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Arc welding is one of alternative for joining process in manufacturing.Arc welding process
had done by create an electric arc between electrode and the base material to melt the metal at the
welding point using welding power supply.The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of
inert or semi-inertgas, known as a shielding gas and sometime adds by an evaporating filler material.

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual arc (MMA), welding or informally
as stick welding is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to
lay the weld.They can use either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) from a welding power
supply, used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined.As the weld is
laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas
and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.

An arc welding machine joins two metals together by generating an electric arc between a
coated metal electrode and base metal. The heat of the electric arc melts the matel which mixes
with the molten deposits of the coated electrode. The coating of the electrode produces a gas which
shields the weld from the atmosphere and helps to maintain the weld shape. This coating is later
removed in the form of slag. The slag coating over the weld insulated the hot weld from contaminant
in the air during cooling.

In arc welding, basically the principle is heating and melting of base metalusing electric arc.
The electric arc formed when there is a voltage difference between metal coating (on the electrode)
and surface of the metal to be welding. The arc will produce enough heat to melt the base metal and
end of the electrodeto form point of molten metal.


Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),also known as manual metal arc (MMA)
welding or informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a
consumable electrode coated in fluxto lay the weld. They can use either direct current (DC)
or alternating current (AC) from a welding power supply, used to form an electric arc
between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As he weld is laid, he flux coating of the
electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer
of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.


GAS metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypesmetal inert
gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc
welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas
are fed through a welding gun. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most
commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current
can be used. There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, calledglobular,
short-circuiting, spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinctproperties and
corresponding advantages and limitations.

Some of the industries that use the application welding
machines are aerospace, automobile, metal casting,
electronics and more.

In the automotive industry. Processes like part tracking and

traceability used requires the application of welding

These are the sectors that produce the metals and

instruments for the society, so it is not possible to weld a
metals without the process of welding.


Welders are the backbone for manufacting industry because these are
the devices that used to weld the meals. Metals is what concerned about
the industries and the raw metals are not useful unless they are molded
and welded well. So in that aspect the welder and welding equipment
play a vital role. Also, remember that with the help of single welding
supply it is not possible to weld all types of metals. For each metal
different welder needed. To weld steel and other non ferrous metals, tig
welder is useful similarly for other welding machines are used.

Due to the advancement in technology,different welding
products have been introduced and each types has their
own meris.

Tig welder particularly welds steel, aluminum, magnesium

and copper.

Mig welder is used for aluminum and steel and it allows

for lower welding time compared to other processes.

Stick welding is used to weld aluminum, steel, iron, nickel

and copper.

For all spot repairs in industries multiprocess units can be

very useful.

 Versatility
– readily applied to a variety of applications
and a wide choice of electrodes.
 Relative simplicity and portability of equipment.
 Low cost.
 Adaptable to confined spaces and remote locations
 Suitable for out-of-position welding.

 No as productive as continuous wire processes.
 Likely to be more costly to deposit a given quantity
of metal.
 Frequent stop/starts to change electrode.
 Relatively high metal wastage (electrode stubs)
 Current limits are lower than for continuous or
automatic processes (reduces deposition rate)

Submerged arc welding (SAW)
 Lends itself to the production of consistenly high quality weld with minimum
operator skills.
 Minimum of welding fume and of arc visibility (radiation)
 Well suited to welding thick sections.
 Suitable for welding carbon, low alloy and alloy steels.
 Relatively high metal deposition rates.

 Flat or horizontal position welding only.
 Care required to preserve correct electrode alighnment, as electrode.
 Tip and weld pool are underneath.


 Versatility – suitable for a variety of positions and applications.
 Capable of relatively high deposition rates.
 Enable ‘one process’ operation for individual projects – simplifies training,
supervision and logastics.

 Incorrect selection of consumable and parameters may lead to lower weld
 Potential for lack-of-fusion type defects if welding parameters are incorrect or
misalignment occurs.
 Fume extraction may be required.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

 Applicable to a very wide range of materials.
 Especially good for welding thin sections and delicate
 Capable restricted to flat or horizontal welding.

 Generally restricted to flat or horizontal welding.

Equipment for arc welding

 There are two cables that bring electricity from welding machine to work
metal and back to welding machine and earth cable.
 These cable are made from small copper wire coated with strong rubber so
that you can hold it. Every cable has it own size. Size no.2 means that the
cable will be able to withstand welding electricity up to 200 amps. These
cable are connected to the welding machine through its copper end.

2.Electrode Holder.

 It is used to electricity from welding machine to work metal. It is used to

hold the electrode during the welding process. It has a spring as its
parts so that it can hold and let go off the electrode easily. Electrode
holder must be lightweight, have good rubber coating and easy to
handle for quite a long time. It has its own size for the amount of electric
current that it carries.

3. Chipping hammer

 It is made from an old punch, chisel or spring metal. Shape like a

chisel at one end and has a sharpened end at the other one.
 Its holder is made from welded soft metal. It is used commonly to
break off slag excess stringer from the surface of the work metal.

4. Wire brush.

 It is used to clean the surface of the stringer bead after the slag is
chipped away and to remove dirt from the surface of work metal
before welding be done.


 Used for hold the work piece.

6.Welding electrode

 Metal rod with a layer of coating which is used to flow of the

electric current to form the electric arc.

7.Welding Machine

 As a converter to adjust the welding voltage and


Before start the welding, we must ;

 Check that the machine, all electrode holders and cable are capable of carrying
the maximum current, are properly insulated and grounded, and have been
maintained in good working condition.

 Check that any cable splices have been performed with insulating quality equal to
that of the cable, and there are no splices within 10 feet of the electrode.

 The area must be free of chlorinated solvent vapours within 50 feet of the exposed
arc; surface prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before
welding is performed on them.

 Use the personal protective equipment as a helmet or shield, clothing protection,

foot protection and hand protection.

 Set a current at 90 kilowatt and a plates must be cleaned before the weld.

 Select a size set of electrodes E6013 mild steel, 3.25mm diameter.

 Make sure all equipment in a good condition.

 When arc welding is performed in wet or high humidity conditions, personnel

must use additional protection against electric shock (e.g. rubber pads or boots)

 To protect student or other personnel from the arc rays, non-combustible or

flameproof screens or shields shall be used, or personnel in the area shall wear
appropriate goggles.

 The torch angle must be at 70kw and the control body position in correct place.

 After get a perfect kunai, surplus revenue should be removed using a hammer to
avoid contact with hot melding in your body.

 Then, melding the resulting brush using a wire brush.

 After completion of welding work, clean up and rearrange the equipment used.

 When machines are not in use, the power supply switch shall be shut off and the
electrode removed and the holders placed to prevent employee injury.

 Clean up the workshop and ensure that all switches are closed and in good

Introduction gas welding
~ Welding is to fasten two pieces of metal with either melt or not melt with heat.
Welding is used more than the extent of the melting temperature and melting metal
molten weld known. Welding does not exceed the extent of the melting temperature,
but closer to the began to function as mentioned welding plastics not melting.

~Gas welding is a welding which produces a link which material is heated by gas
flame Oxy fuel with or without the use of pressure or without filler metal.

~Gas welding using heat from the combustion gases logam. Cutting oksiaseelina to
melt the metal and oxygen gas when hot metal is oxidized and subsequent decay of
oxygen is cut off the speed.

~Gas welding is used to connect the soft iron about 2 mm thick.

~Oxyfuel gas welding or commonly known as gas welding use flame as source of
heat. The flame is produced from mixture of fuel gas and pour oxygen the flame
melts the edges or surface of the joining metals. This allow the molten metal o flow
together and form a solid continuous joint upon cooling.

Application of gas Welding
While the aerospace industry is one of the primary users of gas tungsten arc
welding, the process is used in a number of other areas. Many industries use
GTAW for welding thin workpieces, especially nonferrous metals. It used
extensively in the manufacture of space vehicles, and is also frequently
employed to weld small-diameter,thin-wall tubing such as those used in
bicycle industry. In addition, GTAW is often used to make root or first pass
weld for piping of various sizes. In maintenance and repair work, the process
is commonly used to repair tools and dies, especially components made of
aluminum and magnesium. Because the weld metal is not transferred directly
across the electric arc like most open arc welding processes, a vast
assortment of welding filler metal is available to the welding engineer. In fact,
no other welding process permits the welding of so many alloys in so many
product configurations. Filler metal alloys, such as elemental aluminum and
chromium, can be lost through the electric arc form volatilization. This loss
does not occur with the GTAW process. Because the resulting weld have the
same chemical integrity as the original base metal or match the base metals
more closely, GTAW weld are highly resistant to corrosion and cracking over
long time periods, GTAW is the welding procedure of choice for critical
operations like sealing spent nuclear fuel canisters before burial.

Equipment of oxyacetylene welding


~It is remote control gas flow from the container or pipe manifold.This tool works
volume of gas pressure required for a welding process. Regulartor to receive gas at
high pressure and reduce the pressure to working pressure can be controlled. The
basic principle of operation starting from a spring that tightened the adjustment
screw. When the adjustment screw is rotated in a clockwise direction the screw
push rod ends which are connected with one drum channel into the workplace. A gas
outlet valve to work out an open and uncontrolled release of gas flow.

~oxygen gas is a gas that has no color, taste, and smell. This oxygen gas helped
smooth combustion process and easily with things that are sensitive to oxygen and
can rust the steel. It is also an essential ingredient to human and living things. Air
contains 21% volume of oxygen. It is commonly used in hospitals for medical
purposes. There will also be used by divers for breathing in the water as well as
welding purposes. In gas welding equipment is more commonly known by the name
of oxygen cylinders.


 To avoid from damages due to light ray when doing gas welding.
 Avoid contact with choice doing lathe.
 Save eyes from injury from sharp ships.


 Light the flame at gas welding torch


 To control gas flow from cylinder or manifold pipe.

 Decide the volume of gas pressure required for a welding process.


 Used to produce oxy-acetylene flame in a controlled situation.

 Have two valve to control gas oxygen and acetylene.


 Duct on oxygen gas

 Duct on acetylene


 Used for hold the work piece.

Oxyacetylene welding safety procedure.
1.Light the flame
Open the acetylene valve about ½ rotation.
Open the oxygen valve about ½ of rotation.
Be careful of the direction of the flame.

2.Adjusting the flame

Open the acetylene valve slightly to get the core flame length.
Open the oxygen valve slowly and adjust the flame in the elastic core to get

3.Extinguiush flames
Close the acetylene valve slowly.
Close the oxygen valve slowly.

4.Consequences of different flame

Flame cut off.
The oxygen high pressure.
The flame is too big.
Emission blowpipe nozzle stuck in the pores.
Explosive in flame.
Does not fully exhausting the gas mixture.
High pressure oxygen gas.
The distribution of acetylene is not enough.
The blowpipe nozzle raised or formed.
Firing back, or blast off.
The blowpipe nozzle too hot.
The gas pressure is not enough.
Emission blowpipe nozzle blockage in the pore.
Different needle valve.

~ Prior to beginning welding or cutting operations, student must check that the
cylinders, regulators, backflow prevention device, flame arrestors, hoses, clamps,
and torches are in good working condition.

~ Oil or grease must not come into contact with oxygen cylinders, valve, regulators
or other fittings. Do not handle oxygen cylinder or apparatus with oily hand or gloves,
or greasy materials. Do not let oxygen contact oily or greasy surface or clothes, or
enter a fuel oil or other storage tank.

~ Fuel gas and oxidizers must pass through a pressure-reducing regulator prior to
being used. Pressure reducing regulators must only be used at or below the rated
pressure and must be specific to the types of gas being used. Prior to connecting a
pressure regulators, cylinder valve should be ‘‘cracked’’ to clear the dust or dirt that
might otherwise enter the regulator. This procedure shall be performed away from
other welding work or sparks.

~ Prior to removing a regulator from a cylinder, personnel must close all cylinder
valves, and release the gas from the regulator.

~ Personnel must follow the manufacturer’s operating procedures for lighting the
torch. Generally accepted practices for startup and shut down follow:

1. Start up

 Open the oxygen valve on the torch handle and adjust the oxygen regulator
to the desired delivery range.
 Close the torch handle oxygen valve.
 Open the fuel valve on the torch handle and adjust the fuel regulator to the
required delivery range.
 Close the torch fuel control valve.
 Hold the torch in one hand and the spark lighter in the other. Open the torch
fuel valve approximately one-half turn and ignite the gas.
 Point the torch away from people and combustible materials.
 Keep opening the fuel valve until the flame stop smoking and bring the flame
back to the tip.
 Open the torch oxygen valve until a bright neutral flame is reached.

2. shut down

When shutting down the system, first shut off the oxygen, then the fuel gas.
Drain the gas pressures from the system


 Check the lining of the regulator if there is damage.

 Attack the regulator to the cylinder so that the gas outlet ports and a safety valve not
block shoulder of the cylinder and carefully with an adjustable wrench.


 Check the bushing in mounting if it is demaged.

 Keep the gas inlet of the regulator to about 20 mm from the clamp.
 Tilt the regulator is approximately 45 degrees.
 Tighten the tightening lever properly.


 Check for the leaks using a leak or water inspector soap bubbles.
 Check the following area:
o the cylinder valve.
o Mounting the regulator.
o Lever causes the regulator.
o Mounting pressure gauge.


1. Light the flame 3. To switch off flame

~ open the acetylene valve about ½ rotation. ~Close the acetylene valve slowly
~ open the oxygen valve about ½ rotation. ~Close the oxygen valve slowly
~ be wary of the direction inhalan
~ light with a special lighter

2.Adjusting the flame

~ Open the acetylene valve slightly to get the length of the flame core

~ Open the oxygen valve slowly

Welding is a one way to connect two piece of metal and
usually through a heating process. ‘‘manufacturers’’ using
this method to create a wide variety of materials including
cars, household appliances, and furniture. The construction
sector in making use of the building, connection certain parts
and so on
Subject of welding and fabrication is to supply us in many skill
and knowledge. When I practice this subject, it make me
more brave for made the heating process in the lab. Besides
that, I can know the suitable cloth to wear in the lab. For the
example, we have to wear the welding leathers, safety shoes,
the gloves and also shield. The all thing is very important for
our safety. I got to know the suitable equipment for me to
use when made the welding. We are taught about the basic
metal, how to measure, cut and hone.
Project in our metal fabrication has been completed in
accordance with the given time period. Then we have to
make a report about the project that we had done. It is
something great because we can write down what we has
studies in the lab. For the conclusion, the welding and metal
fabrication subject is very best and challenging.