepancy

derived eclipse exert exist equality
eminenten lighten faith fetus/foetus generosity
harmful holy humbly monotheistic mundane
notably restrain revelation spherical scientific
submission treatise invinite limit define
Interprate evidence confirm contradict coincidence

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Practice A Study the questions and answer below.

1. Q: What is Islam?
A: The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word
meaning "peace" and "submission." Islam teaches that one can only find peace in
one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. The same
Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal
Muslim greeting.
2. Q: Who is a Muslim?
A: A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim, also
from the same root word. So, the religion is called "Islam," and a person who
believes in and follows it is a "Muslim."
3. Q: How Many are Islam followers and Where are they from?
A: Islam is a major world religion, with over 1 billion followers worldwide (1/5 of
the world population). It is considered one of the Abrahamic, monotheistic faiths,
along with Judaism and Christianity. Although usually associated with the Arabs of
the Middle East, less than 10% of Muslims are in fact Arab. Muslims are found all
over the world, of every nation, color and race.
4. Q: Who is Allah?
A: Allah is the proper name for Almighty God, and is often translated merely as
"God." Allah has other names that are used to describe His characteristics: the
Creator, the Sustainer, the Merciful, the Compassionate, etc.
5. Q: What do Muslims believe about God, prophets, the afterlife, etc.?
A: The basic beliefs of Muslims fall into six main categories, which are known as
the "Articles of Faith":
• Faith in the unity of God
• Faith in angels
• Faith in prophets
• Faith in books of revelation
• Faith in an afterlife
• Faith in destiny/divine decree
6. Q: What are The "five pillars" of Islam?
A: In Islam, faith and good works go hand-in-hand. A mere verbal declaration of
faith is not enough, for belief in Allah makes obedience to Him a duty. There are
also five formal acts of worship which help strengthen a Muslim's faith and
obedience. They are often called the "Five Pillars of Islam."
• Testimony of faith (Shahaadah or Kalima); Prayer (Salat); Almsgiving (Zakat)
• Fasting (Sawm); and Pilgrimage (Hajj)

With partner, practice the questions and anwers above as a coversation without
reading the text and give your own opinion.

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Language Focus 1 Active and Passive Sentences Review

Note : See more explanation in appendices page 115.

Read each sentence below aloud and indentify which is Active (A) and Passive (P).

(A) 1. The Quran contains many references to astronomy.

(...) 2. “And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon;
all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming.” [Noble Quran 21:33]

(...) 3. Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography.

(...) 4. The Quran encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's
signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have
at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the

(...) 5. Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the
West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written
accounts of their extensive explorations.

(...) 6. Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and

(...) 7. The main sources of Islam, the Quran and the Sunnah (Prophet
Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge.

(...) 8. Muslims have always been eager to seek knowledge, both religious and
secular, and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great
civilization sprang up and flourished.

(...) 10. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah
in Tunis, and Al- Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are
the oldest existing universities in the world.

(...) 11. These universities were the models for the first European universities,
such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar
academic cap and gown originated at Al- Azhar University.

(...) 12. Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as
geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology,
architecture, linguistics and astronomy.

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(....) 13. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by
Muslim scholars.

(....) 14. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps
were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in
world progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration.

(....) 15. Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilizations from Greece and Rome
to China and India.

(....) 16. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into
Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative
ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new
knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the Renaissance.

(....) 17. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin,
were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th

(....) 18. Muslim mathematicians excelled in geometry, as can be seen in their

graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the
fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established
trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics.

(....) 19. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number


(....) 20. It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study
and explore the universe. For example, the Noble Quran states "We
(Allah) will show you (mankind) our signs/patterns in the horizons/
universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is
the truth."[Noble Quran 41:53]

(....) 21. The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes
from Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal
system - base 10.

(....) 22. The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the
subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others,
most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation,
brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe,
through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.

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Language Focus 2 Correlative Conjunctions

Note : See more explanation in appendices page 116.

Like coordinating conjunctions, these words are used to join words, phrases, and
clauses. Correlative conjunctions or paired conjunctions appear in two parts:

either ...... or ; neither......nor ; both ........and ; not only......but also ; whether ...... or

Write sentences about Islam and science using Correlative

Writing Conjunctions

1. Both Islam and science are fit together.

2. .................................................................................................................................
3. .................................................................................................................................
4. .................................................................................................................................
5. .................................................................................................................................
6. .................................................................................................................................
7. .................................................................................................................................

Reading Read the text and predict what topic each text discusses.

(1) _______________________________________________
Islam is known for its teachings about the equality of all people, regardless of
race, ethnicity, or linguistic background. Muslims regard the diversity of life as a sign
of the beauty of Allah's creation: “And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens
and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors. Verily in that are
signs for those who know” (Qur'an 30:22). Many of the first Muslims were from the
lowest classes of society — slaves, women, and orphans — who were attracted to
Muhammad's message of human worth and equality.
(2) ________________________________________________
Muhammad always commanded his followers to treat everyone with
kindness, and to give to others in charity. There are countless stories of Muhammad
exhorting the benefits of charity, both for individuals and society at large.
In many traditions, Muhammad reminded his followers that the bounties we
have in this world do not belong to us, but are a trust from Allah. It is our duty to
share with those less fortunate. In addition to the institution of zakat (almsgiving),
Islam implemented systems whereby slaves would be set free and neighbors would
care for neighbors. Even those who are limited in means can give in charity.
Muhammad instructed them: “Help someone in his work, or make something for
someone who cannot make it himself. If you cannot, then at least restrain yourself
from doing harm to anyone, for that also is a charity.” On another occasion, he said,
“Each person's every joint must perform an act of charity every day the sun comes
up. To act justly between two people is a charity. To help a man with his mount,
helping him onto it, or hoisting up his belongings onto it, is a charity. A good word is

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you take towards prayer is a charity. And removing a harmful thing from the road is a
Muslims are reminded in the Qur'an not to be boastful about their charitable
donations: “O you who believe! Do not cancel your charity, by giving reminders of
your generosity, or by injury, like those who spend their wealth to be seen by men,
but believe neither in God nor in the Last Day” (Qur'an 2:264).
(3) _____________________________________________
Muslims are reminded that Allah is their Creator and they should humbly
submit to and worship Him Alone. In English, the word “humility” is based on a Latin
word for “ground.” Being humble means acting modestly and with respect, avoiding
arrogance and boasting. One is lowered to the ground, rather than put up on a
In prayer, Muslims humbly prostrate to the ground, in symbolic recognition
that without Allah's constant guidance and support, people would be lost. The
Qur'an advises, “Call on your Lord with humility and in private, for Allah loves not
those who transgress beyond bounds” (Qur'an 7:55).
(4) ___________________________________________________
It is often said that a “man is only as good as his word.” This held true in pre-Islamic
Arabic culture, when trust and loyalty were matters of life and death. In Islam,
honesty gained additional importance as a matter of faith. Believers are described as
being truthful and upright; they must keep their promises and fulfill their trusts. “Oh
you who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are truthful” (Qur'an 9:119).
Those who reject faith are often described as liars and hypocrites, and Muslims are
warned against following in their footsteps. Islam considers giving false testimony
one of the worst sins committed by people against each other.
(5) _______________________________________________
Muslims are instructed not to talk about people behind their backs. “Oh you
who believe! Avoid suspicion as much as possible, for suspicion in some cases is a sin.
And do not spy on each other, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs. Would
any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? No, you would abhor it” (Qur'an
Muhammad used to tell people that backbiting is “to say something about
your brother which he dislikes.” His companions asked what they should do if
negative remarks about a person were true. He responded, “If what you say is true
about him, you have backbitten against him, and if it is not true then you have
committed slander against him.” Either case is a serious sin. Muslims are advised
again and again to be careful of their tongue. “Whosoever believes in Allah and the
Last Day should say what is good, or keep silent,” Muhammad advised.
When called upon to arbitrate in disputes, Muslims are required to be
equitable to both parties. This is especially difficult if one of the two parties is a
relative or friend, or if one has predisposed opinions about the matter. Muslims must
be fair and impartial no matter what. The Qur'an advises: “And when you judge
between people, that you judge with justice” (Qur'an 4:58)

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Islam provides a framework for all aspects of life, ranging from the spiritual
to the mundane. It encompasses how one should pray, what foods can be eaten, and
how business relationships should be organized. Islam is often called a way of life
rather than a religion, as it lays out an entire system of laws, with the rights and
responsibilities of all people clearly defined. These laws are derived from several
sources, which all refer back to the Qur'an.
(6) ______________________________________________________________
Muslims find that the Qur'an contains references to scientific processes and
natural laws, many of which were unknown to the world at the time of its revelation.
Muslims do not therefore find a conflict between their holy text and the findings of
modern science. The Qur'an itself testifies to this harmony of faith and knowledge:
“Do they not consider the Qur'an? Had it been from any other than God, they would
surely have found therein much discrepancy” (Qur'an 4:82).
(7) ________________________________
According to the Qur'an, Allah created the universe in an explosion that
caused Earth and the heavenly bodies to form in perfect harmony and order: “Do the
unbelievers not see that the heavens and earth were joined together [as one unit of
creation], before We ripped them asunder? And We made from water every living
thing. Will they not then believe?” (Qur'an 21:30).
In another verse, the universe is described as having been “smoke” that
came together before being “ripped asunder” in an explosion (Qur'an 41:11). In
verse 51:47, there is reference to Allah continuing to “expand” the sky. These
descriptions are found to be in accordance with modern theories regarding the Big
Bang, the continued expansion of the universe, and the origins of life in water.
The Qur'an describes the creation of life as a sign of God's Greatness: “And
Allah has created every living thing from water. Of them are some that creep on their
bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what
He wills, for verily Allah has power over all things” (Qur'an 24:45).
(8) _____________________________
In the Qur'an, Allah is described as the Creator who developed life in
“stages.” These stages are not specified but are described as being thousands upon
thousands of years of time as we know it. While Islam teaches that Adam and Eve
were the first humans, it leaves open the idea of the development of life in general
over time.
The Qur'an also gives specific descriptions of the development of human
beings in their mothers' wombs. “We reproduced him [humans] from a tiny drop,
that is placed into a place of rest, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into a hanging
clot [embryo], then developed the hanging clot into a lump [fetus]. Then We made
the lump into bones, and covered the bones with flesh. We thus developed out of it
a new creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!” (Qur'an 23:12–14). Another
verse describes the fetus as being developed “in stages, one after another, in three
veils of darkness” (Qur'an 39:6). Some scholars now interpret this as referring to the
abdominal wall, the uterine wall, and the placenta.

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Other verses of the Qur'an describe the formation of mountains or make
reference to the nature of air and water currents. Some might argue that these
verses are vague enough to be open to interpretation. Indeed, interpretation of
these verses has changed over time as new scientific discoveries have been made.
However, Muslims believe that it is highly improbable that the Qur'an should use
these terms and language based on the level of scientific knowledge of the time.
Most important, none of the verses has been found to be in direct contradiction with
current scientific knowledge.
These references to the “signs” of God have served as an inspiration and a
challenge for generations of Muslims to learn more about the natural world and the
laws that govern it. Muslims study not just for the sake of knowledge, but to better
understand Allah's order so that humans can maintain the intricate balance that
Allah has set in place.
Islam places a very high value on literacy. Even during the early years, when Muslims
were engaged in wars of defense, enemy prisoners of war could earn their freedom
by teaching ten young Muslims how to read and write. Both girls and boys are
encouraged to attend school, and in many Muslim countries, women outnumber
men in university programs.
(9) _______________________________________________________
In the early centuries of Islam, Muslims set out to establish a society based
on justice and the pursuit of knowledge. At the height of the Islamic empire, the
Muslim world was the center for learning. Scholars of many faiths traveled from all
over the world to participate in research and scholarly exchanges in the large Muslim
cities. Indeed, several centers of learning gathered students, teachers, and
researchers to live and study together. They were the first organized schools in the
Muslim world.
(10) _________________________________
In the early years of Islam, those with religious knowledge informally tutored
a group of students. Over time, more formal institutions of education were founded.
The madrasahs, or schools for the training of religious and societal leaders, still exist
Madrasahs brought together young students to study, live, and learn from
resident scholars. The Qur'an was the foundation of the curriculum. While learning
to read and write the classical Arabic language, students were also instructed in
Islamic beliefs, law, and behavior. This served as a foundation for all future studies.
There were several fundamental principles of the madrasah. First was the
idea that all knowledge must be based on a strong spiritual foundation. Second,
education was to be open to all, including both boys and girls, on equal terms.
Students were not required to pay tuition; all costs (including room and board) were
subsidized by the Islamic government and local rulers. Finally, while religious studies
served as a foundation, the curriculum also included many other disciplines,
including literature and poetry, mathematics and astronomy, and chemistry and the
natural sciences.

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Language Focus 3 Subject Verb Agreement.

Note : for more explanation, see appendices page 116.

In a sentence, subject and verb must agree in person and number. Singular subjects
need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs.

Language Focus 4 Affixes (Prefixes and Suffixes)

Note : for more explanation, see appendices page 119.

Practice B

Read the text. Then, analyze sentences based on “Subject Verb Agreement and find
the affixes (prefixes and suffixes)

Text 1
Islam and science describes the relationship between Muslim communities
and science in general. From an Islamic standpoint, science, the study of nature, is
considered to be linked to the concept of Tawhid (the Oneness of God), as are all
other branches of knowledge. In Islam, nature is not seen as a separate entity, but
rather as an integral part of Islam’s holistic outlook on God, humanity, and the world.
This link implies a sacred aspect to the pursuit of scientific knowledge by Muslims, as
nature itself is viewed in the Qur'an as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine.
It was with this understanding that the pursuit of science was tolerated in Islamic
civilizations, specifically during the eighth to sixteenth centuries, prior to the
colonization of the Muslim world.
According to theoretical physicist Jim Al-Khalili, the modern scientific method
was pioneered by Ibn Al-Haytham (known to the west as “Alhazen”) whose
contributions are likened to those of Isaac Newton. Alhazen helped shift the
emphasis on abstract theorizing onto systematic and repeatable experimentation,
followed by careful criticism of premises and inferences. Robert Briffault, in The
Making of Humanity, asserts that the very existence of science, as it is understood in
the modern sense, is rooted in the scientific thought and knowledge that emerged in
Islamic civilizations during this time.
Muslim scientists and scholars have subsequently developed a spectrum of
viewpoints on the place of scientific learning within the context of Islam, none of
which are universally accepted. However, most maintain the view that the
acquisition of knowledge and scientific pursuit in general is not in disaccord with
Islamic thought and religious belief. Physicist Taner Edis argues this is because some
Muslims are reading into the metaphorical language of the Holy books what is not
there, including recent scientific discoveries.
Text 2
From an Islamic standpoint, science, the study of nature, is considered to be
linked to the concept of Tawhid (the Oneness of God), as are all other branches of

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knowledge. In Islam, nature is not seen as a separate entity, but rather as an integral
part of Islam's holistic outlook on God, humanity, and the world. Unlike the other
Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity, the Islamic view of
science and nature is continuous with that of religion and God. This link implies a
sacred aspect to the pursuit of scientific knowledge by Muslims, as nature itself is
viewed in the Qur'an as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine. It was with this
understanding that science was studied and understood in Islamic civilizations,
specifically during the eighth to sixteenth centuries, prior to the colonization of the
Muslim world.
According to most historians, the modern scientific method was first
developed by Islamic scientists, pioneered by Ibn Al-Haytham, known to the west as
"Alhazen". Robert Briffault, in The Making of Humanity, asserts that the very
existence of science, as it is understood in the modern sense, is rooted in the
scientific thought and knowledge that emerged in Islamic civilizations during this
However, the colonizing powers of the western world and their destruction
of the Islamic scientific tradition forced the discourse of Islam and Science in to a
new period. Institutions that had existed for centuries in the Muslim world were
destroyed and replaced by new scientific institutions implemented by the colonizing
powers and suiting their economic, political, and military agendas. This drastically
changed the practice of science in the Muslim world, as Islamic scientists had to
interact with the western approach to scientific learning, which was based on a
philosophy of nature completely foreign to them.[59] From the time of this initial
upheaval of the Islamic scientific tradition to the present day, Muslim scientists and
scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on the place of scientific learning
within the context of Islam, none of which are universally accepted or practiced.
However, most maintain the view that the acquisition of knowledge and scientific
pursuit in general is not in disaccord with Islamic thought and religious belief.
Text 3
In Islam, there is no conflict between faith in God and modern scientific
knowledge. Indeed, for many centuries during the Middle Ages, Muslims led the
world in scientific inquiry and exploration. The Quran itself, revealed 14 centuries
ago, contains many scientific facts and imagery that are supported by modern
The Quran instructs Muslims to "contemplate the wonders of creation"
(Quran 3:191). The entire universe, which was created by Allah, follows and obeys
His laws. Muslims are encouraged to seek knowledge, explore the universe, and find
the "Signs of Allah" in His creation. Allah says: "Behold! In the creation of the
heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of
ships through the ocean, for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah sends
down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead;
in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the
winds, and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth

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here indeed are Signs for a people that are wise" (Quran 2:164).
For a book revealed in the 7th century C.E., the Quran contains many
scientifically-accurate statements. Among them:
"Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined
together, then We split them apart? And We made from water every living thing…"
"And Allah has created every animal from water. Of them there are some
that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on
four..." (24:45)
"See they not how Allah originates creation, then repeats it? Truly that is
easy for Allah" (29:19).
"It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. All
(the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course" (21:33).
"It is not permitted for the sun to catch up to the moon, nor can the night
outstrip the day. Each just swims along in its own orbit" (36:40).
"He created the heavens and the earth in true proportions. He makes the
night overlap the day, and the day overlap the night. He has subjected the sun and
the moon to His law; each one follows a course for a time appointed..." (39:5).

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Common oral expressions.

Giving Opinions
I'm positive that...
I (really) feel that...
In my opinion...
The way I see things...
If you ask me,... I tend to think that...
That's interesting. .
I never thought about it that way before.
Good point!
I get your point.
I see what you mean.
Asking for Opinions/Clarification/Contributions
Are you positive that...
Do you (really) think that...
(name of participant) can we get your input?
How do you feel about...?
Do you mean that...?
Is it true that...?
What do you think about this proposal?
Would you like to add anything, (name of participant)?
Has anyone else got anything to contribute?; Are there any more comments?
I totally agree with you.
That's (exactly) the way I feel.
I have to agree with (name of participant).
Unfortunately, I see it differently.
Up to a point I agree with you, but...
(I'm afraid) I can't agree
Advising and Suggesting
We should...
Why don't you....
How/What about...
I suggest/recommend that...
Let me spell out...
Have I made that clear?
Do you see what I'm getting at?
Let me put this another way...
I'd just like to repeat that...
Could you spell that, please?
Would you mind spelling that for me, please?

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Asking for Repetition
I'm afraid I didn't understand that.
Could you repeat what you just said?
I didn't catch that. Could you repeat that, please?
I missed that. Could you say it again, please?
Could you run that by me one more time?
Requesting Information
Please, could you...
I'd like you to...
Would you mind...
I wonder if you could...
Asking for Clarification
I don't quite follow you. What exactly do you mean?
I'm afraid I don't quite understand what your are getting at.
Could you explain to me how that is going to work?
I don't see what you mean. Could we have some more details, please?

Language Focus Comparisons.

There are three forms of comparison: Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.

Comparison with -er/-est - clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest. We use -er/-est with the following
1) adjectives with one syllable
Clean Cleaner Cleanest
New Newer Newest
Cheap Cheaper Cheapest
2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:
2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y
Dirty Dirtier Dirtiest
Easy Easier Easiest
Happy Happier Happiest
Pretty Prettier Prettiest
2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le
Simple Simpler Simplest
2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow
Narrow Narrower Narrowest
Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est
Large larger largest leave out the silent –e
Big bigger biggest
Double the consonant after short vowel
Sad sadder saddest
Dirty dirtier dirtiest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y)
Here -y is not changed to -i.
Shy shyer shyest
(although consonant before -y)

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Comparison with more – most: difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult

Irregular adjectives
Good better best
Bad worse worst
Much more most uncountable nouns
Many more most countable nouns
Little less least
Little smaller smallest

Special adjectives: Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison.

Common commoner / more common commonest / most common
Likely likelier / more likely likeliest / most likely
Pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasantest / most pleasant
Polite politer / more polite politest / most polite
Simple simpler / more simple simplest / most simple
Stupid stupider / more stupid stupidest / most stupid
Subtle subtler / more subtle subtlest / most subtle
Sure surer / more sure surest / most sure
Difference in meaning with adjectives:
farther farthest Distance
further furthest distance or time
later latest
late latter x
X last
older oldest people and things
elder eldest people (family)
nearer nearest Distance
X next Order

Comparisons of adverbs
There are three forms: positive, comparative, superlative
Comparison with -er/-est
hard - harder - (the) hardest
We use -er/-est with the following adverbs:

1) all adverbs with one syllable

Fast faster fastest
High higher highest

2) The adverb: early

Comparison with more - most
carefully - more carefully - (the) most carefully
adverbs ending on -ly (not: early)

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Irregular adverbs
Well Better Best
Badly Worse Worst
Much More Most
Little Less Least
Late Later Last
farther farthest
further furthest

Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives

When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to
that they are not the same. Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns".
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
• Fishing is fun.

When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present
• Anthony is fishing.
• I have a boring teacher.

Gerunds as Subject, Object or Complement

Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:
• Smoking costs a lot of money.
• I don't like writing.
• My favorite occupation is reading.
But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole expression
[gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the sentence.
• Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money.
• I don't like writing letters.
• My favorite occupation is reading detective stories.
Like nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other determiners):
• pointless questioning
• a settling of debts
• the making of Titanic
• his drinking of alcohol
But when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usually take a direct object:
• a settling of debts (not a settling debts)
• Making "Titanic" was expensive.
• The making of "Titanic" was expensive.
Do you see the difference in these two sentences? In one, "reading" is a gerund (noun).
In the other "reading" is a present participle (verb).
• My favorite occupation is reading.
• My favorite niece is reading.
Gerunds after Prepositions
If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. It is impossible to use an
infinitive after a preposition. So for example, we say:
• I will call you after arriving at the office.
• Please have a drink before leaving.
• I am looking forward to meeting you.
• Do you object to working late?
• Tara always dreams about going on holiday.

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A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a
gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or
a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a
sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement,
and object of preposition.

Gerund as subject:
• Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
• The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences.

Gerund as direct object:

• They do not appreciate my singing.
• They do not appreciate my assistance.

Gerund as subject complement:

• My cat's favorite activity is sleeping.
• My cat's favorite food is salmon.

Gerund as object of preposition:

• The police arrested him for speeding.
• The police arrested him for criminal activity.
A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or
(pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or
complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as:

Finding a needle in a The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the

haystack would be easier sentence.
than what we're trying to Finding (gerund)a needle (direct object of action expressed
do. in gerund) in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the

I hope that you appreciate verb appreciate. my (possessive pronoun adjective form,
my offering you this modifying the gerund)offering (gerund)you (indirect object
opportunity. of action expressed in gerund)this opportunity (direct object
of action expressed in gerund)

Newt's favorite tactic has The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
been lying to his lying to (gerund)his constituents (direct object of action
constituents. expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the object of the

You might get in trouble
preposition for. faking (gerund) an illness (direct object of
for faking an illness to
action expressed in gerund) to avoid work (infinitive
avoid work.
phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the

Being the boss made Jeff sentence.
feel uneasy. Being (gerund)the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via
state of being expressed in gerund)

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Exercise on Gerunds:
Underline the gerunds or gerund phrases in the following sentences and label how they
function in the sentence (subject, direct object, subject complement, object of preposition).
1. Swimming keeps me in shape.
2. Swimming in your pool is always fun.
3. Telling your father was a mistake.
4. The college recommends sending applications early.
5. He won the game by scoring during the overtime period.
6. Her most important achievement was winning the national championship.
7. Going to work today took all my energy.
8. Fighting for a losing cause made them depressed.


A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term
verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and
therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives,
participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles
and past participles.

Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words
asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.
• The crying baby had a wet diaper.
• Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.
• The burning log fell off the fire.
• Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.
A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or
(pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or
complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as:

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying

Removing his coat, Jack
Jack. Removing (participle) his coat (direct object of action
rushed to the river.
expressed in participle)

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying

Delores noticed her cousin
cousin. walking (participle) along the shoreline
walking along the shoreline.
(prepositional phrase as adverb)

Children introduced to music The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying

early develop strong children. introduced (to) (participle) music (direct object of
intellectual skills. action expressed in participle) early (adverb)

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying

Having been a gymnast, Lynn
Lynn. Having been (participle) a gymnast (subject
knew the importance of
complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in

Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the
noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.
 Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. *
 Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.
In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action
expressed in the participle carrying. Certainly foot can't be logically understood to function in
this way.

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This situation is an example of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the
participial phrase) is not modifying any specific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling."
Since a person must be doing the carrying for the sentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun
that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after the participial phrase, as in the
second sentence.

When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.
 Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed.
 Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.

If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with
commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
 Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.
 The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.

Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas
should be used:
 The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award.
 The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.

If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it
modifies an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it
 The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.
(The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.)
Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence.
(The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)
Exercise on Participles:
Underline the participial phrase(s) in each of the following sentences, and draw a line to the
noun or pronoun modified.
1. Getting up at five, we got an early start.
2. Facing college standards, the students realized that they hadn't worked hard enough in high
3. Statistics reported by the National Education Association revealed that seventy percent of
American colleges offer remedial English classes emphasizing composition.
4. The overloaded car gathered speed slowly.
5. Gathering my courage, I asked for a temporary loan.
In each of the following sentences, underline the participial phrase(s), draw a line to the word(s)
modified, and punctuate the sentence correctly. Remember that some sentences may not need
6. Starting out as an army officer Karen's father was frequently transferred.
7. Mrs. Sears showing more bravery than wisdom invited thirty boys and girls to a party.
8. The student left in charge of the class was unable to keep order.
9. Applicants must investigate various colleges learning as much as possible about them before
applying for admission.
10. The crying boy angered by the bully began to fight.
Rewrite the following sentences (you may need to reword them slightly) with the correct
placement and punctuation of the participial phrases.
11. Espousing a conservative point of view the proposal for more spending on federal social
programs bothered him.
12. Absorbed in an interesting conversation my scheduled appointment time passed unnoticed.

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An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem"
form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an
infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action
or a state of being.
However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement,
adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to +
verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.
• To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)
• Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)
• His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
• He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
• We must study to learn. (adverb)
Be sure not to confuse an infinitive--a verbal consisting of to plus a verb--with a
prepositional phrase beginning with to, which consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any
Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this
An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or
(pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s),
or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive, such as:

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb

We intended to
leave early.
to leave (infinitive) early (adverb)

I have a paper to
The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper.
write before
to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase as adverb)

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb

Phil agreed to
agreed. to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of action expressed in
give me a ride.
infinitive) a ride (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb

They asked me to
asked. me (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to bring (infinitive)
bring some food.
some food (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb

Everyone wanted
Carol to be the
Carol (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to be (infinitive)
captain of the
the captain (subject complement for Carol, via state of being expressed
in infinitive) of the team (prepositional phrase as adjective)

Actors: In these last two examples the actor of the infinitive phrase could be roughly
as the "subject" of the action or state expressed in the infinitive. It is somewhat misleading to
use the word subject, however, since an infinitive phrase is not a full clause with a subject and a
finite verb. Also notice that when it is a pronoun, the actor appears in the objective case (me,
not I, in the fourth example). Certain verbs, when they take an infinitive direct object, require
an actor for the
infinitive phrase; others can't have an actor. Still other verbs can go either way, as the charts
below illustrate.

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Verbs that take infinitive objects without actors:
agree, begin, continue, decide, fail, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, neglect, offer, plan, prefer,
pretend, promise, refuse, remember, start, try
1. Most students plan to study.
2. We began to learn.
3. They offered to pay.
4. They neglected to pay.
5. She promised to return.

In all of these examples no actor can come between the italicized main (finite) verb and the
infinitive direct-object phrase.
Verbs that take infinitive objects with actors:
advice, allow, convince, remind, encourage, force, hire, teach, instruct, invite, permit, tell,
Implore, incite, appoint, order

1. He reminded me to buy milk.
2. Their fathers advise them to study.
3. She forced the defendant to admit the truth.
4. You've convinced the director of the program to change her position.
5. I invite you to consider the evidence.

In all of these examples an actor is required after the italicized main (finite) verb and before the
infinitive direct-object phrase.
Verbs that use either pattern: ask, expect, (would) like, want
1. I asked to see the records.
2. I asked him to show me the records.
3. Trent expected his group to win.
4. Trent expected to win.
5. Brenda likes to drive fast.
6. Brenda likes her friend to drive fast.
In all of these examples the italicized main verb can take an infinitive object with or without an
If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set
off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase.
 To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
 To improve your writing, you must consider your purpose and audience.
Split infinitives:
Split infinitives occur when additional words are included between to and the verb in an
Many readers find a single adverb splitting the infinitive to be acceptable, but this practice
should be avoided in formal writing.
1. I like to on a nice day walk in the woods. * (unacceptable)
2. On a nice day, I like to walk in the woods. (revised)
3. I needed to quickly gather my personal possessions. (acceptable in informal contexts)
4. I needed to gather my personal possessions quickly. (revised for formal contexts)

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Exercise on Infinitives:
Underline the infinitive phrase and label the way it is used in the sentence, adding any
punctuation as needed.

1. I want to go.
2. I want you to go home.
3. We want to see the play.
4. To see a shooting star is good luck.
5. To fight against those odds would be ridiculous.

Now underline the infinitive phrase and label how it is used in the sentence.

6. To design a new building for them would be challenging.

7. I want him to be my bodyguard.
8. Jim is expected to program computers at his new job.
9. They will try to build a new stadium in ten years.
10. To distill a quart of moonshine takes two hours.
11. The president wants to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
12. She has the money to buy it.
13. We demonstrated to attract attention to our agenda.
14. I do not like to give poor grades.
15. The dogs were taught to stand, to sit, and to bark on command.
16. To be great is to be true to yourself and to the highest principles of honor.
17. To see is to believe.
Verbs that take only infinitives as verbal direct objects
Agree Decide expect hesitate
Learn Need promise neglect
Hope Want plan attempt
Propose Intend pretend
1. I hope to go on a vacation soon. (not: I hope going on a vacation soon.*)
2. He promised to go on a diet. (not: He promised going on a diet. *)
3. They agreed to sign the treaty. (not: They agreed signing the treaty.*)
4. Because she was nervous, she hesitated to speak. (not: Because she was nervous, she
hesitated speaking.*)
5. They will attempt to resuscitate the victim. (not: They will attempt resuscitating the victim.*)
Verbs that take only gerunds as verbal direct objects
deny risk delay consider
can't help keep give up be fond of
finish quit put off practice
postpone tolerate suggest stop (quit)
Regret enjoy keep (on) dislike
Admit avoid recall Mind
Miss detest appreciate recommend
get/be through get/be tired of get/be accustomed to get/be used to
1. They always avoid drinking before driving. (not: They always avoid to drink before driving.*)
2. I recall asking her that question. (not: I recall to ask her that question.*)
3. She put off buying a new jacket.(not: She put off to buy a new jacket.*)
4. Mr. Allen enjoys cooking. (not: Mr. Allen enjoys to cook.*)
5. Charles keeps calling her. (not: Charles keeps to call her.*)

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Verbs that take gerunds or infinitives as verbal direct objects:
Start, begin, continue, hate, prefer, like, love, try, remember
1. She has continued to work at the store./She has continued working at the store.
2. They like to go to the movies./They like going to the movies.
3. Brent started to walk home./Brent started walking home.
Forget and remember
These two verbs change meaning depending on whether a gerund or infinitive is used as the
1. a. Jack forgets to take out the cat. (He regularly forgets.)
b. Jack forgets taking out the cat. (He did it, but he doesn't remember now.)
2. a. Jack forgot to take out the cat. (He never did it.)
b. Jack forgot taking out the cat. (He did it, but he didn't remember sometime later.)
3. a. Jack remembers to take out the cat. (He regularly remembers.)
b. Jack remembers taking out the cat. (He did it, and he remembers now.)
4. a. Jack remembered to take out the cat. (He did it.)
b. Jack remembered taking out the cat. (He did it, and he remembered sometime later.)

In the second of each pair of example sentences above, the past progressive gerund form
having taken can be used in place of taking to avoid any possible confusion.

Sense verbs that take an object plus a gerund or a simple verb

Certain sense verbs take an object followed by either a gerund or a simple verb (infinitive form
minus the word to). The verb of senses are such as: Feel, hear, notice, watch, see, smell,
1. We watched him playing basketball. (continuous action)
2. We watched him play basketball. (continuous action)
3. I felt my heart pumping vigorously. (continuous action)
4. I felt my heart pump vigorously. (continuous action)
5. She saw them jumping on the bed. (continuous action)
6. She saw them jump on the bed. (one-time action)
7. Tom heard the victim shouting for help. (continuous action)
8. Tom heard the victim shout for help. (one-time action)
9. The detective noticed the suspect biting his nails. (continuous action)
10. The detective noticed the suspect bite his nails. (one-time action)
11. We could smell the pie baking in the kitchen. (continuous action)
12. We could smell the pie bake in the kitchen. (continuous action)

Sometimes the simple-verb version might seem unconventional, so it's safer in most cases to
use the gerund version.

Now try these exercises:
This next one is for advanced level

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Language Focus Collocation

On this language focus, you can find a few short lists of collocations to give you more of an idea
about them. Many good learner's dictionaries show collocations associated with specific words.
There are also dictionaries of collocations, though these are more difficult to find.

Some common verbs

Have Do Make

have a bath do business make a difference

have a drink do nothing make a mess
have a good time do someone a favor make a mistake
have a haircut do the cooking make a noise
have a holiday do the housework make an effort
have a problem do the shopping make furniture
have a relationship do the washing up make money
have a rest do your best make progress
have lunch do your hair make room
have sympathy do your homework make trouble

Take Break Catch

take a break break a habit catch a ball
take a chance break a leg catch a bus
take a look break a promise catch a chill
take a rest break a record catch a cold
take a seat break a window catch a thief
take a taxi break someone's heart catch fire
take an exam break the ice catch sight of
take notes break the law catch someone's attention
take someone's place break the news to someone catch someone's eye
take someone's temperature break the rules catch the flu
Pay Save Keep

pay a fine save electricity keep a diary

pay attention save energy keep a promise
pay by credit card save money keep a secret
pay cash save one's strength keep an appointment
pay interest save someone a seat keep calm
pay someone a compliment save someone's life keep control
pay someone a visit save something to a disk keep in touch
pay the bill save space keep quiet
pay the price save time keep someone's place
pay your respects save yourself the trouble keep the change
pay someone a visit save something to a disk keep in touch
pay the bill save space keep quiet
pay the price save time keep someone's place
pay your respects save yourself the trouble keep the change

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Come Go Get
come close go abroad get a job
come complete with go astray get a shock
come direct go bad get angry
come early go bald get divorced
come first go bankrupt get drunk
come into view go blind get frightened
come last go crazy get home
come late go dark get lost
come on time go deaf get married
come prepared go fishing get nowhere
come right back go mad get permission
come second go missing get pregnant
come to a compromise go on foot get ready
come to a decision go online get started
come to an agreement go out of business get the impression
come to an end go overseas get the message
come to a standstill go quiet get the sack
come to terms with go sailing get upset
come to a total of go to war get wet
come under attack go yellow get worried
Time Business English Classifiers
bang on time annual turnover
dead on time bear in mind
early 12th century break off negotiations
free time cease trading
from dawn till dusk chair a meeting
great deal of time close a deal
late 20th century close a meeting
a ball of string
make time for come to the point
a bar of chocolate
next few days dismiss an offer
a bottle of water
past few weeks draw a conclusion
a bunch of carrots
right on time draw your attention to
a cube of sugar
run out of time launch a new product
a pack of cards
save time lay off staff
a pad of paper
spare time go bankrupt
spend some time go into partnership
take your time make a loss
tell someone the time make a profit
time goes by market forces
time passes sales figures
waste time take on staff

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Language Focus: Verbs with prepositions
The verbs with prepositions are listed in the following. These verbs have a special meaning,
Therefore, they are used them in sentences.
Phrase Example
agree to I wish she would agree to my proposal.
agree with I agree with him on that point.
ask after Mr. Smith asked after John.
back off* She was told to back off.
be in Are your parents in?
be off* I'm off now.
bear with Please bear with him for a moment while he tries to put this straight.
bend over Bend over and pick it up yourself!
black out And then she just blacked out.
blame on Don't blame it on her.
blow up The bomb might have blown up.
bowl over Her reaction simply bowled me over.
Break away
break free At last, the hostage could break away from his captors.
break loose
break down Finally her car broke down.
break up Sue and Tim broke up last year.
bring along This year has brought along some significant changes.
bring down The president was brought down by this scandal.
bring in My job brings in 400 dollars per week.
(1) She was brought up in Wisconsin.
bring up
(2) Why do you have to bring that up?
build up He needs to do some exercises to build himself up.
burst in with She burst in with the bad news.
butt in* How can we talk when you keep butting in all the time?
call in He called Kelly in.
call off I had to call off the barbecue because of the bad weather.
calm down Please calm down.
carry on Please carry on with your homework.
check out I will check it out.
check up (on) There is no need to check up on me.
close down The shop was closed down by the police.
close in (on) +
She closed in on them quietly.
close down The restaurant was closed down by the health department.
close down The restaurant was closed down by the health department.
come around* I knew he would come around in the end.
come back Will the good old days ever come back?

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(1) My aunt came by yesterday.
come by
(2) I hope he came by this money honestly.*
come in Can't you just come in for a few minutes?
come over Why don't you come over next weekend?
cool down It began to cool down after the thunderstorm.
count (up) on Can we count on you?
cut back (on) I have to cut back on the water usage.
cut out* Cut it out!
I decided on the iced tea.
decide (up) on
The court has not yet decided on a ruling.
die off/out That species died out million years ago.
do again I probably wouldn't do it again.
do in He tried to do his father in.
do up Please do your buttons up.
do without I guess I will have to do without lunch today.
draw near As the time drew near,...
drink up* Drink up, and let's going.
drive on We drove on till night.
drive off I said good-bye and drove off.
drop by* I hope you guys can drop by our house some time.
drop in (on)* I can't believe who dropped in on us last night.
drop off You can drop me off at the next red light.
dry out The clothes finally dried out.
ease off The storm eased off a little.
eat up Eat up, and let's go.
edge away The students laughed and edged away from him.
end up How will this end up?
even out The surface of the road was evened out.
face up (to) You have to face up to challenges.
fall apart The whole thing falls apart.
fall back on/
I had to fall back on my savings.
rely on
fall behind
He's falling behind with his car payments.
get behind
fall through I hope the house signing doesn't fall through.
feel for I really feel for you.
fight back (at) It's hard for him to fight back.
fight down I fought down the anger.
figure out* I just can't figure her out.
(1) I'd better fill the cracks in with something.
fill in
(2) Would you fill in the form, please?

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fill in (for) I will have to fill in for him till he gets back from his vacation.
fill out Would you fill out the form, please?
(1) The hole filled up with water and had to be pumped.
fill up
(2) We will fill up at the next gas station.
(1) Finish off your cup of coffee, please.
finish off
(2) I will finish my homework up in a few minutes.
fit in(to) It just doesn't fit in.
fix up Is my bike fixed up yet?
fly in(to) I'm flying into Stansted.
focus (on) She focused on this issue.
fool around* Stop fooling around.
gather up Let's gather up our things and leave.
get across How can I get it across to you
get along with He couldn't get along with his mother-in-law.
get at* What exactly is he getting at?
get back When will you get back?
get back at He will get back at him someday.
get back to I will get back to you in a minute.
get by (on) She can't get by on that much money.
get into He managed to get himself into the class he wanted.
get off on* He gets off on paying soccer.
get on How are you getting on?
(1) I need to get on with my homework.
get on with
(2) How do you get on with Sam?
get out of You've got to get out of there.
get over (1) It took him a long time to get over the heart attack.
get through I tried calling you, but I couldn't get through.
get up Today I got up at 10 am.
(1) He gave his car away to his brother.
give away (to)
(2) Don't give the answer away.
give in (to) Why does she always give in to her brother?
give up Are you sure you want to give up your career?
glance over My teacher just glanced over my homework today.
go after He went after the man who mugged him.
go around There's not enough milk to go around.
go away Please go away!
go back I'll never go back.
go in They went in after us.
(1) The bomb went off.
go off
(2) My party went off as planned.
go off with I guess she went off with her new boyfriend.
go out (with) Will she go out with Mike next Friday evening?

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(1) The truck wouldn't go through the tunnel.
(2) He went through his pockets, looking for his wallet.
go through
(3) You won't believe what I've gone through.
(4) I guess we need to go through the whole song a few more times.

(1) I was afraid that our ship would go under.

go under
(2) The company went under.
go without I just cannot go without some candy from time to time.
hand down He will hand this down to his granddaughter.
hand out The teacher handed out the test to the surprised students.
hang around
I usually spend a lot of time hanging around with my friends.
(1) Hang on, please.
hang on
(2) They couldn't hang on much longer.
hang up Why did you hang up on me?
heal up My injury healed up in around no time.
hear out Hear me out, will you? I have more to tell.
heat up How soon will lunch be heated up?
help out Can you help me out?
hide out (from) Ben was hiding out from the police.
hit back He hit me, but I didn't hit him back.
hit on* Tom was hitting on Mike's fiancée.
hold back I held back the anger.
hold on Hold on a minute! I have to check this first.
hold out I don't know how long they can hold out.
hurry up Hurry up, will you? I got some errands to run today.
join in My I join in the discussion?
(1) It's a little chilly in here, so I better keep my coat on.
keep on
(2) Just keep on practicing your scales by simply playing them up and down.
leave out (of) Leave me out of it, please.
let down I won't let you down again.
look after I will look after the children when yoou are away.
look up to She is glad they look up to her.
(1) Did she make up the clowns yet?
(2) I made up that story.
(3) I'm sorry, but you can't make up that test you missed.
make up
(4) Class participation will make up 25% of your final grade.
(5) They kissed and made up.
(6) Do you think I would make this up?
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move in(to) I moved into a new apartment last month.
move out (of) I moved out of my old apartment last month.
pass away/on Her uncle passed away last summer.
(1) Don't drink until you pass out.
pass out
(2) Please can you pass these handouts out to everyone?
(1) Relax. I will pick her up from school.
(2) Help me pick up this guy from the sidewalk, will you?
pick up
(3) The storm picked up about midnight.
(4) I picked up a little French while I was in Quebec.
point out That's exactly what I pointed out earlier.
(1) Don't put your brother on.
put on
(2) Don't you have some clothes to put on?
put off (until) Can't you just put this off until tomorrow?
put up with I just don't know why I even put up with you.
rely (up)on Can we rely on you in this case?
rule out
run away The cat ran away from me.
run out of I'm afraid we ran out of milk and cookies.
save up I'm saving up money for a new car.
(1) I knew what he was up to, because I saw through him.
see through
(2) I'll see this project through.
(1) He refused to sell out to a large corporation.
sell out (to)
(2) He shouldn't have sold out to them.
send away for I had to send away for a new part.
send for He sent for his secretary.
send over (to) She sent me over to her office.
set up (for) I will set up a meeting for next week.
share together We shared a room together in college.
shoot up Jane shot up just after she turned thirteen.
show off Stop showing off.
sign in Did you remember to sign in?
sign up for Did you remember to sign up for the class?
sit around Don't just sit around. Do something!
sit down Please, sit down and relax.
sit in on You guys mind if I sit in on your discussion?
sit out I'm not playing. I better sit out this time.
(1) I sat up and read a book.
sit up
(2) I wouldn't get such terrible backaches if I sat up properly.
sleep in I slept in this morning.
slim down You have slimmed down a lot since last spring break.
slip up You must not slip up again.

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slow down You're going to fast. Please slow down.
smash into The car smashed into the side of a bus.
sober up Some coffee definitely won't sober them up.
sort itself out Things will sort itself out by the end of the month.
speak up Please speak up. I nearly can't hear you.
speak up for You can speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves.
split up We had to split the class up into two classes.
spread out He told them to spread out and continue their search.
stand around Don't stand around. Get busy!
stand by Stand by while I search for another song.
stand in (for) Sam is sick. Can you stand in for him?
stand up She stood up and looked across the room.
start over Sorry, I guess I messed this up, so can I start over?
start up Start your car up and let's go.
stay over Can my friend stay over, please?
steal away She stole away while he was refilling her coffee.
step aside Step aside, please. You're in my way.
stick together We must stick together.
stop by Please stop by before you go on vacation.
stop over We stopped over in Chicago for two nights.
storm in(to) He stormed into the room, shouting and yelling.
storm out (of) He got angry and stormed out of the meeting.
(1) We have to straighten this mess out.
straighten out
(2) They straightened out the line of people.
strip down The doctor told me to strip down for the examination.
stumble (upon) I just stumbled upon her.
sum up Can you sum up the arguments of this essay?
swell up I bumped my ankle and it swelled up.
switch off I forgot to switch the TV off before I went to bed.
switch on Can someone switch the light on, please?
take away The police took her daughter away.
take apart Don't take my TV apart.
(1) When does your plane take off?
take off (2) Sorry, I have to take off now.
(3) Take your coat off, please.
take over If you take over, you will be in charge.
talk back (to) Don't ever talk back to her.
talk out Let's just talk this matter out.
team up (with) I don't want to team up with him.
tear off (of) She tore the label off the bottle.
tell off I should have told him off.
tell on I'm going to call your father and tell on you.
think back (to) Try and think back to the morning of June 5.

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think over I needed a few minutes to think it over.
First, let me think this through and I'll call you tomorrow first in the
think through
think of I quickly had to think of something.
think up I'll think something up.
throw up I was so nauseous I almost threw up.
tidy away Please tiday your stuff away.
tidy up Your room looks like a pig sty. You better tidy it up now.
trick into He tried to trick her into doing it his way.
try out Let's try out this candy store.
turn around/about The car turned around and went the other way.
(1) He turned his collar down, when he entered her house.
turn down (2) Turn the music down a little, will you?
(3) Our proposal was turned down.
turn in I need some sleep. I'm going to turn in now.
turn in(to) Turn in for some gas.
turn off Could you please turn the radio off?
turn on Don't forget to turn on the lights when the sun goes down.
(1) Turn your cuffs up, please.
turn up (2) Something always turns up.
(3) Apparently, new evidence has turned up.
use up You can use it up. I have more of it.
wake up Wake up! We have hit the road.
walk off They didn't even say good-bye. They just walked off.
walk out (on) My sister walked out on Fred because she was fed up with him.
watch over Can you watch over the kids while we're gone.
watch out (for) Watch out for the snakes in the bushes.
wear out After weeks of learning for this stupid test, I'm worn out.
wipe off (of) Don't use your sleeve to wipe the ice cream off of your hand.
(1) Everything will work out in the end.
work out
(2) She needs to work out more often.
work over They really worked him over.
wrap up Wrap up the presents quickly.
write away for I wrote away for a book on poetry.
yell out The pain caused me to yell out.
zip up I had better zip my jacket up.

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Language Focus Simple Past and Present Perfect Tense

Simple Past Tense

1. The simple past tense is expressed with the past form of the verb and nothing else.
My grandfather died last year. (Correct)
My grandfather was died last year. (Incorrect)
My grandfather has died last year. (Incorrect)
2. The simple past tense refers to (a) action which occurred at a specific time in the past, (b)
completed action, and (c) past status
Specific past action Completed action Past status
I ate lunch at noon today. She finally mailed the letter. John was still single in 1995.
He drove to work yesterday. Jan finished her report on time. Jane was a movie star.

Note the usage of the past tense in the following story. Follow the given example.

Yesterday Mrs. Hubbard had a very rough day. In the morning, she went to the kitchen and
looked in the cupboard for some food for her dog, but the cupboard was empty. Her poor dog
stared up at her with its hungry eyes, and she knew she had to do something quickly. She
hurried to the grocery store to buy some dog food, but unfortunately the store was out of her
dog's favorite brand, so she had to catch a bus downtown. After buying the food, she waited
for a half hour in the rain to get a taxi. When she finally got home, her dog was sound asleep
on the living room sofa. Common problems with the past tense.

1. Using the present tense when the past tense is required.

Last week, Tonya fix her neighbor's car. (Incorrect)
Last week, Tonya fixed her neighbor's car. (Correct)

2. Using "was" with verbs in the past tense.

It was happened one night in September. (Incorrect)
It happened one night in September. (Correct)
Exercises: Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense.
1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client.
2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space.
3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full.
4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations.
5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them."
6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours.
7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car.
8. Then we see a small grocery store.
9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches.
10. That is better than waiting for two hours.
Error correction: Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:
1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.
2. My pet lizard was died last month.
3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.
4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.
5. What was happened to your leg?

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How is Present Perfect Tense form?
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb

Have/has past participle

Study the examples of the present perfect tense:

subject auxiliary verb main verb

+ I have seen ET.

+ You have eaten mine.

- She has not been to Rome.

- We have not played football.

? Have you finished?

? Have they done it?

Contractions with the present perfect tense
When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and
auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.

I have I've

You have You've

He has He's
She has She's
It has It's
John has John's
The car has The car's

We have We've

They have They've

Here are some examples:
(1) I've finished my work. (2) John's seen ET. (3) They've gone home.
For & Since with Present Perfect Tense
We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
 We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
 We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
Here are some examples:
 I have been here for 20 minutes.
 I have been here since 9 o'clock.
 John hasn't called for 6 months.
 John hasn't called since February.
 He has worked in New York for a long time.
 He has worked in New York since he left school.

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Clauses and sentences

 Clauses
A subordinate (dependent) clause may function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a
On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided into the
following types:
1. Noun Clause
2. Adjective Clause.
3. Adverb Clause

Noun Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun
clause.” A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.

What he did made a problem for his family.

In above sentence, the clause “what he did” functions as a noun, hence it is a noun clause. A
noun clause works as a noun that acts as a subject, object, or predicate in a sentence. A noun
clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever”.

Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a subject)
What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a subject)
He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an object)
Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an object)

Adjective Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective
An adjective clause works like adjective in a sentence. The function of an adjective is to
modify (describe) a noun or a pronoun. Similarly a noun clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.

He wears a shirt which looks nice.

The clause “which looks nice” in above sentence is an adjective clause because it modifies
noun “shirt” in the sentence. An adjective clause always precedes the noun it modifies.

I met the boy who had helped me.
An apple that smells bad is rotten.
The book which I like is helpful in preparation for test.
The house where I live consists of four rooms.
The person who was shouting needed help.

Adjective clause begins with relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which, or whose)
and is also relative clause.

Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

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Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause.
A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun. A nonrestrictive clause
tells us something about preceding noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of
preceding noun or pronoun.


•The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause)

•The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the test.
(nonrestrictive clause)

In the first sentence the clause “who studied a lot” restrict information to preceding
noun (student), it means that there is only one student in the class who studied a lot, hence it
is a restrictive clause.
In the second sentence the clause “who had attended all the lectures” gives us
information about preceding noun but does not limit this information to the preceding noun.
It means there can be several other students in the class who had attended all the lectures.
A comma is always used before a restrictive clause in a sentence and also after
nonrestrictive clause if it is within a main clause. “That” is usually used to introduce a
restrictive clause while “which” is used to introduce a nonrestrictive clause.

1. The table that costs $ 100 is made of steel. (restrictive clause)
2. The table, which costs $ 100, is made of steel. (nonrestrictive clause)

Adverb Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called adverb clause”. An
adverb clause like an adverb modifies a verb, adjective clause or other adverb clause in a
sentence. It modifies (describes) the situation in main clause in terms of “time, frequency
(how often), cause and effect, contrast, condition, intensity (to what extent).”

The subordinating conjunctions used for adverb clauses are as follows.

Time: when, whenever, since, until, before, after, while, as, by the time, as soon as
Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as long as, so, so that,
Contrast: although, even, whereas, while, though
Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing or provided that, in case.

1. Don’t go before he comes.
2. He takes medicine because he is ill.
3. Although he tried a lot, he couldn’t climb up the tree.
4. Unless you study for the test, you can’t pass it.
5. I will go to the school unless it rains.
6. You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
7. You can achieve anything provided that you struggle for it.

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Language Focus Sentences – Kinds of sentences.

A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and
it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow,
and verbs are in green.
A. Some students like to study in the mornings.
B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
The three examples above are all simple sentences. Note that sentence B contains a
compound subject, and sentence C contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore,
contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a
compound subjects or verbs.
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The
coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each
of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always
preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs
are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.
A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.
B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.
The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two
independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note
how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses.
Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B,
which action occurred first?
Obviously, "Alejandro played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went
In sentence C, "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence C, "Alejandro played football"
because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria went shopping."
How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses?
What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence?
Conditional Sentences: TRUE in the present or Future.
In conditional sentences that express true, factual ideas in the present/ future, the simple
(not the simple future) is used in If-clause.

If + simple present, simple present/ will + simple verb form

The result clause has various possible verb forms. A result clause verb can be:
1. the simple present, to express a habitual activity or situations
If I don't eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.
2. either the simple present or simple future, to express an established, predictable fact
or general truth Water freezes or will freeze if the temperature reaches 32°F / 0°C.
3. the simple future, to express a particular activity or situation in the future
If I don't eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.
4. modals and phrasal modals such as should, might, can, be going to,
If it rains, we should stay home.
If it rains, we might decide to stay home.
If it rains, we can't go.
If it rains, We're going to stay home.
5. an imperative verb: If anyone calls, please take a message.
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Sometimes should is used in an if-clause. It indicates a little more uncertainlty than the use of
the simple present, but basically the meaning of examples:
 If anyone calls, please take a message.
 If anyone should call, please take a message

2. Conditional Sentences: UNTRUE

(Contrary to Fact) in the present or Future.

If + simple past / WERE(if with "BE"), would + simple verb form

If I taught this class, I wouldn't give tests. => in truth: I don't teach this class.
If he were here right now, he would help us. => in truth: He is not here right now.
If I were you, I would accept their invitation. => in truth: I am not you.

WERE is used for both singular or plural subjects. WAS (with I, he, she, it) is sometimes used
in informal speech: If I was you, I'd accept their invitation.
Let's compare two following examples, they have a little difference in meaning.
 If I had enough money, I would buy a car.
The speaker wants a car, but doesn't have enough money. Would expresses desired
or predictable results.
If I had enough money, I could buy a car.
The speaker is expressing one possible results. Could = would be able to. Could expresses
possible options.

A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent
clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after,
although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex
sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas
(when required) are in red.
A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a

comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins
the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is
required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.
Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the
dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the
independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause in
sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause
In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins
the sentence.

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Conditional Sentences

3. Conditional Sentences: UNTRUE (Contrary to Fact) in the past.

If + Past perfect , would have + past participle

If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you. ==> The true is that you did
not tell me about it.
If they had studied, they would have passed the exam. ==> The true: they didnot study,
therefore, they failed the exam.
If I hadn't slipped on the stairs, I wouldn't have broken my arm. ==> The true: I slipped on the
stairs, I broke my arm.
The auxiliary verbs are almost always contracted in speech. "If you'd told me, I would've
helped you (OR I'd've helped you."
In casual, informal speech, some native speakers sometimes use would have in an if-clause: If
I would've told me about the problem, I would've helped you. This verb form usage is
generally considered not to be grammatically correct standard English, but it occurs fairly
Let's COMPARE the following examples:
If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car. ==> could expresses a desired or
predictable result.
If I had had enough money, I could have bought a car. ==> would expresses a possible option;
could have bought = would have been able to buy.

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Present Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that
something happens less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happens regularly.
 When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
I regularly have days off from work.
 If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
I rarely have days off from work.

Present Unreal Conditional

FORM: [If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]
[... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]
USE: The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would generally do in
imaginary situations.

1. If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.
2. She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much
3. I would read more if I didn't watch so much TV.
4. Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.
5. If they worked harder, they would earn more money.
6. A: What would you do if you won the lottery?
B: I would buy a house.
7. A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?
B: I would live in Seattle.

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EXCEPTION If I were ...
 Present
In the Unreal
If I went to a Conditional,
friend's house thefor
form "was"
dinner, is not considered
I usually grammatically
took a bottle correct.
of wine or some
In writtenflowers.
English or in testing
I don't do thatsituations, should always use "were." However, in
 Whenconversation,
I had a day "was" is often
off from used.
work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time
Examples: off.
 If thehe were
weather French,
washe would
nice, she live in walked
often Paris. to work. Now, she usually drives.
If shealways
 Jerry were rich, she me
helped wouldwithbuy
yacht. when he had time. But he doesn't do
 that
I would play basketball if I were taller.
 A: I would
Whatbuy did that computer
you usually do ifwhen
it were cheaper.
it rained?
 B: I usually
I would buystayed at home.if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in
that computer
IMPORTANT Used Only use
to "If"
the word
used withthe theidea
that Unreal
was an old
habit you
in the
imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.
This form is commonly used in Past Real Conditional sentences to emphasize that something
was a habit. The buy
I would examples below have
that computer whentheitsame
weremeaning theCorrect
Not examples above.
 I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. Correct
 If I went
EXCEPTION to a friend's
Conditional house for
with Modal dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some
There areflowers. I don'tconditional
some special do that anymore.
forms for modal verbs in English:
would + can
When = could
I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
would + shall
If the=weather
should was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.
would + may = might
 Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that
The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would." Instead, they must be used
in these
 special
A: Whatforms.
did you usually do when it rained?
Examples: B: I used to stay at home.
 If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not Correct
 If I went
IMPORTANT to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. Correct
If / When
 If she had
Both "if" and "when" time,
are she
in themay
Pastgo to the
Real party. NotUsing
Conditional. Correct
"if" suggests that something
 If she had time, she might go to the party. Correct
happened less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happened regularly.

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot
 When them with
I had"would."
a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
Examples: I regularly had days off from work.
 If If II had
had more time,
a day off fromI would
work,could exercise
I usually wentafter work.
to the Not Correct
 IIfrarely
I had more time, I could
had days off from work. exercise after work. Correct
 If he invited you, you really would should go. Not Correct
Past Unreal
If heConditional
invited you, you really should go. Correct
Past Conditionals
FORM: [If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ... ]
Past Real[...Conditional
would have + past participle ... if ... Past Perfect ...]
USE: The Past/ When ... Simple
Unreal Past ...,
Conditional ... Simple
is used Past
to talk ...] imaginary situations in the past. You
[... Simple Past... if / when ... Simple Past ...]
can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened
differently if circumstances had been different.
USE: The Past Real Conditional describes what you used to do in particular real-life
situations. It suggests that your habits have changed and you do not usually do these things

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 If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't own one, so I took the
 She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she
didn't have much money, so she never traveled.
 I would have read more as a child if I hadn't watched so much TV. Unfortunately, I
did watch a lot of TV, so I never read for entertainment.
 Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in
school instead of French.
 If Jack had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he
was lazy and he didn't earn much.
 A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week?
B: I would have bought a house.
 A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United
B: I would have chosen Seattle.

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing
imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

 I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. Not Correct
 I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. Correct

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:
would have + can = could have
would have + shall = should have
would have + may = might have

The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would have." Instead, they must be
used in these special forms.

 If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic.
 If she had had time, she might have gone to the party.
The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include Conditional, so you cannot
combine them with "would have."

 If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work.
 If he had invited you, you might have gone.

Using "Mixed Time" in Conditional Sentences

Frequently the time in the If-clause and the time in the result clause are different: one clause
may be in the present and the other in the past. Notice that past and present time are mixed
in the following sentences.

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TRUE I did not eat breakfast many hours ago, so I am hungry now.
CONDITIONAL If I had eaten breakfast many hours before, I would not be hungry now.
He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.
If he were a good student, he would have studied for test yesterday.

With were, had (past perfect), and should, sometimes if is omitted and the subject and verb are inverted.
 Were I you, I wouldn't do that.
(Were I you = if I were you.)
 Had I known, I would have told you.
(Had I known = If I had known)
 Should anyone call, please take a message.
(Should anyone call = if anyone should call)


Often the if-clause is implied, not stated. Conditional verbs are still used in the result clause.
 I would have gone with you, but I had to study.
the implied condition = If I hadn't had to study.
 I never would have succeeded without your help.
the implied condition = if you hadn't helped me.

Conditional verbs are frequently used following otherwise.

 She ran; otherwise, she would have missed her bus.
the implied IF-clause = if she had not run.

a. It looks like rain.===>like is followed by a noun object.
b. It looks as if it is going to rain.
c. It looks as though it is going to rain. ===> as if and as though are followed by a
d. It looks like it is going to rain. (informal) ===>in d. like is followed by a clause.
This use of like is common in informal English, but is not generally considered
appropriate in formal English; as if or as though is preferred.
All the above examples have the same meaning.

He is not a child. She talked to him as if he were a child.

She did not take a shower with her When she came in from the rainstorm, she looked as if she
clothes on. had taken a shower with her clothes on.
He acted as though he had never met her.
He has met her. She spoke as though she wouldn't be here.
She will be here.
Usually the idea following as if / as though is "untrue." In this case, verb usage is similar to that in
conditional sentences.


Wish is used when the speaker wants reality to be different, to be exactly opposite.


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a. She will not tell me. I wish (that) she would tell me.
A wish about
b. He isn't going to be here. I wish he were going to be here.
the future
c. She can't come tomorrow. I wish she could come tomorrow.

d. I don't know French. I wish I knew French.

A wish about
e. It is raining right now. I wish it weren't raining right now.
the present
f. I can't speak Japanese. I wish I could speak Japanese.

A wish about g. John didn't come. I wish John had come.

the past h. Mary couldn't come. I wish Mary could have come.
*Sometimes, in very informal speaking: I wish John would have come.
Wish is followed by a noun clause. Past verb forms, similar to those in conditional sentences, are used in the
noun clause.
In a.: would, the past form of will, is used to make a wish about future.
In d.: the simple past (knew) is used to make a wish about the present.
In g.: the past perfect (had come) is used to make a wish about the past.
7. Using WOULD To Make "WISHES" About the Future
Would is usually used to indicate that the speaker wants something to happen or someone other than the
speaker to do something in the future. The wish may or may not come true (be realized).
 It is raining. I wish it would stop. ( I want it to stop raining. )
 I'm expecting a call. I wish the phone would ring. (I want the phone to ring.)
I wish you would.... is often used to make a request.
 It's going to be a good party. I wish you would come.
 We're going to be late. I wish you would hurry.

Modal verbs
Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) are special verbs which behave
irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like "work, play, visit..." They give additional
information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative
Here are some characteristics of modal verbs:
 They never change their form. You can't add "s", "ed", "ing"...
 They are always followed by an infinitive without "to" (e.i. the bare infinitive.)
 They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness,
obligation, necessity, ability
List of modal verbs
Here is a list of modal verbs:
can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must
The verbs or expressions dare, ought to, had better, and need not behave like modal auxiliaries to a large
extent and my be added to the above list
Use of modal verbs:
Modal verbs are used to express functions such as:
Lack of necessity
Examples of modal verbs
Here is a list of modals with examples:

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Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without "to", also called the bare infinitive.
You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
You should see to the doctor.
There are a lot of tomatoes in the fridge. You need not buy any.
Choose the right modal verb

1. There are plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You_____________buy any.

2. It's a hospital. You________________smoke.
3. He had been working for more than 11 hours. He___________be tired after such hard work.
He________________prefer to get some rest.
4. I_______________speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco. But after we
moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew
as a child. Now, I__________________just say a few things in the language.
5. The teacher said we________________read this book for our own pleasure as it is optional. But
we_______________read it if we don't want to.
6. _____________you stand on your head for more than a minute? No, I____________.
7. If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you___________to work hard.
8. Take an umbrella. It_____________rain later.
9. You________________leave small objects lying around . Such objects___________be swallowed by
10. People____________walk on grass.
11. Drivers____________stop when the traffic lights are red.
12. _____________I ask a question? Yes, of course.
13. You______________ take your umbrella. It is not raining.
14. ______________you speak Italian? No, I .

Modals in the Present and Past

Generally speaking modals in the past have the following form:
modal + have + past participle
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You should see a doctor.
You should have seen a doctor
Except for modals that express obligation,ability and lack of necessity:
Present = I must / have to work hard. -- Past = I had to work hard.
Present = I can run fast. -- Past = I could run fast when I was young.
Lack of necessity:
Present = You don't have to / needn't take your umbrella. -- Past = You didn't have to / didn't need to take
your umbrella.
Language Focus:

 Active and Passive Sentences

 Correlative conjunctions
 Subject verb agreement
 Affixes (Prefixes and Suffixes)
 Present participle, past participle, perfect participle
1) present participle
The present participle is often used when we want to express an active action.
In English we add -ing to the infinitive of the verb.
Use of the present participle
Progressive/ He is reading a book.
Continuous tense He was reading a book.
Reading books is fun.
He likes reading books.
Look at the reading boy.
He came reading around the corner.
He sat reading in the corner.
I saw him reading.
2-1) past participle
The present participle is often used when we want to express a passive action.
In English we add -ed to the infinitive of regular verbs. We use the 3rd column of the table of the irregular
Use of the past participle
He has forgotten the pencil.
Perfect tenses
He had forgotten the pencil.
A house is built.
Passive voice
A house was built.

Participle Look at the washed car.

The car washed yesterday is blue.
He had his car washed.
2-2) Compounds with the past participle
This combination is also known as perfect participle. It is used to form an active sentence with the past
participle. There is a time gap between the actions.
past participle and having
Having read the book the boy came out of the room. One action happened after the other.

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present participle
The boy came reading out of the room. Both actions happened at the same time.
Active or Passive Voice
A. ACTIVE sentence is used to emphasize the DOER, while PASSIVE to stress the RECEIVER
Let's compare the following examples:
 The boy next door stole my watch.
 My expensive watch was stolen.
 The little girl can play with the snake
 (by the boy next door).
quite safely.
 This snake can be played with quite safely.(by...)
 Robert repaired my television set
 My television set was repaired perfectly well.
perfectly well.
B. Particularly in English, The PASSIVE VOICE is used:
1. When the DOER is unknown or unnecessary to mention.
o Rome was not build in a day. ==> (DOER)
o Her only son was killed in action. ==> (IS UNKNOWN)
o Children should be seen but not heard. ==> (DOER is Unnecessary to mention)
o English is spoken all over the world. ==> (DOER is Unnecessary to mention)
2. Verbs of Perceptions are commonly used in PASSIVE.
o While clouds are seen flying in the sky
o Some fragrance is smelt in this garden.
o Human whispers are being heard from those bushes.
3. We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused
the action.
Example: Appointments are required in such cases.
We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active
Form: Subject + be + past participle
How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:
- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence
- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out).
Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Active: Peter builds a house.
Simple Present
Passive: A house is built by Peter.
Active: Peter Built a house.
Simple Past
Passive: A house was built by Peter.
Active: Peter has built a house.
Present Perfect
Passive: A house has been built by Peter.
Active: Peter will build a house.
Passive: A house will be built by Peter.
Active: Peter can build a house.
Passive: A house can be built by Peter.

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Correlative conjunctions
Each of the pair of the words of correlative conjunctions should be followed by a word of the same
grammatical form:
- Either (noun) or (noun); - Not only (adj) but also (adj)
Either........or is used to indicate alternatives.
Rice can be used to make either cake or wine.
The subject closest to the verb will determine if the verb is singular or plural.

Neither.......nor is used to indicate negative alternatives.

 Soya is dangerous to neither humans nor animals.
The subject closest to the verb will determine if the verb is singular or plural.

Both ..... and indicates addition.

 Both children and adults are allowed.
Subjects connected with both ..... and take a plural verb.

Not only .... but also emphasizes addition.

Not only.......but
 They are not only rich but also very kind and generous.
The not only clause must come before the phrase it refers to. The subject closest
to the verb will determine if the verb is singular or plural.

whether...or indicates a condition.

Whether.......or Example:
 Whether it rains or it snows, we must go to see how they are.
Subject Verb Agreement
Subject and verb in a sentence must agree in person and number. Singular subjects need singular verbs;
plural subjects need plural verbs.
 The elevator works very well. (singular)
 The elevators work very well. (plural)
Subject separated from the verb:In English, subject and verb are separated from each other. English
learners have a bit difficulty to decide exactly how they are agreed in person and number.
 The boys in the room are watching TV

Very often, if the subject and verb are separated, they will be separated by a prepositional phrase. The
prepositional phrase had no effect on the verb.
Subject + [prepositional phrase] + verb
More Examples:
 The study of languages is very interesting.
 Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
 The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
 The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.

The following expressions also have no effect on the verb:

together with, accompanied by, along with, as well as

 The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.
 Mr. Robbins, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.
116 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016
Words that always take singular verbs and pronouns:
Some words are often confused by English learners as being plural. The following words must be
followed by singular verbs and pronouns in formal written English.
any + singular noun no + singular noun some + singular noun

Anybody Nobody Somebody

Anyone no one Someone

Anything Nothing Something

every + singular noun each + singular noun

everybody *either

everyone *neither

every thing
*Either and Neither are singular if they are not used with or and nor.
 Everybody who has not purchased a ticket should be in this line.
 Something is under the table.
 If either of you takes a vacation now, we will not be able to finish the project.
 Anybody who has lost his ticket should report to the desk.
 No problem is harder to solve than this one.
 Nobody works harder than him.
1. None can take either singular or plural verb, depending on the noun which follows it.
none + of the + non-count noun + singular verb
Example: None of the counterfeit money has been found.
none + of the + plural count noun + plural verb
Example: None of the students have finished the exam yet.

2. No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun which follows it.
no + singular / non count noun + singular verb
Example: No ticket is required.

no + plural noun + plural verb

Example: No tickets are required.
Either / Neither :
When either and neither are followed by or and nor, the verb may be singular or plural, depending on
whether the noun following or and nor is singular or plural. If or or nor appears alone, the same rule
applies. Let’s check out the following formulas.
neither / either + noun + nor / or + plural noun + plural verb
 Neither Bob nor his friends are going to the beach today.
 Either Bob or his friends are going to the beach today.

neither / either + noun + nor / or + singular noun + singular verb

 Neither John nor Bill is going to the beach today.
 Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.
Gerunds As Subjects:
If a sentence begins with {verb+ing}(gerund), the verb must be a singular.

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 117

Let’s study the following examples.
 Working for him is the best choice I’ve made.
 Going out at night doesn’t seems interesting to me.
 Not studying has cause him many problems.
Collective Nouns:
Many words indicating a number of people or animals are singular. The following nouns are usually singular.
In some cases they are plural if sentence indicates that the individual members are acting separately.
congress family group committee class
organization team army club crowd
government Jury majority* minority public
* majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular; if it is followed by plural noun, it is
usually plural.
 The majority believes that we are in no danger.
 The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.
Examples of collective nouns:
 The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.
 The family was elated by the news.
 The crowd was wild with excitement.
 Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation.
 The organization has lost many members this years.
 Our team is going to win the game.
The following nouns are used to indicate groups of certain animals. It is not necessary to learn the nouns;
however, they mean the same as group and thus are considered singular.
flock of birds, sheep school of fish
herd of cattle pride of lions
pack of dogs
 The flock of birds is circling overhead.
 The herd of cattle is breaking away.
 A school of fish is being attacked by sharks.
A Number of / The Number of :
 A number of + plural noun + plural verb…..
 The number + plural noun + singular verb….
 A number of students are going to the class picnic. ( a number of = many)
 The number of the days in a week is seven.
 A number of the applicants have already been interviewed.
 The number of residents who have been questioned on this matter is quite small.
Nouns are that Always Plural:
The following nouns are always considered plural. They cannot be singular. In order to speak of them as
singular, we must say ” a pair of ______”.
Scissor Shorts pants Jeans tongs
Trousers Eyeglasses pliers Tweezers
Let’s study the following examples:
 The pants are in the drawer.
 A pair of pants is in the drawer.
 The pliers were on the table.
 The pair of pliers was on the table.
 These scissors are dull.
 This pair of scissors is dull.

118 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

Affixes (Prefixes and Suffixes)
Affixes and roots
Adding affixes to existing words (the base or root) to form new words is common in academic
English. Prefixes are added to the front of the base (like dislike), whereas suffixes are added to the end
of the base (active activate). Prefixes usually do not change the class of the base word, but suffixes
usually do change the class of the word.
The most common prefixes used to form new verbs in academic English are: re-, dis-, over-, un-,
mis-, out-. The most common suffixes are: -ise, -en, -ate, -(i)fy. By far the most common affix in academic
English is -ise.
e.g. prefix + verb verb
Prefix Meaning Examples

re- again or back restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance

disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect,

dis- reverses the meaning of the verb

over- too much overbook, oversleep, overwork

un- reverses the meaning of the verb unbend, uncouple, unfasten

mis- badly or wrongly mislead, misinform, misidentify

out- more or better than others outperform, outbid

be- make or cause befriend, belittle

co- Together co-exist, co-operate, co-own

de- do the opposite of devalue, deselect

fore- earlier, before foreclose, foresee

inter- Between interact, intermix, interface

pre- Before pre-expose, prejudge, pretest

sub- under/below subcontract, subdivide

trans- across, over transform, transcribe, transplant

underfund, undersell, undervalue,

under- not enough
e.g. Suffix used to form verbs with the meaning "cause to be".

Suffix Example

-ize stabilize, characterize, symbolize, visualize, specialize

-ate differentiate, liquidate, pollinate, duplicate, fabricate

-fy classify, exemplify, simplify, justify

-en awaken, fasten, shorten, moisten

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The most common prefixes used to form new nouns in academic English are: co- and sub-. The most
common suffixes are: -tion, -ity, -er, -ness, -ism, -ment, -ant, -ship, -age, -ery. By far the most common noun
affix in academic English is -tion.
e.g. prefix + noun noun
Prefix Meaning Examples

anti- Against anticlimax, antidote, antithesis

auto- Self autobiography, automobile

bi- Two bilingualism, biculturalism, bi-metalism

co- Joint co-founder, co-owner, co-descendant

counter- Against counter-argument, counter-example, counter-proposal

dis- the converse of discomfort, dislike

ex- Former ex-chairman, ex-hunter

hyper- Extreme hyperinflation, hypersurface

in- the converse of inattention, incoherence, incompatibility

in- Inside inpatient,

inter- between interaction, inter-change, interference

kilo- thousand Kilobyte

mal- bad malfunction, maltreatment, malnutrition

mega- million Megabyte

mis- wrong misconduct, misdeed, mismanagement

mini- small mini-publication, mini-theory

mono- one monosyllable, monograph, monogamy

neo- new neo-colonialism, neo-impressionism

out- separate outbuilding,

poly- many polysyllable

pseudo- false pseudo-expert

re- again re-organisation, re-assessment, re-examination

semi- half semicircle, semi-darkness

sub- below subset, subdivision

super- more than, above superset, superimposition, superpowers

sur- over and above surtax

tele- distant telecommunications,

120 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016

tri- three tripartism

ultra- beyond ultrasound

under- below, too little underpayment, under-development, undergraduate

vice- deputy vice-president

e.g. Suffix added to a verb (V), noun (N) or adjective (A) noun
Suffix Meaning Examples

-tion alteration, demonstration

action/instance of V-ing
-sion expansion, inclusion, admission

person who V-s advertiser, driver

something used for V-ing computer, silencer

-ment action/instance of V-ing development, punishment, unemployment

-ant assistant, consultant

person who V-s
-ent student

-age action/result of V breakage, wastage, package

-al action/result of V denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal

-ence preference, dependence, interference

action/result of V
-ance attendance, acceptance, endurance

-ery/- action/instance of V-ing bribery, robbery, misery

ry place of V-ing refinery, bakery

Suffix Meaning Examples

-er person concerned with N astronomer, geographer

-ism doctrine of N Marxism, Maoism, Thatcherism

-ship state of being N friendship, citizenship, leadership

-age collection of N baggage, plumage

Suffix Meaning Examples

-ity state or quality of being A ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity

-ness state or quality of being A darkness, preparedness, consciousness

-cy state or quality of being A urgency, efficiency, frequency

Many adjectives are formed from a base of a different class with a suffix (e.g. -less, -ous). Adjectives can also
be formed from other adjectives, especially by the negative prefixes (un-, in- and non-). The most common
suffixes are -al, -ent, -ive, -ous, -ful, -less.

e.g. Suffix added to verbs or nouns adjective

Suffix Example

Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 121

-al central, political, national, optional, professional

-ent different, dependent, excellent

-ive attractive, effective, imaginative, repetitive

-ous continuous, dangerous, famous

-ful beautiful, peaceful, careful

-less endless, homeless, careless, thoughtless

-able drinkable, countable, avoidable,

e.g. negative + adjective adjective

Prefix Examples

un- unfortunate, uncomfortable, unjust

immature, impatient, improbable, inconvenient, irreplaceable, illegal

non- non-fiction, non-political, non-neutral

dis- disloyal, dissimilar, dishonest

e.g. base with both prefix and suffix
Adjectives: uncomfortable, unavoidable, unimaginative, inactive, semi-circular
Nouns: disappointment, misinformation, reformulation

122 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016


Other ELT Sources:

Dave’s ESL Café gigantic site of resources for ESL students and teachers including idioms, slang, quotes, a
job center, and discussion forums
Activities for ESL Students study materials for students of English as a second language
Randall's Cyber Listening Lab audio lessons help students of the English language improve their
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ESL Movie Guide ESL movie guides with each synopsis featuring a list of the major characters, a plot
summary and an extensive glossary of vocabulary and cultural references
Breaking News English - Ready-to-use EFL / ESL lesson plans based on current affairs. Graded news articles,
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It's Online for teachers and students of English
English for Internet - a free English school on the Internet, this site offers classes in grammar, reading,
writing, listening and speaking - combination of lessons, expression quizzes and chat
English Global Village a range of interactive ESL materials for students and teachers, organized according to
Interesting Things for ESL Students word games, puzzles, quizzes, slang, proverbs Karin's ESL PartyLand ESL
students and teachers can find quizzes and on-line exercises, lesson plans, e-mail exchanges, 25 discussion
forums, a job center, ESL links, a bookstore, and more
Easy English free diagnostic tests, lessons and links for English learners
ESL Lounge activities and resources for English learners
Ohio ESL English student resources Free, comprehensive ESL Site including forums, real time chat, grammar, writing,
interactive quizzes and games, flashcards, audio materials, helplines, multi-lingual content - and much
more! - practice your English with interactive exercises on-line - receive unique interactive
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Literacy net great reading practice
ESL Gold features hundreds of pages of free materials for both students and teachers with all materials
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Using English for English students
English Daily an English site for those who are determined to learn English well
Learning Vocabulary Can Be Fun a variety of computer based games including word search, hangman and
concentration for vocabulary building
5 Minute English over 150 short lessons for intermediate-level English learners, a free weekly lesson by
email, a message board, and more
RepeatAfterUs copyright-free classics with audio clips, including poems, fables, essays, soliloquies, historical
speeches, memorable quotes, nursery rhymes, and children's stories from around the world

Saber Inglés free English Course. Lessons based on songs, TV shows and movies. Games, reading
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English The Easy Way Everyone can learn English; this site explains English, so that everyone can understand
SAT Preparation More than 3,000 multiple choice questions divided into 21 groups and a database browser
to review and print the questions and the correct answers
Zozanga ESL - Learn English free and independent web site for EFL/ESL learners and teachers
Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016 | 123
English, baby! uses American movies and music to teach REAL English
Short Story Radio listen to professional recordings of original English language short stories free of charge --
two new stories every week
Purdue Writing Lab online writing lab, resources for writers and teachers, internet search tools
Advanced Composition provides students with information required to write essays for the US academic
audience; designed principally for those students who have had no classes in formal English composition
and whose TOEFL scores are 500 or more
Pizzaz Fun Writing Activities dedicated to providing simple creative writing and oral storytelling activities
with copyable handouts for use with students of all ages
Nellie's English Projects designed to provide students and teachers with clear instructions on how to write
and present research papers
Essay Info: Essay Writing Center information and tips for writing with guides for writing better quality essays
and research papers
Project Gutenberg incredible collection of thousands of public domain texts
ESL Reader - The Many Roads to Japan the story of a Vietnam War conscientious objector's adventures and
search for identity with links, pictures, comprehension and discussion/essay questions for low
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ESL Podcasts from China232 ESL podcasting website suitable for intermediate to advanced students
Open English World free ESL activities including idioms and conversation with recorded audio learn English through soccer
Spelling City free site students can practice their spelling words using online word games
University English a site for students of English for Academic Purposes regularly updated by a university
E-English free online English grammar for all who want to practise English tenses (OK)
Blair English free website for non-native English speakers wishing to improve their business and general
EmbedPlus: How to pronounce words and use them multimedia pronunciation dictionary with videos of real
people speaking and using the word in context.

124 | Reach English Text Book Level 3 Revised Edition 2016