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The Newtonian chirp waveform

Two back holes of masses m1 and m2 are supposed to be orbiting each other while
emitting radiation (and energy) in the form of gravitational waves. The emitted
gravitational waveform is characterized by both the amplitude and the phase
increasing with time giving rise to a 'chirp' waveform.

The problem can be treated perturbatively when the distance of separation is large
and we only consider the leading order terms. This is referred to as a 'Newtonian
chirp' and this is what we shall consider for the remainder of the exercise.

The Newtonian chirp can be represented as,

h(t)=A(t)cosϕ(t)

where the amplitude depends on a particular combination of masses called the chirp
mass M (=(m1m2)3/5(m1+m2)1/5), the instantaneous frequency F(t), the luminosity
distance to the source D and C, a geometric factor which we will take as 1.

A(t)=4CM5/3π2/3F(t)2/3D

The frequency of evolution is given by,

F(t)=(MF90)1/8[(MF0)1/3−256F30M2π8/3t/5]3/8

Here F0 is the starting frequency and the approximation breaks down at the
coalescence time tc,

tc=5256(πF0)8/3M5/3

The phase of the signal is expressed as,

ϕ(t)=ϕ0−2(1256(πMF0)8/3−t5M)5/8

The chirp mass is usually measured in solar masses which is 4.92549095×10−6s.

A sample chirp signal with chirp mass 10M⊙


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Generating the data


To generate the data we will make use of Numpy's random number generator to
generate normal noise.

We do this by first finding out the maximum of the amplitude of the chirp waveform
and then using np.random.normal to generate noise having maximum possible amplitude
equal to the maximum amplitude of the chirp signal.

We then add the chirp signal to the noise at some position and this constitutes our
sample data. We will now perform analysis on this to recover one of the parameters
of the signal (here, the chirp mass).

The generated data with our signal hidden in normal noise.

Matched filtering
For a signal buried in stationary Gaussian, white noise, we use matched filtering
which involves cross-correlating the data with a template of the signal. The
correlation function between the data time series x(t)
and the template h(t)
is given by,

R(τ)=∫∞−∞x(t)h^⋆(t−τ)dt

where ⋆ denotes complex conjugation and h^(t)=h(t)/||h||, where,

||h||2=∫tc0|h(t)|2/σ2dt

The parameters, C=1, D=150, F0=40.0 and ϕ0=0 are given. We are only required to
find the chirp mass of the signal hidden in the data.