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DISTRIBUTION FEEDER RECONFIGURATION

FOR LOSS REDUCTION

S. C i v a n l a r J.J. G r a i n g e r H. Y i n S.S.H. L e e

Member, IEEE Senior Member, IEEE Non-Member Senior M e m b e r , IEEE

School of Engineering Raleigh, N C 27602

N o r t h C a r o l i n a State University

Raleigh, N C 27695-7911

Abet ract

Feeder reconfiguration is defined as altering the topologi- Consequently, the peak loads on substation transformers, on

cal structures of distribution feeders by changing the individual feeders, or on feeder sections occur a t different times

open/closed states of the sectionalizing and tie switches. In this (noncoincidence of peaks). Feeder reconfiguration allows the

paper, a scheme is presented which utilizes feeder transfer of loads from heavily loaded feeders (or transformers)

reconfiguration as a planning and/or real-time control tool in to relatively less heavily loaded feeders (or transformers). Such

order to restructure the primary feeders for 1033 reduction. The transfers are effective not only in terms of altering the level of

mathematical foundation of the scheme is given; the solution loads on the feeders being switched, but a h in improving the

procedure is illustrated on simple examples. voltage profile along the feeders and effecting reductions in the

overall system power losses. Studies and experiments on feeder

INTRODUCTION reconfiguration are ongoing in many utilities and some of the

recent publications reflecting these efforts are listed in the refer-

The explosive growth in the areas of micro- and mini- ences [5-111.

computers, microprocessors and telecommunications technolo-

gies provides opportunities for advanced control of electric This paper discusses the problem of reducing power losses

power systems, particularly in the area of distribution system in distribution feeders via feeder reconfiguration. A scheme for

automation. Prototype distribution automation systems are determining the open/closed states of the tie and sectionalizing

currently being developed and tested on a small-scale basis switches t o achieve loss reduction is presented. While the scope

using the presently available data acquisition system [l-41. of the feeder reconfiguration problem discussed here is limited

Intensified research, development and demonstration efforts are to the discussion of losses, the results developed provide

now being directed towards the hardware and software to sup- significant insight into useful characteristics associated with the

port large-scale distribution automation schemes for system- modeling and properties of related feeder reconfiguration prob-

wide implementation by the electric utility industry. Three of lems.

the current distribution automation projects are a t

PROBLEM STATEMENT

lina (under Electric Power Research Institute sponsorship).

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee

Feeder reconfiguration is performed by opening/closing

(under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship).

two types of switches, tie and sectionalizing switches. A whole

Texas Electric Service Company, Dallas, Texas (under feeder, or part of a feeder, may be served from another feeder

Electric Power Research Institute sponsorship). by closing a tie switch linking the two while an appropriate sec-

tionalizing switch must be opened to maintain radial struc-

Distribution feeder reconfiguration can be used as a plan- tures.

ning tool as well as a real-time control tool. Modifying the

radial structure of the distribution feeders from time to time, In the context of loss reduction, the problem to be

by changing the open/closed states of the switches to transfer addressed in this paper is to identify tie and sectionalizing

loads from one feeder t o another, may significantly improve the switches t h a t should be closed and opened, respectively, to

operating conditions of the overall system. Each feeder in a achieve a maximum reduction in losses. Conceptually, it is a

distribution system has a different mixture of commercial, straightforward matter to determine whether the new system

residential and industrial type loads, and it is well known that obtained through a feeder reconfiguration would incur lower

the daily load variations of these load types are dissimilar. IOSSW. The change in losses can easily be computed from the

results of two load flow studies simulating the system

configurations before and after the feeder reconfiguration.

However, even for a distribution system of moderate size

by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee

of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presenta- such as the one shown in Figure 1, the number of switching

tion at the IEEE/PES 1987 Winter Meeting, New Orleans, options is so great that conducting many load-flow studies for

Louisiana, February 1 - 6, 1987. Manuscript submit- all the possible options becomes not only extremely inefficient

ted August 29, 1986; made available for printing from a computational standpoint, but also impractical as a

November 13, 1986. real-time feeder reconfiguration strategy.

1218

I WI

**

/----+-

".I..

The problem in question is now illustrated using the switching options for the example system. Actually, the total

three-feeder distribution system shown in Figure 2. The dotted number of switching options is much larger than fifteen; but

branches, 15, 21 and 26, represent ties connecting feeders, and some of those which cause isolation of part of a feeder are

normally open tie switches are assumed to be present on these directly eliminated. As noted earlier, the best switching option

branches. could be selected from the results of thirty load-flow studies

simulating all fifteen possible feeder configurations.

For notational convenience, these tie switches will be

identified by the corresponding tie numbers. Without loss of

generality, and mindful of the practical situation, let us assume

for ease of explanation that there are sectionalizing switches on DESIRABLE FEATURES OF SOLUTION METHOD

every branch of the system. All thirteen sectionalizing switches

will also be identified by the corresponding branch numbers. In light of the dimensionality concerns addressed above, it

appears that a desirable solution method should provide the

The load a t bus I 1 can be transferred to Feeder-I by ClOS- following two features: (i) capability to estimate with minimal

ing the tie switch 15 and opening the sectionalizing switch 19. computational efforts the change in losses resulting from feeder

Similarly, the loads at buses 9, 11 and 12 can be transferred to reconfiguration and (ii) criteria that may be used to eliminate

Feeder-I by closing the tie switch 15 and oDeninc the undesirable switching options in order to alleviate the dimen-

sectionalizing switch 18. Throughout this paper, we will focus sionality problem. I t will be seen that the formula developed in

our discussion on feeder reconfiguration by closing a single tie this paper for estimating the change in losses requires little

switch and opening a single sectionalizing switch to preserve additional information over the base case (i.e. prior to feeder

radiality of the two feeders that are under consideration. The reconfiguration) load-flow solution. Furthermore, the formula

combined pair consisting of a tie and a sectionalizing switch suggests a filtering mechanism for eliminating those switching

will be referred to as a switching option. While the successive options which would not yield loss reduction.

application of the proposed scheme could handle the case of

multiple switching operations in which several tie and sec- The primary objective in deriving the expression for power

tionalizing switches are simultaneously closed and/or opened, loss reduction via load transfer is to determine (i) whether a

the detailed implementation is beyond the scope of this paper, specified switching option would result in a 1033 increase or

and will not be further discussed here. decrease, and (ii) among the candidate switching options, which

option would yield the greatest reduction in IOSSeS. In other

It can be easily verified that there are fifteen feasible words, relative rather than absolute accuracy is sought here.

1219

The amount of loss change resulting from transferring a Bua t o Section Section End Bus End Bun End Bus End Bum

group of loads from Feeder-I1 to Feeder-I can be estimated Bus Resistance Reactance Load Load Capacitor Voltage

(P U) (P.U) (MW) (MVAR) (MVAR) (P.W)

from the following simple equation: 1-4 0 075 01 20 16 I 0 9911-0 370

4-5 0 08 0 11 3 0 15 1 11 0 988/-0 544

4-e 0 09 0 18 20 08 I 12 0 986/-0 697

6-7 0 04 0 04 15 I2 0 9861-0 704

2-8 0 I1 0 11 4 0 27 o 9791-0 783

where 8-9 0 08 0 11 50 30 I2 0 9711-1 461

8-10 0 11 0 11 10 09 0 9771.0 770

D set of buses which are disconnected from Feeder-I1 and 9-11 011 0 41 08 01 06 0 971/-l625

9 12 008 0 11 45 20 37 0 9891-1 636

connected to Feeder- I

3 13 011 0 11 10 0 9 0 994/-0 332

m tie bus of Feeder-I to which loads from Feeder-I1 will be 13-14 009 0 12 10 07 18 0 9861-0 459

connected 13-16 008 0 11 10 09 0 992/-0 627

15-16 I 004 I 0 04 21 I 10 18 I 0 991/-0.596

n tie bus of Feeder-I1 that will be connected to bus m via 5-11 1 004 I 0 04 I I

a tie switch 10-14 I 004 I 0 04

17-18 I 0.09 I 0.12 I I I U

Ii complex bus current a t bus i

Rloop series resistance of the path connecting the two substa-

tion buses of Feeder- I and Feeder-I1 via closure of the (I) Suppose the load a t bus 11 is transferred from Feeder-I1 to

specified tie switch (see the example given below) Feeder-I by closing the tie line switch 15 and opening the

component of E = RBusIBUs corresponding to bus m. sectionalizing switch 19. In this case, D={ll}, m = 5 ,

Em

REUS is the "bus resistance matrix" of Feeder-I before n = 11, and

the load transfer which is found using the substation AP = Re[2Ill(E5- Ell)'] + Rloop!!ll12

bus as reference. ISUS is the vector of bus currents for

where RIoop is the total resistance of the path along the

Feeder-I

branches 11,12,15,19,18 and 16.

E, similar to E, but defined for bus n of Feeder-11.

(11) Suppose the loads a t buses 9, 11 and 12 are transferred

Re{.), *, 11 from Feeder-I1 to Feeder-I by closing tie switch 15 and

real part, complex conjugate, and magnitude operators, opening sectionalizing switch 18. In this case,

respectively. D={9,11,12}, m =5, n = 11 and

It is to be noted that E, and E, are computed using base-case AP = Re[2(19 + I , , + Ilz)(E5-Ell)*]

bus currents I, before the load transfer. It is suggested to

incorporate the effects of capacitors into bus currents to facili-

tate computational efficiency. The derivation of Eq.(l) is pro-

where R I o o pis the same as above.

vided in the Appendix from which it is apparent that AP

represents a kw loss reduction (increase) when it is negative

(positive). The second term on the right-hand side of Eq.(l) is always

positive. Therefore, a reduction in losses cannot be achieved

unless the first term becomes significantly negative. Since com-

FEEDER-I FEEDER-I1 FEEDER-I11 plex values are dealt within the first term, it may not be simple

::

U VJJJ U to draw any definite conclusions. However, we note that voltage

-7 22

phase-angle differences are small on most distribution systems,

and that complex bus currents I, may be mostly in phase with

voltage phasors due to capacitor VAR compensation on well

designed systems. Under these circumstances, loosely speaking,

'0 the first term becomes negative if bml< bn\

It follows from the above observation that loss reduction

can be attained only if there is a significant voltage difference

across the normally open tie switch and if the loads on the

23 higher voltage drop side of the tie switch are transferred to the

other side. It will be seen that the above observation can be

d 14

n

6-26- 25 1 used as a most attractive criterion to eliminate undesirable

switching options during the elimination process.

It is also noteworthy that in Eq.(l), information regarding

E is required only a t the terminal buses where the tie switch is

located, and that the configuration of the group of loads to be

Figure 2 Three-feeder ezainple system

transferred or the geographic extent of the overall distribution

system does not matter to the result.

Example: STRATEGY

The use of Eq.(l) is now illustrated using the three-feeder sys-

tem of Figure 2. The simplicity of the proposed methodology makes it s u i t

1220

able for an on-line control strategy for feeder loss reduction. A R

The strategy for selecting the best switching option is further

explained via the example system of Figure 2. Shown in Table 1

are the bus data, line data and the base-case load-flow solution.

The bus voltage magnitudes and angles (in degrees) are shown

in the right-most column.

When closing the tie switch 15, five options for opening

t

sectionalizing switches 11, 12, 19, 18, and 16 are available.

>

Since bIl1 b5!, transferring loads on Feeder-I to Feeder-I1 is

expected to increase losses. Consequently, opening the sec-

tionalizing switch 11 or 12 is regarded as undesirable and need

not be considered. Therefore, associated with closing the tie

switch 15 are three candidate options, viz., opening the sec-

tionalizing switches 19, 18, and 16, respectively. Similarly,

since b1d> bl.,!,opening switch 22 or 24 is considered to be

undesirable when the tie switch 21 is closed. For a similar rea-

son, transferring loads on Feeder-I11 to Feeder-I when the tie

n........

- Results from Load-Flw __c

.......

4

the corresponding switching options are eliminated from

further consideration. As a result of this elimination process,

the number of candidate options to be examined is now eight.

For each of the eight candidate switching options A P is com-

puted using Eq.(l). The result of such calculations is that clos-

ing the tie switch 21 and opening the sectionalizing switch 17

would yield the most negative value, ie, maximum loss reduc-

tion. Readers are encouraged to verify the result by using a.c.

load flow analysis.

A 5 4 3 2 1 1 ‘ 2 3 ’ 4 ‘ 5 ’ B

( a ) System diagram

(6) Power losses versus open-switch location

becomes

2.5

5 -U u.1u switch to be opened must be along the shortest path from the

tie buses t o the corresponding substations as indicated by the

The accuracy of Eq.(l) compared to a load-flow study has solid lines in Figure 4.a. For a well compensated system, Eq.(2)

been tested on typical systems. For example, shown in Figure reveals that the switch to be opened for minimum losses can be

3.a is one of those test systems which has two radial feeders directly found using the unimodal nature of A P . In order to

served from two substations where a sectionalizing switch is explain this fact, consider that the switch to be opened is at dis-

assumed on every section of the feeder. The feeder data of this tance x from the tie bus n along the shortest path. Then Eq.(2)

example is given in Table 2. Shown in Figure 3.b w e the total assumes the form

system power losses computed using Eq.(l) and also computed

using an a.c. load-flow. In both cases the successive opening, of

the variably located switch is considered when switch 1 - 1 is where Z(z)of Figure 4.b is the the current distribution along the

closed. In this example, concentrated constant P,Q load shortest path. Because of the quadratic nature of AP, it can be

representation is assumed a t each node for the load-flow study. shown that the switch to be opened is that which causes I ( z ) to

As can be seen from Figure 3.b, the deviation in the computa- most closely satisfy

tions is almost negligible for the open switches close to the tie

switch, as expected. On the other hand, it increases as the

amount of transferred load increases. However, for the practical (4)

cases, the accuracy of the the loss computation using Eq.(l) is

adequate. To illustrate, consider again transferring some loads on

Feeder-I1 to Feeder-I. Suppose that the projection of the value

SPECIAL CASES ( En -Em)/ Rloop falls on the bus (n-1), as indicated in Figure

4.b. Now a decision has to be made whether to open section

For an ideal distribution system with perfect VAR com- ( n , n - 1 ) or ( n - 1,n - 2 ) . The optimal strategy for maximum

pensation, all the variables in Eq.(l) assume real values, since loss reduction is to open the section (n-14-2) if A I < A , or to

1221

open the section (n,n-1) if A , >A,. Since A P is positive if reconfiguration is yet to be accomplished. The technique

E , > E n , the alternative switching options along one feeder are presented in this paper is basically load-flow-based and, hence,

directly eliminated. shows promising flexibility that will allow its ready incorpora-

tion into the overall feeder reconfiguration strategy.

I t can be also shown that the minimum value of A P

attainable by the closure of the tie switch between buses m and ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

n is

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support

(5) provided for this research by the industrial members of the

Electric Power Research Center, an industry/university

and this can be used in determining the switch to open. cooperative research center a t North Carolina State University.

that load is uniformly distributed throughout a single radial

feeder having no laterals. In such cases, the optimal location for "Bibliography on Distribution Automation" IEEE Tran-

the switch to be opened for minimal losses is found directly sactions on Power Apparatus €4 Systems, June 1984, pp.

from Eq.(4) as zoPl = ( E , - E,) l ( d R l o o p )where d is the 1176-1182

current density of the uniformly distributed load. The exten- P.C. Lyons, S.A. Thomas, "Microprocessor Based Control

sion of the above results to the combined case of concentrated of Distribution Systems," IEEE Transactions on Power

and/or continuously (but not necessarily uniformly) distributed Apparatus €4 Systems, December 1981, pp.4893-4899

loads should be immediate.

J.B. Bunch, L.A Demian, H.J. Fiedler,"A Distribution

Automation Evaluation Using Digital Techniques," IEEE

Transactions on Power Apparatus €4 Systems, 1985, pp

3169-3175

S.L. Purucker, T.W. Reddoch, J.S. Detwiler, L.D. Mon-

teen, "The Design of an Integrated Distribution Control

System," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus 8 Sys-

tems, March 1985, pp.745-752

D.W. Ross, J. Patton, A.I. Cohen, M.Carson, "New

Method For Evaluating Distribution Automation and

Power Apparatus €4 Systems, June 1981, pp.2978-2986

r;

(x'

teen, "Distribution Energy Control Center Experiment,"

IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus €4 Systems, June

1983, pp. 1582-1589

L.V. McCall, B.J. Chamber, "Defining A Distribution Sys-

tem For Computer-Controlled Distribution Automation,"

IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus €4 Systems,

August 1983, pp. 2665-2669

n n-1 n-2 n-3 J.R. Redmon, C.H. Gentz, "Affect of Distribution Auto-

mation and Control on Future System Configuration,"

IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus €4 Systems, April

1981

C.H. Castro, J.B. Bunch, T.M.Topka,"Generalized Algo-

Figure 4 ( a ) Notation on a two-feeder syatevti rithms for Distribution Feeder Deployment and Sectional-

( 6 ) The current distribution l ( z ) izing," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus 8 Systems,

March 1980, pp. 549-557

ORNL report DE-AC05-840R21400, 1985

CONCLUSIONS

Aoki K., Ichimori T., M. Kanezashi, It Normal State

This paper addresses, the problem of feeder Optimal Allocation in Distribution Systems," Presented in

reconfiguration in the context of feeder loss reduction. Compu- the IEEE Winter Power Meeting 1986, New York

tational complexity arising from the large dimensionality of the

problem is identified and a criterion is developed for reducing APPENDIX

the number of candidate options. Also developed is an interest-

ing and simple-to-use formula which removes the need to con-

duct numerous load flow studies thereby significantly reducing

A. Channe in Power Loss after a Load Transfer:

the computational requirements. Special situations are con- Let us suppose that Feeder-A, which is tree structured as

sidered under restricted assumptions to reveal the interesting shown in Figure A.l.a, has bus currents I , , I,, ..... ,In.The vec-

characteristics associated with the loss minimization problem. tor of these bus currents is represented as

The task of coordinating the scheme developed here and other

related control strategies to attain full benefits from feeder (A.1)

1222

To determine the additional losses incurred on the original

Feeder-A resulting from the addition of new loads, as shown in

Figure A.l.b, only the total additional load current I, at bus k

needs to be considered. Therefore, the vector of bus currents

after the addition of new loads is represented as

= I: RbA, I ; ('4.3)

where Rd,, is the real part of the bus impedance matrix of

Feeder-A. The power loss on the original Feeder-A after the

load addition is

P L = I , T R k 8 I,* (A.4)

From Eqs.(A.3) and (A.4) the change in power loss on Feeder-A

due to the load addition is

APlL = p i a s - pi:,, (A.5)

Representing Inas

I,, = I,, + AI (A9

where

AIT= [o 0 . . I, . . 03 (A.7) -

......

be shown that Figure A . 1 llppresenlatton of Feeder-A

(a) before the load fransjer

AP~,,=2ReIIZ Rk,(k,j)I,*I + 11, I R k b (kh)(A.8) ( b ) after the load transfer

] =1

One can easily note that the term iR i a (k,j)I j is the vol-

I=,

The resistances of the sections along the shortest paths as indi-

cated in Figure B.1 are represented by R I , j=1,2, ... and

tage drop between bus k and the substation assuming a purely RI', = 1,2,.... The voltage drop E , can be computed from

resistive equivalent feeder. Denoting this voltagedrop as fl

E, = c RbA,&J)I,

]=2

P.6)

Ek = ]=1 Rd,, (k,j) (A.9)

Here R& corresponds to Rhus of Feeder-A of Figure B.1.b

Eq.(A.B) can be rewritten as whereas RE, corresponds to that of Feeder-B of Figure B.1.a.

The change in power loss for the transferred feeder section

A P k , = 2 R e [ I , E:] + I I, I R k 3 (k,k) (A.10) which is shown with dashed lines in Figure B.l is

Here Rd,, (k,k)corresponds to the total resistance of the shor-

test path between bus k and the substation. APk,, = I Il I R , - 1 Il 1 R l (B.7)

F.Derivation of E a .fl)r. where R , is the resistance of the normally-open branch (1,l').

The proof is made by induction in three steps as follows : The total power loss will then be

Step - (i) : Prove that Eq.(l) is valid for transferring the A P l = AP,& i AP,& APkSa

i- (B.8)

lateral that carries a total current of I, connected to the tie bus Using the following identities

1 shown in Figure B.1.a from Feeder-A to Feeder-B, i.e.

E, = E, + I1 RI (B.9)

A P , = 2 R e [ I ,( E,, - E, )'] + I I , 1' Rloop (B.l)

where E,., E l are the voltages of the tie buses, computed using E2 = E2 - Wkm) (B.lO)

Eq.(A.9), and Rloopis already defined in the main text. Using and substituting Eqs. (B.4), (€3.9) and (B.10) into Eq. (B.2), it

Eq.(A.10) the changes in power losses on Feeder-A and Feeder- can be shown that

B (See Figure B.l) are f l

AP;,,= 2 R e [ - 1 1 El ']+lI1lz

AP;,, = - [Z Re ( I , E l ') + I I, I R& (2,2)] (B.2) ] =2

Rl+211112R1 ( ~ . i i )

AP&, = 2 Re [ I , E l f '] + I I , I obtained

R E , (1,l)

f 2

where Ap.&, = 2 Re [ I , E; '] + I I1 1 RI (B.12)

fl j=1

R A , (272) = c R,

j=2

Finally, from Eqs. (B.7), (B.11) and (B.12)

f 2

A P l = 2 R e [ I l ( E,, - E , )' 1+ 11, I Rloop (B.13)

RbBu6 (lY1) = Rf where

]=1

1223

Substituting Eqs.(B.18) and (B.19) into Eq.(B.l7), 6P can be

found as

6 P = 2 Re I Z O + ~ )( E l f ~ El ) * J

Step - (ii) : Assume that Eq.(l) is valid for opening the switch

o n section 1 of Figure B . l t o transfer the parts of the Feeder-A

t o Feeder-B, i.e. Upon substituting Eqs. (B.20) and (B.15) into Eq.(B.lG), it can

A P f = 2 Re [( Zl +Iz + . . . + I f )(El, ~ El) ' ] be readily verified t h a t the resulting A P ( / is that of Eq.(l)

(B.15) applied t o Figure B.1 when the ( 1 + 1 ) '"switch is opened.

+ I (I1 +I, +... + I f) l2 RIoop This completes the proof by induction.

where Zj represents the total current a t the j t h lateral along

the shortest path between bus 1 and the substation of Feeder-

A.

1 Discussion

Contributions to power loss reduction are strongly welcomed. This elegant

and well-written paper fulfills our expectation, offering a strategy to

perform optimum feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction, with minimized

computational effort. I have the following questions to the authors.

1) What were the adopted base values (V-base, S-base) for the data

shown in Table I and Table 2?

FEEDER A FEEDER B 2) Considering the three-feeder example system, and other real exam-

ples, what was the accuracy of the loss computation using Eq. (l),

compared to exact ac load flow analysis?

3) Should not the solution indicated by Eq. (1) be verified in respect to

voltage drop and conductor current restrictions?

I congratulate the authors for their didactic and mathematically rigorous

paper.

Manuscript received February 26, 1987.

thank the many discussers of the paper following its presentation at the

Winter Meeting in New Orleans. We especially appreciate the comments

Figure B . l The F e e d e r s - A an,d -U beJore a n d alter and very pertinent questions which Mr. De Lima has submitted. The data in

t h e t r a n s f e r of I , t o f e e d e r - B Tables 1 and 2 were developed to illustrate the procedure presented in the

paper. While the two example systems do not necessarily represent existing

feeders, we tried to pick realistic values. The base chosen for our study

analysis is 100 MVA, 23 kV. As far as the accuracy of the loss change

estimation formula is concerned, we would like to point out that the

development of Eq. (1) is conceptually based on a linear approximation

Step - (iii) : Now, we will prove that Eq.(l) is valid when the around the base-case operating point. Therefore, for any specified point, the

( l + 1)t h switch is opened. Let us first write accuracy depends upon the amount of deviation from the base-case value, as

depicted by solid and dotted lines in Fig. 3. It is also seen in Fig. 3 that in

A P ( f + l )= API + 6P (B.16) general, Eq. (I) slightly underestimates the amount of loss change when

compared with the value calculated by an ac load flow analysis. Finally, as

where 6 P is the incremental change in losses resulting from indicated by the discusser. any overload condition of facilities or abnormal

transferring the parts of the Feeder-A between switches 1 and voltage profile resulting from a load transfer should be examined and

(1+1) t o Feeder-B, t o which laterals 1,2,...,1 has already been avoided. In principle, a load transfer that would reduce feeder losses is

transferred (See Figure B.l). From Eq.(B.l) believed to improve the feeder voltage profile as well under most

circumstances.

6P = 2 R4Z(f+l) ( + q f + l ) )'I + l ~ ( / + 1 ) 1 2 ~ f 0 0 (B.17)

p

Manuscript received April 2, 1987

where B(I+l),El are the resistive voltage drops between the

substation and the buses (1+1) and I before lateral (1+1) is

transferred t o Feeder-B. It can be easily shown that

fz f

= El, + ( R , + 2 R,, ) ( 2 ' I ) (B.18)

J=l 1=1

+RI( i Z J ) +Rz(

1=2 1 =3

+ '.. +R(i-1)4

and

f l I

E(i+i)= E1 - ( 2 RI, ( C 1, (B.19)

1=(I + 1) ]=1

R l I1

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