R=19770016150 20180122T22:59:00+00:00Z
" .. A MATHEMATICAL
SIMULATIONMODEL OF A ,_
_. 1985ERATILTROTORPASSENGERAIRCRAFT _
__ M.A. McVeigh _
"_ C A Widdison
August1976
/
0
Prepared Under Contract NAS28048 _, ._.
for
NationalAeronauticsand SpaceAdministration
AmesResearchCenter
by
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ee.&i'"N/
, D238100021 _; _
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A I_II'I'_ION COMPANY
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REVISIONS
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/ SHEET viii
T "_ _ If
........... .......... 4"
i
 D238I0002I °t
ABSTRACT
." )
_ ix
t %
&
,,  .... i q
r. I _'
D238I0002I
FOREWORD
x
' D238I0002I
SUMMARY
xi
3
J
Abstract ix
Foreword x
Summary xi
List of Symbols xv ,
xii
I
D238I0002I
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
xiii
L .
!
D238I0002I
LIST OF TABLES
Table
' I
xiv
I
r
l
t
D238!0002I
LIST OF SYMBOLS
a Acceleration ft/sec2
c Chord ft
xv
D238I0002I
xvi
J
!  w,
i
• •. D238I0002I i
xvii
), .
D238I0002I
D Rotor diameter ft
xviii
1 i • • a,
, \
"I ...... t
D238I0002I
xix i
./
.'
_' D238I0002I
xx
J
_ _'_ D238I0002I 
i
Gp_ s Lateral directional SAS gain in/in •
!
i Gr Lateral directional SAS galn _n/rad/sec
L_
Gr_ r Lateral directional SAS gain _n/rad/sec _
HP Ho rs ep owe r 
I "" xxi
I
.2
: D238I0002I ..
,:_ hc
GN Angular momentum of nacelle about ibftsec
aircraft center of gravity
xxii
I'
i
'
I xx Mass roll moment of inertia of the slugft 2
tilting portion of each nacelle about
: its center of gravit_
) (w)
_ Iyy Mass pitch moment of inertia of wing slugft 2
: mass element about its center of
_ i gravity
I(F)
xz Mass product of inertia of fuselage slugft 2
mass element about its center of
gravity
i(w)
xz Mass product of inertia of wing mass slugft 2
element about its center of gravity
center of gravity
xxiii _
: D238I0002I
_4
• I(W)
ZZ Mass yaw moment of inertia of wing slugft 2
mass element about its center of
gravity
'
Izz Mass yaw moment of inertia of the slugft 2
tilting portion of each nacelle about
its center of gravity
D
Unit vector in i direction
xxiv
(
i. D238I0002I
_ " XXV
o_
J
D238I0002I
spinner I
xxvi
<
"" D238I0002I "
.. xxvii
) %
(
T " i I....
'"
D238I0002I
r Radius vector 
xxvii!
/ /
I 1 ' ! "J
• L D238I0002I '_
S Surface area ft 2
..
T Rotor thrust Ib
t Time sec .
xxix
D238I0002I
xxx
i .
. .4 D238I0002I
zsprscript
subscript Vertical force, measured positive ib
down along body axes
xxxi
[ *"
/
q.
D238I0002I
"" _ !
w'w Vertical distance between wing center ft
of gravity and wing mass element
_ center of gravity

xxxii
/
j
• D238I0002I
r xxxiii
!
D238I0002I
xxxiv
{
t
i
_o D238I0002I d
xxxv
[
< ..
•4 PP
_" " I _ "  I' I '9
I
D238I0002I
l
\ Subscripts
\
: A Avai iab ie
AC Aerodynamic center
ACT Actuator
a Ai ie r on
B Longitudinal stick
c Cargo
i
CG Center of gravity
CR Crew
E Engine
EFF E ffective
e Elevator or effective
F Fuselage
FUS Fuselage
f Flap
g Ground or gust
xxxvi
t
L
i 1
'.. D23810002I
Subs cril_ts
HT Horizontal tail
i Immersed I
LE Left engine
LG Landing gear
LN Left nacelle
LR Left rotor
p
LRH Left rotor hub
LW Left wing
MAX Maximum
NL Left nacelle
NR Right nacelle
xxxvii
2
<
I B
L ,J
D238I0002I
Subscripts
POWER Power
PA Pilot station
; RE Right engine
REQ Required
!
RIGID Rigid
RN Right nacelle
RR Right rotor
RUD Rudder
RW Right wing
SP Spoiler
STALL S tal 1
TH Throttle
VT Vertical tail
L W Wing
xxxviii
LIP _,
_°r"
1 I' ':
D238I0002I i
Subscripts
S upe rs cripts
HT Horizontal tail
LW Left wing
N Nacelle
RW Right wing
VT Vertical tail
W Wing
XXXIX
._
1.1
I
Ii
F ,
D238I0002I I"
I
Superscripts !
" Denotes an interim calculation or coefficient I
, in local wind axes i
i
''' Denotes an interim calculation
J
xl
. D238I0002I
 1 .0 INTRODUCTION
II
ri
i
i .... [
D238I0002I
12
l ' ...... i [ 4
• D238I0002I
The 1985 tilt rotor has a takeoff gross weight of 33,905 kilo
grams (74,749 pounds). The rotors are threebladed and are of
hingeless fiberglass composite construction. The rotor diam
eter is 17.16 meters (56.3 feet) and the solidity ratio is 8
The aircraft has four engines, two on each wlng tip. The rotors
and engines are connected by means of a crossshaft which provides
the torque transmission across the aircraft in event of engine
failure. The location of the engines outboard of the tilt package
provides easy access to the engine bays for maintenance or engine
removal.
21
i
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22
D238I0002I
D238] 0002i
TABLE 2.1
WING :
CHORDS :
ROOT i0.23 FT
TIP 10 .23 FT 
SWEEPBACK 0 DEGREES
DIHEDRAL 0 DEGREES
INCIDENCE :
AIRFOIL SECTION:
FUSELAGE :
LENGTH 92.5 FT
DEPTH ii.5 FT
WIDTH 14 .75 FT
WETTED 3563 FT 2
24
/
la'" r .
D238I0002I
NACELLES : !
 __NGINE :
i LENGTH 8.58 FT
.. °
DEPTH 5.5 FT
._°
WIDTH 3.0 FT
LENGTH 15 .5 FT
DEPTH 5.08 FT
WIDTH 3.42 FT
; HORIZONTAL TAIL:
SPAN 35 FT
CHORDS :
KOOT 8.0 FT
TIP 5.0 FT
DIHEDRAL 0 DEGREES
25
i ..... [ _ "
D238I0002I
INCIDENCE :
ROOT 0 DEGREES
TIP 0 DEGREES
AIRFOIL SECTION: _,
VERTICAL TAIL :
CHORDS :
ROOT IS. 33 FT
TIP 8 •83 FT
CONTROL SURFACES :
FLAPERON :
J
26
)
!
: L D238I0002I 4
SPOILERS :
5
, AREA 63.2 FT 2
ELEVATORS :
RUDDER:
ROTORS :
DIAMETER 56 •3 FT
SOLIDITY .089 i
i
: I
i :
27 , :
I
D238I0002I
AIRFOIL SECTION:
ROOT VR 7
TIP VR9
28
J
d
•. D238I0002I
Thus,
V = Ui + Vj + Wk (3.1)
__ = Pi + Qj + Rk_ (3.2)
31
<
b
D238I0002I
32
D238I0002I
where the unit vectors i, j, and k lie along OX, OY, and OZ.
dY '
dt= U cos 8 sin _ + V(sin # sin 8 sin # + cos _ cos %) (3.3)
dZ '
= U sin 8 + Vsin # cos % +Wcos _ cos 8
$  P + _sin e
d (mV)
_F _t  _ m + a
 x (3 5)
5V
where m is the mass of the aircraft and = is the rate of
5t
change of V with respect to the moving reference frame OXYZ,
i.e.
6V ,A _A
"
_t __
 * vi + wk
 (3._I
If F has components Fx, Fy, and F z along the respective axes
the_
33
!
#
B
D238I0002I
thus
Fx = m (6 + QW  RV)
Fy = m (V • RU  PW) (3.V)
Fz = m (& + ;v  Ou)
Fx  XAERO  mg sin e
(3.8)
Fy = YAERO + mg sin _ cos e
6 XAERO
m g sin 8 QW + RV
_ YAERO
m + g cos e sin #  RU + PW (3.9)
• ZAERO
W "  m + g cos _ cos _ + QU  PV
34
h
D238i0002! _
V = 6r + _q x r (3.10)
   i
" The angular momentum of this mass about O is
h = m (r x V) + ho (3.11)
ho = Y _
where_
I = Ixx Ixy Ixz
and Ixx, etc., are the moments and products of inertia of the
mass about O'xyz.
35
I i"
°
I .... i I
l
D238I0002I
which reduces to
2m _ (l_..r)m(r..q)(axr)
 + I __+a
_t  x i __
__ = P_ + (O + IN) j + R k (3.17)
_r
r.   XX + YY + ZZ
 _t
62r ^ , ^
r x 6t ?  (YZZY)i (XZZXlj + (XYYX)k
6n_ (3.18)
(r.r) = (X 2 + y2 _ Z 2) (_ + Q_ + R_)
6t ....
6n
r.= = xP + YQ+ z_
6t
_.r = XP + YQ + ZR
_t
(ZxxgZxzR)

+ + (Izz Ixzg)

A
where, in the last two terms, the products of inertia Ixy and
Ty z are zero flora symmet±y considerations.
36
I i I
I
D238I0002I
+ mN(R2Q2)(ZNRZNL)Y N + mN Y_,i(ZNRZNL)
o, ,e
where Ixx, IXZ, IZZ, and Iyy are the inertias of the aircraft
about its center of gravity, and the subscripts f, w, NL and
NR stand for fuselage, wing, left nacelle and right nacelle.
The remaining symbols are defined in the List of Symbols.
Similar expressions are obtained for the pitching moment and
yawing mcment. In the interests of brevity the remainder of
the discussion will be limited to equation (3.21).
D238I0002I
XNL, i.e. the nacelles are raised or lowered together at. the
same rate. Equation (3.21) may thus be written
where the moments LAERO, MAERO, and NAERO represent the sum of
the aerodynamic moments and rotor/engine gyroscopic moments
38
/
k
I I
D238I0002I
= mn (rxV) + ho  mn_ p x V
_G_ = m N atd
(_pxV) = mN_t x V_ + {p x _t + _({p x _V)
(3.28)
=mN _ x + axr + rp x
6t   _t
+ n x x_ + _ x
 L_t 
q I I
D238I0002I •
r rp.__
+_ __
.  2=
_t %. 
_) (3.29)
+ Ep .  (£p.a)
(axr)
We require only the j component of this vector in order to ob
tain the nacelle pivot pitching moment.
 RQ XNYN}
Combining this equation with Equation (3.19) and using the
transformations given in Appendix C, the final equation for the
righthand nacelle pivot actuator pitching moment becomes, after
some simplification,
+ (3.31)
MNRAERO
310
j
1
i D238I0002I
• ° 
I
3.7
by substituting
DETERMINATION OF ROTOR
YN=YN
GYROSCOPIC
and changing
MOMENTS
the R subscript
I
The gyroscopic moments are most readily obtained as follows.
A set of axes O"x'y'z' is taken at the rotor hub (rotor c.g.)
Associated
with
parall_l
each toaxis
the are
nacellefixed
the corresponding
set of unit
axes vectors
OXoYoZ O. i' J' and
k'. The angular velocity of the rotor with respect to these
axes is the vector
w_ = _R_' (3.32)
6t 6t
3i1
1
( :
I
D238I0002I
312
D238I0002I
i
4.0 AIRFRAME AERODYNAMICS
(a) Fuse._.age
(b) Wings
(e) Nacelles
4.1 FUSELAGE
Sin_FCOSSF I
ISinsFC°S_FI + _CDLG
41
J
..... I I .
I
D238I0002I
SinaFCOS=Fl + _CML G
= 2 etc.
6F = Tan CMF 1 PVFu S SwC_q
The fuselage forces and moments are then resolved into body
axes at the aircraft C.G.
4.2 NACELLES
CL N = K 3 2 sin _N cos aN
CMN = CMON + K34 sin _N cos SN + K35 sin =NCOS _NIsin _NCOS aNl1
CYN = K36 sin SN cos _N + K37 sin _N cos _NIsin _N cos _NI
CZN = 0
, .....
: i I
b
"" D238!0002I
1
_a_ = qN SwCw[CaN cos _Nlg
_eHT _HT
43
I !
D238I0002I 1
I
12
_ NACELLE INC_ ZE
_ _ / FUSELAGE
67"5°A_( LE
) Q _ OF ATTACK
_ 4 ........
o
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
_ /_ (_w _AC _
then ¢ . cp(1GEF)
44
! " ! [
D23810g021
otherwise
The lift and drag forces acting on the horizontal tail are re
quired over the complete range of angle of attack 180 ° to
+180 ° , since the tilt rotor can fly backwards. The following
sketch shows the schematic variation of lift and drag coeffi
cients over this range plotted as a function of the effective
horizontail tail angle of attack, _eHT"
45
+ I k i I
t
D239I0002"I
CL
i c_ _+ ///_+
180
A
90°_ ° . a+ 180 o
CL a_ CLaa
^
aHT  = (aHTsTAL L 2 o ) + _HT_e
The slope of the lift curve within this range of positive and
negative angles of attack is given by
46
•" D238I0002I _
Within this region on the lift curve the value of lift coef=i 
cient is given by CLHT = CL_ _eKT and the corresponding drag
coefficient by
C2
. . LHT
 +
CDHT CDoH T _AR HT eHT
CD = + C 2
HTSTAL L CDOHT LHTsTAL L
.AR HT eHT
and
47
#
D238I0002I
and similarly for the range 180 ° <_ _eH T < (180 + .5 _HT+)
, The above equations define the variation of tail lift and drag
over the entire range of angle of attack. The tail pitching
moment is not computed since it makes only a small contribu
tion to the total aircraft pitching moment.
where uVT, vVT, and wVT are the components of the velocity at
the vertlcal tail aerodynamic center as given in Appendix C.
The term 6F [dc_ is the sidewash correction for the presence
,dS
of the fuselage.
The vertical tail forces and moments in body axes are then ob
tained from:
 CYvTsin(_VT:)cos(_HTiHT _
49
• I
D238I0002I
YAERO
VT = qSvTnVT
_ [CYvTCOS (BVT: ) CDvT sin (_VT__
VT
sin(_HTiHT) ]
VT VT VT
MAERO = ZAERO (XcGXvT) + XAERO (ZvTZcG) _
;L
VT VT ;
NAERO = YAERO (XcGXvT)
VT VT
LAERO =  YAERO (ZVTZCG)
The basic wing lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients for
the wing in the presence of the fuselage rotorsoff, were cal
culated using the methods of Reference 3. This data is appli
cable to low speed flight. Corrections for Mach number effects
are introduced through the PrandtlGlauert factor __T. Be
yond stall angle of attack, the lift, drag, and pitching
moment curves are extended linearly to +90 ° angle of attack in
order to provide a representation of wing behavior at low !
transition speeds when wing angles of attack approach 90 Q. The
data was calculated for the complete range of flaperon settings.
The complete wing basic lift, drag, and pitching moment data
also applies to each individual wing panel provided the data
is obtained at the appropriate panel angle of attack. This
approximation is acceptable if the angles of attack of each
wing panel are not substantially different. This condition is
normally fulfilled.
410
k
S
k..
 I
D238I0002I
t_
T F
V_
I
D238I0002I
R = /T 2 + NF 2 + SF 2
I
where T, NF and SF are the thrust, normal force and sideforce,
respectively.
m = p A V'
where A is the disc area and V' is obtained from the induced
velocity triangle at the disc plane.
by
R = 2m V i = 2pA V' vi
v_ + 2v.v_ cos _ v} = 1
412
I
D238I0002I
_P = Tan1 Iv*sin
LV.COs _+v
_ 1
and q = 1
2 _V2 _ 1
4 V_R vicinity of the wing.
= cos(__ R)
then CTs
cos(__R)
4
A_i= __
c2
_0 = sin + et
i w ww W ]
w_ere w W, , uw are the, velocities
o at the wing aerodynamic
. center
0
Similarly the lift (C_) and drag !C_) coefficients of the wing
in the slipstream (assuming wing as completely immersed) are
obtained fromthe aerodynamic data at the angle of attack
as = _OC
413
/
l
;\
D238I0002I
V, + CL_ i V,
V, + V,
CL CL_
CLsi= l+ ,7[_ i 4
%
The drag and pitching momen_ for the wing with slipstream are
obtained similarly and are given by:
CDs A L D D
= M + C_ (ICTs)(!_)
 LL W LRW
C_S = (K20+ K21 _L) (ICTs) _F+ YAC_2b W
+ AC
_'S_owz
_
C* )
s  cL2cl%s F + AC llCTsj
2b W (C_Rw
_ DLW _
414
/
\
D238I0002I
c 1
= 1 _ _ c* ½ _.
&C nSpowER _ DSRw DRW R l
• . Q
4 15
\
!
D238I0002I
i. 2 PREDICTED
! I I ! T__/ I __L_;I
, '(9' I J
i
0 9__.
0 _Ir
Figure 4.2 Correlation of Theory with Test for Predictions of Sh'pstream Forces and Moments
.... i I ,
D238I0002I
5.0 ROTOR REPRESENTATION
Sin aT. L.
_H = TanI [Tan B i
The resulting rotor forces and moments are defined with respect
to the plane containing the resultant rotor angle of attack
e.g. normal force lies in this plane while rotor _ide force is
perpendicular to it.
51
i
L I i
I
D238I0002I
i
D238I0002I
and C T is given by
CT = 0.000679 ¢ + 0.000015 _2
(2)
+ 0.0022 U_ + 0.000211U2_
CN F = F(u,_,CT ) + _CN____F
A1 + _CNF B1 (4)
_A 1 _B 1
3CNF
_A 1  0.0000217_ + 0.0014483u 2  0.0000734_ (5)
 0.0006u sin 2a + 0.00425 CT
and
CNF
 = 0.0000425  0.0010492u  0.0017028u 2
aB1 (6)
+ 0.0017892u sin a  0.0245 CT
D238I0002I
_CsF
=0.0000328 + 0.0008119u + 0.0013178_ 2
3AI (i0)
+ 0.0189 CT  0.001342 _ sin a .
and
_CsF
 0.0000].683 + 0.0011208u 2  0.0000568u (Ii)
3B 1
54
i
II I
D238I0002I
_CpM l
= 0.0001620 + 0.00086652u
_A 1
 0.00056151u 2  0.00000591u (RPM298) (16)
and
_CpM
 0.0000860936 + 0.00005641,
DB 1
+0.0003385u 2 0,0019 CT (17)
0.00000551u (RPM298)
3Cy M
= 0.000086093 + 0.0000612 u
3A 1
0.0003385 _2 0.0019 CT (19)
0.00000551 u (RPM298)
+0.0003 _, sin
53
D238I0002I
and
CyM
_B 1 0.0001620 0.00086652
+0.00056151 u2 + 0.00000591 _ (RPM298) (20)
(21)
and for u _ 0.37
^
CyM = (0.01916  0.15321 (u 0.5435) ) sin
_22)
 1.2 42 C T sin
dCpM
I000 dQ  1.5 + u 0 _ '_ ! .2
dCy M dCpM
dR  
5.3 Rotor/Rotor interference
Fq38i0002i
The above sketch depicts the tilt rotor aircraft flying side
wards at low speeu. The wake of the upwind rotor interferes
with the inflow to the downwind rotor producing a change in
this rotor's forces ard moments.
The rotor operates in the upwash field associated with the lift
ing wing. 'fhus the rotokbehaves as if it were operating at
an increased angle of attack. The effective upwash angles were
calculated using lifting line theory. In the mathematical
model the upwash angles are input in the form of a table of up
wash angles as a function of wing lift coefficient, and nacelle
incidence angle.
57
t
I I I
i
The rotor controls provide a major portion of the control capa '
bility from hover through the low transition speed range, but
airplane surface controls are operative in all regimes of i!
flight, including hover. The rotor controls are phased out
during transition as nacelle incidence decreases, speed in
creases, and the airplane controls become more effective.
61

D238I0002I
Transition
Ai rp i ane
P itch E levato r
Yaw Rudder
62
J
L
I i I ,
i
D238I0002I
The spoilers and flaps are also used in conjunction with down
load alleviatian devices, referred to as umbrellas, mounted on
the leading edge of the wing for download relief in the hover
and low speed range. The umbrellas are 18.6 percent chord on
the upper and lower wing surfaces. Maximum deflections of the
surfaces for download alleviation are: flaps 70 degrees,
spoilers ii0 degrees from closed, and umbrellas aftedgeofthe
upper surface up to 20 degrees from vertical and aftedgeof
lowersurface down to i0 degrees from vertical. The umbrellas
and spoilers retract at 50 knots automatically.
63
. 
i i i
1
D238I0002I
64
/ [
k
D238I0002I
The thrust and power management system for a tilt rotor air
craft must be compatible with both the helicopter and airplane
configurations. Thrust control for the hover task, rpm control,
gust response (especially in the cruise flight regime), and
effect on aircraft flying qualities must all be considered.
Classically, helicopters have used collective pitch demand to
control thrust and fuel governing to control rpm while fixed
wing aircraft have used fuel flow demand to control thrust and
collective pitch governing e.o control rpm. Each system has its
advantages. For a tilt rotor aircraft it is desirable from a
practical viewpoint to have one type of governing for both the
helicopter and fixedwing flight regimes. Collective pitch
governing was chosen for the 1985 tilt rotor for several rea
sons :
65
 I
D238I0002I
(I) throttle sensitivity
66
...... 1.............. ; .......
J_ •
D238I0002I
REFERRED,
VARIABLE SYMBOL NORMALIZED FOP_M
Thrust FN FN/_F _
i_ ,
Gas Generator rpm NI NI/_ .N I
Wf/% _SHP*
I 71
) ,.
D238I0002I
The effects of operating near the ground on the rotors and air
frame are included in this model. The presence of the ground
on the airframe imposes a boundary condition which inhibits the
downward flow of air normally associated with the lifting action
of the wing and tail. The reduced downwash has three main
effects ;
J
o A reduction in the downwash angle at the tail
2 2
b_. + 4(h+H) z
81
_f
D238I0002I
RR = EFF _DEFF d
RR RR
+ 1.2479  .8806 _ RR]
where h = hRR
FF 2R[Isin(9 + iNR) COS *1 + .0174]
RR
YN = Wing semispan
82
I l
D238I0002I
_.] 13;
• = ,
_' 'OGE/
_i. 20 I " J
°
o .... I  
f
I
I
1
1
_i.16 (_MODEL 160 LEFT gQTOR (HOVER)
o i ..... in=_0° '
I , , i r I
O _ _%IODEL 160 LEFT ROTOR(_=.206)
ml.l_ 
m _=0 N 70Q 
z_l.0_ _ _
, I\ f ......
o I
'ZIx, k !
l.o_._ _...
........ A _D_
i I
a_ 1 , ! j
I 1 , ,,, _ i ),
0 .4 .8 1.2 1.6 1.0
83
%, ,
r
i
D238I0002I
Horizontal andtail
Fuselage and contents
contents
• fuselage mass < Vertical tail and contents
XCG = m
91
i
D238I0002I
_O_o^
+X ' / '
ZC G PIVOT
I kw
hlf
m _( XCG 7!
(AIRCRAFT C.G.)
mf
Note: Pou±tive dis tance:_ +Z'
are indicated by the
dlrection of the
arrows
When the center of gravity distance of each mass elem__nt has '
been determined, the component and total aircraft mass moments
ef inertia can be computed. The equations for the total air
craft mass moments of inertia are presented in Aopendix C.
The moments of inertia of each mass element are computed b_" >
application of the parallel axis theorem. The mements of in !.
ertia of each component about its own center ot gravity must be
92

J
T
%
I
i
J
• II
D238I0002I I
. N !
Ixx = i=ir [Ixxoi + mi (y_ + zl)] _!
i
N
93
...... I 1 1
0 1 *'
, D238I0002I
101
{;
r '
D238I0002I
c2 bw
Ket _t = MACT  IEnER + q w2 Cmo
f
IE = Engine inertia
q = Dynamic pressure
Assuming a linear mode shape from the wing tip to the root and
a cantilevered wing (zero twist at root), the wing twist at the
aerodynamic center location of the wing is obtained by linear
interpolation. The wing twist represents the change in angle
of attack of the wing tip and aerodynamic center and are used
in the aerodynamic equations.
102
1 " I I
4 D238I0002I
N I i
Zw = Wing lift
The form of the equation for the wing deflection at the aero
dynamic center is written similarly:
103
I
_ D238I0002I ,
! 11.0 CONCLUSIONS
ll1
i
1
: !I D238I0002I
i 12.0 REFERENCES
121
. .
/
L r
D238I0002I
a.
_PPENDIX A  TREATMENT OF WING FLEXIBILITY
WZNG TWIST
M N = K 8 8T (Al)
The total moment about the elastic axis due to wing aerody
namics, nacelle loads and engine gyroscopic torque is
T = m dy + MN + Mgyro (A2)
O J
M = Mc/4 + £x (A3)
m (y) = _pvl
..2c 2 Cmc/4
_ + {pV2c2C£x_ C (A4)
AI
!
I
D238I0002I ....
k  4 (A6)
 _ CLa _
ao
CLa
and therefore ..
• + C_dy (A10)
dC £ o _!;
I
A2
[
[
2
r
t
g_
'
!
2
• _ D238100021
[ .
; i
t
}" _(yl
k..... Fa
._ °
, n WN
b
2
,5
MN
i
;' T
, i
\ untwisted position of wing
A3
t
J
D238I0002I i
Rearranging,
and writing q = qs (ICT s) = _ pV2
1 c2 _erigid __ + _
8T = MN+Mgyro+2qs(lCTs ) w (dCm
dC L X)+bwCmc
c _A12)
 _ qsbwCw CL_
Knowing the tip value of twist, the twist at any other span
wise station is obtained by assuming a linear variation of
twist from zero at the root to the tip value. _i"
'' . ,
A4
\ g
I
, D238I0002I
. where £o is the lift per unit length at the wing root. Intro
ducing the spanwise variable 8=cos I (2Y1making the required ""
substitutions and integrating, the be_ing moment at any point
,. y is:
2 _
,, nWb 1
. i.e. MW(y) =  _ (1cos 8  _ sinZS)
EI (y) =dZz__
M(y) dy 2 8EIo2
= £ob [(sin 88 1 cos
 a 8)i/3
cos 8 sin38)]+Fab 2E_oL_
[lcos cos8 81 /
2EI_i lcos
_ nWNb la cos@ 8 i _ 2EI_
nWwb I lcosla@ _o_
 1 8
sin28 ] l
nWwb 3 + Tb 3 .
 8EI o _4 4EI o _5 (A22)
la cos 8 dy dy
o o
4 J ..
o o
o o la cos 8 }
_5 _o o la cos 0
and where the wing lift (2 wing panels) L = _ Rob. The function
_I through _5 we_:e obtained numerically and _re preset, ted in
Figure A.2.
W
Since L = 2 ZAERO
N
Fa. _ ZAERO
T =  LAERO
A6
'. D238I0002I
1 ZAERO 1
nWw = _ mw m = _ mw _AC
nWN = mN aT
hl = ZAERO
N + ZAERO
W LAERO
N a T
KW 1 KW 2  KW3  KW4
 KW5 aWAC
where h I = z
KW1 = b3_2
8EI
o
= b3¢ 1
4_rEI
o
b3_ 5
KW3 4El
o
: mNb'* 2
KW4 8EI
o
= mwb3¢ 4
KW 5 8EI o
A7
i ..
J
. : D238I0002I ..
,6
a=. 65
._'5
e 4 /
M

0.3
> " '
<
>,2
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 J..0
FRACTION SE:.IISPA/_
FigureA.2. WingBendingFunctions
A8
t
.... _ ""  I "' I '
• 1 ........
L
................................ i
l
D238I0002I
Presented below are the equations for landing gear forces and
moments arising from ground contact. The derivation accounts
for brake and friction forces together with a simplified re
presentation of the oleo dynamics. Nose whee_ steering is not
included.
•. where X and Z are the coordinates of the hub of the wheel
relative to the C.G, and r is the tire radius. If the air
i craft is now rolled right, through the angle _, the bottom of
__ the right gear moves through a distance.
_. h = HCG + h 8  h_ (B3)
.. HCG +h 8 _h_
hT = cos _ cos 8 (B4)
HCG  YP (B5)
iT  cos _ cose
where KST and DST are the equivalent spring rates and damping
for the oleo, and F G is the force on the landing gear strut.
BI
(
<
/
" D238I0002I
X . .
HC.G. h0/cosa
L.
h_/c
B2
cr
 o,
D238I0002I _ ;
=
i F C"0+ FGZTuI I
(B7)
!
<
. I Fs = _s FG Z  v (B8) _
= e (Bq3 ,
_X n F_n  FGZ n
AY n = F s + FGZ _ (B10)
n n
= % + FGZ (BII)
&Zn F_ne  Fsn n
where n=l, 2 and 3 denote the left main gear, right main gear
and nose gear, respectively.
B3
[
J_
D238I0002I
3
AXLG = _ AXn
n=l
3
AYLG = [ AYn
n=[
3
AZLG = [ AZn
n_l
• °
: 3
• ALLG = [ ALn
n=l
3
AMLG [ AMn
n=l
3
ANLG [ ANn
n= 1 _.
P
B4
' _ ................  _,,._................. _.r_ _ /
t_
;r D238I0002I
..... ( nacelles,
and relativeand wind
tail velocity
surfaces at
requires that the beangle
these surfaces of attack
known. These
velocities are obtained most conveniently in terms of the velo _ :
: I city of the pivot reference point.
•
V  6r + _ x r (Cl)
1  6t  
where r is the radius vector from the c.g. to the point and _
is theangular velocity of the aircraft. Thus, expanding 
equation Cl, the velocity of the pivot relative to the c.g. is
= + QZp  YpR
. where Xp, Yp and Z_ are the distances of the pivot from the
c.g., measured positively forward, to the right and downwards,
respectively. If we measure all distances from the pivot loca
tion then Xp = XcG, Yp = YcG = 0, Zp = ZCG and the velocity
of the pivot relatzve to inertial space can be written t
Up = U + u_ = U  XCG  QZcG
C1
[
<
A.
C2
!
I ...... i ]
, i
D238I0002I
•. u = X + QZ  YR i '
v = Y + RX  PZ (C4)
"" w = 7. + PY  QX
UHT = Up + ZHTQ !
(C5)
. VHT = Vp + XHT R  ZHTP !
WriT = Wp  XHTQ ,_
UVT = Up + ZvTQ
wVT = wp + XvTQ I
LWAC !
by substituting i_
YRWAC = YLwAC
J
C3
%
&o
t
D238I0002I
The equations for the right wing are obtained by changing the
subscript.
where L s is the distance from the rotor pivot point to the "
rotor hub and hl L is the deflection of the wing tip. The equa
tions for the right hub are obtained by changing subscripts and
substituting YN = YN.
I "_  Xf = _f  XCG
'
(Cll)
' _, Xf = hf  ZCG
I
XW = _w  XCG
, (C12)
Zw = hw  ZCG
t
XNR = £ cos (iNR _)  XCG
, (C13)
XNL = £ cos (iNL  _)  XCG
I
ZNL = £ sin (iNL  _)  ZCG
C5
t
[
<
, o
_ D238I0002I :. I
" By taking moments about the pivot, the aircraft center of '_
gravity is given by q .
:"
: XCG
, = mf £f m+ mw %w + £ (_) [cos(iNLl) + cos(iNRl) ] ..
"" .
L
: (C14) i
.. (c15)
<
ZCG = £ NRCOS (iNRX) + iNLCOS (iNLX) j g.
:
J Center of Gravity Acceleration Relative to Pivot Point
_
'
(iNLA) + iNR cos (iNRX)
] (C3_)

i
ZCG = % iNRCOS(iNR_) + iNLCOS(iNL_ )  iNLsin .
 iNRsin (iNRX)
(iNL__) _2 i
)
C6

I:
D238I0002I
i
I
_
[. 1
vpA = Vp + R_pA  PZpA ._
_A _
 _t _
Y
dt dt dt dt 2 6t 1
6 _ r_2
_ 6 r_2
A
= _CG + (__X£PA) + 
_ X (__X£pA) +2
+ 
_ X
6t 6t 6t
, C7
?
D238I0002I
and noting that YCG and the time derivatives of XpA, YPA' ..
ZpA are always zero, the above equation yields the pilot's
station accelerations as :
axpA = XAERO+
m (Q + PR)(ZpA ZcG) + (Q2 + R2)(XcG _ %PA) ""
L
ZAERO
azp A  m 1 (Q  PR) (XcG  £pA ) + (p2 + Q2) (ZcG _ ZpA)
ZAERO
= etc.
where axc G m
and XpA = £PA, the distance from the pivot tc the pilot's
station
C.4 Aircraft Inertias
f w NL NR 2 2 2 2 2
Ixx = Ixx + Ixx + Ixx + Ixx + mfZf + mwZ w + 2mNY N + mNZNL + mNZNR (C]
C8
D238I0002I
NL .N_
In the case of the nacelles the inertias Ixx, ±x_ are dependent
on the nacelle tilt angle, iN . These inertias are related to
the inertias of the nacelle with respect to a set of nacelle
fixed axes O"xyz placed as shown in Figure 3.1. The re1_tion 
ships are
N N N N 2
Ix x 2i N
= Ixx O + (I_z
O  Ixx° ) sin i_  I XZo sin
J
I_y = I_y °
(c18)
N N N N 2
2
 INxz O (sin 2iNL + sin 2iNR) + 2 toNYN + mfhfZf
I I
..  mNZNLZ_G  mNZNRZ_G
 _mN[ZNRsin(iNR  _) + ZNLsin(iNL  _
= if + iw + 2I N + (IN _ IN ) (sin 2 2
xx xx xx o zz o xx o iNL + sin iNR)
2
 INxz o (sin 2iNL_'.2iNR) + 2 mNY N + mfhfZf
0
since the terms containing ZCG sum to zero.
C9
)
I 
f
................. L
• ! .............. I
6 "
, D238I0002I
Similarly
w N _
Ciz_
i_,:IL_ _ +_C_zzo
I_o_
N 2 2 N
+ (INxo___
 Izz o) (sin iNL + sin iNR)+ Ixz ° (sin 2iNL
Similar expressions are obtained for Iyy and Izz and these are
presented in Appendix E.
_e
CIO
i
' i
D238I0002I "_
i
" The above sketch shows a rotor under conditions of combined
{ angle of attack (_T.L.) and sideslip (S). The resultant angle
of attack of the shaft is given by
eT.L.  af + iN (D2)
DI
Q
mm
D238I0002I
line PT is the wing chord, the distances PC and h_ are the hori •
zontal and vertical coordinates of the pivot measured from the
_ wing leading edge, and £ is the spinnertopivot shaft length.
Z
Figure D.l[b] is a vlew taken normal to the rotor disc plane.
In this view, the traces of the slipstream on planes taken
through the wing leading and trailing edges parall,;l to the
disc plane appear as circles. This assumes that th_ slipstream "
is a sheared circular cylinder.
i
The immersed area of the right wing panel is (assuming that the
tip is immersed), .
= 1 (PM + TN)c
SiR
l(pR + RM + TS + SN)c
= _ (D4)
D2
/
f
D238I0002I
If we write
and
_ s {[gPC cos(iL_iw)+hpsin(iNiw)]Tan(_R¢lcos ; ,
°
["
D238I0002I
APPENDIX E ,, ,
! I
. a. i
!
'i
• i
E1
< i
4.
D238I0002I
b .
E2 l
I
[
J 1
D238I0002I
T
L TABLE OF CONTENTS
• (Con£'d)
E3
[ ""
: D238I0002I
; TABLE OF CONTENTS ..
(ConE' d)
<
Wing Torsion E74
_ Left Wing Twist at Tip
: Right Wing at Tip .o
Total Force and Moment Summation About Center of _
G r avi ty E 75 _
Basic Equations of Motion E76
Preliminary Calculations ""
: Fuselage C.G. with Respect to Aircraft C.G.
Wing C.G. with Respect to Aircraft C.G.
Nacelle C.G. with Respect to Aircraft C.G. 
Inertia Terms
_ Roll Equation
Pitch Equation
Yaw Equation
Right Nacelle Actuator Pitching Moment Equation
Motion of Aircraft Mass Center '
Euler Angle Calculation
Aircraft Condition Calculations E83 :
Ground Track
• Northward Velocity
Eastward Velocity
Downward Velocity
_ Pilot Station Accelerations (Body Axes)
: Pilot Station Velocities (body Axes)
Gus t Model
Preliminary Calculations Preprocessor E85 ;
. °
E4 _.
• ! 3
D238I0002I _ _
ELEMENT PAGE
NUMBER BLOCK DIAGRAM ELEMENT NAMES NUMBER _
i
i ,
: E5
I
D238I0002I
NACELLE, FLAP, FLAPERON, & SPOILER CONTROLS
,L s I i ' , 1+ ' 2 , I
FLK ,'TION
_ACE''E
_= _ I/ I" I
is_r (USEroR_L iNczo_c_" I V _ / I
SCHEDULES ) I _ I L _ .c
DEADBI._D
FLAI"_.RON LEFT
VS FLAPERON
TAT. STICK
I  LIMITS
@ 
1 AUTHORITY _*
RIGHT
FLA_ERON
_s+SAS
PILOT CONTROL
I SPOILER _SPRW
i' E8
E9
! ""
D23810002I +
• p, ] I ,
ii
D238I0002I
. .
"" _
[ _ _.
!
• o II II II II II
•
(/1
m
m
H _ m
Z
0
_k
4 +
'
i _ _ IT I •
m .J
D238I0002I
D_NSITY CAIEUr_A.TIONS I
°1
T (OF) =59.o 003561 h
T (OF)=89.8. 003869h
• t
T (OF)=103  .003803h
5.2561
6 = (1.000006875 h)
0 _°FJ+
= ''_ 459.69
518.69
qh = 6/8
a = 1116 /8
M = V/a
p = .0023769 _h _EXIT I
INPUT: h
1 HOT ATMDS
2 TROPICAL ATMOS
E12
OUTPUT: _, 8, _h' a, M, 0
J
I D238I0002I
i TEA n
NLZMmO
TPs/0. J
( ,
' 1 " ,,:,/6/_ x
" I"_';'JiTl T/8Tma x SHP"
. ms
"" WDTII:_ MO &16/_ @ TEA, l
mm
J ,,o
. NzlV'l
 0 NI
I
i /,.o_,< _, ' , M '1 YES /fN, II/'_ • INI//'%/ _
I T_ATI_I [.... lllzl/_{ _I
I ill .T.M" 2 max _j
!
.i .o _i

NleI t NN'_# I ' N_ _ @ TEA,M
,, max t
.zl/il
i Nz
NO 7
7
• o 1
• [" I I I
,<
•, , _,lzs
I'  E 13 "i
! ' ,. ..... i I '"
,7
, 'ENGINE ROUTINE POWER AVAILABLE
i E14
/
I
D238I0002I
!
I
gt
r E15
/
I
D238I0002I
r
LEFT
l! ! !
l! t !
TI II
tl • If
B1 + B1 cos _
CL = AIcL <sin _HL CL HL
rotation.
RIGHT
It ! !
I! ! !
II II
E17
t
I " i f
C.G. LOCATION
CENTER
RELATIVE
OF
TO
GRAVITY
PIVOT
CALCULATION
D238I0002I
,.
1
I'
,4
XCG = mf£f m
+ mw£w + _ (3)Ice s (iNL X) + cOs (iNR_X)I ..
I .
• ZCG =
mfhf +m mwhw £ I_)[ sin (iNLX)+ sin (iNRX)] "
E18
[ ,
t
f
i i,
T
i ° D238I0002I I
4_ Up = U  ZCG q  XCG
Vp = V + ZCG p  XcGr
J
Wp = W + XCG q  ZCG
E19
am
D238I0002I
lw
VELOCITIES OF AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS
! I
! . _
! o
E20
1
L
"" D238I0002I
! !
•  ! i ,
VRL = VRL
! V _
! ! °
VRR = VRR
! !
! !
VLW = VLW
! I
VRW = VRW
! !
" i
E21 i
_w
,. !_
' D238I0002I
no 3
{ 
UHT = Up + .fq
WHT = Wp  XHT q
Q_
[
t '
E22 I •
[
t_ o J
T,,, ,"
D238I0002I •
RR RR _T_" /
R = + 5'F2 + SF 2
RR R R :.
VRR
V, =
VU*R + 2 V,R V3*R COS TRR + V2*R V2*R = i (Solve for V,R) ';
= Tani rRR
fV*R sin 1
PRR LV,R + v, R cos TRR j
V* L = ._RLR 2_oA
I+l 0
E23
2
l r
i I
..... I I
z
t
D238I0002I :_
HR RR WRR RR
= TanI IV /(WRR+ e U )] USED IN ROTOR 
CONTROL TRANS
= (_HR + _HR ) .5 w
7R = ( RR+ %R ) .S
D2
_R2 _  [L S  PC cos (TN  iw ) + hp sin (i N  iw )] tan
(i
N _ iw)}2
IF: _R2
: = 0 or Imaginary; S i RW = 0 and SiL W = 0,
Form :
_R3 by replacing PC in _R1 equation with (PC  cw)
(Si/S)Rw = 2 (SiR/Sw)
Si T = Cw [%R2 + _:R4]
S  Si = !
iLW = S_T R SiL li'
(Si/S)Lw = 2 (SiL/Sw)
j
(ARi)LW = (SiL/cw2) !
(CLc'i/CLa) LW = _ "!
,_ + CL_ w [I/(ARi)LW  I/ARw]
"7"
K1 R = V_ + (CLai/CL,_)RW v_
V* + v*
R R
L
D238I0002I
E26
b
/ •
!
.....
:
f
1
!
ef
D238I0002I
f
e_
WING ANGLE OF ATTACK AND SIDESLIP
aW = (aLWO + aRWO)/2
E27
I
J°
' I
D238I0002I
CALCULATE :
C =C @ _=_ , 6 = 6 + 5 , 6 = 5
LRW 0 L RWss aRW f SP SP R
0
C* =C @ _ =a 5 = 5 + 5 6 = 5
LLW 0 L LW 0 aLW f SP SP L
C* =C @ _=_ , 5 =5 + 5 , 5 = 6
DLW 0 D LW 0 aLW f SP SP L
C* =C @ a = _ , 5 = 5 + 5 , 6 = 6
LRW 0 L RW 0 aRW f SP SP R
C* =C @ _=_ , 6 = 5 + 5 , 5 = 5
DRW 0 D RW 0 aRW f SP SP R
82 (5 :.53 )
= all + a12_ + a13
E28
i
I
I,I
I
.. D238_I0002_I
AC D = b06 S + b162
SP P SP
= a2 (6 > 61)
= a5 (6 > 61)
= CL  F
CLWI ACLsp
+ ACDo 6 + ACDs P
E29
• I ¢
mm
D238i0002I
If eNL
+ < a _< eNL + a18 calculate: ""
C' = a + CI e+ + AC + F AC
LNL 6 Le W NL L6 LSp ._
+
a = e  e + a
DUM NL 0 ,
&C = + a2 + a cL2
LNL a20 i eDUM 22 DUM
CL = C' +
LNL ACLNL
CLW 1 = C L  F ACLs P
+ + AC D
ACDo_ SP
_2 = a0 + a18 "
E30
: 1 D23810002"1
l  2
: "" + a27 C_W I + a28 [CLW I
+ aCDo 5 + bCDsp
CD = CDI )
< _L calculate:
= C' +
CL LNL &CLNL
= CL  F &CLsP C_2
CLw I _ + a25
/ _NL + a23 + a24
_ a 6 + CL_ _ CLw2)_
CLw 2 _ + a2s (CLw I
C z + a27 CLwI
CD = CDwo + &26 LW 2
+ _CDs P
4 &CDo 6
_i = e_L  a19 +F _C
I _L LS?
C,' = _6 + CL_ w
5NL
,i9770'16'1
m.
D238I0002I
2
ACLN L = a23 + a24 aDUM + a25 aDUM _
CL = C' + (a>___
1)
LNL ACLNL wt
= C' +  F ACLs
CLwI LNL ACLNL p ..
CLw2 a6 + CLaw a3
+ _C D +
o6 ACDsp
E32
I
.J  I' _"
D238100021
i
.m CALCULATE : .i
,. CML W = , 6 = 6f + 6 ,_
i = CM @ a aLWss 0 aLW ,_
CMRW = CM @ a = aRWss , 6 = _f + _
0 aRW
AS FOLLOWS :
If _ < a < _
1   2 i
Calculate C'M = b 2 + b 3 _
_CM6 = b 4 4 b 5 _ + b 6 62
C M = C_ + ACM6
If _ >
c_2
C_ = b 2 + b 3 _2 + ACM6 L
If _ < al
C'M = b 2 + b3 _i + ACM
CM = CM (90 + _)/(90 + _i )
' 4
D238I0002I
r
CALCULATE: .. _
! ! I t! t !
LR W
C _' = LRW0;
C "k C _l R W = DRWO ;
C "k l C _
MEW = r'*'
_MRw 0
C*
LLWMA X = CLLWMA x
C* = C"
LRWMAX LRWMAX
CL = CL 0 (a.g/a):., / "_/l  M2
LLW
,,
= CLL W(ag/a)w/ _ ; LR W = LR W (ag/a)w/I__2
E34
[
!'
i _" D238I0002I
IF: CLL W > C_L W MAX ; SET ACDL W = 0.0 & CLL W = CLL W MAX
IF: CLR W _ CLRW MAX ; SET _CDR W 0.0 & CLR W CLRW MAX
CALCULATE
IGE
C"  C"
LLW LLW
,,, IGE
C" = C + _C"
DLW DLW DLW
IGE
C" = C"
LRW LRW
,,, IGE
C" = C + _C"
DRW DRW DRW
IGE
C* = C*
LLW LLW
IGE
C* = C* ' + _C*
DLW DLW DLW
IGE
C* = C'
LRW LRW
IGE
C* = C* ' + 3C*
DRW DRW DRW
E35
t
/
J
D238I0002I
CLLW SLR
LId
CDSLW AL_
Ic l ,,
_ LW (CLL W sin epL R
+c,, DLW COS ePLR
)
+ C_L W (i  CTSLR)
E ]} I
LW
+  CTSRR) 
RW
CMSLW
=
AL LW "
(CML W) + C*MI,W (i
 CTSLR )
I c 1}
1  _'
LW
E36
.......
¢
D238I0002I
._ _ + (Kf)
= (K20 + K 2 _ cL ) ( I  C_s) 8_ _ 2b W j
C_SW
" ,,C,uw
.. c*LRW ) 
YAC+ _Czs POWER
2 + IKN) (CDR w DLW
CNs w L . _ ] 
= (K22 C[C*
) (1 sin
CTS (_
) B[  _i 2bN
) + I C* "
sin (zW <_LWO ) 1 Y_C
LRW RWO W LLW
+ ACNs pOWER
E37
D238I0002I
AERO=
X TM fe u %LW (IC TSLR[i
) [ LWi ]
ULw l
LW
YAERO = 0.0
RW
4 YAERO = 0.0
AERO
zLW' = TL (D/T) L
GO TO WING BENDING
RW'
ZAERO = TR (D/T)R
W
NAERO = 0.0
E38
J
D238I0002I
E39
D238I0002I
PITCHING MOMENT
M RW = C SW Cw  X Z RW
AERO MSRW qSRW _' WAC AERO i
+ Z X RW
WAC AERO
M LW = C SW cw ZLW
AERO MSLW qSLW _'  XWAC AERO
+ Z X LW
WAC AERO
VERTICAL FORCES
Z AERO
RW' =
[CLsRW  C DSRW _'RWO
1 qSRW
sw

2
Z LW' = C  C a'
AEZO LSLW DSLW LWO qSLW 2
• og
E40
D238I0002I
xL w r ] Sw
= 'C + C a ' qs
AERO L DSLW LSLW LWOJ LW 2
XAERO =
RW CDSRW + CLSRW aRWO qSRW
RW
YAERO = [
LCDsRW 8RWO ] qSRW SW
_
ZAERO
FROM VERTICAL BENDING
_ RW
ZAERO
W
"_'_AERO = _.S;_ qs SW bw
W I,W RW /zLW RW )
MAERO = MAERO + MAERO + XCG _ AERO + ZAERO l
NW = C q S b
AERO NSW S W W
E41
J
I
L
D238I0002I :'_
then E = e (i  GEF)/  M2
P
WHERE a = = @(
o o SfL + _fR )/2, dc/da = de/da@ (°fL + °fR )/2
I
_HT = Tan (WHT/UHT)  c + iHT (U<O)
E42
f
i,
I
,.

m_
D238I0002I
 2°) + 6e
_HT+ = (eHTsTAL L THT
2
CDHT = CDOHT + CLHT/_ARHTEHT
90 °  aHT +
E43
.,!
: I
B_
D238I0002I
_J
IF: 90 ° < eeH T <(180 °  .5 _HT_)
= 5  90o)/(90 °  .5 _HT )
CLHT " CLe eHT_ (eeHT
2
= CL /_ARHTEHT +
CD HT S T ALL HT S TALL CDOHT
(90°  eHT )
E44
I
D238I0002I
 + 180 °  5 ) (i.i 
CDHT = CDHT STALL (_eHT " _HT+ CDHTsTAL L
E45
k
D238I0002I
IF: IeVTI>I80°;_VT = eVT (sign _VT) (360 °) {NOTE: THIS VALUE OF ""
art ONLY USED
IN CALCULATION
= (aVT+ _ ) OF FORCE AND
eVT _VT RUD MOMENT COEFFI
CIENTS}
2°)+T
_VT_ = (_VTSTAL L VT 6RUD
Cy_ = CY_vT/VIM2
= 0/2 (U 2 + v 2 + W 2)
=(da/dS) BF
<
E46
/
k
D238I0002I
^ ^
Cy = Cy_ _VT+
VTSTAL L
2
= /zARvTEVT
CDVTsTAL L CDOvT + CYVTsTAL L
+ (_ev T  eVT+ ) (i • 1
CDv T = CDVTsTAL L  CDVTsTAL L)
(90o  _VT+)
Cy = .5 Cy_ _VT
VTsTAL L
2
= Cy_ (  180 ° )
CYvT _eVT
O
E47
J
D238I0002I
Cy = Cya aVT
VTsTAL L  , !
(90 °  aVT  )
= CDOvT + C2 /nARvTEVT
CDVTsTAL L YVTsTAL L
= CD  + 180 °  5 ) (i.I  CD )
CDvT VTSTAL L (_eVT " _VT+ VTSTAL L
E48

Q
J
g,,
D238I0002I
HORIZONTAL TAIL
VERTICAL TAIL
E4q
D238I0002I
i
HT
.T [_
ZAER0 = CLH T cos (XHT  iHT)  CDH T cos (6VT o) sin "
HT HT
_AERO = YAERO (ZHT  ZCG)
HT
MAERO = HT
ZAERo(XcG  XHT) + HI'
XAERO(ZHT _ ZCG)
NAERO
HT = YAERO
HT (XcG _ XHT)
VERTICAL TAIL
RO
=[ CDV T cos (_VT
_ J)cos(_HT  iHT)CyvTSin(2%'T
 ,cos
SV T qVT
(_HT  iHT)]
ZAERO
VT = F CDV T cos (3VT  d) sin (_HT  ZHT)
'  Cyv T sin (_VT . d''
E50
i
)
" " I U I I
t_
D238i00021
_VT,
'_AERO = _yVT
AERO (Z VT  ZCC)
VT VT VT
MAERO = EAERO (Xc G XVT) + XZERO (ZvT  BCG)
VT VT
NAERO = YAERO (XcG  XVT)
T VT HT
XAERO = XAERO + X,ERO
• T VT HT
ZAERO = ZAERO + ZAERO
MAERO RO MAERO
yT VT HI'
AERO = YAERO + YAERO
T VT ,_HT
_r AERO ='_AERO +_AERO
T £ + NHT
NAERO = NAERO AERO
E5_
!
D238I0002I
NACELLE AERODYNAMICS
i q V2
aRN = 'fan :WRR/URR , qRN = 1/2 _ RR

_RN = TanI[VRR
' / v _URR
2 + WRR
_ ]
:'_L,_'_'._
= K32 Sin .XXN cos aRN
CMR N = CMO N + Kg 4 Sin _RN cos _RN + K35 (sin 'R:I co'_ ,Rh)
CNL N = CM0 N + K34 sSn _LN cos tLN + K35 (sin _LN cos _LN)
4
sin _LN cos _LN _
SPECIAL CONDITrO_,_S
E52
,m
d
D238I0007I
CyR N = K36 Sin SRN Cos 6RN + K37(Sin gRN Cos £RN / Sin 3RN Cos 6RN
CNRN CNORN + K38Sin SR::C°s SRN + K39 (Sin 6RNCOS_RN)ISIn,RN Cos _RN
RN = _LN = 0.0
_XRN
' ' = qRNSw [CDRNCOSaRN . + CLRNsin_RN  Cy RN sin._R,_COS :_RN]1/2
"_ _I'_ZRN
]I/2,_,,
KN = qRNSwbw
= qRNSw[CIRNCOSaRN
[ " c___/q  .CDRNCOS2RN sin_:KN  CyRN. sin__RN sin _RN
bW CMRN sln_RN COSaRN  CNR N sin_RN]i/2
,NRN
' ' = qRNSwbw [CNR N cos :_RN  
CW CM RN sin £ RN cos_RN]l/2
bw
""_[_ = qLNSw [_LN cos :LLN + CLL N sin '[.N CyL N sin {LN c°s_L_]i/2
,y'
 LN = qLNSw [CyL N cos ZLN  C[;LN sin _.LN]I/2
bw
_LN = qLNSwb%¢[ CHL N sin _LN cos "LN  CNL'_ sin _LN]I/2
D238I0002I
X n = _ XCG + XGn
Yn = YGn
Zn =  ZCG + ZGn
STRUT DEFLECTION
VERTICAL FORCE
TO ZERO.
E54
!
D238I0002I
LONGITUDINAL FORCE:
SIDE FORCE:
J
_ = _" y  _Y (Z + r + h )
'_"n _ '_n n n n n Tn
E55
D238I0002I
AXLG IZ £Xn 1
3
&YLG = Z AY n 
i
_ZLG = Z _Z n
i
I'
3
3
!MLG = Z _Mn
1
3
&NLG = i AN n
., i
!
l
E56
J
i
D238I0002I
FUSELAGE AERODYNAMICS
VF
= _
/u2 + v2 + w2
qF = i/2) V_
VFU S = V F
! ! !
CyF = K7 gF + K8 _F IBF!
SPECIAL CONDITIONS
E57
\ °s s
D238I0002I
F !
F'
YAERO = [CyF cos BF  CDF sin gF ] qF SW
F ! '
C YF sin BF sin _ F ] qF S W
F'
2_AERO = [ (Cw/bw)CMF sin BF cos aF  CNF sin _F ] qF SW bw +
F'
YAERO [Zcg  ZFAC]
F' F'
MAERO = [CMF cos BF] qF SW Cw + ZAERO [XcG  XFAC]
F'
XAERO [ZcG  ZFA C]
F'
NAER0 = [CNF cos aF  (Cw/b w) CMF sin _F sin (_F ] qF SW bw
F'
 YAERO [XcG  XFAC]
F F
XAERO = XAERO + _XLG
F F
YAERO = YAERO + 2YLG
F F
ZAERO = ZAERO + AZLG
_F AER0 F
= _AERO + IZLG
F F'
MAER0 = MAERO + iMLG
F F'
NAER0 = NAERO + _NLG
E58
D238I0002I
(CLsRW + CLSLW)
CLW = 0.5
(i  t:TS)
E59
D238I0002I
ROTOR/ROTOR INTERFERENCE
i
× = 1.5708  _PRR _
V_R = 1 2 T 3× X
.
1 v*RR 27 _R 2
• ,
iRL = tan  1 [VLR _VRL
+ 1.0 I
iRL = (16
' F I) (.40528 iNL) _'iRL I
'
_iLR = 0.0 I
X = 1.5708  <PLR
EV£R = + T k + T X X [
! I 2 3 J
1 LR ) _
VLR v*
RR 2p_R2
!
_iRL = 0.0
E60
D238I0002I
ROTOR EQUATIONS
RIGHT ROTOR
VRR
VRR = V RR + V RR
U2 2 + W RR
2 ; = { RtR
LEFT ROTOR
URL
pN = + r sin i pN =  r sin
NR p cos iNR NR NL p cos iNL INL
N N
QNR = q + iNR QNL = q + INL
i E61
i
% * ......
D238I0002I
THRUST
c
WHERE: CT ° = 0.000679 ¢ + 0.000015 ¢2
I
+ 0.0022 _ + 0.000211 _2#
and
 0.75  6.3015u + 5.5816u _
¢ = e_ 5 tan_ 1 u cos a
 8 _ sin _ + 1.115
GROUND EFFECT
TOGEI EFF
RR
RR
+
1.2479  .8806 URR I
I
f
D238I00021
POWER
CPR R = CPOR R
dCNFRR + _RR + +
dAic R = DNFI CTRR DNF2 DNF3 URR DNF4
dCNFRR
+ + u +
dBIcR = ENF 1 CTRR ENF2 URR ENF3 RR ENF 4
E63
D238I0002I i
SIDE FORCE _ ;
dCsFRR ,
dAIc R = DSF 1 CTKR + DSF2 _RR + DS F 3 u RR + DSF 4
dCsF
RK
dB ICR = ESF 1 C TRR + E SF 2 '_RK + E S F 3 p RR + E SF 4
E64
\
i !
I
D238I0002I
WHERE :
i.
RPM
+ 0.0028126 u sin 2a  0.0057743 p sin i
298
L_
dCPMRR
* E65
I
_I D238I0002I 1
I HUB PITCHING MOMENT (CONTINUED)
 1.2 u 2 C T sin
dCyM = _ dCpM I
dR dQ I ;
E66
3
• ! 2
_ AV
D238I0002I '_
dCYMRR = D C + D 2 + + D _ _,
_ dAIC R yM I TRR YM 2 _RR DyM 3 ]JRR YM 4 _
dCyMRR
D238I0002I !
ROTOR FORCE & MOMENT CALCULATION m.
CTR R
TR = fTR p_R4_ t
t *
NFR = fNF R CNFRR P_R4_2R _
_ 7
I
m_
' • °" !
5gg • i
 "
4_
E68
"
T _L I t
L
'_ I ROTOR FORCE & MOMENT RESOLUTION ° ,:
L.
* D238I0002I !
LEFT ;i •
u. _L RH =  _nLREQ  Ip _L K _
"_ ":
I
f
t
RIGHT
I
i K1 = 0 if nontilting engines .
= 1 if tilting engines c
i
i E69
D238I0002I
_ LEFT ROTOR
NL ,
I!
I
 &ZLN )
_AERO = _LRH + A_N) cos iNL + sin iNL (NLR H + &NLN + LsYAER0 ) 1 "
:,° MAER
ONL = MLR H + AMeN + NF L L s cos" _HL + SFL Ls sin _HL I
4 r
 Ls AZLN  IE fiEL r NEL K2
NL ' + L NL
NAERO = COS iNe (NLR H + ANL__ s YAER0 )  sill iNL(_R H + &_N ) " i
tw _
i'
+ IE _EL q NEL K2 o _ !
/' }
NACELLE EQUATION INPUT  LEFT _
: MNLAERO NL
= MAERO + I E fiEL r NEL K2 _ ,_
_° ;
:_ GLAS INPUTS  LEFT "'"
_ GLAS K 2 = 0 if tilting ..
: E70
" k
f" !
D238I0002I ."
4
[ RIGHT ROTOR o
i
[._ X AERO
NR = (TR + AX'RN ) cos i NR + sin i NR (NF ]_ cos HR
zNR
AERO
' =  (TR + AX'RN ) sin i NR + cos 1NR
' (_NF R cos _HR '
.NR'
= + ) cos i + sin i + L +
• ERO RH N NR NR (NRRH s AERO ,,
: _ NR ,
_ MAERO = MRR H + &MRN + NF R Ls cos _HR  SF R Ls sin _HR
L
!
= _ "  Ls AZRN IE _ER r NER K2
NR
NAERO = cos iNR (NRR H + ANRN + L s yNRRo) sin iNR(_RRH + _RN )
+ IE _ER q NER K2
= M NR + I _ r K
MNRAERO AERO E ER NER 2
i
! .
MNRAERO = MRRH + Ls (NFR cos _HR  SFR sin _HR )
GLAS
E71
I .... II
: D238I0002I :_
• 7
 ZAERO + Y
,: aRT = m N p I
7 _ = ZAER 0 + Y P i
RWAC m WAC I
_ hlR = AhlR/At
!. 
At is the time frame. I
RIGHT WING A.C. DEFLECTION
: Where AhlR is the difference of hlR between time frames and ]
NR W NR  
'i hlRwAC = KW 6 ZAERO + Kw 7 ZAERO + KW 8 _AER0  KW 9 aRT  KWI0 a RWAC
:" ! Rt ' I!
h = Ah I /At
" IRWAC _RWAC
:. RW 2_ _  +
AERO W2 W2 AERO W2 AERO _W2 AERO
"" R
ERO
= 2_
W3
_
W3 ERO W3 AERO + W3 _AERO ..
't
E72
.o
i
._ °,
D238I0002I
,
L _aLT _ ZAERO
m _ yN P" _
 ZAERO "
'1..
LI aLWAC  m YWAC p '_
(_ hlL AhlL/At _ ,
i i
t hlL = AhiLwAc/At t_ '
i_" ZAERO
"'NL = 2 _WI AERO
(°Wl zNL _ _2WI AERO
zNL + _2WI Z AERO
NL'
!
{" ..NL
IAERO = 2_W3 _ W3W_AERO
_NL _ _2W3_ERONL + m2W3 _L' ERO $
E73
T
!. •
i i=
CW W
(4OtLW + 3H_LWRIGID) _°
mm
2 :
cwb w }'
+ qSRW _ CM0 (i  CTSRR) 
2 :'
WHERE: CMO = Cl + C2 6F + C3
(
4etR W +
_F
3_aRWRIGI
o) '1

YWAC
G  e
tLWAC YN tLW
YWAC
e  e ,_
tRWAC tRW ., ,
YN _
E74
D238I0002I ! :
L XAERO
= xNL
AERO
+ xNR
AERO
+ XF
AERO
+ ,'LW
AERO
+ xRW
AERO
+ XT
AERO
'
?
NL NR F LW RW T
ZAERO = ZAERO + ZAERO + ZAERO + ZAERO + ZAERO + Z_ERO
NR NL NL NR _ '
+ YN (ZAER0  ZAER0) + ZCG (YAERO + YAER0 ) _ :
NL NR F W T
1 MAERO = MAERO + MAERO + M ERO + MAERO + MAERO i :
NL NR  NL NR
_ + XcG(ZAERp + ZAERO)  ZCG (XAERO + XAERO) _
NL NR F W T
_ NAERO = NAERO + NAER0 + NAERO + NAERO + NAERO
NL NR NL NR _
+ YN (XAERC  XAERO)  XCG (YAERO + YAERO )
E75
!. t
i ! '
..... i
D238I0002I I
BASIC EQUATIONS OF MOTION
Xf _" _ CG I
Zf = hf  ZCG
X R = £ cos (iNR  I) X CG i
I
I
i
7
,p.
E76 .,
r 1
j I
I [
D238I0002I
l PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS
q _k ij
I(k) = I(f)
iJ + I(W)
lj + 2I'ij
 Ixz
' (sin 2 iNR + sin 2 iNL ) + 2 mN YN2
+ mf hf Zf + mw h w Zw
> [: '
{
,
: ib_ _ '
: E77
,!
D238I0002I
INERTIA TERMS
= Iyy f w
Iyy _k _(k) + m_ (Z Xf + hf Zf) + m (_w Xw + hw Zw) I "i_
E78
.rr
D238i0002'I 4
L _
INERTIA TERMS ,_
L _
Izz =_" I(k)zz + (I'xx  I'zz ) (sin2 INR" + sin2 iNL) _
L k 2 _,
:'i
+ I' (sin 2 INR + sin 2 iNL) + 2 mN YN ::{ ,
XZ _
,
L + mf £f Xf + mW £W XW
_
!
(
t L
i [.
f i ,
_ L
I
i 
_ u
_ :
' E79
j ":
I ,r
! 3"
I xx p =J xx rq + I xz (r • + pq) I
+ £mN YN NR cos (iNR _1  iNL cos (iNL X)
PITCH EQUATION
2 2 I ;
Iyy q =Jyypr  Ixz (p  r )
 XNL" I'yy + £mN[Z L sin (iNL I) + XL cos (iNL X)] I _ ':
+ MAER0 ._
YAW EQUATION I i ,
Izz r = Jzz Pq  (rq  p) Ixz
t_
,/
_e
E80
f 
/._....
! _" D238I0002I I
!li MNRAC T
= _
. ['
INR lyy
+
raN
£2
mN (i)
•
I
t
L  _2m N (i  _)  pr cos 2 (iNR X) + q i
,
i _ + (r 2 _ p2) sin (iNRI) cos (iNRI) ] i
! + £ __ran
m XAER0 sin (iNR  %) + ZAERO cos (iNR  X
L
i
i
•  (p + rq)
[cos (iNR  X
I} ,
i __, + MNRAER0
! [ t
1
I' E81
J
\
D238I0002I
U = XAERO  g sin 8  qW + rV I
m
V = YAERO
m _ g cos 0 sin _  rU + pW I !i
;i J
. ZAERO _
_0__o_c=o_io_ 
i! _
'_ = (r cos _ + q sin _)/cos 8
• l:i
e = q cos _  r sin _ _
_ = p + _ sin 8 i
1
I
!
]
]
4b
E82
I I I lUll .................. _
L GROUND TRACK
E NORTHWARD VELOCITY
• _
_":_
L XNORTH = U cos e cos 4 + V (sin _ sin e cos 4
, [_i
i  cos , sin 4)
! EASTWARD VELOCITY
4) "_
i }_ * cos }
+ W (cos 0 sin e sin _  sin _ cos _) "'_
_ .. '_"
DOWNWARD VELOCITY
t, i ,
_ j
<
[!
"2
!. _
i
t.
E83 ' i
L
.
i
o238100021
i
c.oo I
aXPA XAERO
m + (q + pr) (ZpA  ZCG ) :
GUST MODEL I
The gust model will be that represented by NASAAMES program
NAPS80. The output of this program, in the form of gust velo
city components. Ug, Vg, Wg, p@, qg, rg will be added to the ]
aircraft veloclty components In clear air as follows:
U = U' + Ug p = p' + pg
V = V' + Vg q = q' + qg
I
W = W' + Wg r = r' + rg
E84 ..
i D238I0002I
g = 32. 174
! ! l ! ! ! !  !
'L
} mf = [w_ +
'
WHT
+ '
wVT
+ '
WCK
+ '
wC
]/g
[ _ mw = [w W WFUEL
i
[_ Zf' = ' +  '(FS)f,]/12
[ (FS)p + w_'_F]/g !
" i_ £'
NT = [ (FS)p  (FS )HTCG ]/12
VT
£' = [ (FS) P  (FS) VTCG ]/12
• L _'
f = [W_£'+W'
f HT £'HT +W'VT £'VT + W'CR £PA +w'£']/(m'_)C
C  f '_
*_,
'
t
, £W' = [ (FS)p  (FS)w]/12 .._'_
 ZW = [w'
W _'
W + w'
FUEL _'
FUEL + w'
NF _I,F
]' /(_,g) ,,
'i
4 i
i
Q.m
t
Y _t
i;
[
D238I0002I %
'[ ,,
l :
zf' = [(WL) F  (_'m)f,lll2 : ,
:r
z'
VT
= [ (WL)
P
 (WL)
VTCG
I112
I'
ZpA = [ (WL)p  (WL)pA ]/12 I
zW
!
= [ (WL)p
__
(WL)wIlI2
l
z'FUEL = [(WL) P  (WL) FUEL I112 1
f
NF .
z' = [ (WL)p (WL)NF]/12
hw = 1/(32.174 W W + w'FUEL
mw)[w'z' FUEL
z' + NF
w' NF ]
z'
f "
XWA C = [ (FS)p  (FS)wAC]/12 _
YWAC = [ (BL)wAC]/12
E86
i
A = 3.14159 R2
YGI = YG2
YG3 = 0
E87
r
YW = [(BL)wc G ]/12
YFUEL = [(BL)FuELCG]/12 l
INERTIA CALCULATIONS I
q_' = _f £f
_, = h_ z_
1:
' =£ ' I
nHT f £HT
HT
_' = hf ZHT
' ]
E88
J .
_ D238I0002I
_. n'  £  &' _.
c f c _ ,
(
i _'C = hf  z'C : .:,
t o
:
: I(f)
yy = I(Wf')
yyo + I(HT)
yyo + I yyo
(VT) + I yyo
(CR) + I yyo
(C) + W'f/g :
[.:
,i ,2
(n f, + (S,2)
f' + W_ T /g (nHT
'2 + (S '2
HT ) 4 W t VT /g (nVT
'2 + (S ,2
VT )
+ W_/g _,2
c
+ W T/g '
nHT _'
HT + W T /g '
nVT ' + W 6R/g nCR ' CR
.. A' = h  z'
WtW W W
H' = £  £'
w'FUEL w FUEL
_' = h  z'
w ' FUEL w FUEL
E89
D238I0002'I i
l
w' NF w i
,
r,w,_
= h
w
 ZNF
' _,,,,lii'_ + w'w/_ tI't_,2",,
+ ,,_z,_,_
It
(w,FUI_L) .,2 ) .7
_(w)
YY = _(w'w)
yyo + _yyo w' NF/g (_w',zN_' + "w'NF l
IX % XXo 
E90
197701615(
D238I0002I
i APPENDIX F
l
°
. .
• °
Q°
 FI
I F
! i
D238100021 'i ,¢
INPUT DATA
PAGE NO. QUANTITY VALUE UNITS _
K6r 1.0  I
i J
_A 20.0 rad/sec
1.0  L
K_s 1.0  I
_L 35.5 rad/sec
_' 0.18 
i0 
K6B " i
K6' 0.0 
K_ 3.33 deg/inch
e
Schedule A to be determined _ ,
;' S l,
II C II
II D II
" E "  :
II F II
II H II
" I " ._
" d "
II D II _w
F2
r , i i
D238I0002I : /'
{ WDTIND 0.0 
I
L SHP* 4120.0 HP
[
L WMAX/W* 1.0  ,
NIIND 0.0 
L NIMAx/N _ 1.0 
i NI8 IND i. 0 
QIND 1.0 
QMAX/Q* 1.0 
G1 2.5 deg/sec/rad/sec
i G2 2.66 deg/rad/sec ,
0.05 deg/sec/deg
_ I 150378.0 slugft 2
 P 
I _.. _ i.0 
I i
! :
! ""
t " F3
:t
D238I0002I _
"
fl B
C 
II _ i _
" D "
" F
E " i _ !
" H "
mf 1397.5 slugs l
£f 0.091288 ft
mw 560.82 slugs I i
9w 0.83235 ft
m 2323.27 slugs
£ 7.4 ft I
mN 182.48 slugs
0.0 deg
E18 hf 7.0896 ft
h 0.10271 ft i
W
YWAC 17.51 ft
XWA c 1.4167 ft
YN 36.55 ft
Ls 8.5 ft
I
F4
D238I000211 _ "_
i PAGE NO. QUANTITY VALUE UNITS
XHT 49.33 ft
i ZVT 5.25 ft _ ,
XVT 40.4167 ft _
I ,
_ 4
! A 2485.0 ft _
i _: hp 0 .54 ft
i D 56.25 ft
E25 cw 10.23 ft
Sw 747.5 ft 2
• 62 22.22906 deg
.. a8 2.437137 
I
a9 0.20607 deg 
63 29.786 deg
I F5
'.', _. ,  L
I,
D238I0002I
I
PAGE NO. QU_TITY VALUE UNITS _ "_
65 30.0 deg 1
a31 0.03105 
II
6_pl 30.0 deg
bo 0.000088247 deg I I
bI 0.000008596 deg 2
F1 1.003412 
F3 0.002168 deg 2
64 20.1665 deg _
F4 0.756323 
F5 0.185684 deg I I_ I
F6 0.002159 deg 2 :
ao 14.0 deg I
aI 0.07  [
_i 30.0 deg _ ?
F6
Ix _ _ I I[
L
_ 
D238I0002I
[ pAGE
No QUANTITY
a2
VA_E
11.9
UNITS
deg
L a3 15.0 deg
)
? I a4 0.06 
I a5 16.8 deg
'L
[ a6 0.0888 
_. b5 0.010154 deg I
 b6 0.000081 deg 2
• i. F7
D238I0002I _ .
bw 73.1 ft
K_ l.o  
_AC 17.51 ft
E38 fe 220.0 ft 2 :
Xe/2 u i.1408 ft 1 !
KD!T o. o  I
KD2 0.0 
T
KD3
T 0.05  I
K M1 0.0 
I
I
_ '_  ° I_ ' _I '
_ D238I0002I _
it . PAGE NO. QUANTITY VALUE UNITS "
i
_I E42 Eo See page A26 deg
.
i L de/de See page A26 deg/deg _
L IHT 0 deg
&
_. CDOHT 0.00734 
; ARvT 1. 536
L SHT 227.5 ft 2
nVT 1.0 
Ii SVT 278.0 ft _
.
L " "
D238I0002]
]
PAGE NO. QUANTITY VALUE UNITS 1
K30
K31
for
CDO N
_N>.5236 rad
0.001908
0.061849
.102244


....
l
l
I
" K30 0.271593  I
K_7 oo  !
J
CNoRN 0.o  .
K38 0.001206  I
J
"
l
I
F10
&
lb.*
[
D238I0002_I
! i
j E54 XGI 7.41 ft
l XG2 7.41 ft
i XG3 33.33 ft
YGI 7.33 ft j
,I YG2 7 .33 ft
YG3 0.0 ft
i ZGI 13.5 ft
ZG2 13.5 ft
L 14.0 ft
ZG3
i rI 1.375 ft
r2 1.375 ft
i r3 1.0 ft
_o
' I F11
o
D238I0002I
Ko 65.14 rad
K2 0.4 rad2 I
K1 0.00553 rad I
K3 1.26 rad I
K4 0.0 rad 2 I
K8 0.0987 rad2 I
CM0 F 0.00455  ,
K5 1.432 rad I I
K6 0.494 rad 2
XFA C 1.4167 ft
[
E60 T1 0.2434 rad I ,
T2 0.483 tad 2
T3 0.5208 tad 3
R 28.125 ft
F12
D238I0002I o
i F13
6"
IO
PAGE NO. QUANTITY VALUE UNITS
I
E65 DpMI .002 degi l
DpM 2 .00072556 deg I
_o 19.1637 rad/sec I
!
E67 DyM 1 .0025 deg I J
F14
I D238I0002I :
. .
EyM 5 0. 0004702 deg I '
fpM L i. 0 
o .
E72 KW 1 3.707xi0 5 ft/lb
F15
I 1 I
D238I0002I
KW 5
_4 4.66xi0 3 slugs ft/ib
KW 8
2.37xi0 5 ft/Ib
KW9 2.94xi0 3 slugs ft/ib
CL 4.1832 rad I _,
C1 0.0352 
C2 0.010154 deg I
C3 0.000081 deg2 I
F16
I
"_ 5238100021
I F17
F18
o y  .  I I 4
L
t
• °
D238I0002I
• o
2800 I II '
MAX 2660
EMERGENCY °
OVERTRAVE
2200 /
2000
1800 ( FLIGHT
IDLE
SCHEDULE A
1600, ...
Q 2 4 6 8 i0
THROTTLE TRAVEL  INCHES
. F19
"_ ' I L
1
D238I0002I
1
] L
3.0 J '
oU  ,
2.0 SCHEDULE D
H :
_.0
ul / 1
_ S,5
0
i 0 1000 3000 4000 5000
ASHP
o8 I I
 " :
< •7 SCHEDULE B  _
o ', 1
,T
• 4 i i ii i
F20
D238I0002I _
_ 1.4 '' i
tJ
tl]
s 1.2
CD
_'l.o
Z
Z
0
U 
.8 SCHEDULE C
° ,...
Z
al .6
U
.4
.2
, ,,
w
" F21
• ,, P ....
%._....
/
f
D238I0002.I i
+i0 ]
H
I +5
"4 SCHEDULE
I H
_, o
o 50 1oo 15o 200 2so ioo 3so
V (AIRSPEED) KNOTS
_=
o,_
v, t9
Ill
0
0 I0 20 30
.,
40 50 60 70 80 90 i00 ii0

NACELLE INCIDENCE  DEG (iN PEP) I
40 ;_
I °
= _ _
Ci [,i,]
20 _
I
_
_
_ _'__""_
SCHEDULE i
I
i,_l_ _
.... 11'
0 I0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 I00 ll0 I
• t
Z ul 16 i "
u_l.2
O _ _ .8 __""
_ I I
i
_ _ m_ .4i _1 I
o scHEDULE
E 
.....
0 I0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ii0 7
I
NACELLE INCIDENCE DEG ._
F22
},i
238100021 I ,_
/ I
li_o" ]
3o"
m i 'r /
'_ i 4 I
_ /. ° 1
/ \
"2 / ......
F24
I'
l
"
L D238I0002I
i*
q
i.
J
&..
. .
1.05
i t_
• i .04 " 
""
""
': or HT
a(__) 1.03 _ ...... i
;
i
•i I
i
1.02 \
..
i \ __
\ / TAIL ',
, \I I
1 .oi
_o
i _
0
HEIGHT
20
ABOVE GROUND
40
(hwc/4
60
or htc/4)
80
FEET
10C
,
ti
I VARIATION OF LIFT CURVE SLOPE WITH HEIGHT ABOVE GROUhq3
:
• I F25
?
1
..... I !
L 7
D238I0002I i
t
3.0 : i
I
I__c__ _ _ ' _
i I
1.0 / I
0.000586o_f + 0.05485_f + 0.326081 0°_<_f<30 _
0.0
0 i0 20 30 40 50 6C 90
0.3 I
SLOPE
i ,
0.2 _ !
t
_o__
:o.ooooo5_}
. o.ooo72_
_f+ o.2o3 I
O.l 
!
0.0 _
1
0 i0 20 30 40 50 60 76
DOWNWASH FUNCTIONS _ CT = 0, i = 2
F26 {