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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL


___________________________________________________________________________

Program : Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical (EM220/EM221)


Course : Applied Mechanics Lab
Code : MEC 424
Lecturer : En Muhammad Siddiq Bin Mat Dris
Group : EMD4M11 (G1)

___________________________________________________________________________

MEC 424 - LABORATORY REPORT

TITLE : Tensile Test

No NAME STUDENT ID SIGNATURE


1. AMMAR AFIF BIN RIZAL 2016218426
2. HAZIM BIN RAFIDI 2016218386
3. MOHAMAD FAISAL BIN FADZILAN 2016218348
06/04/2018
LABORATORY SESSION :
(DATE)

REPORT SUBMISSION : 20/04/2018


(DATE)
*By signing above you attest that you have contributed to this submission and confirm that all work you have contributed to this
submission is your own work. Any suspicion of copying or plagiarism in this work will result in an investigation of academic
msconduct and may result in a “0” on the work, an “F” in the course, or possibly more severe penalties.

Marking Scheme

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total
ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to determine the tensile properties subjected to tensile loading.
We also can identify types of fracture surface and validate the data between experimental and
theoretical values. This tensile test was conducted on only one test specimen which is mild steel
or known as dog bone. The mechanical properties of the mild steel were obtained from the plot
of stress against strain and also strain against extension. The result obtained shows that the mild
steel obeys Hooke’s Law upon loading, but after increase in loading the mild steel does not obeys
Hooke’s Law but it is still in elastic region. After further loading, the mild steel still elongate but
apply no resisting load. Then the cross section area of the mild steel becomes smaller as more
load applied and start to fracture. The result obtain from the graph is acceptable compared to
theory. The mild steel can be conclude to have a high strength due to high tensile stress that is
182 MPa which explains the wide applications of mild steel in construction.
TABLE OF CONTENT

No Content Page

1.0 Introduction 1

2.0 Theory 2

3.0 Experimental Procedure 4

4.0 Result 8

5.0 Discussion & Conclusion 11

6.0 Reference 17

7.0 Appendix 18
LIST OF TABLE

No Name Page
1 Determine the load gauge value 8

LIST OF FIGURE

No Name Page
1 Vernier Caliper 4

2 Specimen (Dog Bone Shaped) 4

3 Tensile Stress Machine 5

4 Extension gauge 5

5 Student taking measurement 6

6 the student rotate the hand wheel 6

7 The students are recorded the load gauge value 7

8 Fracture of dog bone 7

LIST OF GRAPH

No Name Page
1 Stress against Strain 10

2 Strain against Extension 10


1.0 INTRODUCTION

In this experiment, the mechanical properties of materials are determined by performing


carefully designed laboratory experiments that replicate as nearly as possible the service
conditions. During a typical tensile experiment, a dog-bone shaped specimen is gripped at its
two ends and is pulled to elongate at a determined rate to its breakpoint and a highly ductile
polymer may not reach its breakpoint. For analytical purposes, a plot of stress (σ) versus strain
(ε) is constructed during a tensile test experiment. Stress, in the metric system, is usually
measured in N/m2 or Pa, such that 1 N/m2 = 1 Pa.
From the experiment, the value of stress is calculated by dividing the amount of force (F)
applied by the machine in the axial direction by its cross-sectional area (A), which is measured
prior to running the experiment. Mathematically, it is expressed in equation 1. The strain values,
which have no units, can be calculated using equation 2, where L is the instantaneous length of
the specimen and L0 is the initial length.
F
  (1)
A
L  L0
 (2)
L0

Throughout the experiment, not all stress-strain curves perfectly resemble the one as in
theory. This stress-strain curve is typical for ductile metallic elements. Another thing to take note
is that when a material reaches its ultimate stress strength of the stress-strain curve, its cross-
sectional area reduces dramatically, a term known as necking. Therefore causing the curve to
slope down. As in the theory, the stress-strain curve could be constructed directly by installing a
gauge, which measures the change in the cross sectional area of the specimen throughout the
experiment. This will lead to a smooth curve on the graph.

1
2.0 THEORY

If the dog bone is subjected to an axial load P, as shown in Figure 1, and if the load is
increased in increments from zero to the point of fracture, and the stress and strain are computed
at each step, a stress-strain curve can be plotted as in Figure 2.

P P

L ΔL

Dog bone subjected to an axial load P

E Ultimate Stress
Stress (σ)
Upper Yield Limit
C

D Lower Yield Limit


B Elastic Limit
A Proportional Limit F Stress during Failure

Strain (ε)
Stress against strain

2
The curve is typical of class of steel known as mild steel. The relationship between stress
and strain is linear up to proportional limit, the material is said to follow Hooke’s Law until point
A, namely Proportional Limit. After this point, Hooke’s Law wouldn’t happen although the
material has an elastic characteristic. The B point called elastic limit. The elastic limit of the
material is a stress that lies at point C. Up to this stress, the specimen can be unloaded without
permanent deformation; the unloading will be along the linear portion of the diagram, the same
path followed during loading. This part of the stress-strain diagram is called the elastic range.
A peak value, the upper yield point (point C), is quickly reached after that, followed by
leveling off at the lower yield point (point D). At this stage of loading, the test specimen
continues to elongate as long as the load is not removed, even though the load cannot be
increased. This constant stress region is called the plastic range.
When a further load is applied to the specimen, the curve will rise continuously but
became flatter until it reaches a maximum stress referred as the ultimate stress (point E).
Throughout the test, while the specimen is elongating, its cross-sectional area will decrease. At
the ultimate stress (point E), the cross-sectional area of the dog bone begins to decrease in a
localized region, instead of over the specimen’s entire length. This phenomenon is caused by
slip planes formed within the material, and the actual strains produced are caused by shear stress.
As a result, a construction or neck gradually tends to form this region
Since the cross-sectional area within this region is continually decreasing, the load also
continuously decreasing. Hence, the stress-strain diagram tend to curve downward until the
specimen breaks at the fracture stress (point F).

3
3.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Setup of Apparatus

Figure 1 : Vernier Caliper

Figure 2 : Specimen (Dog Bone Shaped)

4
Load Gauge
Figure 3 : Tensile Stress Machine

Extension Gauge

Figure 4 : Extension Gauge

5
Step by step procedure

1. The measurement of the dog bone was measured using vernier calliper.

Figure 5: Student taking measurement

2. The measurement of the dog bone included was:


a) The gage length
b) The width and thickness
3. The dog bone was placed and tied at the tensile test machine using the hand wheel
4. The extension gauge and load gauge is set to 0 before started.
5. The hand wheel is rotated counterclockwise until the extension gauge reach 0.3mm for
the first rotation.

Figure 6: the student rotate the hand


wheel

6
6. The value of load gauge is recorded.

7. Step 5 and 6 were repeated with increases of 0.3mm each until the dog bone break.

Figure 7: Fracture of dog bone

7
4.0 RESULTS

 Initial length, 𝑙1 = 31.76 mm


 Final length, 𝑙2 = 39.20 mm
 Cross sectional area, A = 3.564 × 10−6 𝑚2

Table 1: determine the load gauge value

Load (kN) Extension (mm) Stress (MPa) Strain (mm/mm)


0.65 0.3 182 0.0094
0.80 0.6 224 0.0189
0.85 0.9 238 0.0283
0.90 1.2 252 0.0378
0.90 1.5 252 0.0472
0.90 1.8 252 0.0567
0.95 2.1 266 0.0661
0.95 2.4 266 0.0756
0.95 2.7 266 0.0850
0.95 3.0 266 0.0945
0.95 3.3 266 0.1039
0.95 3.6 266 0.1134
0.95 3.9 266 0.1228
0.95 4.2 266 0.1322
0.95 4.5 266 0.1417
0.95 4.8 266 0.1511
0.95 5.1 266 0.1606
0.95 5.4 266 0.1700
0.95 5.7 266 0.1795
0.95 6.0 266 0.1889
0.95 6.3 266 0.1984
0.95 6.6 266 0.2078
0.95 6.9 266 0.2173
0.95 7.2 266 0.2267
0.90 7.5 252 0.2361
0.80 7.8 224 0.2456
Breaking 8.1 0 0.2550

8
 Sample calculation

a) Cross sectional area, A = thickness × width

= (1.10 × 10−3 ) × (3.24 × 10−3 )

= 3.564 × 10−6 𝑚2

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑,𝑃
b) Stress, 𝜎 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎,𝐴

0.65 × 103 𝑁
= 3.564 × 10−6 𝑚2

= 182 × 106 Pa

= 182 MPa

𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ,𝑙2 – 𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ,𝑙1


c) Strain, 𝜀 = 𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ,𝑙1

0.3 𝑚𝑚
= 31.76 𝑚𝑚

𝑚𝑚
= 0.0094 𝑚𝑚

9
 Graph

Stress, σ (MPa)
300
Graph Stress vs Strain
250

200

150

100

50

Strain, ɛ
(mm/mm)
0

0.17
0.085

0.255
0.0094
0.0189
0.0283
0.0378
0.0472
0.0567
0.0661
0.0756

0.0945
0.1039
0.1134
0.1228
0.1322
0.1417
0.1511
0.1606

0.1795
0.1889
0.1984
0.2078
0.2173
0.2267
0.2361
0.2456
Graph 1: graph stress vs strain

Strain, ɛ
Graph Strain vs Extension
(mm/mm)
0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05
Extension
(mm)
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5

Graph 2: graph strain vs extension

10
5.0 DISCUSSION

AMMAR AFIF BIN RIZAL (2016218426)

DISCUSSION

Based on the experiment that has been conduct, a dog-bone like structure has been subjected to
an axial load until it reached a point where it breaks. At each step, while increasing the load, the
stress and strain value can be obtained at each step. This data is used to plot a stress-strain graph.
Then, the plotted graph is then compared to the theory and determine the plastic and elastic
region. In this experiment, the graph we plotted and data obtain shows that it obeys Hooke’s
Law.

In graph 1, stress-strain graph were plotted and it obeys Hooke’s Law at point where stress are
directly proportional to each other. Then, after the point, it does not obey Hooke’s Law as stated
in the theory even it is still in the elastic region. At one point, the material reached its elastic
limit. The specimen is then applied to a further load. The curve on graph 1 continue to increase
up till the maximum stress or as in the theory, the ultimate stress. In my observation, the load is
applied and the specimen continue to elongate. The load is not remove and this is where it achieve
the elastic range. Furthermore, the cross section area becomes smaller as more load applied. The
phenomenon was caused by slip planes within the material used as specimen. This cause a
construction of neck to gradually formed in this region.

After that, the stress-strain diagram is curved downwards. This happened as the cross sectional
area continue to decrease and gradually, the load will also decrease. It continue to curve
drastically downward until it breaks. This is labelled as the fracture stress at extension of 8.1mm.
On my observation of graph 2, the strain-extension graph are plotted using the data collected. In
conclusion, the graph increase linearly as the extension is increased, the strain will also increase.

11
CONCLUSION

This experiment can be say successful as the graph stress vs strain that we plotted have same
shape with the theoretical graph. Error when taking the reading can be occurred. To prevent this
error, eye must be perpendicular to the gauge reading when taking readings. We can determine
the mechanical properties of the mild steel from the graph plotted. For future studies, this test
can be improved when the test is taken twice or more and then calculate the average of reading
to produce better stress vs strain graph. In conclusion, from tensile test, we can determine the
tensile properties, identify the types of fracture surface and validate the data between
experimental and theoretical values.

12
HAZIM BIN RAFIDI (2016218386)

DISCUSSION

From this experiment, we use a dog bone shaped lathed specimens initiated due to the crack
occurrence at the edge of angular cut parts. The results obtained with the experimental study are
given in Tables 1. From the result table, when we compare to the theoretical value, we can find
out a few error which is cause by our mistake during running the experiment. The error that we
can identify is when we rotated the load gauge to make sure it is at 0 but maybe it is not absolutely
at 0. So, our load data have a little bit error because of that mistake. Another error that we can
describe here when one of us who responsible to handle the machine controller to extend the
specimen is rotated at wrong rotation. He actually must rotate the machine controller counter
clockwise to make sure the specimen is extended.

From the graph 1 which is about graph stress and strain, we can see that when the value of strain
increase, the value of stress also increasing until 252MPa. We can conclude that stress is directly
proportional to the strain at this value. After that, the value of strain from 0.0661 until 0.2267 is
had a constant value of stress which is 266MPa that we can simplify it is no change in stress
value or in other word plastic region. And lastly, the value of stress become immediately decrease
to 0 while the value of strain still increasing until the dog bone shaped specimen broke. Before
the specimen break, the necking will be formed after the decreasing of the value of stress or
breaking region.

The graph 2 is about graph strain against extension. This graph show that when the number of
extension increased, the value of strain also increased. The graph show that extension is directly
proportional to the strain.

13
CONCLUSION

To be concluded, we successfully determined experimentally the magnitude of the load that


applied to the specimen. We also successfully calculated the value of stress and the value of the
strain by using formula given in the theoretical section. From the calculation, we obtained table
that shows the experimental result in a beautiful arrangement. From the data that we recorded on
the table, we obtain two graph which is graph of stress against strain and graph of strain against
extension. From the graph, we can determine the tensile properties that subjected to tensile. From
the observation during experiment was running, we identify that the type of fracture surface
under tensile loading is necking.

14
MOHAMAD FAISAL BIN FADZILAN (2016218348)

DISCUSSION

For this experiment, the objectives is to determine the tensile properties subjected to
tensile loading, to identify the types of fracture surface under tensile loading and to validate the
data between experimental and theoretical values. In this experiment, one type of specimen is
used to carry out the experiment. The specimen used is dog bone which has been recorded the
dimension.

Based on the graph of stress against strain, the relationship for strain and stress is directly
proportional until some point. The first value of the stress is 182 Mpa and the value of strain is
0.0094. The values are determined by using the formula for stress and strain. The value of the
stress is increases with the increase of the load value until at some point, the value of the stress
will be at its highest. The highest value of the stress reaches its maximum value at 266 Mpa when
the strain value is 0.0661 which the load value is 0.95kN. The stress value which is 266 Mpa is
in a constant value after a few increments of the strain value because the dog bone undergoes
plastic region. Lastly, the value of the stress quickly decrease to 0 while the strain value is still
increasing until the dog bone undergoes breaking region where the load value is equal to 0 and
the dog bone break into two.

By referring to the graph strain against extension, when the strain increases, the extension
will also increase. This shows that strain is directly proportional to extension.

For this experiment, there is different value of data when comparing the value of
theoretical and experimental value. Due to this, there are some error occur while doing the
experiment. The error occur in this experiment is the load gauge is not at 0 when it is supposed
to be at 0 value which make the student that rotate make mistakes when they want to record the
load gauge value. Next, the error may happen during observer capture the measurement reading
of the load gauge because of the wrong position of the eye. Lastly, the wrong rotation of the hand
wheel also can bring error to the data gained.

15
CONCLUSION

The experiment conduct has successfully obtain a stress-strain diagram. The shape of graph
obtain are acceptable as compared to theory. Our experiment can be improved and get better
results as if the extension are chose with precision of 0.1 mm or 0.2 mm. Some error may occur
if the twist of handle are turned clockwise. It may led to a failure on the specimen and repeating
the experiment is a must. In order to avoid this, the handle must be twist by only a person and
slowly turned the wheel in counter clockwise direction. An accurate result could also be obtain
if the reading is taken perpendicularly to an eye level.

16
6.0 REFERENCE

1. Tensile Test Experiment. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2018, from


http://www.mtu.edu/materials/k12/experiments/tensile/
2. Engineering Stress-strain Curve: Part One. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2018, from
http://www.totalmateria.com/page.aspx?ID=CheckArticle&LN=EN&site=kts&NM=43
3. Tensile Test Lab. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from http://metengr.com/testing-
services/mechanical-testing/tensile/
4. Richard, A. (2002). Advanced Mechanics of Materials.(R. J. Schroidt, Ed.) Wiley.
5. Marc, K. K. (2008). Mechanical Behavior of Materials (2nd ed.). Cambridge University
Press.
6. Strain. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2018, from https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/strain

17
7.0 APPENDIX

18
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Teamwork Assessment Form

Name :_________________Ammar Afif Bin Rizal___________________

Member’s Name 1 :__________Hazim Bin Rafidi________________________

2 :_______ Mohamad Faisal Bin Fadzilan_______________


3 :____________________________________________________

4 :____________________________________________________

Scale 1 2 3 4 5
Level Poor Acceptable Excellent

You will rate yourself and your team’s member on the following criteria

Earned Assessment
Element Members
Self
1 2 3 4
I was ready to work with my team
I did my assigned work well and always on time
I was fair to my teammates and myself
I listened to others appreciatively and was supportive
I was very committed and focused in my team
I put extra efforts to finish or accomplish our task
I encouraged others in my team and was helpful
I managed and coordinated team efforts effectively
I was able to lead discussions and provide solutions
Overall, I was very satisfied and enjoyed my work
Total

Comment

Self:

Member 1:

Member 2:

Member 3:

Member 4:

19
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Teamwork Assessment Form

Name :_____________________ Hazim Bin Rafidi ___________________

Member’s Name 1 :____________ Ammar Afif Bin Rizal _________________

2 :_______ Mohamad Faisal Bin Fadzilan_______________


3 :____________________________________________________

4 :____________________________________________________

Scale 1 2 3 4 5
Level Poor Acceptable Excellent

You will rate yourself and your team’s member on the following criteria

Earned Assessment
Element Members
Self
1 2 3 4
I was ready to work with my team
I did my assigned work well and always on time
I was fair to my teammates and myself
I listened to others appreciatively and was supportive
I was very committed and focused in my team
I put extra efforts to finish or accomplish our task
I encouraged others in my team and was helpful
I managed and coordinated team efforts effectively
I was able to lead discussions and provide solutions
Overall, I was very satisfied and enjoyed my work
Total

Comment

Self:

Member 1:

Member 2:

Member 3:
20
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Teamwork Assessment Form

Name :_____________________ Mohamad Faisal Bin Fadzilan ___________________

Member’s Name 1 :____________ Ammar Afif Bin Rizal _________________

2 : Hazim Bin Rafidi _____________________


3 :____________________________________________________

4 :____________________________________________________

Scale 1 2 3 4 5
Level Poor Acceptable Excellent

You will rate yourself and your team’s member on the following criteria

Earned Assessment
Element Members
Self
1 2 3 4
I was ready to work with my team
I did my assigned work well and always on time
I was fair to my teammates and myself
I listened to others appreciatively and was supportive
I was very committed and focused in my team
I put extra efforts to finish or accomplish our task
I encouraged others in my team and was helpful
I managed and coordinated team efforts effectively
I was able to lead discussions and provide solutions
Overall, I was very satisfied and enjoyed my work
Total

Comment

Self:

Member 1:

Member 2:

Member 3:

Member 4:

21