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# I.

## Title of Experiment : Entrophy System

II. Date of Experiment : Tuesday, 9th May 2017
III. Purpose of Experiment :
 Learning entrophy changing of system in some reaction
IV. Basic Theories :
Entrophy is one of the most fundamental concepts of physical
science, with far-reaching consequences ranging from cosmology to
chemistry. It is also widely mis-represented as a measure of “disorder”, as
we discuss below. The German physicist Rudolf Clausius originated the
concept as “energy gone to waste” in the early 1850s, and its definition
went through a number of more precise definitions over the next 15 years.
The term “entropy” was coined by Clausius in nineteenth-century
thermodynamics, and is the subject of the Second Law of
Thermodynamics, which states that in an isolated thermodynamic system,
entropy will either remain constant or increase toward its maximum, but
cannot decrease. This means that in an isolated system, the system will
gradually become more and more disordered, until it reaches maximum
entropy. This is a complete state of rest or dissolution, with an absence of
available energy for doing work (Chang, Raymond. 2005).
The phenomenon of entropy was originally observed in
thermodynamic systems such as heat baths. An isolated system is one that
is closed to inputs of both matter and energy. This means that since no
new heat energy can be added, the system can never become hotter, but
can only remain the same temperature, or become colder. As it loses heat
over time, its entropy increases, until finally it reaches its maximum. This
state of maximum entropy is called thermodynamic equilibrium. This is
sometimes described as the state of “system death.” Such thermodynamic
systems, as found in nature, are “irreversible systems,” where heat cannot
flow from colder to hotter parts of the system, but only from hotter to
colder areas. Thermodynamic entropy is denoted by the symbol S, and the
formula for change in entropy is:

dS > dQ / T ..........................................................(1)
where S is entropy, Q is heat, and T is the temperature of the system. The
difference in two entropy states, S1 and S2 is:
2
S2 – S1 > ∫1 𝑑𝑄/𝑇 (irreversible process)....................(2)
Entropy (S) can only remain constant or increase, until it reaches a
maximum. When the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, then:
dS = 0...................................................................(3)
In physics, work and entropy are inversely related. The principal way to
decrease entropy is to do work through the expenditure of free energy. If
free energy is available, and is expended to do work, then the system
becomes more orderly and entropy decreases. But if all available energy
has been expended, then no more work can be done, and entropy will
either remain constant or increase.
The concept of entropy emerged from the mid-19th century
discussion of the efficiency of heat engines. Generations of students
struggled with Carnot's cycle and various types of expansion of ideal and
real gases, and never really understood why they were doing so. Many
earlier textbooks took the approach of defining a change in
entropy, ΔS, via the equation:
ΔS = Qreversible/T ......................................................(4)

## where Q is the quantity of heat and T the thermodynamic

temperature. However, it is more common today to find entropy
explained in terms of the degree of disorder in the system and to define
the entropy change, ΔS, as:

ΔS = -ΔH/T..................................................................(5)

where ΔH is the enthalpy change. This more modern approach has two
disadvantages. First the units of entropy are Joules per Kelvin but the
degree of disorder has no units. Secondly, the equation (5) defining
entropy change does not recognise that the system has to be at
equilibrium for it to be valid. We prefer to consider that the entropy of a
system corresponds to the molecular distribution of its molecular energy
among the available energy levels and that systems tends to adopt the
broadest possible distribution. Alongside this it is important to bear in
mind the three laws of thermodynamics. The first law deals with the
conservation of energy, the second law is concerned with the direction in
which spontaneous reactions go, and the third law establishes that at
absolute zero, all pure substances have the same entropy, which is taken,
by convention, to be zero. In classical terms, systems at absolute zero
have no energy and the atoms or molecules would be close packed
together. As energy, in any form is supplied to a system, its molecules
begin to rotate, vibrate and translate, which is observable as a rise in
temperature.

## The rise in temperature caused by a given quantity of heat will be

different for different substances and depends on the heat capacity of the
substance. Since different substances have different heat capacities and
because some compounds will have melted or vaporised, by the time they
have reached their standard states at 298 K, their standard entropies will
be different. For example, the standard entropy of graphite is 6 J K-1 mol-
1
, whereas that for water it is 70 J K-1 mol-1, and for nitrogen it is 192 J
K-1 mol-1. When considering calculations, it is important to remember
that the defining equation (i) requires the quantity of heat to be taken up
reversibly. (This is often overlooked by most textbooks written for A-
level specifications.) When a system, initially at 0 K, absorbs this
quantity of energy, its temperature rises by δT to 0 + δT or T1. A further
quantity of energy, q, brings about an entropy change, as defined by
equation (i), and the temperature rises to T1 + δT or T2. This process of
adding energy to the system by a series of reversible absorptions
eventually brings the system to 298 K and the sum of these operations
gives the standard entropy of the system (which is the difference between
the entropy of the substance in its standard state and its entropy at 0
K). Rather than tediously adding these minute increments, the use of
calculus allows us to achieve the same result. Entropy changes
accompanying phase changes - eg melting, vaporisation etc - can be
calculated without the use of calculus if the two phases are in equilibrium
(ie at the melting point or boiling point). Under these conditions, the
entropy change can be calculated from equation (5). Tables of standard
entropies list the entropy of 1 mole of an element or compound in its
standard state at 298 K - the standard state of a solid element or
compound is the pure solid, that of a liquid is the pure liquid in
equilibrium with its vapour and that of a gas is when it is at a pressure of
105 N m-2 or 1 standard atmosphere.

## The use of an increase in total entropy as a criterion of spontaneity

of reaction has to be treated with some caution. Its chief disadvantage is
that it requires knowledge of the entropy changes in both the system and
its surroundings.

## Moreover, since the standard entropies relate to standard states at 298 K,

it is not appropriate, in most cases, to use these values at different
temperatures. Whereas data can generally be obtained directly from the
system itself, this is not the case with the surroundings which are
generally assumed to be large enough not to be significantly affected by
the changes occurring in the system. Thermodynamics is an elegant and
powerful tool but it has to be used with caution. Chemical reactions
involve reactants and products in reactions which may not necessarily go
to completion. Why this should be so involves both the enthalpy and
entropy changes as reactants turn into products. . Exothermic reactions
result in less energy in the system but are usually (not always) associated
with a reduction in the entropy of the system, endothermic reactions are
generally the reverse of this. When there are two opposing changes, a
balance point has to be attained and the result is a mixture of reactants
and products. The key to determining which way and how far a chemical
reaction will go is provided by another thermodynamic property - the
Gibbs free energy (G) and it should come as no surprise to find that it is
related to both the enthalpy and the entropy of the system (Petrucci, et
all. 2007):

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

## When the concept of entropy is being introduced, it is important that

misconceptions should be avoided, particularly the idea that entropy
represents the degree of disorder in the system. Entropy is dynamic - the
energy of the system is constantly being redistributed among the possible
distributions as a result of molecular collisions - and this is implicit in the
dimensions of entropy being energy and reciprocal temperature, with
units of J K-1, whereas the degree of disorder is a dimensionless number.

## Since Boltzmann’s entropy and Shannon’s H are statistical

formulations presented in terms of probabilities, and since the formulas
are so similar, many statisticians may have little difficulty making the
transition from Boltmann’s entropy to Shannon’s H (or vice versa).
However, students of Shannon’s H may have a more difficult time
understanding thermodynamic entropy, and resolving differences
between thermodynamic entropy and Shannon’s H. Similarly, students
whose first introduction to entropy was in thermodynamics, may not be
sure that Boltzmann’s entropy is “real” entropy, but may accept it as a
valid physics entity. However, they may consider this statistical
computation to be less rigorous than the original thermodynamic entropy.
These scholars may have real difficulty in accepting Shannon’s H as an
entropy measure. They may consider it a valid information-theory
measure, or entropy analog, but may not consider it a valid entropy
measure to the same degree that they would accept thermodynamic
entropy or even Boltzmann’s entropy (McMurray, 2001).
References

## Chang, Raymond. 2005. Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences. Sausalito,

California: University Science Books.
I. N. Levine. 2009. Physical Chemistry, 6th ed., p. 101, toward the end of “What
Is Entropy?”. USA: Thomson.
McMurray, Fay. 2001. Physical Chemistry Third Edition. Upper Sadle River, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura. 2007. General Chemistry: Principles &
Modern Applications, Ninth Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Tim Dosen Penyusun. 2017. Petunjuk Praktikum Kimia Fisika II. Surabaya :
FMIPA Unipress.
Attachment

## Preparing the equipments that

1.
needed in the experiment

## Preparing the ingredients that

2.
needed in the experiment

Experiment 1A

## Taking 10 mL of water and put

1.
in test tube A, B and C
Measuring the temperatur in test
tube A, B and C get temperature
of water is
2.
t1A = 32°C
t1B = 32°C
t1C = 32°C

## Adding ½ spatula of NaOH

3. solid and the weigh is 0,4937
gram and put in test tube A

## Adding ½ spatula of NaOH

4. solid and the weigh is 0,4550
gram and put in test tube B
5. solid and the weigh is 0,5059
gram and put in test tube C

6.
dissolve

## Measuring the temperature and

got
t2A = 40°C
t2B = 39°C
7.
t2C = 39,5°C
the solution is colorless and the
temperature is increase (hot)
Experiment 1B

1.
tube A,B, and C

## Measuring the temperatur in test

2. tube A, B and C get temperature
of water is 32°C

## Added ½ spatula of KNO3 solid

and it’s weighed for each test
tubes.
3.
mA = 0,1829 gram
mB = 0,1156 gram
mC = 0,1656 gram
Shaking each test tubes until
dissolve and measured the
temperature.
t2A = 31°C
4.
t2B = 31°C
t2C = 31°C
the solution is colorless and the
temperature is decrease (cold)

Experiment 1C

1.
A, B, and C

## Measuring the temperature in

each test tubes
2. t1A = 31,5°C
t1B = 31,5°C
t1C = 31,5°C
Adding ¼ spatula of Mg metal
and weighed for each test tubes
3. mA = 0,0641
mB = 0,0726
mC = 0,0733

## Shaking until dissolve and

measuring the temperature
t2A = 33°C
t2B = 33°C
t2C = 33°C
4.
The solution change into
turbid solution and there are
bubbles and grey precipitate,
the temperature is increase
(hot)

Experiment 2

## Added 1 spatula of Ba(OH)2

solid + ½ spatula of NH4Cl solid
in roll film A, B, and C
mBa(OH)2 A = 0,4869 gram
mBa(OH)2 B = 0,5003 gram
mBa(OH)2 C = 0,5066 gram
1.
mNH4Cl A = 0,1509 gram
mNH4Cl B = 0,1613 gram
mNH4Cl C = 0,1500 gram
and measuring the temperature
t1A = 32°C
t1B = 32°C
t1C = 32°C

## Closed the roll film and shaked

until homogeneous, after
2.
homogeneous, opened and smell
the odor. It has amonia odor

## Measured the temperature in

each test tubes
t2A = 30,5°C
t2B = 28°C
3. t2C = 31°C
The mixture is white and has
amonia odor, the temperature is
decrease (cold)

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