Anda di halaman 1dari 25

QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM

FOR THE PLANT FABRICATION OF STRUCTURAL STEELWORKS

Table of Contents

GENERAL

  • 1. ..................................................................................................

3

PURPOSE

  • 2. ..................................................................................................

3

  • 3. SCOPE .......................................................................................................

3

  • 4. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

..........................................................................

3

  • 5. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

 

3

 

5.1.

CONTROL OF DOCUMENTS

4

6.

PROCESS MANAGEMENT

...........................................................................

4

  • 6.1. RECEPTION OF MATERIALS

 

4

  • 6.2. TRACEABILITY OF STEEL

4

  • 6.3. MARKING STEELWORK

4

  • 6.4. .............................................................................................

HANDLING

5

  • 6.5. VERIFICATION.......................................................................

PRODUCT

5

  • 6.6. STORAGE, LOADING AND SHIPPING

 

5

7.

FABRICATION ...........................................................................................

5

  • 7.1. SURFACE CLEANING

 

7

  • 7.2. FLAME CUTTING

....................................................................................

7

  • 7.3. PUNCHING AND DRILLING

 

7

  • 7.4. FITTING AND REAMING

7

  • 7.5. WELDING ...............................................................................................

8

  • 7.6. MOCK UP ASSEMBLY

 

8

  • 7.7. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT

8

8.

WELDED CONNECTION

9

  • 8.1. WELDING PROCEDURE

 

9

 
  • 8.1.1. PREPARATION OF PROCEDURE

........................................................

9

  • 8.1.2. APPROVAL OF PROCEDURES AND PROCEDURE TESTS

9

  • 8.1.3. AVAILABILITY OF WELDING PROCEDURE SHEETS

9

  • 8.2. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF WELDS

 

9

  • 8.2.1. RECORD OF TESTING

9

  • 8.2.2. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WELDS

9

  • 8.2.3. SURFACE FLAW DETECTION

10

  • 8.2.4. ULTRASONIC

EXAMINATION

10

  • 8.2.5. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND CORRECTIVE ACTION

10

9. ACCURACY OF FABRICATION

14

9.1. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS

15

  • 9.1.1. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS IN ROLLED COMPONENTS AFTER FABRICATION

..................................................................................................

15

  • 9.1.2. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS FOR ELEMENTS OF FABRICATED MEMBERS 16

  • 9.1.3. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS IN PLATE GIRDER SECTIONS

17

  • 10. NON CONFORMANCE PROCEDURE .........................................................

19

  • 11. DOCUMENTATION

19

  • 12. ANNEX A

...............................................................................................

20

  • 12.1. WELDER CERTIFICATION ...................................................................

20

  • 12.2. ANNEX B WELDING INSPECTOR ACCREDITATION

21

  • 12.3. WORK INSPECTION REQUEST (WIR)

22

  • 12.4. STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATION CHECKLIS

23

  • 12.5. NON CONFORMANCE REPORT

24

1.

GENERAL

This document consist of processes and operations to provide assurance that finished steelworks shall conform to the Project Specification in accordance with the requirements of this guideline.

  • 2. PURPOSE

The purpose of this document is to ensure that fabrications are carried out according to specifications and in a safe manner.

  • 3. SCOPE

This document covers the processes and quality control in the fabrication of steel structures requirements for the following buildings:

  • a) BAF

  • b) DAF

  • c) Sludge

  • d) Genset

  • e) Chemical Building 1

  • f) Chemical Building 2

  • 4. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

    • a) AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code, 2015 Edition Steel

    • b) ASTM E-165 Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination, 2004 Edition.

    • c) ASTM E-164 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments, 1997 Ed.

    • d) Sec. 6 “Shop Fabrication and Delivery”, June 15, 2016, Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges

  • 5. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

  • The quality control guidelines as presented in the subsequent part of this document shall be in place in identifying all materials and workmanship from procurement to delivery and subsequent incorporation into the works. It is essential that monitoring shall be carried out to ensure performance of materials and workmanship incorporated into the final works is not inferior to those specified in the design.

    5.1.

    CONTROL OF DOCUMENTS

    The following documents shall be establish and maintain procedures for approval, issue, and data required for the operation of the quality control. Required documentation shall include, but may not be limited to, the following:

    • a) Contract drawings, shop drawings and specifications

    • b) Welding documentation

    • c) Purchase orders

    • d) Delivery Receipt

    • e) Mill Test Certificates

    • f) Applicable work inspection and test records

    • g) Calibration records for measuring and inspection equipment

    • h) Non-conformity, corrective action, and preventive action reports

    All records required by the contract documents shall be available for review by the Client or his representative.

    6. PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    • 6.1. RECEPTION OF MATERIALS

    Incoming materials shall be matched against delivery receipt and purchase orders. The

    materials shall also be checked if it is comply with the following criterion:

    • a. Size: conformance to dimensional tolerances

    • b. Surface condition: the material has no defects

    • c. Material grade : conformance to A36 steel

    Material shall not be used or processed until it has been complied with the above criterion and approved for use

    • 6.2. TRACEABILITY OF STEEL

    All materials delivered shall be check and verify its material specification prior to incorporate into the work.

    All steel to be used in the Works shall have a mill test certificate. Where individual pieces, lots, and batches are restocked, the identification system shall be maintained.

    The material grades of all steel shall bear an identifiable markings of “S36S”, in corresponding to its material specification.

    • 6.3. MARKING STEELWORK

    Individual pieces shall be capable of positive identification at all stages of fabrication.

    Completed components shall be marked with a durable and distinguish fabrication mark in such a way as not to damage the material. Hard stamping may be used, except where otherwise specified by the Engineer.

    Where areas of steelwork are indicated on the drawings as being unmarked, they shall be left free of all markings and hard stamping.

    • 6.4. HANDLING

    Steelwork shall be bundled, packed, handled and transported in a safe manner so that permanent distortion does not occur and surface damage is minimized.

    • 6.5. PRODUCT VERIFICATION

    The AJF representative shall verify conformance to the contract documents.

    The AJF shall define inspection points and inspection record requirements to verify conformance to the contract documents, including the following:

    • a) Examination of material for size, conformance to dimensional tolerances, and surface condition or defects,

    • b) Examination of assemblies for overall dimensions, and location and orientation of holes and detail components,

    • c) Verification that welding is carried out in accordance with the company's welding standards. This includes visual examination of completed weldments,

    • d) Examination of surface preparation and coating including coating rhickness.

    Any additional inspection requirements noted in the Contract Documents shall be identified and implemented.

    AJF shall provide access to and cooperation with the Clients' designated representative for inspection of the work as required. Unless specific provisions are included in the contract documents, such inspections shall be scheduled so as not to impede the progress of production.

    The AJF shall ensure that all verification has been performed in conformance with contract requirements and this document.

    • 6.6. STORAGE, LOADING AND SHIPPING

    AJF shall maintain procedures to ensure that all items are properly prepared, handled, and/or packaged for storage and shipping to prevent damage to product.

    7. FABRICATION

    The fabrication of structural steel shall be carried out in a fabrication plant, this allows the fabricated steelworks and its components in precise and of assured quality.

    Generally, the structural steel passes through a series of operation during the course of its fabrication. The sequence of activities in fabricating the structural steels are shown in the flowchart below.

    FABRICATION PROCEDURE FLOW CHART

    Person in charge:

    Plant’s QC Inspector

    Warehouseman

     

    Person in charge:

    Plant’s QC Inspector

    Foreman

    Skilled Worker

     

    Person in charge:

    Plant’s QC Inspector

    Foreman

    Welder

    Skilled Worker

     

    Person in charge:

    Plant’s QC Inspector

    Foreman

    Painter

    Skilled Worker

     

    Person in charge:

    Plant’s QC Inspector

    Warehouseman

    Foreman

     
    Start
    Start
    Return to Material Inspection NCR Supplier Rejected Accepted Surface Cleaning NCR Accepted Rejected Flame Cutting NCR
    Return to
    Material Inspection
    NCR
    Supplier
    Rejected
    Accepted
    Surface Cleaning
    NCR
    Accepted
    Rejected
    Flame Cutting
    NCR
    Punching and Drilling
    NCR
    Accepted
    Test and
    Fitting and Reaming
    NCR
    Full Trace
    Accepted
    Rejected
    Welding
    NCR
    Accepted
    Rejected
    Mock up Assembly
    NCR
    Accepted
    Rejected
    Protective Treatment
    NCR
    Accepted
    Packing and Delivery
    Rejected
    Rejected
    End
    End

    The sequence and importance of operation will vary depending on the type of fabrication required. All these operation are explained briefly in the subsequent parts of the Section.

    7.1.

    SURFACE CLEANING

    Structural sections from the rolling mills may require surface cleaning to remove mill scale prior to fabrication and painting. Surface cleaning shall be carried out using blast cleaning or sand blasting. The method employs the abrasive action of particles that are projected on to the surface of the steel at high speed by centrifugal impeller to remove rust, and roughen the surface before applying the coating.

    By using shot or slag grits, both of which have an angular profile, surface oxides are removed and a rougher surface is obtained to provide an adequate key for metal spraying or special paint.

    • 7.2. FLAME CUTTING

    Cutting and shaping of steel shall be carried by flame cutting or burning. In this method, the steel is heated locally by a pressurised mixture of oxygen and a combustible gas such as propane, which passes through a ring of small holes in a cutting nozzle. The heat is focussed on to a very narrow band and the steel melts at 15000°C when a jet of high-pressure oxygen is released through a separate hole in the centre of the nozzle to blast away the molten metal in globules. The desired cuts are obtained quickly by this process. However due to a rapid thermal cycle of heating and cooling, residual stresses and distortion are induced and hence structural sections that are fabricated using flame cutting are treated specially in the design of structural steelwork.

    Flame-cut edges which are free from significant irregularities shall be accepted without further treatment except for the removal of dross, otherwise cut edges shall be dressed to remove irregularities.

    • 7.3. PUNCHING AND DRILLING

    Although most of fabrication shops have a wide range of machines, which can form holes for connection in structural steel works. The punching and drilling of holes will be done using traditional drilling machine is the radial drill, a manually operated machine, which drills individual holes in structural steelwork.

    In this method, a pin or center punch and hammer to create a small dimple on to the steel surface where the hole is mark. This gives the tip of your drill bit a place to ride in as you begin to drill and to avoid the tendency to wander when you first start drilling.

    Start drilling hole using the manual drilling machine with a smaller bit and drilling successively larger holes with your drill bit until you reach the desired diameter of hole.

    For drilling holes larger than 6 mm, a cutting fluid is usually used in lubricating bit to reduce friction and heat buildup, which makes drilling easier and your bits last longer.

    • 7.4. FITTING AND REAMING

    Before final assembly, the component parts of a member are fitted-up temporarily with bolts or small amount of welds. The fitting-up operation includes attachment of

    previously omitted splice plates and other fittings and the correction of minor defects found by the inspector.

    In bolted work, especially when done manually, some holes in the connecting material may not always be in perfect alignment and small amount of reaming may be required to permit insertion of fasteners. In this operation, the holes are punched, 4 to 6 mm smaller than final size, then after the pieces are assembled, the holes are reamed by electric or pneumatic reamers to the correct diameter, to produce well matched holes.

    • 7.5. WELDING

    The strength of the entire structure depends upon the proper use of fastening methods. The assemble components is fastened by welding of connection. Welding is the most common method of shop fabrication of steel structures. In addition to being simple to fabricate, welded connection considerably reduce the size of the joint and the additional fixtures and plates

    Welding shall be a metal arc process using in accordance with AWS D1.1 as appropriate, together with other clauses contained in this section, unless otherwise specifically permitted by the Client.

    Welding consumables used shall be chosen to ensure that the mechanical properties of the weld metal are not less than those required for the parent metal.

    • 7.6. MOCK UP ASSEMBLY

    It is necessary to have the fabricated units temporarily assembled at the place of fabrication before these are dispatched to site for erection. During this operation, the overall dimensions of the structure including alignment, squareness, camber etc. should be confirmed. Inadequate or erroneous camber, in fact, introduces huge secondary stresses in the members instead of eliminating these as originally desired. Shop assembly also ensures that the open holes drilled in various units are within tolerable limits.

    The assembly shall be accepted with the Client or his representative before it is prepared for paint application.

    • 7.7. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT

    Painting is the principal method of protecting structural steelwork from corrosion. Paints are usually applied one coat on top of another, each coat having a specific function or use.

    The primer is applied directly on to the cleaned steel surface. Its purpose is to wet the surface and to provide good adhesion for subsequently applied coats. Primers for steel surfaces are also usually required to provide corrosion inhibition.

    The intermediate coats are applied to build the total film thickness of the system. This may involve application of several coats. The finishing coats provide the first-line defence against the environment and also determine the final appearance in terms of gloss, color, etc.

    The procedure for the application of coating is listed below:

    COATING APPLICATION PROCEDURE

    • a) Surface preparation using sand blasting

    • b) Application of one coat epoxy primer using airless spray

    • c) Measurement of Wet Film Thickness (WFT) using wet film gauge

    • d) Curing and drying for 2-3 hours before application of succeeding coating.

    • e) Application of two (2) coats of epoxy coating using airless spray

    • f) Measurement of Wet Film Thickness (WFT) using wet film gauge for each application.

    • g) Curing and drying for 2-3 hours before application of top coats.

    • h) Measurement of Dry Film Thickness (DFT) using dry film thickness gauge after seven (7) days of curing.

    The paint coating and its application procedure as listed above shall be depends upon the approved paint material.

    8. WELDED CONNECTION

    • 8.1. WELDING PROCEDURE

      • 8.1.1. PREPARATION OF PROCEDURE

    Approved written welding procedures shall be available prior to the commencement of any welding works.

    • 8.1.2. APPROVAL OF PROCEDURES AND PROCEDURE TESTS

    Procedures

    and

    tests

    shall

    reprepresentative.

    be

    approved

    by

    the

    Client

    or

    his

    • 8.1.3. AVAILABILITY OF WELDING PROCEDURE SHEETS

    Welding Procedure sheets shall be made available to the welder prior to the commencement of the work and shall be available to the Client and Inspector on request.

    • 8.2. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF WELDS

      • 8.2.1. RECORD OF TESTING

    The test results shall be recorded and be available for inspection by the Client.

    • 8.2.2. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WELDS

    Visual inspection shall be made in accordance with guidance given in Sec. 6 Inspection of AWS D1.1 over the full length of the weld and before NDT

    inspection is performed (see Tables 1.0 and 2.0). Any welds which will be rendered inaccessible by subsequent work shall be examined in accordance with Tables 1.0 and 2.0 prior to the loss of access.

    • 8.2.3. SURFACE FLAW DETECTION

    Surface flaw detection using liquid penetration test (using dye-penetrant) shall be conducted in all weld surface as required by Table 2.0.The liquid penetration test shall be conducted in accordance to the method presented in Sec. 6.11 NDT of AWS D1.1.

    • 8.2.4. ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION

    The ultrasonic examination shall be conducted in the 10% of total welded joints. The examination shall be carried out in accordance with Tables 1.0 and 2.0 it shall be made in accordance with Sec. 9.28 UT of AWS D1.1. Examination shall be carried out not less than 16 hours from the time of completion of the weld to be inspected.

    Operators carrying out final ultrasonic examination of the weld shall hold a current certificate of competence from a nationally recognised authority.

    • 8.2.5. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND CORRECTIVE ACTION

    Acceptance criteria, corrective action and re-testing shall be in accordance with Table 2.0 for components subject to static loading.

    Table 1.0 Welds - Scope of Inspection

    An excerpt of the requirements of Sec. 6 Inspection of AWS D1.1, 23 rd ed, 2015 is shown in the table below. This shall not preclude the use of Non- Destructive Testing outside the limits shown should the results of visual inspection or NDT indicate that a lapse in quality may have occurred in specific joints

    PART A.

    VISUAL INSPECTION

     

    Prior to Non -Destructive Testing all welds to be visually inspected by a suitably qualified person

     

    PART B.

    THICKNESS WHEN NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING BECOMES MANDATORY

     

    (all dimensions in mm)

     

    Weld Type

    Butt (full, partial penetration and with reinforcing fillets)

     

    Joint Type

    In-line

    Tee and Cruciform

    Corner

           

    Double

     

    sided

    Procedures

    Single sided

    Double sided

    and single

    sided plus

    backing

    Single sided

    and

    single

    sided

    plus

    All

    backing

    Examples

             

    Design Grade

    Design Grade
    Design Grade
    Design Grade
    Design Grade
    Design Grade

    U/S

    43/50

     

    t max ≤ 10

    1max ≤ 12

    1max ≤ 12

    1max < 30

    1max ≤ 30

    55

     

    t max ≤ 10

    1max ≤ 10

    1max ≤ 10

    1max ≤ 20

    1max ≤ 20

    Notation

    U/S

    - Ultrasonic Examination

    -

     

    <

    - Less than

    <

    Less than or equal to

     

    Weld Type

    Fillet

     

    Joint Type

    Lap

    Tee and Cruciform

     

    Procedures

    All

    All

    Examples

       

    Design Grade

    Design Grade
    Design Grade

    U/S

    43/50

     

    Not Mandatory

     

    t max

    ≤ 20

    55

     

    Not Mandatory

     

    t max ≤ 15

     
     

    Notation

    U/S - Ultrasonic Examination -

    <

     

    <

    -

    Less than Less than or equal to

    PART C

     
     

    Zones

     

    FREQUENCY OF TESTING OF JOINTS IDENTIFIED IN PART B

       

    First 5 identified joints of each type having same basic dimensions, material grades and weld geometry and welded to the same

    Connection

    Shop Welds

     

    procedures.

    Thereafter 1 in 5 joints of each type ( if the first 5 have complied with Table 2.0 )

    Site Welds

    All identified joints

       

    Traverse butts in web and flange plates

    As for shop welds in

    Member Zones

    Built up Members

    before assembly Transverse fillet welds at ends of

    Connection Zones

    cover plates

    Longitudinal welds

    0.5 m in each 10 m or part thereof

    Note:

    Where only partial inspection is required the joints for testing shall be selected on a random basis, but ensuring that

    sampling covers the following variables as widely as possible: Joint Type, Material Grade and Welding Equipment.

    DEFINITION OF ZONES AND WELD ORIENTATIONS Notation U/S < < - Ultrasonic Examination - Less than
    DEFINITION OF ZONES AND WELD ORIENTATIONS
    Notation
    U/S
    <
    <
    - Ultrasonic Examination
    - Less than
    Less than or equal to
    -
    Table 2.0 Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions
           

    ACCEPTANCE

     

    REMEDIAL

    REQUIREMENTS

    ACTION FOR

    PARAMETER

    WELD

    PARTICULAR

    (all dimensions in mm)

    NON-

    TYPE

    CONDITIONS

       

    CONFORMING

     

    (see Note 1 and 5 )

    Fig

    WELDS

    (see Note 2)

     

    WELD GEOMETRY

     

    Location

    All

           

    Weld Type

    All

     

    As specified on drawings As specified on drawings

     

    Repair Refer to Engineer

    Length

    All

     

    As specified on

     

    Repair

    drawings

     
     

    PROFILE

     
     

    Butt

     

    tb

    ≥ As drawing

    b,c

    Repair

    Throat

    (Av.50)

     
           

    Repair or grind

    Thickness

    Fillet

    1f

    ≥ As drawing

    a

    and MPI after

     

    grinding

    Leg Length

    Fillet

     

    1f

    ≥ As drawing

    a

     

    Toe Angle

    All

       

    θ

    90°

    a

    Repair Grind and MPI after grinding

    Cap/Root Bead

             

    (Height or

    Butt

    Butt Joint

    -1

    Cb

    4

    b

    Repair or grind

    concavity)

     
         

    m

    As drawing +

       

    Butt

    Butt Joint

    0.25t ≤

    As drawing

    d

    Refer to engineer

    Misalignment

     

    + 3

       

    m

    As drawing +

       
     

    All

    Cruciform Joint

    0.50t and

    As

    e

     

    drawing + 6

    SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES

     
       

    Longitudinal Weld

     

    U1+ U2

    0.1t

     

    D,e

    Repair

    Undercut

    All

    (Av.100) And ≤

    2

    D,e

    Transverse Weld

     

    U1+ U2

     

    0.05t

     

    D,e

     
       

    (Av.100) And

     

    1

    D,e

           

    rp ≤

    As

       

    Repair and double

    Single

    Longitudinal Weld

    drawing+0.1t(Av.1c00)

     

    c

    scope of

    Root

    Sided

    and

    As drawing

    Ultrasonic

    Penetration

       

    +3

    inspection

    (lack of)

       

    rp

    As

       

    (lack of)

    Transverse Weld

    drawing+0.05t(Av.100)

    and

    As drawing

    c

    if root is

    inaccessible

    Butt

     

    +2

       

    All Welds

     

    d

    3

    F

     

    Porosity

    All

    Longitudinal Weld

    ∑d

    ≤ 20 in 100 (length)

    F

    Repair

       

    ∑ d

    10 in 100

     

    f

       

    Transverse Weld

     

    (length)

       

    Lack of Fusion and Cracks

    All

       

    Not Permitted

       

    Repair and increase MPI to 100% (Note 4)

         

    H ≤

    3 + As drawing

     

    1

    e,g

     

    Slag Lines and

    Lack of

    Penetration

    All Welds

    10

    ) if h` <

     

    6

    1`

    g

     

    10

    )

    g

    Repair and double

    All

       

    Σ1

    6t

    in 200

       

    scope of U/S

    Fusion/Root

    Longitudinal Weld

     

    (length)

     

    g

    Inspection

       

    Σ1

    3t

    in 200

       
     

    Transverse Weld

     

    (length)

     

    g

     

    Fillet or

    Tee, Cruciform,

       

    Repair and double

    Root Gap

    Partial

    rg

    2(Av 100 ) and

    3

     

    a,e

    Pen

    Corner and Lap

     

    a,e

    scope of U/S

     

    Butt

    Joints

     

    Inspection

             

    Repair and

    Cracks

    All

     

    Not permitted

     

    increase U/S

    Inspection to

         

    100%

    Lamellar Tears

    All

    Tee, Cruciform, Corner and Lap

    Not Permitted (Note 3)

       

    Refer to Engineer and increase U/S Inspection to

    Joints

     

    100%

    DIMENSIONAL SYMBOLS DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENTS

    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
     
    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
    Longitudinal Weld U1+ U2 ≤ 0.1t D,e Repair Undercut All (Av.100) And ≤ 2 D,e Transverse
     
    Notes: 1. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are
    Notes: 1. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are

    Notes:

    • 1. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are peak values unless indicated as average

    • 2. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the joint type in question.

    • 3. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.

    • 4. All welds to the same procedure.

     
    • 5. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length

    • 6. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are peak values unless indicated as average

    • 7. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the joint type in question.

    • 8. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.

    • 9. All welds to the same procedure.

     
    • 10. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length

    • 11. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are peak values unless indicated as average

    • 12. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the joint type in question.

    • 13. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.

    • 14. All welds to the same procedure.

     
    • 15. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length

    • 16. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply All limits are peak values unless indicated as average

    • 17. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the joint type in question.

    • 18. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.

    • 19. All welds to the same procedure.

     
    • 20. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length

     

    Equal or greater than

    Equal or less than

    Σ

    Sum of

    9. ACCURACY OF FABRICATION

    This section deals with the accuracy of fabrication of structural steel sections.

    9.1. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS

    9.1.1. Permitted Deviations In Rolled Components After Fabrication

    Permitted deviations in rolled components after fabrication given in Table

    3.0

    Table 3.0

    Permitted Deviations in Rolled Components after Fabrication

    Item

     

    Component

       

    Deviation

     

    1

    Cross Section after Fabrication

     

    In accordance

    with

    the

    tolerances

     

    specified in AISC as appropriate.

     

    2

    Squareness of Ends Not Prepared for Bearing

    2 Squareness of Ends Not Prepared for Bearing

    Plan or Elevation of End

     

    3

    Squareness of Ends Prepared for Bearing

    3 Squareness of Ends Prepared for Bearing

    Plan or Elevation

     

    4

    Straightness on Both Axes

     
    4 Straightness on Both Axes
     

    Δ = L/1000 or 3mm whichever is the

    greater

    5

    Length

     

    Length after cutting, measured on the centre line of the section of angles.

    Length after cutting, measured on the centre line of the section of angles.

    6

    Curved or Cambered

     
    6 Curved or Cambered
     

    Deviation

    from

    intended

    curve

    or

    camber

    at

    mid-length

    of

    curved

    portion

    when

    measured

    with

    web

    horizontal.

     
     

    Deviation

    =

    L/1000

    or

    6mm

    whichever is greater

     

    9.1.2. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS FOR ELEMENTS OF FABRICATED MEMBERS

    Permitted deviations for elements of fabricated members are given in Table

    4.0

    Table 4.0

    Permitted Deviations for Elements of Fabricated Members

    Item

    Component

     

    Deviation

    1

    Position of Fittings

       

    Fittings and components whose

    F ittings and components whose

    location is crucial to the force path in the structure, the deviation from the

    intended position shall not exceed Δ.

     

    2

    Position of Holes

     
    2 Position of Holes

    The

    deviation

    from

    the

    intended

    position of an isolated

    hole, also

    a

    group of holes, relative to each other

    shall not exceed Δ

     

    3

    Punched Holes

       

    The distortion caused by a punched

    Δ = D/10 or 1mm whichever is the

    Δ = D/10 or 1mm whichever is the

    hole shall not exceed Δ

     
     

    greater

    4

    Sheared or Cropped Plates or Angle

    Edges

    of

    4 Sheared or Cropped Plates or Angle Edges of

    The deviation from a 90° edge shall

    not exceed Δ

     

    5

    5 Flatness

     
    5 5 Flatness

    Where

    bearing

    is

    specified, the

    flatness shall be such that when

    measured against a straight edge not

    exceeding one metre long, which

    is

    laid against the full bearing surface in

    any direction, the gap does not exceed

    Δ

     

    9.1.3. PERMITTED DEVIATIONS IN PLATE GIRDER SECTIONS

    Permitted deviations in plate girder sections are given in Table 5.0

    Table 5.0

    Permitted Deviations in Plate Girder Sections

    Item

    Component

    Deviation

    1

    Depth Depth on centre Line

    1 Depth Depth on centre Line
     

    2

    Flange Width

    2 Flange Width
     

    Width of B w or B n

    3

    Squareness of Section

    B Flange width

    Out of Squareness of Flanges.

    Out of Squareness of Flanges.
     

    Δ

    Δ=B/100

    or

    3mm

    whichever is greater

    4

    Web Eccentricity

    4 Web Eccentricity

    Intended position of web from one edge of flange.

    5

    Flanges

     

    B Flange width

    Out of flatness

     
    Out of flatness

    Δ = B/100 or 3mm whichever is the greater

    6

    Top Flange of Crane Girder

     

    w = Rail width + 20 mm

    Out of flatness where the rail seats.

    Out of flatness where the rail seats.

    7

    Length

     
    7 Length

    Length on centre line

     

    8

    Flange Straightness

       
    8 Flange Straightness

    Straightness of individual flanges

    Δ

    = L/1000

    or 3mm

    whichever is the

    greater

     

    9

    Curved or Cambered

       
    9 Curved or Cambered

    Deviation from intended

    curve or

    camber at mid-length of curved

    portion, when measured with the web horizontal.

    Deviation = l/1000 or 6mm whichever is the greater

    10

    Web Distortion

    gauge length = web depth

    gauge length = web depth

    Distortion on

    web

    depth or gauge

    length.

       

    Δ = d/150 or 3mm whichever is the

     

    greater

    11

    Cross Section at Bearings

     
    11 Cross Section at Bearings

    Squareness of flanges to web

    12

    Web Stiffeners

    12 Web Stiffeners

    Straightness of stiffener out of plane after welding.

    Δ = d/500 or 3mm

    whichever is greater

    13

    Web Stiffeners

    Δ = d/250 or 3mm whichever is greater

    Δ = d/250 or 3mm

    whichever is greater

    Straightness of stiffener after welding.

    in

    plane

     
    • 10. NON CONFORMANCE PROCEDURE

    All variations after the work has started shall be accompanied by a Non-Conformance Report (NCR), traceable throughout the entire process and signed off by the inspector.

    Please refer to Sec. 12.5 for the template of non-conformance report.

    • 11. DOCUMENTATION

    The inspector shall secure the following documents during the fabrication such as contract drawings, inspection report, fabrication checklist, mill certificates, detail and erection drawings, welding records, test report, and photos as required.

    12. ANNEX A 12.1. WELDER ACCREDITATION

    12.2. ANNEX B WELDING INSPECTOR ACCREDITATION

    12.3. WORK INSPECTION REQUEST (WIR)

    12.3. WORK INSPECTION REQUEST (WIR) PWTP2-QA-CR-CON-ARU-0392-B Quality Control System For the Plant Fabrication of Structural Steel

    12.4. STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATION CHECKLIS

    12.4. STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATION CHECKLIS PWTP2-QA-CR-CON-ARU-0392-B Quality Control System For the Plant Fabrication of Structural Steel

    12.5. NON CONFORMANCE REPORT

    12.5. NON CONFORMANCE REPORT NOTE: Photos of non-complying components and its rectified or rejected components shall

    NOTE:

    Photos of non-complying components and its rectified or rejected components shall be included on this document for proper documentation of this report.