Anda di halaman 1dari 26

AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 1

Would Americans be willing to change their buying habits in the garment industry if informed

about the conditions that factory workers in Southeastern Asian nations such as Bangladesh

endure?

Word count: ​4197


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 2

Abstract

In the years since the Industrial Revolution, textile production worldwide has increased in

massive amounts¹. In order for large, transnational apparel corporations to maximize their

profits, they outsource the manufacturing of the clothing they sell to countries in Southeastern

nations; 4.89% of the textile imports in the United States come from Bangladesh. Bangladeshi

government poorly enforces the minimal labor protections in place, allowing corporations to

exploit laborers for poor pay and unsafe working conditions. The unsafe conditions workers are

exposed to occur as a result of the massive demand from Americans for “fast fashion.” The

researcher sought to analyze the relationship between the awareness American citizens in North

Carolina had of the issues caused by their buying behavior, and their willingness to change their

buying behavior once informed of poor working conditions. In order to analyze this relationship,

participants in this study were presented with a survey wherein they were asked questions about

their current buying habits. They were then presented with facts on the state of the condition of

the garment industry and asked if they would be willing to alter their buying behavior after

reading the information. Sixty responses were collected, and 91.7% of participants responded

that they would be willing to purchase a garment that is ethically made in the United States after

reading the information presented to them. Responses to all other questions were analyzed for

their correlation; income levels were analyzed for their correlation to the response to the

aforementioned question, as well as the correlation between gender and their response.
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 3

Literature Review

I. Introduction

The days of knowing the name of one’s seamstress and visiting their shop whenever a

new garment was desired are long over. The knowledge that American people once had of where

their clothing came from is now nonexistent, as the local seamstress has been replaced by the

mass-producing apparel corporation. In the 1850s, when Isaac Sanger created the first sewing

machine, the process of garment creation was completely revolutionized; t​oday, the global

garment industry is valued at $1.2 trillion, with more than $250 billion spent in the U.S. alone

(World Trade Organization, 2013). As the mass production of garments has become easier for

companies to attain, the “fast fashion” phenomenon has become ever prevalent in the life of the

average American. “Fast fashion” can be defined as “an approach to the design, creation, and

marketing of clothing fashions that emphasizes making fashion trends quickly and cheaply

available to consumers” (Merriam Webster, 2017).

The massive size of the apparel industry has been on the rise since the creation of the

sewing machine as a result of increased demand for new, inexpensive, and trendy fashion. The

size of the apparel industry in the United States will continue to grow, with projections

estimating growth from 225 billion USD in 2012 to 285 billion USD in 2025 (Amed, Berg,

2016). Increased demand from consumers for seasonal apparel, which has created steady growth

in the American apparel industry, has also had consequences beyond what the consumer sees on

store shelves. In order to meet the unprecedented demand for garments while maximizing profits,

apparel corporations have resorted to outsourcing jobs in the production sector​ to countries
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 4

where there are few environmental regulations, and even fewer laws protecting laborers from

exploitation.

U.S. based multinational corporations have found a worthy trade partner in the

Southeastern Asian nation of Bangladesh. In the past decade, Bangladesh has risen to become the

country with the second highest amount of textile exports, following only China (Morgan, 2015).

In 2016, $5.9 billion in apparel goods were imported to the United States from Bangladesh

including woven apparel, knit apparel, miscellaneous textile articles, headgear, and footwear

(U.S. Trade Representative, 2016). For a large corporation, Bangladesh is the ideal place to

outsource apparel production. In female dominated Bangladeshi garment factories, women are

hesitant to unionize, because of their exclusion from the exclusively male trade union movement

in Bangladesh (Kibria, 1995). Factory owners also discourage the establishment of unions by

selecting “informers” who disclose which workers are conspiring towards unionization in

exchange for pay increases or promotion (Feldman, 1992). Women are also hesitant to unionize

for fear of layoffs in the factory. In addition, because the workforce of the ready-wear garment

industry is socioeconomically diverse, including middle and lower class rural women, cohesion

among workers is nearly nonexistent, inhibiting them from uniting for the purpose of creating a

union. Lack of labor unions in the Bangladeshi garment industry allow factory owners to persist

in their implementation of poor working conditions, as employees are inhibited from unionizing

to demand a safer workplace

The current minimum wage in Bangladesh is 3,000 taka, the equivalent of about $38

USD per month (NY Times, 2013). These conditions, although harmful for the well being of the

Bangladeshi laborer, are ideal for transnational corporations who are solely seeking the least
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 5

expensive way to produce their product in order to sell on the market, regardless of the cost on

workers. Bangladeshi textile workers work in unsafe environments, which are oftentimes

polluted by chemicals used in the process of dyeing and finishing clothes. This exposure to

unsafe conditions in the workplace negatively affects Bangladeshi workers, resulting in a myriad

of different unidentified skin ailments and respiratory problems (R. Sultana et al, 2012).

II. Impact on the Health of Bangladeshi Workers

As previously mentioned, the long and insufferable hours of work in combination with

exposure to numerous different chemicals while on the job creates health problems for

Bangladeshi workers. Occupational exposure to cotton dust, fibers, metal fumes and different

chemicals used in the apparel manufacturing industries cause a wide range of physical and

psychological health problems in the garment workers (R. Sultana et al, 2012). Because 90% of

Bangladeshi garment workers are women, when workers become pregnant, the exposure to

dangerous chemicals while on the job can also impact the fetus the woman may be carrying. Not

only does exposure have negative impacts on the woman and her unborn child, but the stress of

factory work also presents issues. A recent study found that pregnancy and the nature of the job,

including being pressured to meet the production quota, pressure to leave the job because of

pregnancy and withholding of maternity benefits, cause stress and may contribute to

hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for the woman (Akhter et al. 2017). These hypertensive

disorders may cause birth defects in the child or complications during childbirth.

III. Purpose

The cycle of dangerous working conditions facing Bangladeshi workers is sustained by

the buying behavior of American consumers. Consumer demands for new apparel creates the
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 6

need for outsourcing, which is why corporations export their production to nations, such as

Bangladesh, that poorly enforce laws meant to protect laborers. The purpose of this study is to

determine the extent to which the average consumer is cognizant of the effects of their buying

behavior in the garment market.

IV. Consumer Cynicism

A study published by the International Journal of Consumer Studies analyzed a behavior

called consumer cynicism, which is characterized by “a perception of a pervasive, systemic lack

of integrity in the marketplace and investigates how cynical consumers behave in the

marketplace” (Helm et al, 2015). Consumers in this category are likely to go out of their way to

punish and reward companies as part of their perceived role as marketplace shapers. They do this

through boycotting, socially conscious purchase decisions, retaliation against firms viewed as

harmful, and conscious efforts to make other consumers more aware. These consumers are aware

of the consequences of their buying behavior and take they action they believe is necessary in

order to change the consequences of their purchases. It is hypothesized that consumer cynics

would be the type of consumers to change their buying behavior in the garment market once

informed of the conditions Bangladeshi workers face on a daily basis.

IV. The Muncy-Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale

Another study, published in the Journal of Business Ethics by Scott J. Vitell and James

Muncy, studied consumer behavior through the creation of a scale used to measure ethical

buying behavior. This scale, called the Muncy-Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale analyzes three

categories of ethical buying behavior. These include: 1) downloading copyrighted

materials/buying counterfeit goods (2) recycling/environmental awareness (3) doing the right
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 7

thing/doing good. The researchers who conducted this study gathered data through a survey

which asked questions that targeted one of the three categories. One of the statements presented,

with responses measured in the form of a likert scale was: “purchasing products from companies

that you believe don’t treat their employees fairly.” The statement fell under the third category of

consumer ethics, which was “doing the right thing/doing good.” The study found that 48% of

participants “strongly believe that it is not wrong.” This category of consumers is more

indifferent to the consequences of their buying behavior.

V. The “Gap”

The gap that the researcher intends to fill lies in whether or not the difference between

shoppers that practice consumer cynicism and the 48% that “strongly believe it is not wrong” to

purchase goods that were produced unethically lies within the consumer’s own disposition, or

rather, their ignorance to the working conditions that are a direct cause of their behavior on the

garment market. Based on the existing literature and findings regarding the conditions of

Bangladeshi factory workers, this research seeks to answer the following question: “Would

Americans be willing to change their buying habits in the garment industry if informed about the

conditions that factory workers in Southeastern Asian nations such as Bangladesh endure?”

Materials and Methods

I. Design

The purpose of this study is to uncover both the awareness of the average American of

unsafe working conditions in the garment industry in Southeastern Asian nations, and their

willingness to change their buying behavior once they are informed of these conditions. In order
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 8

to gather the necessary data to conduct this study, a survey was conducted. The survey which

has been distributed existed with the goal of gathering the information sought by the researcher

by directly asking American consumers about their awareness of the issue. The survey will

then inform them of the issue, through the presentation of information in the literature review

and lastly, asked if now that they are informed if they would be willing to change their buying

behaviors. The survey began with some brief information about the purpose and significance of

this study, as well as a notice of complete confidentiality. Before the survey questions, the

participants were informed that the survey is completely voluntary and that they may choose to

stop participating in the survey anytime they wish. Participants were also asked to agree to a

statement that they had read all the information presented about the purpose of the survey. In

the first section, ​a list of demographic questions were asked​ including their age, their gender,

and the state in which they reside. In the second section of the survey, question directly relating

to the research were then asked. Before the participants answered these questions, they were

required to affirm that they had read four facts that summarize the state of the production sector

of the garment industry which is highlighted in the literature review. For the purpose of the

specificity of the research, these facts were focused solely around garment production in

Bangladesh, as opposed to the entire region of Southeast Asia, and the problems that exist

because of the demand from American consumers for inexpensive apparel goods. The four facts

included in the beginning of the second section of the survey was written as follows:

1. In 2016, the United States imported a total of $5.9 billion in goods from Bangladesh. The

top import categories in 2016 were: woven apparel ($3.8 billion), knit apparel ($1.4
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 9

billion), miscellaneous textile articles ($206 million), headgear ($174 million), and

footwear ($105 million). (Office of the United States Trade Representative)

2. The national minimum wage for workers in Bangladesh is $38 USD per month.The

average income for a Bangladeshi textile factory worker is $2 USD or less for one full

day of work. (Morgan, 2015)

3. Occupational exposure to cotton dust, fibers, metal fumes and different chemicals used in

the apparel manufacturing industry cause a wide range of physical and psychological

health problems in garment workers, specifically fungal skin ailments and respiratory

problems. (R. Sultana et al, 2012)

4. Companies including H&M, JC Penney, Walmart, Benetton, Gap, and Zara import

garments that are manufactured in Bangladesh (Engel, 2013).

The next question presented to the participants wase: “Have you read the information

above?” The follow up questions then, will include:

1. Were you aware of the conditions described in the previous section?

2. Now that you have read the information, would you choose to purchase a garment that is

made in the U.S, if the garment costs more money to purchase?

The survey was emailed out to each of the selected participants, and they were given a

deadline for their response. In order to respond to the survey, the participant needed access to a

computer, phone, tablet, or other device that connects to the Internet. The survey was created

using the platform “Google Forms” wherein responses are collected automatically. To ensure

anonymity, an option on Google Forms was selected that programs the survey to not collect the

email addresses of the participants.


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 10

II. Participants

The survey sought to gather data on the awareness of conditions and willingness to

change buying habits of the average American, whether that American be young or old or male

or female. Because of this, the goal is to get as many people as possible from as many U.S.

states as possible to respond to the survey. Because there are no limitations on the population I

wish to survey, except that they be American, the survey was distributed electronically through

as many mediums as possible, including social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter. The

researcher sought responses from such a broad population, with the theory that fewer

restrictions on the population of the survey would result in an increased sample size. By

keeping the population broad, it will also allow the researcher to draw interesting conclusions

based in the results of the survey, which will likely lead into even more questions. It will be an

interesting contribution to the research to see if one specific demographic group will be more

willing to change their buying habits in the garment industry, or if one group was more

informed of the conditions that exist already.

Data/Results

I. Data

The researcher collected 60 responses to the survey distributed, which was sent to

participants between 14 February and 4 March 2018. The first piece of information gathered was

demographic information; the distribution of responses is shown in​ Figures 1.0-1.4.​ The

researcher found the median age of those who responded to the survey to be 29. The range of

ages of those who responded to the survey is 49, which was calculated by subtracting the highest
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 11

age value, 65, from the lowest age value, 16. The mode of the age distribution of those who

responded to the survey is age 18; ten people who responded were 18. The average age of a

person who responded to the survey was 33.133.

Most people who responded to the survey distributed for the purpose of this research

were from North Carolina. Only nine of the sixty responses collected were from people who did

not live in NC; these participants reported residence in one of the following states: VA, SC, GA,

AZ, MO, or MD. This likely occurred as a result of the methods for distributing the survey. The

researcher did not have the resources to ensure that a specified number of people from each state

responded to the released survey, which would have given a much better representation of the

population that was supposed to be represented in the sample. Of the sixty responses collected,

most came from North Carolina residents; because of this, it would not be accurate to generalize

the resulting data to the larger population of Americans. The sample of people who responded to

the survey is a much better representation of the average North Carolinian.

As seen in ​Figure 1.2, ​a majority of those who responded to the survey also self-identify

as female. The female to male ratio of those who responded to the survey was approximately 7 to

3. This will affect the dataset because buying habits, especially in the garment market are very

different between men and women.

Other demographic information, including race/ethnicity and total household income

before taxes during the past 12 months was also collected and can be viewed in Appendix A:

Figure 1.3 and 1.4.

In the next portion of the survey, information was presented to the participant; they had to

confirm that they had read this information before being permitted to move onto the next portion
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 12

of questions. The information presented can be found in Appendix A: ​Figure 2.0. ​All

participants confirmed that they had read this information, and then were presented with the

questions that can be viewed in Appendix A: ​Figure 2.1-2.6.

Of the data collected, the researcher was most interested with reported income levels and

willingness to change shopping habits. It was hypothesized that the lower the income level of a

participant, the less their subsequent willingness would be in response to the question presented

in ​Figure 2.2. ​In order to measure this potential correlation, numerical values were assigned to

the data collected. The categories of income and their assigned numerical value are presented in

the table below.

Reported Less $25,000 $35,000 $50,000 $75,000 $100,000 $150,000


income than to to to to to to $200,000
level $25,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 or more
Assigned
numerical
value 1 1 1.5 2 2 2.5 3 3

Table 1: ​Reported income levels and assigned numerical values

Numerical values were assigned on a scale from 1-3. Lower income levels received lower

assigned numerical values, which increased by .5 every third category. Values assigned for the

willingness of a participant (question can be viewed in Appendix A: ​Figure 2.2​) were also

assigned on a scale from 1-3, with those who responded “yes” being assigned the value of three,

responses of “maybe” were assigned the value of two, and “no” responses were assigned a 1 (see

table below).

Response to question
in Figure 2.2 Yes Maybe No
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 13

Assigned numerical
value 3 2 1

Table 2​: Responses and assigned numerical value

Using the assigned numerical values, a correlation coefficient was calculated. A perfect

positive correlation, meaning that as one variable increase so does the other, is represented by a

correlation coefficient of positive one. A perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one

variable increases it causes the other to decrease, is represented by a coefficient of negative one.

The researcher examing the dataset hypothesized that the data gathered would have some sort of

a positive correlation, indicating that as a participant’s income level increased, as would their

willingness to purchase a more expensive item of clothing. After calculating the correlation, the

correlation coefficient was found to be ​0.2247504514. This value, because it is positive, is

indicative of a weak positive correlation. Although there is a positive correlation present, it is

weak because the coefficient is closer to zero than it is to one, meaning that the correlation is not

statistically significant.

Discussion

I. Takeaways

Responses to the survey, specifically to the question displayed in Appendix A ​Figure

2.2: ​After reading the information, would you choose to purchase a garment that is made in the

United States if the garment costs more money to purchase, ​were shown to be overwhelmingly

positive. 46.7% of participants responded “yes” to this question. Another 45% of participants

answered “maybe.” By comparison, only 8.3% of participants responded “no.” The data
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 14

disproved the hypothesis previously made that the majority of participants would respond “no”

to this question. Although the data proves that a large majority of participants would in fact be

willing to purchase a more expensive garment that was made ethically, the data can be not be

generalized to the larger population of Americans that was supposed to be modeled by the

sample.

The correlation between income levels and responses to the survey question from ​Figure

2.2 ​was found to be positive, but not enough to be considered statistically significant by the

researcher.

The most significant conclusion drawn from the research lies in ​Figures 2.1-2.2. ​It was

found by the researcher that the majority of participants (78.4%) responded “no” or “somewhat”

to the question asking whether or not they were previously aware of the conditions described in

the information section of the survey. This was a stark contrast to the responses depicted in

Figure 2.2. ​Responses to this survey question: “​After reading the information, would you choose

to purchase a garment that is made in the United States if the garment costs more money to

purchase?” ​were overwhelmingly positive. 91.7% of participants responded “yes” or “maybe” to

this question. Ultimately, the contrast between those who were aware of the conditions in

Bangladeshi factories prior to taking the survey and those who were willing to change their

behavior after reading the information presented to them demonstrates that buying behavior is

not simply the result of an individual’s disposition. Once informed of the issue at hand, most

participants were open to the idea of purchasing a garment that is made ethically in the United

States. The real issue with the mindset of the consumer comes from their lack of knowledge of

the consequences their buying behavior has in the global garment market. According to the
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 15

research, if more people were to be informed of these conditions, it is likely that more of them

would consider changing their buying behaviors. On a large scale, this conclusion has the

potential to improve the conditions of work for Bangladeshi garment factory workers, the only

thing missing is the opportunity to inform the general public of the consequences of their buying

behavior on a global scale.

II. Limitations

After the research study was conducted, 60 responses were collected from participants

across seven different states in the United States. Although states of residency of participants

varied, a miniscule 15% of those who participated in the survey were from states other than

North Carolina. This likely was due to the methods of distribution that were applied during the

process of distributing the survey. If the method were to be repeated and improved, the survey

could have yielded much more significant results if an equal number participants from each state

responded to the survey. Since AP Research is a course taught by teachers all over the United

States, it could have been possible to distribute the survey to a larger network of teachers and

obtain results from students across the country. Since the survey was not created to target

adolescents specifically, teachers could also have participated in the survey and sent the survey

to other teachers within their schools to provide results from people of all ages.

Another limitation that should be taken into account when considering the responses to

the survey is the demographic information of participants, specifically the gender indicated by

that participants. Of the 60 responses collected, 41 participants identified themselves as females,

an amount which is equivalent to 68.3% of all participants. Comparatively, only 19 participants,

or 31.7% of the total sample identified as males.


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 16

This disparity in gender that exists among the survey participants is notable because men

and women are known to have different motivations when it comes to shopping, especially

within the garment industry, According to a quantitative study titled:​ An Analysis of the

Hierarchy of Goals that Guides the Consumer's Decision to Attend Shopping Malls: a Contrast

Between Men and Women, ​conducted by Silvana Taschek Hastreiter and Renato Zancan

Marchetti of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, men and women have very different

motivations for visiting shopping malls. The study found that men have more utilitarian

motivations, and visit malls with specific goals for the accomplishment of some task. Women, on

the other hand, go to malls with more hedonic motivations. They value the comfort and pleasure

that malls provide. Because of the difference in motivations that drives the buying behaviors of

men and women and shopping malls, as demonstrated by the aforementioned study, the striking

majority of female participants to the survey stops the survey sample from being an accurate

representation of the average American population, which in actuality has a ratio of males to

females that is almost equal. The ratio of male to female participants in the survey conducted for

the purpose of this research was approximately 7 to 10.

Another piece of demographic information collected was the participant’s approximate

household income level before taxes during the past year. The response distribution for this

survey question can be seen in Appendix A ​Figure 1.4. ​The majority of participants (36

participants) responded that they fell in one of the top four income levels listed, which were

$75,000 to $99,999; $100,000 to $149,999$; 150,000 to $199,999; $200,000 or more. This may

have to do with the methods implemented by the researcher for distributing the survey. The

survey was distributed largely through electronic means, whether it was via email or on a social
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 17

media platform. Without meaning to, the researcher made the ownership of an electronic device

with internet access a requirement to be able to access the survey. Only 24 of the 60 participants

fell in the bottom four income categories which were from less than $25,000; $25,000 to

$34,999; $35,000 to $49,999; or $50,000 to $74,999. This underrepresentation of participants

from lower annual household income levels could have been preventable had the researcher

found a means of distributing the survey that was not only electronically.

III. Further inquiries

In the future, it would be beneficial if other researchers were to conduct a longitudinal

study on the participants of the survey. As seen in ​Figure 2.2, ​91.7% of participants affirmed or

responded that they might purchase a garment that is made ethically in the United States even if

it costs more money to purchase. It would be beneficial to the overall body of research is the

buying behaviors of these consumers in the garment market were measured over a longer period

of time to see if they actually changed their habits, or simply responded affirmatively to the

survey question without changing their behavior.


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 18

Appendix A: Survey Questions and Response Distribution

Figure 1.0​ ​Demographic Information: In which state do you reside?

Figure 1.1​ Demographic Information: What is your age?


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 19

Figure 1.2​ Demographic Information: What is your gender?

Figure 1.3 ​Demographic Information: What is your race/ethnicity?


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 20

Figure 1.4 ​Demographic Information: What was your total household income before taxes

during the past 12 months?

Figure 2.0 ​Facts on the condition of the garment industry


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 21

Figure 2.1 ​Survey: Were you aware of the conditions described in the previous section?

Figure 2.2 Survey: ​After reading the information, would you choose to purchase a garment that

is made in the United States if the garment costs more money to purchase?
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 22

Figure 2.3 Survey: ​After reading the information in the previous section, would you be more

likely to purchase second-hand clothing?

Figure 2.4 Survey: ​How often do you purchase new clothing for yourself?
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 23

Figure 2.5 Survey: ​How important is it for you to wear the newest trends?

Figure 2.6 Survey: ​How much do you value buying and wearing name brand clothing?
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 24

References

Ahmed, Fauzia Erfan. “The Rise of the Bangladesh Garment Industry: Globalization, Women

Workers, and Voice.” ​NWSA Journal​, vol. 16, no. 2, 2004, pp. 34–45.,

doi:10.1353/nwsa.2004.0042.

Albert, Lumina S., and Leonard M. Horowitz. “Attachment Styles and Ethical Behavior: Their

Relationship and Significance in the Marketplace.” ​Journal of Business Ethics​, vol. 87, no.

3, 2008, pp. 299–316., doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9918-6.

Avia, María Dolores, and Mª Luisa Sánchez-Bernardos. “Gender and Psychological Differences:

Gender and Subjectivity.” ​Psychopathology in Women​, Sept. 2014, pp. 53–66.,

doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05870-2_3.

Bangladesh | United States Trade Representative​,

ustr.gov/countries-regions/south-central-asia/bangladesh#\.

Fast Fashion. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fast fashion

Gentry, J., Baker, S. M., & Kraft, F. B. (1995, January 01). The Role of Possessions in Creating,

Maintaining, and Preserving One's Identity: Variation Over the Life Course. Retrieved

from https://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=7782

“Garment Industry.” ​Strategic Management in the Garment Industry​, pp. 14–20.,

doi:10.1533/9780857095855.14.

Hasan, Mahamudul. “Prevalence of Health Diseases among Bangladeshi Tannery Workers and

Associated Risk Factors with Workplace Investigation.” ​Journal of Pollution Effects &

Control​, vol. 4, no. 4, 2016, pp. 1–3. Retrieved from:

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/prevalence-of-health-diseases-among-banglades
AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 25

hi-tannery-workers-and-associated-risk-factors-with-workplace-investigation-2375-4397-1

000175.pdf

Hastreiter, S. T., & Marchetti, R. Z. (2016). An Analysis of the Hierarchy of Goals that Guides

the Consumer's Decision to Attend Shopping Malls: a Contrast Between Men and Women.

Brazilian Business Review (English Edition)​, ​13​(1), 92-114. doi:10.15728/bbr.2016.13.1.5

Helm, Amanda E., et al. “Consumer Cynicism: Developing a Scale to Measure Underlying

Attitudes Influencing Marketplace Shaping and Withdrawal Behaviours.” ​International

Journal of Consumer Studies​, vol. 39, no. 5, 2015, pp. 515–524., doi:10.1111/ijcs.12191.

Imran Amed, Achim Berg, Leonie Brantberg, and Saskia Hedrich. (n.d.). The state of fashion.

Retrieved from

https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/retail/our-insights/the-state-of-fashion

Kibria, K. K., Hossain, M. E., Sultana, J., Sarker, S. A., Bardhan, P. K., Rahman, M., & Nahar,

S. (2015). The Prevalence of Mixed Helicobacter pylori Infections in Symptomatic and

Asymptomatic Subjects in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Helicobacter, 20(5), 397-404.

doi:10.1111/hel.12213

Kumar Panday, Pranab and Shelley Feldman. "Mainstreaming Gender in Politics in Bangladesh:

Role of Ngos." Asian Journal of Political Science, vol. 23, no. 3, Dec. 2015, pp. 301-320.

EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/02185377.2015.1055772.

Marchant, B. (2017). Minimalism: A Documentary About the Important Things. ​Library


.​ Journal​, ​142​(7), 56.

Sultana, R., Ferdous, K. J., Hossain, M., Zahid, M. H., & Islam, L. N. (2012). Immune Functions

of the Garment Workers. ​International Journal Of Occupational & Environmental


AMERICAN APATHY TOWARDS EFFECTS OF MASS CONSUMPTION 26

Medicine​, ​3​(4), 195-200.

“Table A.2.10. Merchandise Trade Balance.” ​World Trade Organization​, 2013,

doi:10.1787/153060485666.

Vitell, Scott J., and James Muncy. “‘The Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification

and Application.’” ​Journal of Business Ethics​, vol. 62, no. 3, 2005, pp. 267–275.,

doi:10.1007/s10551-005-7058-9.

Yardley, Jim. “Bangladesh Takes Step to Increase Lowest Pay.” ​The New York Times​, The New

York Times, 4 Nov. 2013,

www.nytimes.com/2013/11/05/world/asia/bangladesh-takes-step-toward-raising-38-a-mon

th-minimum-wage.html.

Zheng, X. Q., and R. D. Ji. “Assessment of Lead Contamination of the General Environment

through Blood Lead Levels.” ​Environmental Monitoring and Assessment​, vol. 9, no. 2,

1987, pp. 169–177., doi:10.1007/bf00394349.