Anda di halaman 1dari 8

ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) International Journal of Research in Management &

ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)


Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Impact of Brand Image and Advertisement on Consumer


Buying Behavior – Comparative Study on Rural and
Urban Consumers
Dr. R. Sivanesan
Asst. Prof. in Commerce, St. Jerome’s College, Anandhanadarkudy,
Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract
Brand image and advertisement play a crucial role to boost up any business performance as brand image is an implied tool which
can positively change people’s buying behaviors and advertisement is behaving as a driving force for any business as it’s an effective
source to convey your message and stay in customer’s mind. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of brand image and
advertisement on consumer buying behavior in the kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu. Interview schedule was used to collect the
data by using judgmental sampling technique. A sample of 200 respondents were selected (100 rural respondents and 100 urban
respondents). Findings show that brand image and advertisement have strong positive influence and significant relationship with
Consumer buying behavior. People perceive the brand image with positive attitude. Study depicted that respondents in kanyakumari
district are more conscious about their social status so they prefer branded products and advertisement affects their Consumer Buying
Behavior positively. In the last of article limitations of research, implications and suggestions for further research also included.

Keywords
Brand, Advertisement, Impact, Rural consumers, Urban Consumers.

Introduction Advertising and Consumer Behavior


Advertising is any paid form of non-personal communication about Relationship consumer behavior is influenced by various
an organization or its product to a target audience through a mass/ factors, ranging from personal motivation, needs attitude and
broadcast medium by an identified sponsor. It should be observed values, personality characteristics, socio-economic and cultural
that for any promotional activity to be called advertisement it must background, age, sex, professional status to social influence of
be paid for. In the real sense, it is the method used by companies various kinds exerted by family, friends’ colleagues and society as
for creating awareness of their products, as well as making new a whole. Each person has his / her own standards of judgments and
products known to the new and potential consumers. This work distinct behavior in every aspects of his/ her role as a consumer.
will shed light on how advertising can really affect a consumer’s But, at the same time, underlying the individual differences there
buying decisions in a growing economy like that of Nigeria and are similarities which make it possible to explain behavior of
how successful advertising can keep businesses going even in the specific types or groups of people. A careful study of consumer
midst a tough competition. More so, advertising as a promotional behavior provides the advertiser with deeper insight of his target
tool also tends to remind, reassure and influence the decisions segments, which in turn proves to be very valuable in strategic
of the consumers because an advertisement itself enlightens, advertising decisions, especially in defining the target markets
educates, and persuades consumers on their acceptability of the and creating the advertising appeal and message.
product offering.
Advertisement in such a media as print (newspaper, magazines, Consumer and Brand Preferences
billboards, flyers) or broadcast (radio, television) typically Consumer preferences towards brand indicate the following
consist of pictures, headlines, information about the product and 1. Brand Unawareness- A buyer has no knowledge of the
occasionally a response coupon. Broadcast advertisement on the existence of the brand.
other hand consists of an audio or video narrative that can range 2. Brand Awareness- A buyer is aware of the existence of the
from 15 seconds spots to longer segments known as infomercials, brand but the knowledge about it is limited and obviously
which generally last 30 to 60 minutes. Advertisements can also be has no particular emotional attachment to it as a result he
seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the wall of airport walkways, may or may not think of purchasing the brand.
on the sides of buses, airplane and train. Advertisements are 3. Brand Acceptance- A buyer can buy the brand as he has no
usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently negative feeling about the brand but he has open mind to try
an access visual and/or video. (Busari 2002) another brand.
There was a time in 60s and 70s when the main target audience 4. Brand Preference- The buyer favours a particular Brand but
of advertisers were house-wives but this gave way to youth being he can think for other brand which is next in his preference
the target of the ads. The focus then shifted to children, which schedule.
continues even today. Today, rural and urban people can be seen 5. Brand Loyalty-The attachment towards a particular Brand
in ads which are not at all FMCG products. Advertisements do is very strong and if the brand is unavailable, only then, he
have great impact on rural and urban consumers whether it is can think of buying another brand.
decision of purchasing the products. 6. Brand Insistence- A buyer insists on purchasing and one
brand only and will not at all accept a substitute.
7. Brand Equity- In the 80s much of the growth of the giant

www.ijrmbs.com 73 © All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014


International Journal of Research in Management & ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online)
Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014) Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

consumer product corporation was achieved by a strategy is targeted at them (Dubey & Patel, 2004). In the recent past
of acquiring valuable brand names from other companies, rural India has been witnessing a sea change particularly in the
often the price paid for such transaction is huge. This is standard of living and life styles. With the population of over one
quite obvious that brand names that are well known and we billion, India is on the threshold of becoming one of the world’s
liked by the consumer have greater equity hence are worth foremost consumer markets. About a quarter of this huge mass of
more. Brands have equity because they have high awareness, consumers is urbanized and about three-quarter are rural (Sehrawet
many loyal consumers, and a high reputation for perceived & Kundu, 2007). Ramana Rao (1997) observed that the boom in
quality. rural areas is caused by factors such as increased discretionary
8. Rural Consumers income, rural development schemes, improved infrastructure,
The person who resides in the rural area and consumes the increased awareness, expanding private TV channel coverage
product is called rural consumers. and emphasis on rural market by companies. North and Kotze
9. Urban Consumers (2001) observed that parents can use television advertisements
The person who resides in the urban area and consumes the in various ways as a means of communicating and educating
product is called urban consumers. their children on consumer matters. According to Liebeck (1998)
teenagers are now more knowledgeable. They are truly the internet
Review of Literature generation, and get their news and information primarily from
Kaur and Kaur (2002) explored fashion awareness among rural and television. Atkin (1978) observed that children or adolescents
urban adolescents. The study was conducted in three villages and are most influential when they are primary customers. There is
three localities of Ludhiana city (Punjab). A sample comprising a substantial variation in the amount of teenagers’ influence in
100 rural and 100 urban adolescents were selected purposively purchase decision for products for their own use and for their
and interview schedule method was employed. They observed family (Cotte & Wood, 2004).
that Television was the most important media of information
regarding fashion awareness among rural and urban respondents Objectives of The Study
while friends were the next important source of information for The study was focused on the following broad objectives:
these respondents. Boutiques were the major source of information • To examine the impact of brand image and advertisement on
for urban adolescents. It was also evidenced that income and consumer buying behavior
society were the main factors affecting the clothing Television • To analyze the factor influencing buying behavior of
advertising can have a powerful influence on adolescents, food consumers.
preferences, consumption and behavior. ‘Advertising seen is • To give suggestions to improve the advertisement
measured by looking at ‘impacts.’ Impacts provide a measure of techniques.
advertising exposure. One impact is equivalent to one member
of the target audience viewing one commercial spot. Around one Hypothesis of The Study
in five of all of the T.V. advertisement seen by adolescents is for In the present study the researcher frame ten hypotheses to test the
a core category product. The National Readership Survey IV and goodness of fitness. In this regard the following null hypotheses
V estimated that 77percent of urban population and 30 percent are framed:
of rural population has access to TV sets. The rural viewership H1 = There is no significant difference between age of the rural
is expected to go up to 45-48 percent by 2020. As the number respondents and level of satisfaction.
of TV sets increases, the appetite for entertainment of Indian H2 = There is no significant difference between age of the urban
viewers has increased dramatically but there is ‘fragmentation’ of respondents and level of satisfaction.
viewership due to availability of variety of channel/programme H3 = There is no significant difference between education of the
options. These programmes reach to nearly 90percent population rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
of which 500 million Indians (nearly fifty percent of population) H4 = There is no significant difference between education of the
watch television regularly as per Statistics of Doordarshan and urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
other researchers (Saxena, 2005). Saksena (1990) found that H5 = There is no significant difference between Marital status of
teenagers were influenced by TV advertisement and mostly the rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
purchased those brands and products which are advertised more H6 = There is no significant difference between Marital status of
on television. Advertisers target teenagers because of their high the urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
disposable income, their influence on parental purchases, their H7 = There is no significant difference between occupation of the
early establishment of loyalty to certain brands, and a conventional rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
wisdom that they buy products on impulse (Fox 1996; Mc Neal, H8 = There is no significant difference between occupation of the
1999). A teenager possessing greater financial resources would urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
have more money to spend on discretionary items for her/himself H9 = There is no significant difference between gender of the
and may also exert greater influence on family purchases (Beatty rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
& Talpade, 1994). The girl teenagers are more attracted toward TV H10 = There is no significant difference between gender of the
advertisements featuring celebrities, children or jingles (Dubey & urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
Patel, 2004). While purchasing cosmetics, toiletries, stationary,
gifts and cards, the girls give importance to informational input Research Methodology
by the TV advertisements into their decision to buy. It was also Research Methodology Conducted here is descriptive technique
found that girls had positive attitude towards TV commercials in nature. The technique of sampling used Judgmental sampling
(Kotwal et al, 2008). The reason for higher response rate among and interview schedule designed with help of secondary data and
females for products could be the higher number of advertisements respondents’ interview and opinion. The primary data collected

© 2014 IJRMBS, All Rights Reserved www.ijrmbs.com


74
ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) International Journal of Research in Management &
ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)
Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

from rural and urban consumers in kanyakumari district. The Since, India is a land of diversity so the sample results may
researcher select 100 sample consumers from urban area and 100 not be a representative of entire population. Further the
sample respondents from rural area. research needs to cover diverse regions.
2. It is not possible to study the entire universe due to lack
Sources of Data of time and resources. So, the study is based only on the
The following are the sources of data used by the researcher information obtained from 100 respondents from rural areas
1. Primary Data: The Primary data will be collected using survey and 100 respondents from urban areas.
as a mode of data collection. To conduct surveys separate 3. All the respondents might not give the accurate information
sets of structured interview schedule would be prepared for because there is lot of difference in what they say and what
rural and urban respondents. they do.
2. Secondary Data: The secondary data shall be collected from
various Books, Journals, Magazines and websites. Framework of Analysis
The consumer survey would be conducted using Judgmental
Sample Size sampling method and various questions designed.
The primary data collected from rural and urban consumers would The sampling type for the consumer survey data was collected
be quantified and collecting interview schedule, 100 rural and 100 using a standardized interview schedule.
urban customers in kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu. The present study the researcher used simple percentage analysis,
t test, ANOVA and hypothesis analysis.
Limitations of The Study
1. The present study is mainly focused in Kanyakumari District.

Data Analysis and Discussions


Demographic profile is playing very important role of brand image and advertisement on consumer behavior. The Table 1 shows the
demographic profile of retail outlets and customers.
Table 1 : Domographic Profile
Demographic Factor Characteristics Rural Consumers (N=100) Urban Customers (N=100) Total (N=200)
Resp. Perc. Resp. Perc. Resp. Perc.
Below 20 10 10 25 25 35 17.50
20-30 15 15 30 30 45 22.50
Age 30-40 20 20 21 21 41 20.50
40-50 38 38 12 12 50 25.00
Above 50 17 17 12 12 29 14.50
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Male 60 60 40 40 100 50.00
Gender Female 40 40 60 60 100 50.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Married 82 82 60 60 142 71.00
Marital Status Un-Married 18 18 40 40 058 19.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Up-to HSC 43 43 20 20 63 31.50
Degree 26 26 33 33 59 29.50
Education PG Degree 15 15 25 25 40 20.00
Professional 11 11 21 21 32 16.00
Illiterate 05 05 01 01 06 03.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Dependent 24 24 24 24 48 24.00
Govt. Employee 10 10 14 14 24 12.00
Occupation Private Employee 16 16 30 30 46 23.00
Businessman 12 12 24 24 36 18.00
Coolie/Farmer 38 38 08 08 46 23.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Three 50 50 58 58 108 54.00
Four to Five 23 23 20 20 43 21.50
Size of Family Six to Seven 15 15 12 12 27 13.50
Eight to Nine 08 08 06 06 14 07.00
Above Nine 04 04 04 04 08 04.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100
Below Rs.20000 42 42 10 10 52 26.00
Rs.20000 to Rs.40000 30 30 40 40 70 35.00
Annual Income Rs.40000 to Rs.60000 16 16 20 20 36 13.00
Rs.60000 to Rs.80000 10 10 20 20 30 15.00
Above Rs.80000 02 02 10 10 12 06.00
Total 100 100 100 100 200 100

www.ijrmbs.com 75 © All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014


International Journal of Research in Management & ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online)
Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014) Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

Source: Primary data Occupation is an important factor in impact of brand image and
It is clear from Table 1 that, 38 percent (38 respondents) of the advertisement on consumer behavior, 38 rural consumers (38
rural respondents are in the age group of 40 – 50, 20 percent (10 percent) are coolie, 24 consumers (24 percent) are dependent,
respondents) of them are lies in the age group of 30 – 40, 17 16 consumers (16 percenet) are private employee, 12 consumers
percent (17 respondents) are lies in the age group of above 50 (12 percent) are business and only 10 consumers (10 percent) are
and only 10 percent (10 respondents) are lies in the age group Govt. employee. At the same time 30 urban consumers (30 percent)
of 20 – 30. At the same time 30 percent (30 respondents) of the are private employee, 24 consumers (24 percent) are dependent,
urban consumers are lies in the age group of 20 -30, 25 percent 14 consumers (14 percenet) are Govt. employee, and only eight
(25 respondents) are lies in the age group of below 20, 21 percent consumers (8 percent) are coolie.
(21 respondents) are lies in the age group of 30 – 40 and only 12 Size of Family is an important factor in impact of brand image
percent (12 respondents) are lies in the age group of above 50. and advertisement on consumer behavior, 50 percent of the rural
Gender is the important factor to determine the brand image of consumers (50 percent) have three family members, 23 of them
rural and urban consumer behaviour. 60 percent (60 respondents) (23 percent) have four to five family members, 15 percent of them
of the rural consumers are male and the remaining 40 percent (15 consumers) have six to seven family members, eight percent
(40 respondents) are female. At the same time 60 percent (60 of them (8 consumers) have eight to nine family members and
respondents) of the urban consumers are female and the remaining only four percent of them (4 consumers) have above nine family
40 percent (40 respondents) are male. members. At the same time, 58 percent of the urban customers (58
Marital Status is the important factor for impact of brand image percent) have three family members, 28 customers (28 percent)
and advertisement on consumer behavior, 82 percent of the rural have four to five family members, 12 consumers (12 percent) have
consumers (82 respondents) are married and only 18 percent six to seven family members, six consumers (6 percent) have eight
of them (18 respondents) are unmarried. At the same time, 60 to nine family members and only four customers (4 percent) have
urban consumers (60 percent) are married and the remaining 40 above nine family members.
consumers (40 percent) are unmarried. Annual Income is an important factor in impact of brand image
Education is an important factor in impact of brand image and and advertisement on consumer behavior, 42 rural consumers
advertisement on consumer behavior, 43 rural consumers (43 (42 percent) earn below Rs.20000, 30 of them (30 percent) earn
percent) are qualified with Up-to HSC, 26 consumers (26 percent) Rs.20000 to Rs.40000, 16 of them (16 percnet) earn Rs.40000 to
are qualified with Degree, 15 respondents (15 percent) are qualified Rs.60000, 10 of them (10 percent) earn Rs.60000 to Rs.80000
with Post Graduate Degree and only five respondents (5 percent) and only two of them (2 percent) are earned above Rs.80000.
are illiterate. At the same time, 33 urban customers (33 percent) At the same time, 40 urban customers (40 percent) are earned
are qualified with Degree, 25 customers (25 percent) are qualified Rs.20000 to Rs.40000, 20 customers (20 percent) are earned
with P. G. Degree, 21 customers (21 percent) are qualified with Rs.60000 to Rs.80000, 10 customers (10 percent) are earned
Professional and only 20 customers (20 percent) are qualified above Rs.80000 and only 10 consumers (10 percent) are earned
with HSC. below Rs.20000.

Impact of Brand Image and Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behavior


The following are the variable adopted by the researcher for the present study to analyze the impact of brand image and advertisement
on consumer behavior.
Table 2 : Consumers Opinion Regarding Impact Of Brand Image And Advertisement On Consumer Behaviour
VARIABLES MEAN F- VALUE SIG.
RURAL URBAN
I like advertisements 0.82 0.80 0.38 0.10
I often want products seen in Advertisement 0.71 0.95 0.58 0.12
No doubt, advertisement increases the frequency of purchase 0.76 0.88 1.21 0.00
I feel that exposure to ads has enhanced my involvement in purchasing 0.65 0.68 0.43 0.00
I mostly purchase products shown in ads 0.51 0.90 0.34 0.00
I feel ads make the purchase of the products easier 0.94 0.56 1.92 0.00
Due to ads exposure I have started experimenting new products 0.44 0.27 1.60 0.00
I engage in the process of buying advertised products 0.79 0.22 1.87 0.00
I feel my demand for products purchase is influenced by ads 0.92 0.21 1.09 0.00
I feel good when I watch the ads of the products I am already using 0.87 0.98 1.71 0.00
Ads help me to find the best products 0.35 0.31 0.08 0.00
Ads induce me to buy products for enjoyment even though I do not require them 0.78 0.32 0.64 0.00
Due to ads exposure, my family members collectively decide products to be purchased 0.53 0.89 0.56 0.00
Quality of product is as good as expected from ads 0.68 0.60 0.08 0.00
Ads impact the brand image 0.97 0.92 0.43 0.00
Purchase the product on the basis of brand name 0.55 0.87 1.32 0.01
No product can survive competition without intensive advertisement 0.54 0.99 1.05 0.00
Advertising justifies the existence when it is used in the interest of public 0.60 0.65 1.00 0.02
Effect/impact of advertising can change as brand grows older 0.43 0.98 0.87 0.00
Advertising gives room for brand/product comparison 0.67 0.96 0.77 0.00

© 2014 IJRMBS, All Rights Reserved www.ijrmbs.com


76
ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) International Journal of Research in Management &
ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)
Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Source: Primary data and calculated data the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.97) feels ads impact the brand image,
(5% level of significance) at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.92) feels ads impact the
It is clear from Table 2 that discriminate their views on the variable brand image (t-value is 0.43). Further, the rural consumers (x¯
that advertisements make the purchase of the products easier. A = 0.55) purchase the product on the basis of brand name, at the
perusal of mean scores in Table 2 shows that the rural respondents same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.87) feels purchase the product
(x¯ = 0.71) often want products seen in Advertisement, at the on the basis of brand name (t-value is 1.32).
same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.95) often want products seen
in advertisement (t-value is 0.58). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ Analysis Of Hypotheses
= 0.76) feels advertisement increases the frequency of purchase, The primary data were collected from the respondents tabulated
at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.88) feels advertisement for analysis and interpretation. The data analyzed and interpreted
increases the frequency of purchase (t-value is 1.21). Further, the are tested by using the chi-square test.
rural consumers (x¯ = 0.51) feels mostly purchase products on In the present study the researcher frame three hypotheses
the basis of advertisement, at the same time urban consumers (x¯ to test the goodness of fitness. In this regard the following null
=0.90) feels mostly purchase products on the basis of advertisement hypotheses are framed:
(t-value is 0.34). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.94) feels H1 = There is no significant difference between age of the rural
ads make the purchase of the products easier, at the same time respondents and level of satisfaction.
urban consumers (x¯ =0.56) feels ads make the purchase of the H2 = There is no significant difference between age of the urban
products easier (t-value is 1.92). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ respondents and level of satisfaction.
= 0.44) feels due to ads exposure they are started experimenting H3 = There is no significant difference between education of the
new products, at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.27) feels rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
due to ads exposure they are started experimenting new products H4 = There is no significant difference between education of the
(t-value is 1.60). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.79) feels urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
they engaged in the process of buying advertised products, at the H5 = There is no significant difference between Marital status of
same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.22) feels they engaged in the the rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
process of buying advertised products (t-value is 1.87). Further, H6 = There is no significant difference between Marital status of
the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.92) feels the demand for products the urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
purchase is influenced by ads, at the same time urban consumers H7 = There is no significant difference between occupation of the
(x¯ =0.21) feels the demand for products purchase is influenced rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
by ads (t-value is 1.09). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.35) H8 = There is no significant difference between occupation of the
feels ad helps to find the best products, at the same time urban urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
consumers (x¯ =0.31) feels ad helps to find the best products H9 = There is no significant difference between gender of the
(t-value is 0.08). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.78) feels rural respondents and level of satisfaction.
Ads induce to buy products for enjoyment even though do not H10 = There is no significant difference between gender of the
require it, at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.32) feels Ads urban respondents and level of satisfaction.
induce to buy products for enjoyment even though do not require The chi-square test is applied in statistics to test the goodness of
it (t-value is 0.54). Further, the rural consumers (x¯ = 0.53) feels fitness to verify the distribution of observed data with assumed
due to ads exposure family members collectively decide products theoretical distribution. It is defined as
to be purchased, at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.89) feels (O-E)2
due to ads exposure family members collectively decide products χ2 =∑ ----------
to be purchased (t-value is 0.56). Further, the rural consumers E
(x¯ = 0.68) feels quality of product is as good as expected from Where,
ads, at the same time urban consumers (x¯ =0.60) feels quality of O = Observed Frequency
product is as good as expected from ads (t-value is 0.08). Further, E = Expected frequency

Hypt. No. Factor Area of Table Calculated value Degrees of Result


Residence value Freedom
H1 Age and Level of Rural 9.49 05.34 4 Accepted
H2 Satisfaction Urban 9.49 04.67 4 Accepted
H3 Education and Level of Rural 9.49 11.58 4 Rejected
H4 Satisfaction Urban 9.49 12.56 4 Rejected
H5 Marital status and Level of Rural 5.99 03.11 2 Accepted
H6 satisfaction Urban 5.99 02.89 2 Accepted
H7 Occupation and Level of Rural 9.49 05.78 4 Accepted
H8 satisfaction Urban 9.49 09.67 4 Rejected
H9 Gender and Level of Rural 5.99 03.78 2 Accepted
H10 satisfaction Urban 5.99 03.51 2 Accepted

www.ijrmbs.com 77 © All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014


International Journal of Research in Management & ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online)
Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014) Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

1. Age and Level of Satisfaction of rural respondents hypothesis is rejected. So there is significance difference between
H1= There is no significant difference between Age and Level of occupation and level of satisfaction of urban respondents.
Satisfaction of rural respondents. Since the calculated value (5.34)
is less than the table value (9.49). Hence the null hypothesis is 9. Gender and Level of Satisfaction of rural
accepted. So there is no significance difference between age and respondents
level of satisfaction of rural respondents. H9= There is no significant difference between gender and Level
of Satisfaction of rural respondents. Since the calculated value
2. Age and Level of Satisfaction of urban respondents (3.78) is less than the table value (9.49). Hence the null hypothesis
H2= There is no significant difference between Age and Level is accepted. So there is no significance difference between gender
of Satisfaction of urban respondents. Since the calculated value and level of satisfaction of rural respondents.
(4.67) is less than the table value (9.49). Hence the null hypothesis
is accepted. So there is no significance difference between age 10. Gender and Level of Satisfaction of urban
and level of satisfaction of urban respondents. respondents
H10= There is no significant difference between gender and Level
3. Education and Level of Satisfaction of rural of Satisfaction of urban respondents. Since the calculated value
respondents (3.51) is less than the table value (9.49). Hence the null hypothesis
H3= There is no significant difference between education and is accepted. So there is no significance difference between gender
Level of Satisfaction of rural respondents. Since the calculated and level of satisfaction of urban respondents.
value (11.58) is more than the table value (9.49). Hence the null
hypothesis is rejected. So there is significance difference between Findings Of The Study
education and level of satisfaction of rural respondents. The following are the important findings and suggestions of the
present study.
4. Education and Level of Satisfaction of urban Advertising helps in that it carries the message far and wide to a
respondents scattered target audience that the advertiser or producer could not
H4= There is no significant difference between education and have reach it at once so easily. 38 percent (38 respondents) of the
Level of Satisfaction of urban respondents. rural respondents are in the age group of 40 – 50 and 30 percent
Since the calculated value (03.11) is more than the table value (30 respondents) of the urban consumers are lies in the age group
(9.49). Hence the null hypothesis is rejected. So there is significance of 20 -30, 60 percent (60 respondents) of the rural consumers are
difference between education and level of satisfaction of urban male and 60 percent (60 respondents) of the urban consumers are
respondents. female, 82 percent of the rural consumers (82 respondents) are
married and 60 urban consumers (60 percent) are married, 43
5. Marital status and Level of Satisfaction of rural rural consumers (43 percent) are qualified with Up-to HSC and 33
respondents urban customers (33 percent) are qualified with Degree, 38 rural
H5= There is no significant difference between marital status and consumers (38 percent) are coolie and 30 urban consumers (30
Level of Satisfaction of rural respondents. Since the calculated value percent) are private employee, 50 percent of the rural consumers
(3.11) is less than the table value (5.99). Hence the null hypothesis (50 percent) have three family members and 58 percent of the
is accepted. So there is no significance difference between marital urban customers (58 percent) have three family members, 42
status and level of satisfaction of rural respondents. rural consumers (42 percent) earn below Rs.20000 and 40 urban
customers (40 percent) are earned Rs.20000 to Rs.40000.
6. Marital status and Level of Satisfaction of urban The rural consumers are like the advertisement very much
respondents comparing to urban consumers. Urban consumers are frequently
H6= There is no significant difference between marital status and seeing the advertisement comparing to rural consumers. Majority
Level of Satisfaction of urban respondents. Since the calculated of urban consumers feels advertisement increases the frequency
value (2.89) is less than the table value (5.99). Hence the null of purchase comparing to rural consumers. Majority of rural
hypothesis is accepted. So there is no significance difference consumers feels ads make the purchase of the products easier
between marital status and level of satisfaction of urban comparing to urban consumers. Lot of rural consumers feels their
respondents. demand for products purchase is influenced by ads comparing to
urban consumers. Majority of rural consumers (x¯ = 0.35) feels
7. Occupation and Level of Satisfaction of rural ad helps to find the best products. Majority of the rural consumers
respondents (x¯ = 0.78) feels ads induce to buy products for enjoyment even
H7= There is no significant difference between occupation and though do not require it. Majority of urban consumers (x¯ =0.89)
Level of Satisfaction of rural respondents. Since the calculated value feels due to ads exposure family members collectively decide
(5.78) is less than the table value (9.49). Hence the null hypothesis products to be purchased. Majority of the rural consumers (x¯ =
is accepted. So there is no significance difference between 0.68) feels quality of product is as good as expected from ads.
occupation and level of satisfaction of rural respondents. Majority of the urban consumers (x¯ =0.92) feels ads impact the
brand image. Majority of the urban consumers (x¯ =0.87) feels
8. Occupation and Level of Satisfaction of urban purchase the product on the basis of brand name.
respondents
H8= There is no significant difference between occupation and Suggestions of The Study
Level of Satisfaction of urban respondents. Since the calculated The study suggests that rural consumers mostly like the
value (9.67) is more than the table value (9.49). Hence the null advertisement comparing to rural consumers but the urban

© 2014 IJRMBS, All Rights Reserved www.ijrmbs.com


78
ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) International Journal of Research in Management &
ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)
Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

consumers like to purchase the product directly not convinced that Maximum number of rural consumers are attracted towards
by the advertisement, so the producer or the advertiser to take the marketing strategy through advertising and Maximum number
the necessary steps the attract the urban consumer’s through of consumers from kanyakumari district spends monthly more than
advertisement. Advertising has enhanced their involvement in Rs.1500 rupees on purchasing products. In this way advertisement
product selection and purchase. They prefer to buy and experiment plays a vital role in buying behavior of rural and urban consumer
with the new products. Urban consumers collectively decide with in Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu.
their family members, products to be purchased due to exposure
of advertisements while it is not so with the rural counterparts. References
The urban teenagers do not agree to buy the advertised products [1]. Atkin Charles K. (1978) “Observation of Parent-child
if they do not require them. They like the advertisements of the Interaction in Supermarket Decision -Making”, Journal of
products they are already using and believe that the quality of Marketing, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 41-45.
the product is as good as expected from advertisements. It can [2]. Beatty Sharon E. and Talpade Salil (1994) “Adolescent
also be concluded that there is a considerable variation in the Influence in Family Decision Making: A Replication with
perception of both rural and urban consumers on the issue that Extension”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 21, No.
demand for product purchase is influenced by the advertisements. 2, pp. 332-341.
Further, the study also revealed that the buying behaviour of [3]. Chandok Anil (November, 2005) “Impact of Advertisements
rural consumer is more influenced by the advertisements than on Children’s Buying Behaviour”, Marketing Mastermind,
the urban consumers. Regular and consistent up-to-date training pp. 41-46.
on product information should be given to the advertising agency [4]. Cotte, J. and Wood, S. L. (2004) “Families and Innovative
so that they will have the current knowledge and skills to handle Consumer Behaviour: A Triadic Analysis of Sibling and
the adverts and also to ensure that product information is being Parental Influence”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.
emphasized so as to enlighten the customers. As advert campaigns 31, No. 1. pp. 78-86.
are relayed from different service providers, the adverts should be [5]. Datta Srinivasa (April, 2008) “Advertisements Do They
used to aid the customers to identify the company’s products or Match Consumer Preferences?” Marketing Mastermind,
service when they are making a purchase decision. The company pp.59-62
should also ensure that advertising agencies place their product [6]. Dubey Jayashree and Patel Rajni P. (2004) “Ads that Work
adverts on stations and places where the consumers will easily with Youth”, Indian Management, Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 68-
identify with them make a purchase. A good advert should be 74.
effective, persuasive and contain the necessary information on [7]. Etzel Michael, Walker Bruce J., Stanton William and Pandit
the products. In Kanyakumari district brand image has strong Ajay (2008), Marketing- Concepts and Cases, 13th Edition,
positive impact on Consumer buying behavior as it’s an implied Tata Macgraw, New Delhi.
device that can change people’s buying behaviors positively and [8]. Fam Kim-Shyam and Waller David S. (2008) “A Study of
rural and urban consumers in kanyakumari district are becoming Liked/Disliked Television Commercials in India”, Indian
more and more conscious for branded products to show off their Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp.3-10.
personality symbol. Advertisement also has positive impact on [9]. Fox, R.F. (1996), Harvesting Minds: How TV Commercials
consumer buying behavior. After these results and finding we Control Kids, New Haven, CT: Praeger.
can summarize this research that if people will be well aware [10]. Hawkins, D., Best, r. and Coney, K. (2001), consumer
about the brand and they have good brand perception, loyalty Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy, 8th Edition, Mc
and association then automatically brand image will be more and Graw Hills, Boston.
stronger in their minds and that brand will become the part of [11]. Kaur, H. and Kaur, R. (2002) “Fashion Awareness among
their buying behavior. In the light of this study we can say that Rural and Urban Adolescents”, Journal of Social Research,
now day’s advertisement is a big marketing weapon to attract Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 37-40.
your customers and to stay in customer’s mind. This research [12]. Kavitha G. (2006) “A Study On The Effectiveness Of The
provides the insight to the companies and business that how they Advertising Techniques Used In The Personal Care Segment
can make better their marketing and promotional tools to capture Of Women Consumers”, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol.
their customers. With the help of this study Marketing Managers 36, No. 8, pp. 12-16.
of companies can understand that how important a brand image [13]. Kotwal Nidhi, Gupta Neelima and Devi Arjee (2008)
and advertisement is to boost up any business. This is a real picture “Impact of T.V Advertisements on Buying Pattern of
of society that brand image and advertisement playing a crucial Adolescent Girls”, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No.
role to change the people’s buying behavior. 1, pp. 51-55.
[14]. Kraak Vivica and Pelletier David L. (1998) “How Marketers
Conclusion Reach Young Consumers: Implications for Nutrition
It has been concluded that advertisement have great impact on Education and Health Promotion Campaigns”, Family
buying behavior of rural and urban customers. Before purchasing Economics and Nutrition Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 31-
any product customers/ consumers collects information for their 41.
proper purchasing decision making activities, hence advertisement [15]. Kshyap, P. and Raut, S. (2008), The Rural Marketing Book,
is mostly adopted to get information about the products. There are Biztantra, New Delhi.
different factors influenced on buying behavior of rural and urban [16]. McNeal, J. (1999), The Kids Market: Myths and Realities,
consumers in that it has been found that Social and personal factors Ithica, NY: Paramount Market Publishers.
have more influenced. Maximum rural consumers influenced by [17]. Nagaraja, B. (2004) “Consumer Behaviour in Rural Areas: A
word-of-mouth in kanyakumari district. It has been also concluded Micro-level Study on Buying Behaviour of Rural consumers

www.ijrmbs.com 79 © All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014


International Journal of Research in Management & ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online)
Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014) Vol. 1 Issue 2 April - June 2014 ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

in Kavali Mandal”, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34,


No. 11, pp. 30-36.
[18]. North, E. J. and Kotze, T. (2001) “Parents and television
advertisement as Consumer Socialisation Agents for
Adolescents: An Exploratory Study”, Journal of Family
Ecology and Consumer Science, Vol. 29, No. ISSN 0378-
5254, pp. 91-98.
[19]. Ramaswami, V.S. and Namakumari, S. (2004), Marketing
Management, 3rd Edition, MACMILLAN, India.
[20]. Ramana Rao, P.V. (1997) “Rural market problems and
prospective”, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, pp.
17-19.
[21]. Raven John, Hoehn Thomas, Lancefield David and Robinson
Bill (2004), Economic Analysis of the TV Advertising Market,
http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/tvadvmarket.
pdf, accessed on 30.09.2007.
[22]. Robertson Thomas and Rossiter John (1977) “Children’s
Responsiveness to Commercials”, Journal of Communication,
Vol.24, No.4, pp. 101-106.
[23]. Sashidhar, A. S. and Adivi, S. (September, 2006) “Advertising
to Kids Is It Justified?” Advertising Express, pp. 12-16.
[24]. Saksena, G. (1990) “Advertising through T.V., Social
Implications”, Journal of Indian Institute of Mass
Communication”, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.44-49.
[25]. Saxena, R. (2005). Marketing Management. New Delhi:
Tata Mc Graw.
[26]. Sellers Patricia (8 May, 1989) “The ABC’s of Marketing to
Kids”, Fortune, pp.114-120.
[27]. Selvaraj A (2007) “Rural Consumers’ Behaviour Regarding
Non –Durable Goods: A Study in Erode District of Tamil
Nadu”, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37, No. 12, pp.
35-42.
[28]. Shah, K. and D’Souza, A. (2008), Advertising Promotion,
an IMC Perspection New Delhi. Tata Mc Graw Hill
Companies.
[29]. Sehrawet, M. and Kundu, S. C. (2007) “Buying behaviour
of rural and urban consumers in India: the impact of
packaging”, International Journal of Consumer Studies,
Vol. 31, No. ISSN 1470-6423, pp. 630-638.

© 2014 IJRMBS, All Rights Reserved www.ijrmbs.com


80