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Operating Cranes around

Bill Smith
Nations Builders Insurance
 Identify OSHA's power line safety standards.
 29 CFR 1926 Subpart CC
 29 CFR 1926 Subpart O
 Other OSHA and Consensus Standards

 List the options for compliance if working in close

proximity to an overhead power line.
 Prepare planning documentation that complies
with OSHA's encroachment/electrocution
prevention requirements.
Reasons for Listening
• Employer Accident Prevention Responsibilities
– Initiate and maintain a safety program
– Provide for frequent and regular inspection of job-
– Safe condition of equipment
– Qualification of equipment operators
• Safety Training and Education
– Recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions
– Regulations applicable to work environment
Important Terms to Know
• General Duty Clause • Industry Consensus Standards
• OSH Act • American Society of Mechanical
• Multi-Employer Worksite Citation Engineers (ASME)
Policy • A/D Director
• Creating Employer (Assembly/Disassembly Director)
• Exposing Employer • Competent Person
• Correcting Employer • Qualified Person
• Controlling Employer • Controlling Entity
• Federal Crane Standards (29 CFR
1926, Subpart CC)
Mobile Crane Management
• Knowledge of OSHA Standards
• Knowledge of Industry Consensus Standards
• Mobile Crane Management Policy & Accountability Plan
• General Crane Inspection Criteria
• Job-site Ground Conditions Inspection Check-list
• Assembly/Disassembly Plan & Procedures
• Job-site Specific Lift Plan
• Rigging Inspection Criteria and Inspection Records
• Power Line Safety & Pre-lift Meeting Documentation
• Personnel Qualification Requirements and Training
SCRA Developed a Program to assist members
and the industry with training and compliance
§1926.1407 Power Line Safety (up to 350 kV) – assembly and
§1926.1408 Power Line Safety (up to 350 kV) – equipment
§1926.1409 Power Line Safety (over 350 kV)
§1926.1410 Power Line Safety (all voltages) – equipment
operations closer than the Table A zone
§1926.1411 Power Line Safety – while traveling under or near
power lines with no load
Scope: 29 CFR 1926 Subpart CC

• Power-operated equipment used in

construction work that can hoist, lower and
horizontally move a suspended load.
Covered under §1926 Subpart CC

• Mobile Cranes
• Tower Cranes
• Articulating (knuckle-boom) Cranes
• All Derricks (except utility work)
• Crane Attached or Crane Suspended
 Covered
 Excluded
Special Rules for Articulating/Knuckle
Boom Cranes
• If the equipment delivers
materials by placing them
on the ground without
arranging them in a
particular sequence for
hoisting, the activity is not
considered construction
work and is not covered
under the standard.
Additional Exclusions for Knuckle
• Materials are sheet goods
or packaged goods.
• Equipment uses a
• Equipment is not used to
hold, support or stabilize
material to facilitate
• Equipment is equipped with
overload prevention device. Photo: elcosh/John Rekus
Exclusion DOES NOT Apply to:
• Delivery of prefabricated
components or building
sections, such as roof
trusses and wall panels.
• Delivery of structural
steel members or
components of a
metal building.
If Excluded, then…
• General Safety & Health Provisions
– §1926.20(b) Accident prevention responsibilities…
– §1926.21(b)(2) recognition and avoidance of
unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable…
If Excluded, then…
• 29 CFR 1926 Subpart O
– Earthmoving equipment
Crane Management Personnel
• Assembly/Disassembly Director
– Competent & Qualified (or assisted by qualified
• Competent Person
– Knowledgeable
– Authority
• Qualified Person
– Related to subject matter
• Controlling Entity
– Ground conditions
– Voltage information
Identify the Crane’s Work Zone

Work Zones are defined as 360° Around the Equipment

20 Feet
If Operator is Able to Judge the Position of the
Equipment with Respect to the Demarcated Boundary

Power Lines


Work Zone
SHA Standard Interpretation March 29, 2012
From the Rule
• 1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV) – equipment operations.

• (a) Hazard assessments and precautions inside the work zone. Before beginning
• equipment operations, the employer must:
• (1) Identify the work zone by either:
• (i) Demarcating boundaries (such as with flags, or a device such as a
• range limit device or range control warning device) and prohibiting the
• operator from operating the equipment past those boundaries, or
• (ii) Defining the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the equipment,
• up to the equipment’s maximum working radius.
• (2) Determine if any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging
• and lifting accessories), if operated up to the equipment’s maximum working
• radius in the work zone, could get closer than 20 feet to a power line. If so, the
• employer must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) of
• this section, as follows:
Letter of Interpretation –
• If the demarcated boundary line is located at
least the minimum clearance distance from
the power line, the operator understands that
no part of the equipment or load may go past
the demarcated boundary line of flags, and
the operator is able to judge the position of
the equipment with respect to the
demarcated boundary line, §1408(a)(2) is
satisfied and no further precautions are
Could be Within 20 feet

Option #1
De-energize &
No further
Encroachment Prevention
Option #2 measures
20 foot
• Planning meeting
• If tag lines used Non-conductive
Option #3 • Elevated warning lines, barricade or line of
Ask Utility for signs
Voltage and
•PLUS (Choose one):
Use Table A
(Within Min. • Proximity alarm, spotter, warning device,
Approach distance) range limiter, or insulating link
Option 1 – Deenergize & Ground
• Must rely on the power line's owner or
operator to take these steps.
• Difficult to do.
• Assume that all power lines are energized
unless the utility owner/operator confirms
that the power line has been and continues
to be deenergized and the line is visibly
grounded at the worksite.
Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances
Voltage (nominal, kV, alternating Minimum clearance distance (feet)
up to 50 10
over 50 to 200 15
over 200 to 350 20
over 350 to 500 25
over 500 to 750 35
over 750 to 1,000 45
over 1,000 (as established by the utility
owner/operator or registered professional
engineer who is a qualified person with
respect to electrical power transmission
and distribution).
NOTE: The value that follows “to” is up to
and includes that value. For example, over
50 to 200 means up to and including
Voltage Information
• Affected equipment (29 CFR 1926 Subpart
• Utility must respond in two working days.
March 2014
• Property of not becoming energized.
• High dielectric properties offering a high
resistance to the passage of current under the
conditions of use.
– Polypropylene Rope
– Clean & Dry
– High-voltage Rated Rubber Gloves
What does Non Conductive mean?
Fact one:
The facts of the matter are that any tagline, whether brand-new or ancient, conduct
Fact two:
The amount of electricity which is conducted is inversely proportional to its length.
This means a tagline of 1' length will conduct 10 times as much as a tagline of the
same material 10' long.
Fact three:
The amount of electricity which is conducted is proportional to the conductivity of the
contamination, or dirt, on the tagline.
Factor four:
The amount of electricity which is conducted is mostly controlled by the amount of
liquid, or dampness, of the tagline.

Experimental results:
A dry "lightly" contaminated tagline, 5 m long, will pass a current of 6 mA when dry and 24 mA when
wet. These currents demonstrate that the tagline is conductive and above 10mA the unfortunate rigger
will be unable to let-go as his hand will become locked around the tagline.

• The fitting of a tagline insulator in this same wet tagline reduces the current to zero
• A tagline insulator is in the order of $100.
Insulated Link Device

- Load Insulator ® -
By Insulatus
Dedicated Spotter
• Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in
identifying the minimum clearance distance.
• Be positioned to effectively gauge the
clearance distance.
• Able to communicate directly with the
• Give timely information to the operator.
• Trained!
Operations below Power Lines
• Employer has confirmed deenergized and
visibly grounded, or
• The highest point of the equipment's boom,
even if completely extended and vertical, will
be more than the required minimum distance
from the power line.
Employee Training
• Information regarding the danger • The need for crew in the area to
of simultaneously touching the avoid approaching or touching
equipment and ground. the equipment and the load.
• The importance to the operator's • Safe clearance distance from
safety of remaining inside the power lines.
cab. • The limitations of an insulating
• The safest means of evacuating link/device, proximity alarm, and
from equipment that may be range control (and similar) device,
energized. if used.
• The danger of the potentially • How to properly ground
energized zone around the equipment and the limitations of
equipment (step potential). grounding.
Current can flow outward through ground in a
ripple pattern from the equipment in contact
with a power line
Warning Stickers
• Two on the outside of equipment.
• One inside cab.
Precautions for Moving Equipment
• Traveling with no load.
• Follow Table T.
Table T – Minimum Clearance Distances While Traveling With No Load
Voltage (nominal, kV, alternating While Traveling – Minimum clearance
current) distance (feet)
up to 0.75 4
over .75 to 50 6
over 50 to 345 10
over 345 to 750 16
over 750 to 1,000 20
over 1,000 (as established by the utility
owner/operator or registered
professional engineer who is a qualified
person with respect to electrical power
transmission and distribution).
Equipment Closer than Table A
• Determine an absolute minimum clearance.
• Hold a planning meeting.
• Use protective procedures.
Intentionally working inside the Table A zone
Must show: All of the following are required:
• Staying outside zone is
infeasible 1. PL owner – sets minimum approach distance
• Infeasible to de-energize
2. Planning meeting – procedures
and ground
3. Dedicated spotter
4. Elevated warning line or barricade
5. Insulating link/device
6. Non-conductive rigging
7. Range limiter (if equipped)
8. Non-conductive tag line (if used)
9. Barricades - 10 feet from equipment
10. Limit access to essential employees
11. Ground crane
12. Deactivate automatic re-energizer
OSHA Temporary Enforcement
Here’s the wording
Equipment Closer than Table A
• Reconsider your plan!
Planning Meeting Worksheet
Planning Meeting Worksheet
Planning Meeting Worksheet
Planning Meeting Worksheet
Planning Meeting Worksheet
Short Preview
Training is essential
Remember SCRA has a developed
program for all members


Any Questions???