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UCON Quenchants

User’s Manual

Quenchants
Table of Contents
Page Number
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Product Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Products ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Advantages of UCON™ Quenchants ..........................................................................................................................7
Quenching Variables ................................................................................................................................................8-9
Quenchant Selection:
Steel .....................................................................................................................................................10-13
Aluminum .............................................................................................................................................14-17
Quenchant Conversions .......................................................................................................................................18-22
Maintenance ........................................................................................................................................................23-25
Case Histories:
Integral Quenching.................................................................................................................................... 26
Open Tank Quenching ..........................................................................................................................26-27
Aluminum Quenching................................................................................................................................ 27
Induction Quenching ................................................................................................................................. 27
Controllable Delayed Quenching ..............................................................................................................28
Immersion Time Quenching Technology ..............................................................................................28-30
Ecological Fate Data ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Toxicological Properties ............................................................................................................................................ 31
Storage and Handling ............................................................................................................................................... 31
Product Safety ........................................................................................................................................................... 31
Additional Information:
Physical Properties – Graphs ...............................................................................................................32-35
Cooling Rate Data ................................................................................................................................36-38
Quenching Data ........................................................................................................................................ 39
Heat Transfer Coefficients ...................................................................................................................40-41
Emergency Service .................................................................................................................................................... 42

1
List of Figures

Figure 1 Illustration typical quenching processes by the superposition of quenching


time-temperature curves on the CCT curve for a quench-hardenable alloy .......................................... 4
Figure 2A Illustration of the wetting process for Water.........................................................................................5
Figure 2B Illustration of the wetting process for Oil ..............................................................................................5
Figure 2C Illustration of the wetting process typical of a UCON Quenchant ......................................................... 5
Figure 3 Cooling curves obtained at different positions in the center
and at the surface of a cylindrical probe ................................................................................................5
Figure 4 Illustration of a PAG cooling curve .........................................................................................................8
Figure 5 Illustration of the Grossman H-Factor for UCON Quenchant E .............................................................. 8
Figure 6 Illustration of Aluminum Parts Quenched in UCON Quenchant A ....................................................... 14
Figure 7 Stress Distribution vs. Percent Material Removed for A356 Aluminum Castings ............................... 15
Figure 8 Comparison of aluminum sheet distortion reduction achieved
with cold and hot water and UCON Quenchant A ..............................................................................15
Figure 9 Illustration of draft tube impeller design .............................................................................................19
Figure 10 Examples of chute quench designs ......................................................................................................21
Figure 11 Illustration of the introduction of sample onto a refractometer prism ................................................ 23
Figure 12 Illustration of a Cannon-Fenske viscosity tube ....................................................................................24
Figure 13 Illustration of a portable conductivity meter ........................................................................................24
Figure 14 Illustration of the separation temperature effect for a PAG quenchant .............................................. 24
Figure 15 Illustration of a nitrite color test ..........................................................................................................25
Figure 16 Illustration of a “Dip Stick” test for biological activity ........................................................................ 25
Figure 17 Normal hardness distribution (1) after quenching in oil at 20°C without agitation;
inverse hardness distribution (2) after quenching in UCON Quenchant E
at 15% concentration, 40°C bath temperature and 0.8 m/s agitation ............................................... 28
Figure 18 Test results of specimens with normal and inverse hardness distribution ......................................... 28
Figure 19 Crankshaft hardness and distortion results .........................................................................................29
Figure 20 Hardness distribution for track links produced by the continuous ITQS process ................................ 30
Figure 21A Schematic illustration of the quench system used to quench the probes ........................................... 35
Figure 21B Schematic illustration of dimensions of probes used to collect time-temperature
cooling curve data tabulated in Tables 14 –16.....................................................................................35

2
List of Tables

Table 1 Typical Physical Properties ..................................................................................................................6-7


Table 2 Factors Effecting Heat Transfer Rates ....................................................................................................8
Table 3 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant A .......................................................................................11
Table 4 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant E .......................................................................................12
Table 5 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant HT .....................................................................................13
Table 6 Limits For Quenching In UCON Quenchant A Solutions ....................................................................... 16
Table 7 Calculation of Quench Factors and Yield Strength for 2024 Sheet
and 7075 Sheet and Bar Stock ............................................................................................................17
Table 8 Suggested Coatings for Use on Contact with UCON Quenchants ....................................................... 19
Table 9 Power Requirements for Impeller Agitation .........................................................................................20
Table 10 Size of Impeller Mixers .........................................................................................................................20
Table 11 Pressure and Orifice Size Recommendations for Indirect Spray Quench Systems .............................. 22
Table 12 Environmental Fate ...............................................................................................................................30
Table 13 Ecotoxicity ............................................................................................................................................. 30
Table 14 Cooling Rate Data – UCON Quenchant A ............................................................................................36
Table 15 Cooling Rate Data – UCON Quenchant E .............................................................................................37
Table 16 Cooling Rate Data – UCON Quenchant HT ..........................................................................................38
Table 17 Cooling Rate Data – Water and Selected Oils .....................................................................................38
Table 18 Quenching Data for AA 7075-T73 using a Type I Aqueous Polymer
UCON Quenchant A (Solution Temperature 870°F) ..............................................................................39
Table 19 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 20% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Probe Diameter [Bath Temperature 43°C, Agitation V = 0 m/s (no agitation)] ................................... 40
Table 20 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 20% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Probe Diameter (Bath Temperature 60°C, Agitation V = 0.254 m/s) .................................................. 40
Table 21 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 30% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Sample Diameter (Bath Temperature 54.4°C, Agitation V = 0.1 m/s) ................................................ 41
Table 22 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 35% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Sample Diameter (Bath Temperature 43.3°C, Agitation V = 0.254 m/s) ............................................ 41

3
INTRODUCTION
UCON Quenchants

Quenching involves the controlled cooling of a metal cooling mechanisms exhibit different cooling rates,
from a high temperature to a cooler temperature to the formation of significant thermal gradients is
facilitate the formation of the desired microstructure unavoidable. These thermal gradients will lead to
and physical properties. For example, steel is typically increased thermal and transformational stresses and
heated to an austenitization temperature and cooled if sufficiently high, they will produce increased
at a rate sufficient to minimize the formation of distortion and possibly even cracking.
undesirable microstructures such as pearlite, and Quenching in an aqueous solution of a UCON
maximize the formation of martensite as shown in Quenchant will produce much more uniform quenching
Figure 1. over the entire surface of the cooling metal surface
In addition to facilitating the formation of desirable as shown in the series of photographs on page 5.
microstructures, another critically important function Also shown are cooling curves obtained at different
of a quenchant is to maximize the uniformity of the positions in the center and at the surface of a
cooling process over the surface of the part during cylindrical probe quenched in water and in a dilute
the cooling process. A series of photographs taken solution of a poly(alkylene glycol) quenchant (Figure 3).
when a cylindrical probe was quenched in water, oil The data shows that although the cooling curves are
and an aqueous PAG (polyalkylene glycol) quenchant, similar in the center of the probe, the difference in
such as a UCON Quenchant, are shown in cooling along the surface from the bottom when
Figures 2A–C. quenching in water is much greater than when
It is important to note that three different cooling quenching in aqueous polymer solution. This explains
mechanisms, film boiling (very slow cooling), nucleate why the addition of small quantities of a UCON
boiling (fastest cooling) and convective cooling (slow Quenchant (5–8%) often results in a dramatic
cooling) occur simultaneously on the metal surface reduction of distortion and cracking.
throughout the quenching process. Since all three

1400 Critical temperature

1200 High speed oil

Hot (180°F) water


Figure 1 Illustration typical quenching processes 1000
by the superposition of quenching time-temperature
Temperature (°F)

curves on the CCT curve for a quench-hardenable 800


alloy. The solid quenchant cooling curve line will
permit the formation of maximum martensite. 600
However, if the cooling process is delayed
MS
sufficiently, undesirable microstructures will be
400
formed as illustrated by the dotted cooling curve line.

200 Mf
Martensite

0.5 1 10 102 103 104


Time (sec.)

4
Figure 2A Illustration of the wetting
process for Water.1

Figure 2B Illustration of the wetting


process for Oil.1

Figure 2C Illustration of the wetting


process typical of a UCON Quenchant.1

1
Source: H.M. Tensi, A. Stich, and G.E. Totten, “Fundamentals of
Quenching”, Metal Heat Treating, 1995, Mar/Apr, p.20-28.

1000
(a) (b)
3
c 2
750
1 Figure 3 Cooling curves obtained at
Temperature (°C)

1
2 different positions in the center and at
500 the surface of a cylindrical probe.
water
polymer 3
250

1-3

0
0 10 20 30 40 0 5 10 15 20
Time (sec.) Time (sec.)

5
Product Description

UCON Quenchants are a series of non-flammable, quenched in a diluted solution of a UCON Quenchant,
aqueous solutions of a liquid organic polymer and a a film of the liquid polymer is deposited on the
corrosion inhibitor. The organic polymer is completely surface of the hot metal. The rate at which the metal
soluble in water and produces clear homogeneous is cooled is governed, in part, by the heat transfer
solutions at room temperature. However, at elevated properties, or cooling rates, of the polymer-rich film.
temperatures, the polymer separates from the water The particular heat transfer properties obtained
as an insoluble phase. Upon cooling, the polymer depend on the particular UCON Quenchant employed,
redissolves to reform a homogeneous, aqueous quenchant concentration, agitation rates, and
solution. This process is completely reversible and quenchant solution temperature. By adjusting these
is commonly referred to as the “cloud point” effect. parameters, a single UCON Quenchant may be used
in a wide variety of heat-treating processes and with
The mechanism by which a UCON Quenchant
a range of metal alloys. Proper selection of these
mediates the quenching process is dependent on the
variables permits quenching rate variations, ranging
“cloud point” effect exhibited by the particular UCON
from those achieved with brine solutions to those
Quenchant solution. For example, when hot metal is
achieved with medium-to-slow-quenching oils.

Products
applications. They are typically used in ferrous metal
heat-treating to replace medium- to slow-quenching
UCON Quenchants A, HT, RL and E are the principal
oils. In non-ferrous applications, these quenchants
members of the series. These products contain an
provide superior distortion-reduction properties for
inorganic nitrite salt as the corrosion inhibitor.
thin sheet products.
However, non-nitrite -containing formulations are also
available, as UCON Quenchants A-XL, RL-XL and E-XL. UCON Quenchants RL and RL-XL provide slower
These quenchants contain a proprietary non-nitrite quench rates than UCON A and A-XL. These products
corrosion inhibitor additive package. UCON are readily adapted to induction hardening but may be
Quenchants designated as XL are completely used in other quenching systems as well.
compatible with their nitrite-containing UCON UCON Quenchant HT is used in applications requiring
Quenchant analogs without nitrosamine formation. intermediate quench rates. UCON Quenchant HT
Similar quenchant performance is obtained with exhibits higher separation temperature than other
either quenchant product. members of the series. This allows greater flexibility
UCON Quenchant A and A-XL permit the fastest in the selection of initial bath temperatures and in
quench rates and facilitate quench uniformity from the permissible run-out temperature during the
water to medium-speed quench oils. They can be quench cycle.
used to quench both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Although A, E, RL and HT and their XL analogs are
UCON Quenchants E and E-XL are useful where the the products of choice for most quenching operations.
slowest quench rates are desirable. They provide Other UCON Quenchants are also available for
uniform heat transfer in typical oil quenching specialty heat-treating operations.

Table 1 Typical Physical Properties UCON Nitrite Quenchants


Properties Method(ASTM) A E HT RL
Weight per Gallon at 20°C, lbs. 9.13 8.94 9.18 8.97
Specific Gravity at 20/20°C D 891 1.092 1.074 1.102 1.077
Flash Point, °C D 93 & D 92 None None None None
Pour Point, °C D 97 -16 0 -20 0
pH Range E 70 9.0 - 11.0 9.0 - 11.0 9.0 - 11.0 9.0 - 11.0
Rust Inhibition D 665A Pass Pass Pass Pass
Viscosity at 100°F, SUS D 7042 2200 - 2800 1120 - 1375 2700 - 3300 1000 - 1250
Viscosity at 100°F, cSt D 7042 475 - 604 242 - 297 583 - 712 216 - 270
6
Table 1 Typical Physical Properties cont. UCON XL Quenchants
Properties Method(ASTM) A-XL E-XL RL-XL
Weight per Gallon at 20°C, lbs. 9.06 8.89 8.90
Specific Gravity at 20/20°C D 891 1.087 1.068 1.069
Flash Point, °C D 93 & D 92 None None None
Pour Point, °C D 97 -25 -7 -7
pH Range E 70 7.5 - 9.0 7.5 - 9.0 7.5 - 9.0
Rust Inhibition D 665A Pass Pass Pass
Viscosity at 100°F, SUS D 7042 2376 - 2900 1112 - 1371 1061 - 1297
Viscosity at 100°F, cSt D 7042 513 - 626 240 - 296 229 - 280

Advantages Of UCON Quenchants

UCON Quenchants offer a high degree of versatility Flexibility


and improved performance to the complex quenching
Optimum operating conditions may be attained
process.
through concentration, bath temperature, and
Reduced Fire Hazards agitation. By adjusting these parameters, a variety of
quenching severities, ranging from water to slow oil,
UCON Quenchants exhibit significant fire safety,
may be achieved in a single bath.
biodegradability and health advantages over oil. They
have a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Reduced Process Costs
rating of:
Scrap and off-spec processing costs are reduced by
Health = 0
the control of soft-spotting, distortion and cracking.
Flammability = 0
Losses from drag-out can be controlled by washing
Reactivity = 0
quenched parts with water or quenchant solution.
UCON Quenchants meet the approval requirements Any residual quenchant will volatilize cleanly in
for the FM Approvals Standard 6930 Flammability tempering operations above 644°F (340°C), leaving
Classification of Industrial Fluids. Products are the part free of undesired residues, such as lacquers,
manufactured and labeled as FM Approved. This varnishes, etc.
provides an opportunity to reduce costs for protection
equipment and/or fire insurance. Lower Quenchant Costs
The major make-up requirement is water to replace
Environmental Safety
that lost by evaporation. Quench baths that have been
UCON Quenchants resist bacterial growth, are badly contaminated from various sources (hydraulic oil
biodegradable, and are essentially nontoxic to bluegill leakage, salt, etc.) may be restored by such techniques
sunfish. For more information on environmental as decantation, heat, or membrane separation.
effects, see Ecological Fate Data.
Easier Maintenance and Housekeeping
Processing Safety
Equipment maintenance and plant cleanliness are
UCON Quenchants designated XL may be used safely easier to achieve with water-soluble quenchants.
in processes where there is danger of contamination Cooling coils and quench tanks remain free of oil-
with amines. The XL corrosion inhibitor system will derived sludges or deposits. The smoke, soot, and
not promote nitrosamine formation. The heat treater residues typical of oil quenching are completely
may add XL grades to nitrite-containing quenchants eliminated.
in the bath without risk of nitrosamine formation and
without the need to dispose of the existing bath.

7
Quenching Variables

There are many factors that affect heat transfer rates Table 2 Factors Effecting Heat Transfer Rates
during quenching and thus also affect cooling curve
Properties Of The Fluid Heat Transfer Coefficient
shape. The most important of these factors and their
effect on heat transfer rates are summarized in Table 2. Type Of Quenchant 

Of these factors, the most important are: polymer Concentration  


concentration, agitation and bath temperature. This is Rate Of Agitation  
illustrated in the cooling curve figure (Figure 4 lower Bath Temperature  
left) and the contour chart of Grossman H-Factors
(Figure 5 lower right). Properties Of The Sample Heat Transfer Coefficient

Thermal Diffusivity  
Sample Diameter  
Surface Roughness  
Surface Oxidation  
Increasing 
Decreasing 

Figure 4 Illustration of a PAG cooling curve Figure 5 Illustration of the Grossman H-Factor for
UCON Quenchant E

140 0.4
0.6
135

130 0.4
0.5
Bath Temperature

125 0.8

120
0.6
115 0.8
1.0
110

105 0.8
1.0
100
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Polymer Concentration
Circ. Rate - 50 Circ. Rate - 75 Circ. Rate - 100

8
Polymer Concentration
Heat transfer rates are affected by the thickness of
the insulating polymer film surrounding the hot metal
surface during cooling. Increasing the quenchant
concentration will result in a thicker film and thus
slower cooling rates (< H-factor). Conversely,
decreasing the concentration of the quenchant will
produce a thinner insulating film and faster cooling
rates (> H-factor).

Agitation
It is important to understand why optimization of the
uniformity of the flow rate around the cooling surface
is critical to reduce undesirable thermal gradients
during quenching. Agitation is particularly important
since it may have a dramatic effect both on the timing
of the rupture and redissolution and thickness of the
insulating film. Agitation can also affect the uniformity
of film formation and breakage around the cooling
surface. Increasing agitation will cause faster rupture
and redissolution of the polymer film (> H-factor).
Decreasing agitation rates will exhibit the opposite
effect.

Bath Temperature
Control of bath temperature, or temperature rise, is
also important for quench process control. Increasing
bath temperature will decrease cooling rates (< H-
factor). Conversely, decreasing bath temperature will
increase cooling rates (> H-factor).
By adjusting and control of these process variables,
a single UCON Quenchant may be used in a wide
variety of heat treat processes with a wide range of
alloys. Proper selection of these variables permits
quenching rate variations, ranging from those of brine
solutions to those achieved with medium- to slow-
quenching oils.

9
Quenchant Selection—Steel

Applications UCON Quenchant HT


UCON Quenchants A and A-XL The broader temperature range for UCON Quenchant
HT makes it adaptable to batch-type integral quench
These quenchants are readily adapted to induction furnaces. Because of variations in equipment design,
and flame hardening, both spray quench and each installation requires individual attention to
immersion, for such items as gears, crankshafts, provide satisfactory performance.
camshafts, and other pieces of intricate geometry
and difficult metallurgy. This quenchant may also be readily applied to spray
quench and immersion induction hardening for gears,
Their use may follow heating in either oxidizing or camshafts, crankshafts, and other items that have
protective atmosphere furnaces of batch or continuous complex geometry and difficult metallurgy.
design. They may also be used for continuous cast
quenching and for general hardening of cast irons and Its use can follow heating in either oxidizing or
forged and cast steels. protective furnaces of shaker, rotary, or continuous
design, as well as for direct quenching from the forge,
UCON Quenchants E and E-XL continuous cast quenching, and general hardening of
forged and cast steels and cast iron.
These quenchants are useful for quenching high-
carbon and most alloy grades of steel associated with UCON Quenchants RL and RL-XL
typical oil quenching. UCON Quenchants E and E-NN
are adaptable to induction and flame hardening, both UCON Quenchants RL and RL-XL are used for
spray and immersion quenching, for high alloy steels quenching of medium- to high-carbon steel and alloy
with intricate geometry, including nodular, malleable, steels of most grades including 300 and 400 series
and cast irons. stainless steels. UCON Quenchants RL and RL-XL are
readily adapted to induction hardening, both spray
They are used following treatment in oxidizing, neutral and immersion quenching, for such items as spline
and protective atmosphere furnaces of shaker, rotary, shafts, gears, crankshafts, camshafts, and other
batch, or continuous design. They are also suitable for pieces of intricate geometry and different metallurgy.
direct quenching from the forge, for continuous cast
quenching, and for general hardening of cast irons and UCON Quenchants RL and RL-XL may follow oxidizing,
Steel

forged or cast steels. neutral, or protective atmosphere furnaces of shaker,


rotary, bath or continuous design. These quenchants
may be used for direct quenching from the forge; for
continuous cast quenching; and for general hardening
of forged and cast steels, and cast irons.

Typical Industrial Applications


The following tables provide a convenient summary
of the application areas in which UCON Quenchants
have proven useful, as well as the quenching media
they replace. It should be noted that there is some
overlap in product uses and also that there are other
UCON Quenchants available for special applications.

10
Table 3 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant A

Item Alloy Heating Quenchant Fluid Prior As-Quenched


Method1 Concentration, % Temp., °F Quench Hardness, Rc

Ferrous 1045 I 10 100 None 40-45


Ball Bearing Plates Meehanite F 15 Ambient — 40-45
Cam Follower Studs 1070 I 15 100 Brine 60
Camshafts Gray Iron I 20 110-120 Water —
Caster Horns 1012 C 8 80 Oil —
1020 C 8 80 Oil —
Cast Iron Saddles Cast Iron FL 6 85 — 56-60
Crankshafts 1050 I 10-12 100 Oil 56+
5046 I 10-12 100 Oil —
1048 I 11-14 115-120 Water 48
1046 I 10-11 110 PVA 56+
Drive Shafts Carbon I 10-12 90-120 — —
Forged Joints 1045 F 18-19 130-140 Oil 350-500(BHN)
1141 F 18-19 130-140 Oil 350-500(BHN)
Gears 4140 I 10-15 80-100 — 50-60
4150 I 10-15 90-120 — 50-60
1040 I 10-12 60-100 — 52-56
Pins 1045 I 8-10 70 Water 59-60
Roller Cutters 4870 F 18 100+ Oil 59-60
Screws 1022 CN 10 95 Oil 83(Rn)
Splined Shafts 1046 I 20 100+ Oil 56-58
1041 I 10 80-110 Water 49-55
1141 I 10 80-110 Water 49-55
410 SS I 14-16 100-120 Oil 38-42
8645 I 14-16 100-120 Oil 58-62
8650 I 14-16 100-120 Oil 58-62
8655 I 14-16 100-120 Oil 58-62
1050 I 14-16 100-120 Oil 58-62
8620 C 14-16 100-120 Oil 58-62
Track Links 5135 F 5 80-110 Oil 52-57
1 C = Carburizing

CN = Carbonitriding
PF = Pit Furnace
F = Furnace
FL = Flame
I = Induction

11
Table 4 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant E

Item Alloy Heating Quenchant Fluid Prior As-Quenched


Method1 Concentration, % Temp., °F Quench Hardness, Rc

Gear Blanks 4140 DFQ 24-26 120-130 Oil 55-62


4150 DFQ 24-26 120-130 Oil 55-62
Gears 4140 FB 24-26 100-120 Oil 54-62
4150 FB 24-26 100-120 Oil 54-62
Oil Field Components 4140 PF 22-26 120-130 Oil 55-64
4150 PF 22-26 120-130 Oil 55-64
4340 PF 22-26 120-130 Oil 55-64
Shafts 4140 PF 20-25 120-130 Oil 55-64
4150 PF 20-25 120-130 Oil 55-64
5200 PF 20-25 120-130 Oil 55-64
9Cr, 1Mo PF 20-25 120-130 Oil 55-64
8260 PCF 18-24 90-100 Oil 60+ (Surf.)
Shoe Shanks 1060 CF 18-22 90-110 Oil 60+
1065 CF 18-22 90-110 Oil 60+
Spindles 4140 FB 22-26 120-130 Oil 51-55
2
Sprocket Gears PM I 23-27 120-130 Water 59-62
1.0C, 2.0Cu I 23-27 120-130 Oil 59-62
Agricultural Tools 1080 DFQ 22-26 130 Oil 60-62
1085 DFQ 22-26 130 Oil 60-62
Hard Faced (Brazed) Disk 1085 F 22-25 140 Oil 59-62
Large Carburized Gears (30,000 lb.) 4320 F 22 120 Oil 59-63
Die for Engine Valves H13 F 23.5 90 Oil 53-55
Crankshaft 1043 F 15 86 Oil 95-99HB
4140H F 10 100 Oil 105-109HB
Track Links 15B37 F 10-12 95-104 Oil 38-40
1 CF = Continuous Furnace

DFQ = Direct Forge Quench


FB = Fluidized Bed
I = Induction
PCF = Pit Carburizing Furnace
ITQS = Immersion Time Quenching System
F = Furnace
PF = Pit Furnace
2 Powdered Metallurgical Parts

12
Table 5 Typical Applications For UCON Quenchant HT

Item Alloy Heating Quenchant Fluid Prior As-Quenched


Method1 Concentration, % Temp., °F Quench Hardness, Rc

Crankshafts 1050 F 18-22 90-120 Water 56-62


Die Blocks 4140 F 23-25 110-130 Oil 55-62
4340(Mod) F 23-25 110-130 Oil 55-62
Forged Roll Rings “Waspaloy” F 18-22 80-120 Water/Oil Varies
“Inconel” F 18-22 80-120 Water/Oil Varies
Ti-6Al-4V F 18-22 80-120 Water/Oil Varies
Al-6061 F 18-22 80-120 Water/Oil Varies
Gears 4140 IQF 20-24 120-130 Oil 53-58
High-Pressure Cylinders 4130 F 18-20 90-120 Oil 46-55
4140 F 18-20 90-120 Oil 46-55
Leaf Springs 5160 DFQ 30-34 130-160 Oil 59, min
Oil Tools 8620 ICF 28-32 90-120 Oil 50-60
4320 ICF 28-32 90-120 Oil 50-60
4820 ICF 28-32 90-120 Oil 50-60
Powdered
0.54 C, 1.65 Cu F 12-16 100-120 Oil 40-50
Metallurgical Parts
Shafts 4140 F 22-26 120-130 Oil 55-60
4150 F 22-26 120-130 Oil 55-60
Large Rings 4340 F 20-24 120 New Installation 50-55
(22 ft. dia., 62,000 lb.) 4140 F 20-24 120 New Installation 50-55
4150 F 20-24 120 New Installation 50-55
1 DFQ = Direct Forge Quench

F = Furnace
ICF = Integral Carburizing Furnace
IQF = Integral Quench Furnace

13
Figure 6 Illustration of Aluminum Parts Quenched in UCON Quenchant A.
Aluminum

14
Quenchant Selection—Aluminum

Severe distortion and residual stresses are often encountered when aluminum
is quenched in water. However, when an aqueous solution of a UCON
Quenchant, such as UCON Quenchant A, is used as the quenching medium, a
dramatic reduction in both residual stresses (Figure 7 lower left) and distortion
(Figure 8 lower right) is typically achieved.
UCON Quenchants A and A-XL are proven quenching agents for wrought, cast,
dip-brazed and forged aluminum alloys. Their superiority to water quenching in
reducing residual stresses in aluminum alloys results in extensive straightening
cost savings and improved uniformity of mechanical results. (See Figure 6).
UCON Quenchant A is an AMEC approved Type 1 Polymer Quenchant according
to AMS 3025B.

Figure 7 Stress Distribution vs. Percent Material Figure 8 Comparison of aluminum sheet distortion reduction
Removed for A356 Aluminum Castings achieved with cold and hot water and UCON Quenchant A

600 75%

Water – 85°F Water – 160°F


500 Agitation Rate – 25 FPM Agitation Rate – 25 FPM
Total Distortion – 1.55 in. Total Distortion – 1.385 in.
Strain (10-4 in./in.)

400

300

200 UQA
Water 10% UQA
20%
UQA
30%
100
UQA
40%
Oil

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 UCON Quenchant A 20%


Bore Area (sq. in.) Agitation Rate – 25 FPM
Total Distortion – 0.12 in.

15
Table 6 Limits For Quenching In UCON Quenchant A1 Solutions

Maximum Thickness 3 Polymer 4,5


Alloy Form Inches Millimeters Concentration % Notes
2024 Sheet, Extrusions 0.040 1.02 34 max. 2
2024 Sheet, Extrusions 0.063 1.60 28 max. 2
2024 Sheet, Extrusions 0.071 1.80 22 max. 2
2024 Sheet, Extrusions 0.080 2.03 16 max. 2
2219 Sheet, Extrusions 0.073 1.85 22 max. 2
6061 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.250 6.35 40 max.
6061 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.375 9.52 32 max.
6061 Sheet, Plate, Bar 1.000 25.40 22 max.
7049 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.080 2.03 40 max.
7049 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.250 6.35 34 max.
7050 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.375 9.52 28 max.
7075 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.500 12.70 22 max.
7175 Sheet, Plate, Bar 1.000 25.40 16 max.
6061 Forgings 1.000 25.40 20-22
7075 Forgings 2.000 50.80 13-15 6
7175 Forgings 2.500 63.50 10-12 6
7049 Forgings 1.000 25.40 20-22
7049 Forgings 2.000 50.80 13-15
7149 Forgings 3.000 76.20 10-12
7050 Forgings 1.000 25.40 28-32
7050 Forgings 2.000 50.80 26-28
7050 Forgings 3.000 76.20 20-22
7050 Forgings 4.000 101.50 15-17
7049 Extrusions 0.250 6.35 28 max.
7050 Extrusions 0.250 6.35 28 max.
7075 Extrusions 0.375 9.52 22 max.
7175 Extrusions 0.375 9.52 22 max.
1. UCON Quenchant A is an AMEC approved Type 1 Polymer Quenchant according to AMS 3025B.
2. Applicable when final temper is T4 or T42. When final temper is T6 or T62, sheet and plate up to 0.250 inch (6.35mm), inclusive, may
be quenched in UCON Quenchant A to a maximum concentration of 22%.
3. Thickness is the minimum distortion of the heaviest section at the time of heat treatment.
4. Where only maximum concentration is shown, any concentration equal to or below the maximum concentration shall be controlled
within ±2% of that selected. When concentration is specified on a drawing or purchase order without tolerance or range, the
tolerance shall be ±2%.
5. Concentration shall be checked according to ASTM D445 weekly and whenever concentration is changed.
6. Prohibited for 7075 alloy when final temper is T6.

16
Table 7 Calculation of Quench Factors and Yield Strength for 2024 Sheet and 7075 Sheet and Bar Stock

A. 2024-T851 Sheet Data (0.063 in.)


Q = -0.552 + 0.225 · C
␴ ± 0.74, R2 = 90.2
YS = 66.78 - 0.0738 · C
␴ 0.2421, R2 = 90.3

B. 7075-T73 Sheet Data (0.125 in.)


Q = 0.399 + 0.004554 · CR + 0.03754 · C + 7.491 · ST - 0.08374 · CR · ST + 0.2765 · C · ST
␴ ± 0.2007, R2 = 97.6
YS = 69.19 - 0.00153 · CR - 0.00866 · C - 1.999 · ST + 0.02638 · CR · ST - 0.07747 · C · ST
␴ ± 0.06109, R2 = 96.8

C. Type I 7075-T73 Bar Data (0.5 - 2.0 in.)


Q = -39.96 + 2.345 · C + 4.483 · D + 0.4557 · T + 0.1876 · C · D - 0.02703 · C · T
␴ ± 0.5003, R2 = 98.5
YS = 69.41 - 0.00833 · C - 1.17 · D - 0.0525 · C · D
␴ ± 0.1304, R2 = 98.7
T = Temperature (°F) C = Concentration (%)
ST = Sheet Thickness (inch) Q = Quench Factor
D = Bar Diameter (inch) YS = Yield Strength (ksi)
CR = Agitation Rate (ft./min.) · = Multiply

17
Quenchant Conversions

In any conversion of a quench facility from an oil to In view of these potential corrosion problems,
an aqueous UCON Quenchant, there are a number of optimal lifetimes of baskets and fixtures will be
factors to consider prior to filling with the UCON obtained if they are constructed from corrosion
Quenchant. These include: resistant materials. Examples of materials that
have been successfully used in the past include:
1. Cleaning—Prior to the addition of the UCON
Quenchant, all of the residual oil and especially any • HK • 309 Stainless Steel
sludge and metal oxide debris that may have • HH • 310 Stainless Steel
accumulated in the tank must be removed. After oil • HX • 330 Stainless Steel
and solid debris removal, the tank should be thoroughly • HW • RA333
cleaned. Although steam cleaning is preferred, it may • HU • INCONEL® 600
be unavailable. In such cases, an alkaline detergent • HT • INCONEL® 601
such as Oakite 443 (Chemetall Oakite, 800-526-4473,
However, it is recommended that specific material
www.oakite.com) or equivalent (used according to the
selection be made in conjunction with the basket
manufacturer’s recommendations) may be used with
and fixture suppliers.
agitation sufficient to facilitate a thorough cleaning
process. Since residual detergent solution may lead • Filters and Screens—Quenchants may contain
to deleterious foaming when the UCON Quenchant is various types of contaminants, such as metal scale,
added, thorough rinsing is essential. Since residual sludge and carbon, which may promote non-uniform
oil and sludge may potentially lead to undesirable, heat transfer if they are not removed. In addition
non-uniform heat transfer or act as nutrients solid contaminants may cause excessive wear of
subsequently leading biological degradation, it is pumps, and seals and also heat exchanger fouling.
important to be sure that not only the tank is cleaned,
Solid contaminants may be removed by filtration.
but also piping, traps, and heat transfer equipment
However, care must be taken in the selection of the
also be thoroughly cleaned at the same time.
filter media. For example, cellulosic “paper” filters
2. Compatibility are not compatible with the aqueous UCON
Quenchant media. It is recommended that the filter
• Tank Materials—Commonly available carbon
supplier be consulted for selection of compatible
steel tanks are also suitable for aqueous UCON
filters and for proper sizing.
Quenchants. However, epoxy coatings listed in
Table 8 may be used if added protection is desired. • Seals—Selection of compatible seal materials is
Galvanized tanks should not be used with UCON important when converting from water, oil or other
Quenchants. quenching media, The use of leather or cork based
products is never recommended. Generally
• Basket and Fixture Materials—Although
acceptable seal materials include: Dupont Viton
aqueous UCON quenchants contain corrosion
available from Parker (all Viton materials are not
inhibitors all basket and fixture materials that
equally compatible), neoprene, EPDM and BUNA N.
come into contact with the quenchant solution
However, these are only generic suggestions and
are subject to potential corrosion and reduced
the seal manufacturer should be consulted before
lifetimes.
final material selection.

18
UCON Quenchants exhibit solvency characteristics 3. Tanks
different from petroleum oils. Thus, in industrial
• Tank Sizing—As a first approximation, the total
applications many paints and surface coatings may be
quench load per gallon should not exceed 1 lb/gal,
softened and/or lifted by UCON Quenchants. Paints
including fixtures. It is preferred that the tempera-
removed from exterior machine surfaces can be
ture rise not exceed 10°F (5°C) during the quench.
replaced by one of the coatings given in Table 8.
Larger temperature rises may be acceptable if the
Catalyzed epoxy, epoxy-phonolic, and modified separation temperature of the quenchant solution
phenolic coatings have performed well in contact is not exceeded and the desired metallurgical
with UCON Quenchants. Alkyd and vinyl coatings are properties are obtained.
unsatisfactory. These coatings are not recommended
• Baffles—Tank baffles should be used to eliminate
for service at temperatures above 60°C (140°F). In
vortexing and to convert swirling motion to
terms of temperature resistance we find modified
productive top-to-bottom fluid motion. In rectangu-
phenolic to be best, followed by epoxy-phenolic, with
lar tanks with properly placed multiple mixers, the
epoxy coatings being last.
combined effects of tank corners, and interference
between mixer flow patterns generally eliminate
the need for baffles. However, vertical cylindrical
tanks with top-entering mixers do require baffles.
Draft-tubes require internal baffles or flow
straightening vanes, (See Figure 9).

Table 8 Suggested Coatings for Use on Contact with UCON Quenchants Figure 9 Illustration of draft tube impeller design

Coating Manufacturer Type


0.5 D
Phenoline 373 Carboline Company Modified Phenolic Coverage
350 Hanley Industrial Ct.
St. Louis, MO 63144
Impeller 30° Entrance flare
314-644-1000 insertion
www.carboline.com 0.5 D D
Radial clearance
Plasite 7122 Carboline – Green Bay Epoxy-phenolic Notch
P.O. Box 8147
Green Bay, WI 54308-8147 Limit ring or
800-848-4645 steady bearing

www.carboline.com Flow straightening


Intergard Tank Coating International Protective Coatings Epoxy vanes

6100 Antoine Dr.


Houston, TX 77091
713-684-1254 Direction of
fluid flow
151 U Hempel Coatings Epoxy
600 Conroe Park North Dr.
Conroe, TX 77303
800-678-6641
www.hempel.com
PittGuard 97-145 Porter Paint Epoxy
400 South 13th Street
Louisville, KY 40203
800-332-6270
www.porterpaint.com

19
4. Agitation—Agitation of many oil quench systems tial reductions in horsepower can often be achieved
is limited to the what is available from the recircula- with the use of newer impeller designs and operational
tion system of the heat exchanger. However, this is speed. This information is readily available from your
inadequate for aqueous UCON Quenchants. Although equipment supplier.
various forms of agitation may be employed such
If multiple agitators are being used, the power
as spray and impeller, usually the most commonly
requirement/agitator is determined from:
encountered and least expensive is impeller agitation.
Power per mixer = total power / number of mixers
Impeller mixer horsepower requirements and size is
determined after the total tank size is determined The sizing of the impeller diameter is dependent on
based on the total load being quenched, including the power requirement of the mixer. Impeller diameter
fixtures. This can be estimated from Table 9 for a as a function of the power requirement is summarized
marine impeller operating at 420 rpm with a pitch in Table 10.
ratio of 1.0. It should be noted however that substan-

Table 9 Power Requirements for Impeller Agitation Table 10 Size of Impeller Mixers

Tank volume Power required Motor a,b Impeller Size c,d


Gallons Liters hp/gal kW/L hp kW in. cm.
50-800 2000-3200 0.005 0.0010 0.25 0.19 13 33.0
800-2000 3200-8000 0.006 0.0012 0.33 0.25 14 35.6
2000-3000 8000-12,000 0.006 0.0012 0.50 0.37 15 38.1
>3000 >12,000 0.007 0.0014 0.75 0.56 16 40.6
aAgitation at 420 rpm. Marine propeller with 1.0 pitch ratio. 1.0 0.75 17 43.2
2.0 1.49 20 50.8
3.0 2.34 22 55.9
5.0 3.73 24 61.0
7.5 5.59 26 66.0
10.0 7.46 28 71.1
15.0 11.19 30 76.2
20.0 14.92 32 81.3
25.0 18.65 33 83.8
aThe power requirements were calculated assuming 280 rpm,
specific gravity 1.0, and airfoil impeller with Np 0.33. (airfoil and
marine propeller power numbers are nearly identical.)
bThe shaft horsepower (hps is equal to 80% of the motor
horsepower (hpm) (0.8xhpm - hps).
cThese are the power requirements for an open impeller operating
at 280 rpm.
dWhen used in a draft tube, the impeller size should be reduced
by 3%. Axial flow impellers are used in draft tubes to more closely
control the direction of the flow pattern. Draft tube circulators
have a higher resistance head that the impeller must pump
against, which is due to the fluid friction losses in the draft tube.
The higher head conditions require a slightly different impeller for
optimum pumping performance.

20
5. Draft-Tube Figure 10 Examples of chute quench designs
Fume Eductor
• Agitation—Fluid flow may be directed by using an
impeller mixer in conjunction with a draft-tube such Fume Eductor Jacketed Cooler
With Cascade
as that illustrated in Figure 9. A horsepower
Jacketed Cooler Submerged Sprays
requirement for impeller mixers used in conjunction With Cascade
Perforated Plate
with a draft-tube is 0.006 hp/gal (0.0012 kW/L). For Quenchant Removal
From Chute Area
A properly designed draft-tube should have the Sprays To Mesh
Pickup Belt
following characteristics: Perforated
Plate For
Quenchant
1. A down-pumping operation is used to take advan- Removal From
Chute Area
tage of the tank bottom as a flow-directing device.
2. A 30° entrance flow on the draft-tube minimizes Flow

the entrance head losses and ensures a uniform


velocity profile at the inlet.
3. Liquid depth over the draft-tube should be at least 6. Chute-Quench Systems—For optimal quench
one-half of the tube diameter to avoid flow loss due uniformity, both vigorous and uniform agitation and
to disruption of the impeller inlet velocity profile. adequate quenchant turnover in the chute zone of
a continuous furnace is necessary. Although there
4. Internal flow straightening vanes are used to
are numerous chute designs that may be used, two
prevent swirl.
illustrative examples that have been successfully
5. The impeller should be inserted into the draft- utilized are shown in Figure 10.
tube to a distance equal to at least one-half of
A properly designed chute-quench system should
the tube diameter.
incorporate the following features:
6. A steady bearing or limit ring is used to protect
1. Sufficient agitation and turnover in the chute zone
the impeller from occasional high deflection. A
to provide adequate and uniform heat transfer.
steady bearing is the lower cost alternative but
requires maintenance. 2. A cooling jacket for the chute above the quench
zone to prevent water vapor from entering the
7. The impeller requires 1–2 in. (25–50 mm) of radial
furnace vestibule. Cooling can be achieved by
clearance between the blade tips and the draft-tube
routing the quenchant returning from the heat
inner wall. When the draft-tube must be minimized,
exchanger through the chute zone cooling jacket.
an external notch can be used to reduce the draft-
tube dimensions by 2–3 in. (50–75 mm). 3. A fume eductor located in the chute zone above
the cooling jacket to prevent vapor contamination
of the furnace atmosphere.
4. A perforated or screened opening in the chute
area to allow heated quenchant to escape during
the quench. Solid chutes should never be used.
5. A mesh belt of sufficient porosity and length to
permit quenchant agitation around the part to
facilitate completion of the quench.

21
7. Integral Quench 8. Induction Quenching—Induction quenching
systems utilizing UCON Quenchants may be open or
• Furnace Applications—Although integral
submerged sprays or immersion quenching may be
quench furnaces have been traditionally used with
used. For submerged quenching, it is important that
oil quench systems, recent furnace design
the reservoir be sufficiently large to allow the foam
improvements have permitted the use of UCON
head to dissipate before the quenchant is pumped
Quenchants, if the following precautions are taken:
back into the system. Therefore, the reservoir volume
1. The workload (including weight of fixtures) should should be at least 5–8 times the volume rate of flow.
not exceed 1 lb/gal of quenchant. The temperature For example, if the flow rate is 10 gal/min, then the
rise must not exceed 10°C (18°F). reservoir capacity should be 50–80 gal. These systems
also require the use of heat exchangers and filters.
2. Axial quenchant flow through the quench load is
recommended. Proper racking of the parts must One of the most common problems with immersion
be used to assure proper flow. quenching with induction systems is that the reservoir
is undersized. If the reservoir is too small, a mixture
3. There should be a tight inner door seal to prevent
of the quenchant and foam will be used to quench the
water vapor from entering the furnace vestibule.
part. This will often lead to increased distortion and
It is recommended that a slight increase in gas
cracking.
flow (positive pressure) in the furnace vestibule
be provided during the transfer of the load into In the case of open and submerged spay systems, a
the quench chamber and during the quench. common problem is the use of excessive pressures,
often those used previously for water. However, when
4. The agitators must always be on when the inner
excessive pressures are used, the effect is to blow the
door is opened to minimize build-up of water
polymer coating off the part thus losing the desired
vapor in the vapor spaces of the quench chamber.
effect of heat transfer mediation and enhancement of
the uniformity. Some general recommendations for
pressure and orifice sizes are provided in Table 11.
These may vary with the system design but the
concerns remain the same.

Table 11 Pressure and Orifice Size


Recommendations for Indirect Spray Quench Systems
Type of spray Pressure (psig) Orifice size
in. mm
1
Open < 20 ⁄8 3.18
1
Submerged > 40 ⁄4 6.35

22
Maintenance

Determination of Quenchant concentration and Refractive Index


troubleshooting of quenchant systems can be readily
The use of a temperature-compensated, hand-held
performed with a few simple tests: appearance,
refractomer, like that shown in Figure 11, is the most
refractive index, viscosity, conductance, separation
convenient means of daily monitoring of quenchant
temperature, corrosion inhibitor, foaming and
concentration. The most common models provide
biological attack.
arbitrary refractive index readings in Brix units over
Appearance a 0–30° or 0–15° range. Typically, a drop of the
quenchant solution is placed on the prism and the
There are various water-insoluble contaminants that value of the refractive index in Brix units is obtained
may lead to visible spotting, increased distortion and by looking through the eye piece. The quenchant
cracking. These include: residual oil sludge from the concentration is determined with the aid of Brix
previous quenchant, hydraulic oil, forging lubricants, concentration charts.
metalworking lubricants and others. These contami-
nants will cause non-uniform heat transfer and may Refractive index is relatively insensitive to polymer
be identified by visual inspection of the quenching degradation and is affected by the presence of
solution. If insolubles are observed, they typically contaminants such as salt. Therefore, confirmation
may be removed by skimming or filtration. of quenchant concentration using an alternative
procedure such as viscosity must be performed
periodically.

Figure 11 Illustration of the introduction of sample onto a


refractometer prism

23
Figure 12 Illustration of a Viscosity
Cannon-Fenske viscosity tube
Quenchant viscosity depends on concentration and is readily determined using
a Cannon-Fenske tube (Figure 12), stopwatch and constant temperature bath.
This is an excellent method for measuring polymer concentration, since it is only
slightly affected by contamination, but is strongly affected by degradation.

Comparison of Concentration by Refractive Index and


Viscosity
To determine if significant polymer degradation or contamination has occurred, it
is useful to compare the difference (delta) in the quenchant concentration values
obtained by the refractive index (CR) and viscosity (CV).
⌬ = CR - CV
Differences in ⌬ of greater than 6–8 are significant and steps should be taken to
minimize this difference.

Conductance
Figure 13 Illustration of a portable Although it is recommended that distilled or reverse osmosis purified water be
conductivity meter used for quenchant dilution and water make-up, sometimes tap water is used.
When the water evaporates there is a gradual concentration of metal ions which
may lead to faster cooling rates and possibly cracking. Another common source
of metal ion contamination is from drag-out of salt from salt pot furnaces prior
to quenching.
Variations in metal ion content may be easily determined with an electrical
conductance meter such as that shown in Figure 13.

Separation Temperature
The poly(alkylene glycol) polymers used to formulate UCON Quenchants exhibit a
characteristic reversible and reproducible separation from solution when heated
to a temperature in excess of the separation temperature as shown in Figure 14.
Although salts may significantly affect separation temperature, polymer degrada-
tion is the most common cause. Degradation causes the separation temperature
to rise, and an increase of 2 to 4°C (4–7°F) over the life of the bath is not
unusual. A larger increase or a sudden change in separation temperature is a
cause for concern.

Figure 14 Illustration of the separation temperature effect for a PAG quenchant

Initial 20% solution Solution immediately Solution after layer


(with agitation) after separation formation (no agitation)
(with agitation) (lower layer is
concentrated polymer)

24
Corrosion Inhibitor1 Figure 15 Illustration of a nitrite color test
Because UCON Quenchants are water based, they must be
formulated with a corrosion inhibitor. Most of the UCON
Quenchants being used throughout the world contain
sodium nitrite as the corrosion inhibitor. The nitrite
concentration can be readily determined by a simple color
test. A tablet, furnished with a test kit, is dissolved in a
specific volume of the solution, and the color is compared
to the colors of known concentrations of sodium nitrite as
shown in Figure 15.
A test kit is also available for determining additive levels
in the UCON XL Quenchants. This kit utilizes reagents and
UV light to initiate a color change, which is related to
additive level using a color disc.

Biological Contamination2
The presence of biological contamination and its type
and concentration is usually determined using a microbial
dip-slide test as illustrated in Figure 16. If the contamina-
tion is severe, the addition of a biocide may be required. Figure 16 Illustration of a “Dip Stick” test for biological activity
UCONEX™ glutaraldehyde biocide may be used for UCON
Quenchant. Note: The potential for biological growth is Easicult-TTC
(colorless agar) Determination of total aerobic bacteria
dramatically reduced by assuring daily agitation of the
quenchant for at least 20 minutes. Never leave the
quench tank unagitated for greater than 48 hours.

Foaming
Although every quench tank exhibits some foaming in
Easicult Combi 103 104 105 106 107
use, in some cases the quench tank may become (colorless agar side)
Concentration of yeasts and fungi
contaminated and either excessive foaming and/or more Easicult-M
(yellow-brown agar) Yeast Fungi
stable foam may result. In such cases, increased
distortion or cracking may be observed. To determine if
this situation exists may require a foam test. There are
various possible foam tests, but one of the best is to use
a Waring blender and determine the time required for the
foam head to break after stirring in the blender for a fixed
103 104 105 106 Slight Moderate Heavy
time such as 5 minutes. (ASTM D3519) Note: if it is Easicult Combi
(rose bengal side)
Infection
determined that a foam problem exists, 100 ppm of
UCON Foam Control Agent 200 or UCON Lubricant
50HB 5100 may be added as an antifoam.

Periodic Analysis
Preferably these analyses will be conducted periodically.
The frequency of analysis is typically every 4 or 6
months. The variation in the bath properties should be
monitored using a form. When the delta value of the
quenchant is in excess of 8, consideration should be given
to replacement of the bath. If there is a sudden change in 1Test kits available from Hach Corporation, www.hach.com. Nitrite
delta, more than 1–2 units, the physical property data test kit, Model NI-6. Triazole test kit, Model TZ-1 (for XL Quenchants).
may need to be complemented with comparative cooling 2Test kits available from Orion Diagnostica, Distributed in the United
curve analysis, as recommended by your distributor. States by Chemicals & Equipment Co., Inc. Lake Placid, NY; Easicult
Combi.

25
Case Histories

UCON Quenchants have proven their versatility and Open Tank Quenching
value to heat treaters of ferrous and non-ferrous
metals for a broad range of end-use applications. The Case History #3
following brief case histories have been selected to Problem: A large forging company wanted to install
illustrate how UCON Quenchants can solve a variety a 50,000-gallon quench system to heat treat both low
of problems associated with other quenching media. and high hardenability materials, without the hazards
associated with oil quenching.
Integral Quench
Solution: Develop new heating processes that provided
Case History #1 for bath temperature and agitation rate changes, and
charge the quench system with UCON Quenchant HT.
Problem: An oil tool manufacturer with an integral
quench furnace wanted to convert from oil to eliminate Results: The company was able to run a broad range of
fire potential and increase core hardness of parts. material chemistries in a single quench bath, without
sacrificing metallurgical properties. The wide variety
Solution: Charge the furnace quench tank with
of low-to-high hardenability materials could not have
UCON Quenchant HT after minor modifications to
been heat treated properly in one oil quench system.
ensure a good, tight-fitting furnace door and good
quenchant circulation. Case History #4
Results: Carburizing and neutral hardening yielded Problem: Large steel rings, weighing up to 62,000 lbs.
parts with acceptable hardness and microstructure. were forged from AISI 4340, 4140 and 4150 up to a
There was a definite increase in core hardness maximum diameter of 22 feet. This was a new process
compared to oil quenching. In many cases, results and the fire and environmental pollution problems
exceeded what could be achieved with oil. Based on potentially encountered with quench oil presented an
this performance, two more integral quench furnaces unacceptable risk.
were added over the next 18 months, and they also
employed UCON Quenchant HT. Solution: A 50,000 gallon tank of UCON Quenchant
HT (20–24%, 120°F) with a minimal temperature rise
Case History #2 was used.
Problem: A major auto parts producer wanted to Results: The expected physical properties with no
avoid potential fire hazards of an oil quenchant and to distortion and cracking problems were achieved.
increase the as-quenched hardness of carbonitrided Furthermore, no environmental pollution problems or
rocker arms and other automotive parts in his two fires were encountered with the use of UCON
integral quench furnaces. Quenchant HT.
Solution: Make limited modifications of the furnaces Case History #5
and install UCON Quenchant A.
Problem: Carburized pinion gears weighing up to
Results: Short-cycle carbonitriding showed no 30,000 lbs. and manufactured from AISI 4320 were
atmosphere upsets and excellent metallurgical quenched in oil. However, local environmental regula-
properties with this water-based quenchant. Depth tions would not allow the construction of another
of case and level of hardness were improved over production line because of unacceptable air pollution
previous oil-quenched parts, and the fire hazard was problems.
eliminated.
Solution: The solution was to quench the pinion gears
into a well-agitated 35,000-gallon quench tank con-
taining a 22% solution of UCON Quenchant E at 120°F.
Results: The use of UCON Quenchant E to quench the
very large pinion gears produced physical properties
favorably comparable to those obtained previously
with no cracking or distortion while at the same time
eliminating the air and water pollution problems
encountered with quench oil.

26
Case History #6 Aluminum Quenching
Problem: A well-known oil tool manufacturer had Case History #8
been using a polymer quenchant for over eight years,
but with only fair results. Cracking occurred with Problem: A major airframe manufacturer wanted
certain steels, such as 9Cr, lMo and 410 and 416 to reduce the distortion caused by water-quenching
stainless. When marquench salt was used as an various thin-gauge aluminum aircraft parts.
alternative, there was no cracking, but physical Solution: Replace the water with UCON Quenchant A
properties were diminished. The company wanted to provide more uniform cooling.
to find a polymer quenchant for these materials that
would eliminate cracking and increase physicals. Results: Quenched parts showed substantial
reductions in distortion, with improvements ranging
Solution: Convert one of their pit quenching systems from 55 to 97 percent. Tensile and corrosion proper-
to UCON Quenchant E. ties were maintained. Because hand straightening of
Results: Materials such as 4140, 4142, and 4340 the sheet metal parts was virtually eliminated, the
were run very successfully with no strict temperature company realized labor savings of $739,000 per year.
control. The 9Cr, lMo and 410 and 416 stainless steels
Case History #9
were quenched with a bath temperature of 125–135°F.
In all cases, there were no cracks and a definite Problem: Aluminum pistons manufactured from
improvement in physical properties. aluminum casting alloy 332 were solution heated in
a continuous furnace at 896°F (480°C). 1000 lb. load
Case History #7 (800 lbs. + 200 lbs. fixtures) was quenched every 20
Problem: The same oil tool company as in Case minutes in a 1100 gallon quench tank containing a
History #4 found that with their polymer quenchant polymer quenchant not available in the USA. After
too many parts from the steel mill developed cracks quenching the pistons were aged to a T6 condition.
unless surface imperfections were removed prior Solution: An 18–22% of UCON Quenchant A was
to quenching. They wanted to avoid the extensive used at a bath temperature of 90°C with good
machining step. impeller agitation.
Solution: Replace their old polymer quenchant with Results: Excellent results were obtained with no
UCON Quenchant E. distortion or cracking, while meeting the manufacturer’s
Results: Cracking was greatly reduced, and scrap costs, recommended physical properties.
which had been as high as $13,285 in five months of
operation, dropped to $1,509 for a 12-month period. Induction Quenching
Case History #10
Problem: A customer wanted their vendor to induction-
harden low hardenability parts to a greater depth than
could be obtained with water or other quenchants.
Solution: Convert the submerged spray system to
UCON Quenchant A to produce faster cooling rates
and provide greater depth of hardening.
Results: Parts quenched with UCON Quenchant A
showed a great improvement in the depth of hardening,
as well as the level of hardness achieved.

27
Controllable Delayed Quenching Immersion Time Quenching
Technology
Case History #11
Problem: Many times quenching of medium alloy
Case History #12
steels such as AISI 4140 in oil does not produce the Problem: Engine valves are produced using a die
desired uniformity of hardness or there is an excessive manufactured from AISI H13 in direct forging process.
hardness gradient from surface to core. The dies were time quenched in a mineral oil quenchant
followed by air cooling. Typically, after forging and
Solution: Research results have shown that
quenching, the neck of the die is badly damaged from
quenching of 2 inch AISI 4140 bars in 15% and higher
wrinkling after production of approximately 1000 valves.
concentrations of UCON Quenchant E provided an
The die is repaired by removal of 0.6–0.7 mm of the die
unusual but reproducible inverse hardening effect as
neck. This process may be performed 15–16 times at
shown in Figure 17.
which point the die must be discarded. With 5 hot-
Results: Quenching of AISI 4140 in 20% UCON forging presses operating 24 hours a day, this is a
Quenchant E at 40°C and 0.8 m/s agitation produced costly and wasteful process.
significantly greater bending fatigue after tempering
Solution: The oil quenchant was replaced by a 23.5%
at 480°C for two hours than achievable with oil
aqueous solution of UCON Quenchant E at 33°C using
quenching as shown in Figure 18.
a batch Immersion Time Quenching System (ITQS).
Controllable delayed quenching (CDQ) conducted in
Results: Although the oil quenched dies had undergone
this way using UCON Quenchant E provides greater
a 0.05–0.07 mm reduction in diameter of the inner-hole,
depth of hardening, more uniform microstructure and
no dimensional change was observed for the dies
about 7 times greater bending fatigue strength.
produced using UCON Quenchant E. Furthermore, more
uniform hardness was observed (Rc=55-56) with the
dies quenched in UCON Quenchant E than with oil
quenching (Rc=53-55). The overall results showed that
no wrinkling was observed with the dies quenched
in UCON Quenchant E. The oil quenched dies had
to be discarded after the production of only 15,000
valves. The dies quenched in UCON Quenchant E could
be reused for the production of 150,000 valves, an
Figure 17 Normal hardness distribution (1) after improvement of 100 times over the original process!
quenching in oil at 20°C without agitation; inverse
hardness distribution (2) after quenching in UCON
Quenchant E at 15% concentration, 40°C bath Figure 18 Test results of specimens with normal
temperature and 0.8 m/s agitation and inverse hardness distribution
AISI-4140 500
Batch No. 73456 F
HRC HRC Normal
400
Inverse
55 55 Fa
S-N Curve
Nominal Stress [MPa]

2 t
300
Test parameters:
No cracks
Fa = const.
50 50 R = Fmin/Fmax = 0
1 200

Material: 42CrMo4 (AISI-4140)


Kt = 1, 65
45 45 Stress Ratio R = ␴min / ␴max = 0

100
R 3/4R 1/2R 1/4R 0 1/4R 1/2R 3/4R R 1e4 1e5 1e6 1e7
50 mm Dia. Number of cycles (N)

28
Case History #13
Problem: AISI 1043 crankshafts, 17.8 and 18.4
kg, were heated to 850°C in a continuous furnace,
quenched in mineral oil, then tempered at 580°C and
610°C for the 17.8 and 18.4 kg crankshafts, respec-
tively. The challenge was to improve the quench
uniformity and reduce the distortion obtained using
this process.
Solution: The oil quench process was replaced by a
batch ITQS process using UCON Quenchant E under
the conditions shown in Figure 19.
Results: The data in Figure 19 shows that quenching
in UCON Quenchant E and a batch ITQS process will
produce more uniform hardness and less distortion
than achievable with a mineral oil quenchant.

Figure 19 Crankshaft hardness and distortion results


HRB
SURFACE CORE SURFACE
100.5
100
99.5
1
99
3
98.5
98
97.5 2
97
96.5 4
96 Note: Improvement
95.5 in hardness uniformity
95 relative to oil quench
94.5
94
93.5
1 5 10 15 20 25 30
Hardness check point (at intervals of 2mm)

Test Bending
Conc. (0/0) Temp. (C) Agitation
Number (mm)

1 Oil Quench 70 0.4 m/sec-Full-0.4 m/sec 0.6


2 Poly(alkylene glycol) 10 43 0.73 m/sec-110 sec-0.12 m/sec 0.95

3 Poly(alkylene glycol) 15.75 30 0.73 m/sec-20 sec-0.12 m/sec 0.5

4 Poly(alkylene glycol) 15 44 0.55 m/sec-20 sec-0.12 m/sec 0.5

1. Total Quenching Time is 4 Minutes


2. Total Bending Distortion Limit is 1.2 mm

29
Case History #14 Figure 20 Hardness distribution for track links
produced by the continuous ITQS process
Problem: Track (AISI 15B37) were produced in a direct
forge condition using a continuous ITQS process. The

8
39.5 39.5 39.5 1
problem was to identify conditions that would yield + + +

5
39.0 39.0 39.5
+ + + 2
uniform microstructure and cost reduction relative to 38.5 38.5 38.5
3
+ + +
the conventional forge, quench and temper process. 39.0
+
39.5
+
39.0
+ 4
40.0 40.0 39.5
+ + + 5
Solution: The solution was to use UCON Quenchant E 40.0
+
40.5
+
39.5
+ 6
39.5 39.5 39.0
at 35-40°C and an initial maximum agitation rate time + + + 7
39.0 40.0 39.5
of 10 seconds. +
39.0
+
39.0
+
39.5
8
+ + + 9
38.5 39.0
Results: Excellent hardness uniformity (as shown in 40.0
+ + +
10
40.0 39.5 39.0
Figure 20) was achieved. In addition to reduced crack- +
40.0
+
39.5
+
39.0 11
+ + +
ing, more uniform microstructure and substantial cost 39.0 39.5 40.0 12
+ + +
reduction was achieved with the direct forge process 39.0 39.5 40.5
13
+ + +
14
by quenching in UCON Quenchant E. 40.0
+
40.5
+
40.0
+ 15
38.0 38.0 38.5
+ + + 16
39.0 40.0 39.5
+ + + 17
39.5 38.5 39.5
+ + + 18
39.0 39.5 40.5
+ + + 19
39.0 39.5 39.5

5
+ + + 20
10 10mm
A B C
Ecological Information
Similar results will be obtained with the XL quenchants.

Table 12 Environmental Fate


Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Test1,
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD), % Bio-oxidation
Product mg O2/mg cpd Day 5 Day 10 Day 20
UCON Quenchant A 0.95 3 15 23
UCON Quenchant E 0.73 7 10 31
UCON Quenchant HT 0.92 2 18 18
UCON Quenchant RL 0.73 1 12 24
Ethylene Glycol Standard 1.30 72 96 94
Glucose/Glutamic Acid, Std. Soln. 300 mg/L 62 83 93
1 Bio-oxidation values, measures of biodegradability, are derived from the percentage ratio of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), according to procedures published in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,
16th edition, Am. Public Health Assoc., Washington, D.C. (1985).

Table 13 Ecotoxicity
Bacterial Inhibition, 48-hr LC50, Daphnia
Product IC50, mg/L magna, mg/L1
UCON Quenchant A >1000 4289
UCON Quenchant E >5000 9502
UCON Quenchant HT >1000 4287
UCON Quenchant RL >1000 5148
1 Measured by ASTM/EPA procedures for Daphnia magna toxicity tests. Reported LC calculated
50
by Spearman-Karber.

30
Toxicological Information
UCON Quenchants are water solutions of polyalkylene acids (formic, acetic acids), aldehydes, esters, ketones,
glycols. In animal studies, these materials show a low etc. The vapors or fumes can be highly irritating to
order of acute toxicity by swallowing or skin absorption. the eyes, nose and throat. Special ventilation may be
They are not irritating to the skin or eyes. The poly- needed. In normal use, no respiratory protective equip-
alkylene glycols have very low vapor pressures and ment should be needed, but self-contained breathing
are not inhalation hazards at room temperature. apparatus should be available for use in emergencies.
Adequate workplace ventilation should be provided to Small amounts of organic vapors can be formed by
prevent irritation and accumulation of vapors; this may oxidation of quenchants. These vapors can be irritating
require the use of a special, local ventilation system or toxic if released in a poorly ventilated area; do not
in the immediate area where vapors are released. If allow vapors to accumulate. Good ventilation should
the quenchant is burned under conditions of relatively be maintained around quench tanks.
complete combustion, the major products are carbon
Dow recommends quenchant users read the latest
dioxide and water vapor. If it is subjected to over-
Material Safety Data Sheet for the specific product
heating (thermal degradation) but does not burn, the
toxicological properties.
degradation products can be such things as organic

Storage and Handling


UCON Quenchants are normally shipped, stored, and Since UCON Quenchants are comparatively safe to
handled in steel containers and equipment. They freeze store and handle, bulk storage tanks may be located
near 0°C and become highly viscous at temperatures inside a building. If outside storage is planned, a
below about 20°C. Storage at room temperature is heated and insulated tank should be provided. The
suggested. storage tank can be vented directly to the atmosphere.
A centrifugal pump will be satisfactory for handling In prolonged and quiescent storage, evaporation and
viscosities up to 500 cSt. For higher viscosities, a condensation of moisture may cause a “lean” layer of
positive displacement pump is suggested. The pump solution to form on the liquid surface. Thus, samples
motor and recirculated diameter must be sized should be taken from the bulk of the stored liquid and
adequately for the maximum viscosity expected to be not from the surface, or the liquid should be circulated
handled. For on-off service, full-bore ball valves will prior to sampling to assure uniformity.
minimize pressure drop in the piping system.

Product Safety
When considering the use of UCON Quenchants for
an application, you should review our latest Material
Safety Data Sheets and ensure that the use you intend
can be accomplished safely. For Material Safety Data
Sheets and other product safety information, contact
your UCON Quenchants representative.

31
Physical Properties

Viscosity / Concentration Relationship Specific Gravities For Aqueous Solutions of


for UCON Quenchant A at 100°F UCON Quenchant A
50

1.04
45

40
1.03
35

Specific Gravity, t°F/60°F


Viscosity at 100 °F, cSt

30 1.02
40%

Concentration Volume Percent*


25
1.01
30%

UCON Quenchant A
20

15 1.00 20%

10
10%
.99
5
0%
0 .98
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Polymer Concentration, % by Vol. Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor

Specific Heats For Aqueous Solutions of Thermal Conductivities for


UCON Quenchant A Aqueous Solutions of UCON Quenchant A
1.00 .38 0%
0%
Concentration Volume Percent*

10%
UCON Quenchant A

.36

Concentration Volume Percent*


.98 10%
20%

UCON Quenchant A
Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hr. ft2 °F/ft
Specific Heat, BTU/lb °F

.96 30% .34 20%

40%

.32 30%
.94

40%
.92 .30

.90 .28
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Temperature °F Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by *Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor 10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor

32
Viscosity / Concentration Relationship Specific Gravities For Aqueous Solutions of
for UCON Quenchant E at 100°F UCON Quenchant E
50

1.04
45

40
1.03

35

Specific Gravity, t°F/60°F


Viscosity at 100 °F, cSt

1.02
30

25
1.01 40%

Concentration Volume Percent*


20

UCON Quenchant E
30%

15 1.00
20%
10
.99 10%

5
0%
0 .98
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Polymer Concentration, % by Vol. Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.5 factor

Specific Heats For Aqueous Solutions of Thermal Conductivities for


UCON Quenchant E Aqueous Solutions of UCON Quenchant E
1.00 .38
Concentration Volume Percent*

0% 0%
UCON Quenchant E

10%

.98 .36

Concentration Volume Percent*


20% 10%

UCON Quenchant E
Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hr. ft2 °F/ft

30%
Specific Heat, BTU/lb °F

.96 40% .34 20%

.94 .32 30%

40%
.92 .30

.90 .28
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Temperature °F Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by *Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.5 factor 10440 refractometer, using 2.5 factor

33
Viscosity / Concentration Relationship Specific Gravities For Aqueous Solutions of
for UCON Quenchant HT at 100°F UCON Quenchant HT
60

55 1.04

50
1.03
45

40

Specific Gravity, t°F/60°F


Viscosity at 100 °F, cSt

1.02 40%
35

Concentration Volume Percent*


30
1.01 30%

UCON Quenchant HT
25

20 20%
1.00
15
10%
10 .99

5 0%

0 .98
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Polymer Concentration, % by Vol. Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor

Specific Heats For Aqueous Solutions of Thermal Conductivities for


UCON Quenchant HT Aqueous Solutions of UCON Quenchant HT
1.00 0% .38 0%
Concentration Volume Percent*
UCON Quenchant HT

10%
.98 .36

Concentration Volume Percent*


10%
20%

UCON Quenchant HT
Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hr. ft2 °F/ft
Specific Heat, BTU/lb °F

.96 30% .34 20%

40%

.94 .32 30%

40%
.92 .30

.90 .28
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Temperature °F Temperature °F
*Concentration as determined by *Concentration as determined by
10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor 10440 refractometer, using 2.0 factor

34
Probe

Cooling coils Quench tank


and equipment

Sleeve
Figures 21 A Schematic illustration
Screen
of the quench system used to quench
the probes

Resistance
heater

Variable speed pump Drain

Insert handle full depth


weld water tight

Figures 21 B Schematic illustration of


D
dimensions of probes used to collect time-
temperature cooling curve data tabulated in
2D
Tables 14–16
4D

35
Table 14 Cooling Rate Data—UCON Quenchant A
Circulation Polymer Probe Maximum Temp. at Max. Time from Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Film Rockwell Rockwell
Rate1 Conc. Bath Temp. Diameter2 Cooling Rate Cooling Rate 1350°F–500°F 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 450°F (232°C) Coefficient Hardness Hardness
(732°C – 260°C) for 4140 for 1045
(ft/min) (%) (°F) (°C) (in.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F) (°C) (sec.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) Steel 3 Steel 3

50 5 110 43.3 0.5 376.50 209.17 1151.0 621.7 3.20 345.80 192.11 191.10 106.17 102.30 56.83 1380.40 58 59
50 5 110 43.3 1.0 117.10 65.06 1242.0 672.2 11.00 114.20 63.44 57.20 31.78 31.80 17.67 1359.20 57 47
50 5 110 43.3 1.5 55.50 30.83 1262.0 683.3 23.60 54.90 30.50 25.75 14.31 14.35 7.97 1191.70 56 34
50 5 110 43.3 2.0 32.30 17.94 1290.0 698.9 41.60 32.10 17.83 14.50 8.06 8.15 4.53 1054.40 55 23
20 10 90 32.2 0.5 322.20 179.00 1220.5 660.3 3.95 314.40 174.67 152.70 84.83 77.85 43.25 1185.10 58 58
80 10 90 32.2 0.5 355.90 197.72 1243.0 672.8 3.75 348.20 193.44 157.60 87.56 79.10 43.94 1378.30 58 58
20 10 130 54.4 0.5 215.40 119.67 946.0 507.8 6.20 60.40 33.56 138.10 76.72 70.50 39.17 130.20 58 53
80 10 130 54.4 0.5 316.40 175.78 1215.0 657.2 3.90 305.10 169.50 161.00 89.44 80.30 44.61 1054.40 58 58
20 10 90 32.2 1.0 107.60 59.78 1137.5 614.2 12.70 104.60 58.11 48.90 27.17 21.90 12.17 1108.10 57 46
80 10 90 32.2 1.0 145.10 80.61 1206.5 652.5 12.20 109.50 60.83 47.70 26.50 27.00 15.00 1244.40 57 47
20 10 130 54.4 1.0 96.30 53.50 940.5 504.7 15.45 28.80 16.00 49.45 27.47 22.20 12.33 121.70 57 39
80 10 130 54.4 1.0 102.65 57.03 1188.0 642.2 12.80 99.50 55.28 48.75 27.08 23.30 12.94 965.00 57 44
20 10 90 32.2 1.5 50.60 28.11 1286.5 696.9 26.80 50.00 27.78 22.75 12.64 10.60 5.89 883.20 56 32
50 20 110 43.3 1.0 98.20 54.56 1293.0 700.6 14.40 97.10 53.94 41.95 23.31 18.30 10.17 882.85 57 44
100 20 110 43.3 1.0 101.10 56.17 1252.0 677.8 14.20 99.65 55.36 42.05 23.36 20.80 11.56 961.20 57 44
50 20 110 43.3 1.0 55.20 30.67 822.0 438.9 26.30 15.05 8.36 39.55 21.97 16.60 9.22 70.30 56 27
50 20 80 26.7 1.5 47.75 26.53 1273.0 689.4 29.60 47.40 26.33 20.35 11.31 9.15 5.08 748.00 57 30
0 20 110 43.3 1.5 28.90 16.06 916.0 491.1 50.20 9.10 5.06 21.15 11.75 10.60 5.89 65.70 54 16
50 20 110 43.3 1.5 30.35 16.86 957.5 514.2 43.20 12.15 6.75 19.75 10.97 9.20 5.11 92.50 55 19
100 20 110 43.3 1.5 49.15 27.31 1297.5 703.1 30.00 48.80 27.11 19.25 10.69 10.35 5.75 815.90 56 30
50 20 140 60.0 1.5 26.00 14.44 870.5 465.8 57.20 9.70 5.39 18.90 10.50 8.55 4.75 69.85 53 14
50 20 80 26.7 2.0 28.75 15.97 1285.0 696.1 51.60 28.45 15.81 11.30 6.28 5.45 3.03 663.75 55 20
0 20 110 43.3 2.0 18.75 10.42 969.5 520.8 79.20 6.20 3.44 11.75 6.53 5.45 3.03 61.25 52 12
50 20 110 43.3 2.0 19.30 10.72 981.5 527.5 65.20 8.05 4.47 12.95 7.19 6.60 3.67 87.60 53 14
100 20 110 43.3 2.0 28.70 15.94 1303.0 706.1 52.80 28.45 15.81 10.80 6.00 5.75 3.19 661.20 55 19
50 20 140 60.0 2.0 17.10 9.50 909.0 487.2 88.40 6.65 3.69 10.95 6.08 4.75 2.64 66.10 51 11
80 10 90 32.2 1.5 52.20 29.00 1279.0 692.8 26.20 51.50 28.61 22.65 12.58 13.10 7.28 968.90 58 32
20 10 130 54.4 1.5 32.70 18.17 953.0 511.7 39.60 12.10 6.72 22.70 12.61 10.35 5.75 94.85 58 21
80 10 130 54.4 1.5 48.15 26.75 1256.0 680.0 27.80 47.25 26.25 21.60 12.00 11.30 6.28 738.60 58 31
20 10 90 32.2 2.0 27.30 15.17 1183.5 639.7 48.40 25.00 13.89 12.45 6.92 5.95 3.31 437.90 58 20
80 10 90 32.2 2.0 31.20 17.33 1292.0 700.0 45.80 30.70 17.06 12.80 7.11 7.80 4.33 875.00 57 21
20 10 130 54.4 2.0 22.25 12.36 1036.0 557.8 61.20 7.40 4.11 12.95 7.19 5.90 3.28 82.30 57 15
80 10 130 54.4 2.0 27.60 15.33 1253.0 678.3 49.00 26.10 14.50 12.20 6.78 6.90 3.83 522.25 57 20
50 20 80 26.7 0.5 227.10 126.17 1211.0 655.0 5.10 215.00 119.44 124.30 69.06 67.70 37.61 583.80 58 56
0 20 110 43.3 0.5 159.75 88.75 991.5 533.1 7.70 52.95 29.42 118.10 65.61 64.90 36.06 108.50 58 50
50 20 110 43.3 0.5 183.15 101.75 1050.5 565.8 5.75 149.50 83.06 122.30 67.94 56.90 31.61 345.05 58 54
100 20 110 43.3 0.5 288.60 160.33 1276.5 691.4 4.65 280.40 155.78 129.35 71.86 62.15 34.53 934.05 58 57
50 20 140 60.0 0.5 142.15 78.97 818.5 436.9 9.80 370.05 205.58 110.90 61.61 54.70 30.39 83.85 57 46
50 20 80 26.7 1.0 115.15 63.97 1145.5 618.6 12.10 108.20 60.11 49.30 27.39 26.20 14.56 1184.20 57 46
0 20 110 43.3 1.0 63.75 35.42 1055.0 568.3 18.20 31.65 17.58 40.90 22.72 20.95 11.64 137.05 57 37
20 30 90 32.2 0.5 117.20 65.11 746.5 396.9 12.00 30.10 16.72 102.80 57.11 53.45 29.69 67.00 57 42
80 30 90 32.2 0.5 266.60 148.11 1307.0 708.3 6.00 259.65 144.25 106.45 59.14 54.65 30.36 822.70 58 54
20 30 130 54.4 0.5 94.60 52.56 709.5 376.4 17.60 26.55 14.75 86.95 48.31 40.20 22.33 57.90 56 33
80 30 130 54.4 0.5 231.60 128.67 1212.0 655.6 7.00 207.65 115.36 89.10 49.50 40.85 22.69 549.60 58 53
20 30 90 32.2 1.0 43.45 24.14 794.9 423.8 26.05 23.65 13.14 34.70 19.28 16.60 9.22 115.95 56 28
80 30 90 32.2 1.0 54.30 30.17 1245.0 673.9 18.80 50.10 27.83 38.95 21.64 23.55 13.08 273.70 57 36
20 30 130 54.4 1.0 30.20 16.78 595.5 313.1 39.80 12.25 6.81 31.30 17.39 14.25 7.92 55.50 54 18
80 30 130 54.4 1.0 56.60 31.44 1414.0 767.8 23.85 49.45 27.47 30.55 16.97 17.75 9.86 178.35 56 31
20 30 90 32.2 1.5 23.30 12.94 837.0 447.2 66.00 8.70 4.83 18.50 10.28 11.15 6.19 61.95 52 12
80 30 90 32.2 1.5 43.65 24.25 122.5 50.3 32.45 42.70 23.72 18.40 10.22 9.35 5.19 555.10 56 28
20 30 130 54.4 1.5 23.30 12.94 812.5 433.6 83.20 8.00 4.44 15.70 8.72 7.85 4.36 56.10 50 11
80 30 130 54.4 1.5 19.90 11.06 813.0 433.9 61.20 10.95 6.08 16.40 9.11 9.65 5.36 80.60 53 13
20 30 90 32.2 2.0 17.90 9.94 923.0 495.0 89.60 6.85 3.81 10.85 6.03 4.90 2.72 70.10 50 11
80 30 90 32.2 2.0 24.05 13.36 1166.0 630.0 50.60 23.55 13.08 12.50 6.94 7.15 3.97 407.45 54 19
20 30 130 54.4 2.0 14.05 7.81 843.5 450.8 113.60 6.05 3.36 9.90 5.50 5.00 2.78 59.20 48 10
80 30 130 54.4 2.0 14.30 7.94 851.5 455.3 96.40 7.65 4.25 10.25 5.69 4.75 2.64 80.85 50 11
50 30 110 43.3 0.5 79.80 44.33 904.0 484.4 14.00 44.65 24.81 72.25 40.14 67.25 37.36 99.65 57 40
50 30 110 43.3 1.0 32.65 18.14 729.0 387.2 35.80 16.50 9.17 29.35 16.31 14.75 8.19 76.00 55 21
50 30 110 43.3 1.5 19.80 11.00 1142.0 616.7 71.20 10.45 5.81 14.62 8.12 8.55 4.75 78.60 52 12
50 30 110 43.3 2.0 14.55 8.08 1117.0 602.8 77.60 10.25 5.69 13.00 7.22 7.40 4.11 117.00 51 1
Note: The probes were austenitized at 1550°F (843.3°C) and quenched.
1. Circulation rate refers to axial flow through the tank illustrated in Figure 24A. 3. The hardnesses were calculated by Quench Factor Analysis as described in described the
2. The probe used for this work was constructed from Type 304 stainless steel with a Type K paper written by Bates, C.E. and Totten, G.E., entitled “Quench Severity Effects on the As-
thermocouple inserted into the geometric center. The probes were constructed with dimensions Quenched Hardness of Selected Alloy Steels”, Heat Treatment of Metals, 1992, 2, p 45-48.
of an “infinite cylinder” where the length is 4 times the diameter as illustrated in Figure 24B.
36
Table 15 Cooling Rate Data —UCON Quenchant E
Circulation Polymer Probe Maximum Temp. at Max. Time from Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Film Rockwell Rockwell
Rate1 Conc. Bath Temp. Diameter2 Cooling Rate Cooling Rate 1350°F–500°F 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 450°F (232°C) Coefficient Hardness Hardness
(732°C – 260°C) for 4140 for 1045
(ft/min) (%) (°F) (°C) (in.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F) (°C) (sec.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) Steel 3 Steel 3

50 5 110 43.3 0.5 300.00 166.67 1151.0 621.7 4.20 245.25 136.25 147.95 82.19 71.80 39.89 850.25 58 57
50 5 110 43.3 1.0 86.15 47.86 1137.0 613.9 14.00 64.45 35.81 50.55 28.08 22.25 12.36 372.20 57 43
50 5 110 43.3 1.5 46.70 25.94 1222.0 661.1 29.20 44.15 24.53 20.75 11.53 11.05 6.14 645.00 56 30
50 5 110 43.3 2.0 29.15 16.19 1290.0 698.9 49.60 20.15 11.19 11.65 6.47 6.55 3.64 708.80 55 20
20 10 90 32.2 0.5 262.20 145.67 1288.5 698.1 5.85 259.10 143.94 100.05 55.58 35.30 19.61 793.40 58 55
80 10 90 32.2 0.5 337.05 187.25 1253.5 678.6 4.95 333.95 185.53 112.80 62.67 51.95 28.86 1309.90 58 57
20 10 130 54.4 0.5 165.50 91.94 969.0 520.6 8.90 45.90 25.50 87.50 48.61 28.85 16.03 99.60 58 50
80 10 130 54.4 0.5 271.05 150.58 1290.0 698.9 6.00 268.20 149.00 97.50 54.17 41.95 23.31 853.90 58 55
20 10 90 32.2 1.0 85.50 47.50 1051.5 566.4 17.70 76.80 42.67 31.85 17.69 12.30 6.83 525.60 57 41
80 10 90 32.2 1.0 100.35 55.75 1293.0 700.6 15.60 99.30 55.17 35.85 19.92 19.45 10.81 959.40 47 43
20 10 130 54.4 1.0 63.75 35.42 1065.5 574.2 23.00 24.40 13.56 31.20 17.33 10.75 5.97 114.30 57 35
20 10 130 54.4 1.0 108.40 60.22 839.5 448.6 17.40 95.00 52.78 32.25 17.92 19.70 10.94 857.90 57 42
20 10 90 32.2 1.5 34.30 19.06 1084.7 584.8 42.60 19.95 11.08 14.65 8.14 6.35 3.53 149.65 55 *
80 10 90 32.2 1.5 47.10 26.17 1308.5 709.2 33.80 46.75 25.97 16.55 9.19 16.00 8.89 732.30 56 *
20 10 130 54.4 1.5 28.15 15.64 973.0 522.8 58.20 9.75 5.42 13.60 7.56 5.70 3.17 71.55 54 *
80 10 130 54.4 1.5 30.45 16.92 1051.0 566.1 42.00 21.15 11.75 15.00 8.33 8.25 4.58 180.30 55 *
20 10 90 32.2 2.0 22.60 12.56 1172.5 633.6 65.60 18.85 10.47 8.80 4.89 3.85 2.14 234.10 54 *
80 10 90 32.2 2.0 27.05 15.03 1301.0 705.0 58.20 26.70 14.83 9.60 5.33 6.00 3.33 551.60 54 *
20 10 130 54.4 2.0 18.10 10.06 1048.5 564.7 81.20 7.45 4.14 8.30 4.61 3.55 1.97 82.25 52 *
80 10 130 54.4 2.0 19.80 11.00 1148.5 620.3 66.40 16.00 8.89 9.05 5.03 5.15 2.86 197.70 53 *
50 20 80 26.7 0.5 234.85 130.47 1283.0 695.0 8.40 * * * * * * 915.50 58 52
0 20 110 43.3 0.5 98.90 54.94 726.5 385.8 16.35 28.50 15.83 85.95 47.75 28.50 15.83 62.70 57 35
50 20 110 43.3 0.5 169.30 94.06 1317.0 713.9 9.10 159.45 88.58 81.20 45.11 21.30 11.83 409.00 58 50
100 20 110 43.3 0.5 238.95 132.75 1210.0 654.4 7.90 213.25 118.47 88.90 49.39 38.40 21.33 695.05 58 54
50 20 140 60.0 0.5 80.70 44.83 717.5 380.8 15.30 38.10 21.17 69.15 38.42 20.10 11.17 84.20 57 38
50 20 80 26.7 1.0 71.80 39.89 1314.0 712.2 20.70 70.45 39.14 29.15 16.19 12.35 6.86 470.05 57 38
0 20 110 43.3 1.0 40.05 22.25 828.0 442.2 43.50 13.55 7.53 29.75 16.53 10.45 5.81 60.90 54 16
50 20 110 43.3 1.0 71.40 39.67 1368.5 742.5 24.60 67.45 37.47 27.15 15.08 9.60 5.33 498.55 57 35
100 20 110 43.3 1.0 49.90 27.72 1074.0 578.9 22.00 38.90 21.61 30.50 16.94 21.90 12.17 185.45 56 34
50 20 110 43.3 1.0 33.00 18.33 786.0 418.9 45.60 14.85 8.25 27.15 15.08 13.15 7.31 68.00 54 16
50 20 80 26.7 1.5 36.05 20.03 1143.0 617.2 42.50 30.60 17.00 14.00 7.78 6.55 3.64 426.40 55 *
0 20 110 43.3 1.5 23.45 13.03 841.0 449.4 68.40 8.70 4.83 20.20 11.22 12.85 7.14 61.45 51 *
50 20 110 43.3 1.5 36.00 20.00 1378.0 747.8 45.60 34.00 18.89 13.65 7.58 5.15 2.86 422.80 55 *
100 20 110 43.3 1.5 46.65 25.92 1306.0 707.8 39.20 46.15 25.64 13.75 7.64 6.55 3.64 711.60 56 *
50 20 140 60.0 1.5 23.15 12.86 716.0 380.0 69.20 9.25 5.14 22.20 12.33 13.50 7.50 66.00 51 *
50 20 80 26.7 2.0 24.30 13.50 1267.5 686.4 67.50 23.90 13.28 8.20 4.56 3.95 2.19 426.45 54 *
0 20 110 43.3 2.0 14.60 8.11 902.0 483.3 101.60 6.10 3.39 9.55 5.31 6.15 3.42 59.75 49 *
50 20 110 43.3 2.0 16.10 8.94 986.5 530.3 84.10 9.90 5.50 8.10 4.50 3.45 1.92 110.45 52 *
100 20 110 43.3 2.0 23.15 12.86 1189.0 642.8 61.80 22.40 12.44 9.90 5.50 6.20 3.44 393.80 54 *
50 20 140 60.0 2.0 14.55 8.08 1121.5 605.3 105.00 7.20 4.00 11.00 6.11 5.35 2.97 74.10 49 *
20 30 90 32.2 0.5 66.95 37.19 689.0 365.0 26.55 27.40 15.22 64.05 35.58 18.90 10.50 60.60 55 24
80 30 90 32.2 0.5 247.35 137.42 1255.5 679.7 9.60 232.85 129.36 62.60 34.78 34.40 19.11 668.00 58 50
20 30 130 54.4 0.5 59.10 32.83 533.0 278.3 33.60 24.65 13.69 51.60 28.67 45.25 25.14 54.70 54 *
80 30 130 54.4 0.5 110.45 61.36 1095.5 590.8 12.25 52.35 29.08 59.50 33.06 52.25 29.03 126.50 57 *
20 30 90 32.2 1.0 79.00 43.89 659.0 348.3 44.00 12.85 7.14 26.80 14.89 13.80 7.67 58.75 54 *
80 30 90 32.2 1.0 77.70 43.17 1392.0 755.6 25.65 75.50 41.94 23.30 12.94 21.05 11.69 536.75 56 *
20 30 130 54.4 1.0 32.00 17.78 997.5 536.4 63.60 12.30 6.83 24.25 13.47 24.75 13.75 55.90 52 *
80 30 130 54.4 1.0 66.90 37.17 1217.0 658.3 25.65 63.10 35.06 23.10 12.83 21.80 12.11 392.00 56 *
20 30 90 32.2 1.5 22.25 12.36 665.0 351.7 83.60 8.20 4.56 21.95 12.19 13.45 7.47 57.90 50 *
80 30 90 32.2 1.5 43.25 24.03 1305.0 707.2 36.60 42.05 23.36 17.90 9.94 13.50 7.50 550.20 55 *
20 30 130 54.4 1.5 19.60 10.89 618.0 325.6 96.40 7.75 4.31 19.25 10.69 13.25 7.36 54.25 49 *
80 30 130 54.4 1.5 18.95 10.53 664.5 351.4 64.00 9.75 5.42 18.80 10.44 12.85 7.14 70.45 52 *
20 30 90 32.2 2.0 15.40 8.56 759.5 404.2 108.00 7.15 3.97 13.65 7.58 7.55 4.19 74.10 48 *
80 30 90 32.2 2.0 17.25 9.58 1435.5 779.7 67.20 13.90 7.72 12.75 7.08 7.30 4.06 170.05 52 *
20 30 130 54.4 2.0 13.25 7.36 1062.5 572.5 127.20 7.00 3.89 12.65 7.03 7.55 4.19 70.50 46 *
80 30 130 54.4 2.0 14.10 7.83 1102.0 594.4 107.60 7.20 4.00 11.75 6.53 6.85 3.81 73.90 48 *
50 35 110 43.3 0.5 72.50 40.28 1006.9 541.6 20.20 32.25 17.92 46.15 25.64 28.75 15.97 73.95 56 34
50 35 110 43.3 1.0 28.50 15.83 1022.0 550.0 45.40 14.00 7.78 20.70 11.50 20.15 11.19 64.00 54 17
50 35 110 43.3 1.5 18.40 10.22 604.9 318.3 74.00 8.85 4.92 17.70 9.83 12.85 7.14 63.05 51 12
50 35 110 43.3 2.0 13.05 7.25 695.0 368.3 118.10 6.10 3.39 12.55 6.97 7.20 4.00 59.30 47 10
Note: The probes were austenitized at 1550°F (843.3°C) and quenched.
1. Circulation rate refers to axial flow through the tank illustrated in Figure 24A. 3. The hardnesses were calculated by Quench Factor Analysis as described in described the
2. The probe used for this work was constructed from Type 304 stainless steel with a Type K paper written by Bates, C.E. and Totten, G.E., entitled “Quench Severity Effects on the As-
thermocouple inserted into the geometric center. The probes were constructed with dimensions Quenched Hardness of Selected Alloy Steels”, Heat Treatment of Metals, 1992, 2, p 45-48.
of an “infinite cylinder” where the length is 4 times the diameter as illustrated in Figure 24B.

37
Table 16 Cooling Rate Data—UCON Quenchant HT
Concen- Bath Temp. Circulation Probe Maximum Temp. at Max. Time from Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at
tration Rate1 Dia.2 Cooling Rate Cooling Rate 1350°F–500°F 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 450°F (232°C)
(732°C–260°C)
(%) (°F) (°C) (ft/min) (in.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F) (°C) (sec.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec)

20 100 37.8 100 1 95.6 53.1 1279 692.8 13.75 93.16 51.8 45.34 25.2 29.24 16.2
20 120 48.9 100 1 90.2 50.1 1288 697.8 14.33 84.20 46.8 45.54 25.3 28.28 15.7
20 140 60.0 100 1 65.7 36.5 1155 623.9 17.39 58.61 32.6 38.36 21.3 23.86 13.3
25 100 37.8 100 1 74.8 41.6 1289 698.3 16.47 72.53 40.3 40.24 22.4 24.42 13.6
25 120 48.9 100 1 67.1 37.3 * * 17.42 63.31 35.2 38.35 21.3 23.63 13.1
25 140 60.0 100 1 59.2 32.9 1121 605.0 18.39 49.41 27.5 38.38 21.3 23.04 12.8

Note: The probes were austenitized at 1550°F (843.3°C) and quenched.


1. Circulation rate refers to axial flow through the tank illustrated in Figure 24A.
2. The probe used for this work was constructed from Type 304 stainless steel with a Type K
thermocouple inserted into the geometric center. The probes were constructed with dimensions
of an “infinite cylinder” where the length is 4 times the diameter as illustrated in Figure 24B.

Table 17 Cooling Rate Data—Water and Selected Oils


Quen- Bath Temp. Circulation Probe Maximum Temp. at Max. Time from Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at Cooling Rate at
chant Rate Dia. Cooling Rate Cooling Rate 1350°F–500°F 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 450°F (232°C)
(732°C–260°C)
(°F) (°C) (ft/min) (in.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F) (°C) (sec.) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec) (°F/sec) (°C/sec)

Water 80 26.7 0 1 108.0 60.0 1309 709.4 11.67 104.36 58.0 53.45 29.7 33.14 18.4
Water 100 37.8 0 1 104.6 58.1 1265 685.0 11.94 101.30 56.3 53.00 29.4 32.96 18.3
Water 120 48.9 0 1 102.0 56.7 1291 699.4 12.19 98.84 54.9 51.03 28.4 31.40 17.4
Water 140 60.0 0 1 92.3 51.3 1207 652.8 13.00 87.29 48.5 49.45 27.5 29.79 16.6
Fast Oil 150 65.6 100 1 73.6 40.9 1335 723.9 23.39 67.90 37.7 24.31 13.5 12.59 7.0
Conven-
150 65.6 100 1 60.8 33.8 1241 671.7 25.72 53.60 29.8 21.89 12.2 12.13 6.7
tional Oil
Martem-
300 148.9 100 1 63.4 35.2 1327 719.4 32.92 59.33 33.0 16.24 9.0 5.46 3.0
pering Oil

38
Table 18 Quenching Data for AA 7075-T73 using a Type I Aqueous Polymer
UCON Quenchant A (Solution Temperature 870°F)
Polymer Bar Bath Circulation Cooling Rate Film Quench Predicted
Concentration Diameter Temperature Rate Coefficient Factor Yield Strength
% (in) (°F) (ft/min) (°F/sec) (BTU/Hr.ft.°F) (KSI)
10 0.5 85 0 433.5 1210.0 2.56 68.5
10 0.5 85 50 458.1 1250.0 2.27 68.5
10 1 85 0 190.1 1232.5 5.81 67.6
10 1 85 50 195.2 1252.5 5.55 67.7
10 1.5 85 0 133.2 1275.0 8.90 66.8
10 1.5 85 50 129.7 1235.0 8.89 66.8
15 0.5 90 0 292.1 785.0 3.10 *
15 0.5 90 50 286.5 738.0 3.40 *
15 0.5 90 100 317.1 856.0 3.00 *
15 1 90 0 135.1 559.0 7.50 *
15 1 90 50 143.2 681.0 7.00 *
15 1 90 100 143.4 681.0 7.10 *
15 1.5 90 0 92.1 597.0 11.10 *
15 1.5 90 50 98.7 621.0 10.80 *
15 1.5 90 100 104.5 689.0 10.30 *
20 0.5 85 25 276.2 770.0 3.72 68.1
20 0.5 85 25 296.5 805.0 3.57 68.2
20 1 85 25 140.0 930.0 8.03 67.0
20 1.5 85 25 109.1 980.0 11.54 66.1
20 2 85 25 65.5 858.9 18.40 64.7
20 3 85 25 36.5 793.0 31.90 61.6
25 0.5 90 0 215.5 611.0 3.70 *
25 0.5 90 50 217.8 539.0 4.00 *
25 0.5 90 100 232.4 643.0 3.60 *
25 1 90 0 116.7 404.0 8.20 *
25 1 90 50 118.1 436.0 8.50 *
25 1 90 100 121.8 500.0 8.50 *
25 1.5 90 0 78.0 507.0 11.90 *
25 1.5 90 50 86.3 460.0 12.00 *
25 1.5 90 100 91.0 497.0 11.90 *
30 0.5 85 0 178.3 457.5 5.14 67.8
30 0.5 85 50 217.7 615.0 4.83 67.9
30 1 85 0 112.8 775.0 10.56 66.4
30 1 85 50 107.3 750.0 10.28 66.4
30 1.5 85 0 68.3 647.5 15.98 65.0
30 1.5 85 50 73.0 329.8 15.42 65.1

39
Table 19 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 20% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Probe Diameter [Bath Temperature 43°C., Agitation V = 0 m/s (no agitation)]
Probe Cooling Rate, (sec. -1)1 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 400°F (204°C) ␣FB
Diameter 1300°F 650°F 400°F
(in/m) (704°C) (343°C) (204°C) Kn Biv Kn Biv Kn Biv (W/m2K) 2
0.5 0.0432 0.230 0.166 0.0579 0.06 0.34 0.44 0.218 0.26 697
(.0127) 0.0379 0.210 0.157 0.051 0.052 0.31 0.206 0.24 604
1.0 0.0217 0.075 0.041 0.116 0.125 0.445 0.72 0.216 0.26 725
(.0254) 0.0252 0.077 0.044 0.135 0.15 0.457 0.23 0.28 870
1.5 0.081 0.039 0.027 0.098 0.11 0.52 0.93 0.32 0.43 426
(.0381) 0.0072 0.039 0.033 0.087 0.095 0.52 0.39 0.57 368
2.0 0.0053 0.0217 0.0135 0.114 0.124 0.515 0.90 0.28 0.36 360
(0.0508) 0.0051 0.0216 0.011 0.109 0.120 0.513 0.23 0.28 348
1. Cooling rate is the value “m” with units of sec-1 and is calculated from: In(Ti – Tm) – In(T2 – Tm)
m=
where: T1 and T2 are current temperatures, t2 – t1
Tm is the bath temperature and t is the time.
2. ␣FB is in (W/m2K); FB = film boiling.

Table 20 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 20% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Probe Diameter (Bath Temperature 60°C., Agitation V = 0.254 m/s)
Probe Cooling Rate, (sec. -1)1 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 400°F (204°C) ␣FB
Diameter 1300°F 650°F 400°F
(in/m) (704°C) (343°C) (204°C) Kn Biv Kn Biv Kn Biv (W/m2K) 2
0.5 0.032 0.218 0.1477 0.0428 0.043 0.323 0.44 0.23 0.28 499
(.0127) 0.033 0.222 0.136 0.044 0.045 0.328 0.21 0.21 500
1.0 0.014 0.08 0.049 0.075 0.08 0.475 0.76 0.306 0.40 464
(.0254) 0.0123 0.076 0.0385 0.066 0.07 0.451 0.24 0.30 406
1.5 0.0084 0.038 0.032 0.101 0.11 0.507 0.89 0.45 0.72 392
(.0381) 0.0084 0.038 0.023 0.101 0.11 0.507 0.89 0.32 0.43 392
2.0 0.0056 0.021 0.0134 0.120 0.125 0.498 0.86 0.33 0.44 363
(.0508) 0.0058 0.021 0.0127 0.124 0.13 0.498 0.86 0.317 0.42 365
1. Cooling rate is the value “m” with units of sec-1 and is calculated from: In(Ti – Tm) – In(T2 – Tm)
m=
where: T1 and T2 are current temperatures, t2 – t1
Tm is the bath temperature and t is the time.
2. ␣FB is in (W/m2K); FB = film boiling.

40
Table 21 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 30% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Sample Diameter (Bath Temperature 54.4°C., Agitation V = 0.1 m/s)
Probe Cooling Rate, (sec. -1)1 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 400°F (204°C) ␣FB
Diameter 1300°F 650°F 400°F
(in/m) (704°C) (343°C) (204°C) Kn Biv Kn Biv Kn Biv (W/m2K) 2
0.5 .0240 0.1890 0.1270 0.0316 0.032 0.249 0.30 0.167 0.19 372
(.0127) .0245 0.1960 0.1440 0.0322 0.034 0.258 0.32 0.189 0.22 395
1.0 .0114 0.0715 0.0521 0.060 0.063 0.376 0.54 0.274 0.348 366
(.0254) .0112 0.0696 0.0495 0.059 0.062 0.366 0.52 0.260 0.330 360
1.5 .0074 0.0352 0.0372 0.087 0.094 0.417 0.64 0.440 0.70 337
(.0381) .0074 0.0356 0.0335 0.088 0.095 0.422 0.65 0.347 0.59 341
2.0 .0055 0.0224 0.0229 0.116 0.125 0.472 0.78 0.480 0.80 363
(.0508) .0056 0.0224 0.0223 0.118 0.130 0.472 0.78 0.470 0.78 377
1. Cooling rate is the value “m” with units of sec-1 and is calculated from: In(Ti – Tm) – In(T2 – Tm)
m=
where: T1 and T2 are current temperatures, t2 – t1
Tm is the bath temperature and t is the time.
2. ␣FB is in (W/m2K); FB = film boiling.

Table 22 Heat Transfer Coefficients for 35% Water Solution of UCON Quenchant A vs.
Sample Diameter (Bath Temperature 43.3°C., Agitation V = 0.254 m/s)
Probe Cooling Rate, (sec. -1)1 1300°F (704°C) 650°F (343°C) 400°F (204°C) ␣FB
Diameter 1300°F 650°F 400°F
(in/m) (704°C) (343°C) (204°C) Kn Biv Kn Biv Kn Biv (W/m2K) 2
0.5 0.034 0.133 0.0886 0.0456 0.048 0.197 0.23 0.138 0.15 557
(.0127) 0.040 0.128 0.0952 0.0536 0.055 0.189 0.22 0.146 0.16 638
1.0 0.0139 0.0556 0.0359 0.0745 0.08 0.33 0.45 0.224 0.27 464
(.0254) 0.0138 0.0524 0.0348 0.0740 0.08 0.311 0.40 0.217 0.26 464
1.5 0.0081 0.0272 0.0276 0.0978 0.105 0.363 0.52 0.388 0.56 406
(.0381) 0.0099 0.0272 0.0220 0.119 0.13 0.363 0.52 0.309 0.40 503
2.0 0.0073 0.023 0.0183 0.1566 0.18 0.546 1.05 0.457 0.74 522
(.0508) 0.01 0.0244 0.0196 0.214 0.26 0.579 1.15 0.489 0.82 621
1. Cooling rate is the value “m” with units of sec-1 and is calculated from: In(Ti – Tm) – In(T2 – Tm)
m=
where: T1 and T2 are current temperatures, t2 – t1
Tm is the bath temperature and t is the time.
2. ␣FB is in (W/m2K); FB = film boiling.

41
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