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SOIL MECHANICS

&
SOIL INVESTIGATION

Part one

Dr.  Ir.  Luthfi  Hasan  

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aktif

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SOIL MECHANICS & SOIL INVESTIGATION

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Distribusi
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SOIL MECHANICS & SOIL INVESTIGATION
Contents

Part one :

p  Introduction of Soil Mechanics


p  Grain size
p  Mechanical Analysis of Soils
p  Soil Properties
p  Atterberg Limits & Consistency of Soil
p  Soil Classification
p  Insitu Stress & Stresses in a soil mass

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Main References
p  Das, B.M. (2002). Principles of Geotechnical
Engineering, 5th edition, Brooks/Cole Thomson
Learning

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KARL VON TERZAGHI
The Father of Soil Mechanics
1883 - 1963

•  The Norman medal of ASCE four times (1930, 1943,1946, 1955


•  Nine honorary doctorate degrees from universities in eight
different countries
•  started with modern soil mechanics : theories of consolidation,
lateral earth pressures, bearing capacity and stability
• Father of modern soil mechanics
• Born in Prague, Czechoslovakia
• Wrote “Erdbaumechanick” in 1925
• Taught at MIT (1925-1929)
• Taught at Harvard (1938 and after)
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SOIL MECHANICS
Soil Mechanics is one of the youngest disciplines of Civil
Engineering involving the study of soil, its behavior and
application as an engineering material

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING : Is a boarder term for Soil Mechanics


•  Soil Mechanics
•  Soil Dynamics
•  Foundation Engineering
•  Rock Mechanics
•  Geosynthetics
•  Pavement Engineering

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Typical Geotechnical Project
Design Office
Geo-Laboratory soil properties ~ for design & analysis
~ for testing

Soil
mechanics

construction site Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978


Soil

Particle size &


shape

ROCK Weathering process SOIL

Chemical & Physical Soil


structure

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Weathering product
p  Residual soils : their place of origin

p  Glacial soils : formed by transportation/deposition

p  Alluvial soils : formed by running water

p  Marine soils : formed by deposition in the seas

p  Aeolian soils : formed by wind

p  Colluvial soils : formed by movement & gravity

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Grain size

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Particle size

coarse BOULDERS > 200 mm


soils COBBLES 60 - 200 mm
coarse 20 - 60 mm
G
medium 6 - 20 mm
GRAVEL

Coarse fine 2 - 6 mm
soils coarse 0.6 - 2.0 mm
S
medium 0.2 - 0.6 mm
SAND
fine 0.06 - 0.2 mm

coarse 0.02 - 0.06 mm


M
Fine medium 0.006 - 0.02 mm
SILT
soils fine 0.002 - 0.006 mm

C CLAY < 0.002 mm


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Particle size

Rounded sand Angular sand Irregular sand

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Clay Mineral

2 µm

Hallosite

Kaolinite
17 µm
Monmorillonit
5 µm

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Silty clay – clay silt

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Main Soil Groups

p  Granular Soils


n  Sands and Gravels

p  Fine-Grained Soils


n  Silts and Clays

p  Organic Soils


n  Organic Silts and Clays, Peats, Mucks

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Granular soils

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Engineering Properties of Granular Soils

p  Excellent Foundation Material

p  The Best Embankment Material

p  The Best Backfill Material

p  Possibly Susceptible to Vibratory Forces

p  Dewatering is Quite Difficult

p  Not Frost Susceptible if Free Draining

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Fine-grained soils

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Cohesion

Excavations In Dry Excavations In Stiff


Sand Slopes WON’T Clay Slopes WILL
Stand Stand if H<HC

H Clay
Sand

No Cohesion Cohesion
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Mechanical Analysis of Soil

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Mechanical Analysis of soil

p  Sieve analysis (gravel, sand)

p  Hydrometer analysis (silt, clay)

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Sieve Analysis
p  Particle size larger than 0.074 mm (US No. 200
sieve) by means of sieving (sieve analysis)

p  Particle size finer than 0.074 mm (US No. 200


sieve) by means of sedimentation (hydrometer
analysis)

US standard sieve :
Sieve No. 4 10 20 40 60 100 140 200
Opening in mm 4.76 2.0 0.84 0.42 0.25 0.149 0.105 0.074

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Sieve
analysis

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Sieve Test

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Sieve analysis

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Sieve analysis

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Grain Size Distribution (Cont.)
Finer

Log scale
Effective size D10: 0.02 mm
D30: D60: (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

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Sieve analysis
Uniformity coefficient (Cu)

D60 Cu<5 Very uniform


Cu = Cu=5 Medium uniform
D10 Cu>5 Non uniform

Coefficient of gradation (Cg)(Cz)

2
D30 Cg = 1 s/d 3 :well graded
Cg =
D60 X D10

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Grain Size Distribution
p  Describe the shape p  Criteria

p Example: well graded Well − graded soil


D10 = 0.02 mm (effective size) 1 < C c < 3 and C u ≥ 4
D30 = 0.6 mm
(for gravels)
D 60 = 9 mm
1 < C c < 3 and C u ≥ 6
Coefficient of uniformity (for sands)
D 60 9
Cu = = = 450
D10 0.02
Coefficient of curvature
(D 30 ) 2 ( 0 .6) 2
Cc = = =2
(D10 )(D 60 ) (0.02)(9)

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Sieve & hydrometer analysis

Hydrometer Sieve analysis


analysis

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Hydrometer analysis

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Sedimentation
The  density  of  a  soil  suspension  decreases  
as  par9cles  se:le  out.  

1 minute Sand settles out


2 hours Silt settles out
suspension

silt 2 hrs.
1 min. sand

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Soil Properties

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Three Phases in Soils
S : Solid Soil particle
W: Liquid Water (electrolytes)
A: Air Air

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Soil properties

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Soil properties
Weight (Wt) = Ww+Ws

Volume (Vt) = Vv+Vs=Va+Vw+Vs

Also known as :
unit weight, bulk density, soil density, wet density

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Soil properties
= Ws
γs
Specific gravity : Gs =
γ w Vs. γ w

assumed Vs = 1 W s = Gs . γ w
W w + Ws
γ wet =
V
V = Va + V w + V s = V v + V s

γdry = W s V = Va + Vs Vw = 0
V
W w+Ws
γ sat = V = V w + Vs Vw = Vv
V
'
γ = γ sat − γ w
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Soil properties

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Case 1 :
In its natural state, a moist soil has a volume of 0.33 ft3 and
weighs 39.93 lb. The oven-dried weight of the soil is 34.54 lb.
If Gs =2.67, calculate :
a. Moisture content (%)
b. Moist unit weight (lb/ft3)
c. Dry unit weight (lb/ft3)
d. Void ratio
e. Porosity
f. Degree of saturation (%)

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Case 2 :
For a soil, the following are given : Gs=2.67, Moist unit
weight = 17.6 kN/m3, and Moisture content = 10.8%.
Determine :
a. Dry unit weight
b. Void ratio
c. Porosity
d. Degree of Saturation

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Atterberg Limits
&
Consistency of Soil

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Atterberg Limits
The presence of water in fine-grained soils can
significantly affect associated engineering behavior, so
we need a reference index to clarify the effects. (The
reason will be discussed later in the topic of clay minerals)

In percentage

(Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

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Atterberg Limits (Cont.)
Fluid soil-water
mixture Liquid State
Liquid Limit, LL
Increasing water content

Plastic State
Plastic Limit, PL
Semisolid State
Shrinkage Limit, SL
Solid State
Dry Soil

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Consistency of soil-Atterberg limit
•  LL = Liquid Limit = Wc (%) at which the transition from plastic to liquid
•  PL = Plastic Limit = Wc (%) at which the transition from semi solid to plastic
•  SL = Shrinkage Limit = Wc (%) at which the transition from solid to semi solid

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Consistency of soil-Atterberg limit
Liquid Limit

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Liquid Limit - Casagrande Method
• Device

N=25 blows
Closing distance =
12.7mm (0.5 in)

The water content, in percentage, required to close a


distance of 0.5 in (12.7mm) along the bottom of the
groove after 25 blows is defined as the liquid limitReg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Liquid Limit - Casagrande Method
• Multipoint Method

N Das, 1998
w1 − w2
Flow index, I F = (choose a positive value)
log(N 2 / N1 )
w = − I F log N + cont.
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Liquid Limit - Cone Penetrometer Method
• Device

This method is developed


by the Transport and Road
Research Laboratory.

(Head, 1992)

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Liquid Limit - Cone Penetrometer Method
• Multipoint Method
Penetration of cone

20 mm
(mm)

LL

Water content w%

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Comparison
A good correlation
between the two
methods can be
observed as the
LL is less than
100.

Littleton and Farmilo, 1977 (from Head, 1992)


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Consistency of soil-Atterberg limit
Plastic Limit

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Plastic Limit-PL

(Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

The plastic limit PL is defined as the water content at which


a soil thread with 3.2 mm diameter just crumbles.
ASTM D4318-95a, BS1377: Part 2:1990:5.3

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Shrinkage Limit-SL
Definition of shrinkage
limit:
The water content at
which the soil volume
ceases to change is
defined as the shrinkage
SL limit.

(Das, 1998)

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Shrinkage Limit-SL (Cont.)
Soil volume: Vi
Soil mass: M1

Soil volume: Vf
Soil mass: M2

(Das, 1998)

SL = w i (%) − Δw (%)
⎛ M1 − M 2 ⎞ ⎛ Vi − Vf ⎞
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟(100) − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟(ρ w )(100)
⎝ M 2 ⎠ ⎝ M 2 ⎠
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Typical Values of Atterberg Limits

(Mitchell, 1993)

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Plasticity & Liquidity Index
Plasticity index PI Liquidity index LI
For describing the range of For scaling the natural
water content over which a water content of a soil
soil was plastic sample to the Limits.

PI = LL – PL w − PL w − PL
LI = =
PI LL − PL
Liquid State C
w is the water content
Liquid Limit, LL
PI Plastic State B LI <0 (A), brittle fracture if sheared
Plastic Limit, PL 0<LI<1 (B), plastic solid if sheared
Semisolid State A LI >1 (C), viscous liquid if sheared
Shrinkage Limit, SL
Solid State
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Plasticity Index

PI = LL − PL

PI Description
0 Nonplastic
1-5 Slightly plastic
5-10 Low plasticity
10-20 Medium plasticity
20-40 High plasticity
>40 Very high plasticity

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Sensitivity Clay
particle
Sensitivity St (for clays)
w > LL
Water
Strength (undisturbed )
St =
Strength (disturbed)
Unconfined shear strength

(Holtz and Kavocs, 1981)


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Activity p Normal clays: 0.75<A<1.25
p Inactive clays: A<0.75
Activity A p Active clays: A> 1.25

(Skempton, 1953) p High activity:


p large volume change when
PI
A= wetted
% clay fraction ( weight) p Large shrinkage when dried
clay fraction : < 0.002 mm p Very reactive (chemically)

• Purpose
Both the type and amount of clay
in soils will affect the Atterberg
limits. This index is aimed to
separate them.

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Plasticity Chart
L H

PI

LL

(Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)


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Soil Classification

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Classification Systems
Two commonly used systems:

p  Unified Soil Classification System (USCS).

p American Association of State Highway


and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
System

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Unified Soil Classification System
(USCS)

Origin of USCS:
This system was first developed by Professor A. Casagrande (1948) for
the purpose of airfield construction during World War II. Afterwards, it
was modified by Professor Casagrande, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation,
and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to enable the system to be
applicable to dams, foundations, and other construction (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981).

Four major divisions:


(1)  Coarse-grained
(2)  Fine-grained
(3)  Organic soils
(4)  Peat

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Definition of Grain Size
No specific grain
size-use
Atterberg limits

Gravel Sand Silt and


Boulders Cobbles Clay
Coarse Fine Coarse Medium Fine

300 mm 75 mm No.4 No.200


4.75 mm 0.075
19 mm No.10 No.40 mm
2.0 mm 0.425 mm

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3.2 General Guidance
50 %
Coarse-grained soils: Fine-grained soils:
Gravel Sand Silt Clay
50% NO. 4 NO.200
4.75 mm 0.075 mm

LL>50
•  Grain size distribution • PL, LL LL <50
•  Cu • Plasticity chart
•  Cc
Required tests: Sieve analysis

Atterberg limit
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Symbols
Soil symbols: Liquid limit symbols:
p  G: Gravel p  H: High LL (LL>50)
p  S: Sand p  L: Low LL (LL<50)
p  M: Silt Gradation symbols:
p  C: Clay p  W: Well-graded
p  O: Organic p  P: Poorly-graded
p  Pt: Peat
Well − graded soil
Example: SW, Well-graded sand 1 < C c < 3 and C u ≥ 4
SC, Clayey sand (for gravels)
SM, Silty sand, 1 < C c < 3 and C u ≥ 6
(for sands)
MH, Elastic silt
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Plasticity Chart
L H
• The A-line generally
separates the more
claylike materials
from silty materials,
PI
and the organics
from the inorganics.
• The U-line indicates
the upper bound for
general soils.

Note: If the measured


limits of soils are on
the left of U-line,
LL they should be
rechecked.
(Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

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Procedures for Classification

Coarse-grained
material
Grain size
distribution

Fine-grained
material
LL, PI

Highly

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Passing No.200 sieve 30 % LL= 33
Example Passing No.4 sieve 70 % PI= 12

Passing No.200 sieve 30 %

Passing No.4 sieve 70 %

LL= 33
PI= 12
PI= 0.73(LL-20), A-line
PI=0.73(33-20)=9.49

SC
(≥15% gravel)
Highly
Clayey sand with
gravel
(Santamarina et al., 2001)
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American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials System (AASHTO)

Origin of AASHTO: (For road construction)


This system was originally developed by Hogentogler and
Terzaghi in 1929 as the Public Roads Classification System.
Afterwards, there are several revisions. The present AASHTO
(1978) system is primarily based on the version in 1945. (Holtz and
Kovacs, 1981)

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Definition of Grain Size
No specific
grain size-use
Atterberg
limits
Boulders Gravel Sand Silt-Clay

Coarse Fine

75 mm No.4 No.200
4.75 mm 0.075
No.40 mm
0.425 mm

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General Guidance
n  8 major groups: A1~ A7 (with several subgroups) and
organic soils A8
n  The required tests are sieve analysis and Atterberg limits.
n  The group index, an empirical formula, is used to further
evaluate soils within a group (subgroups).
A1 ~ A3 A4 ~ A7

Granular Materials Silt-clay Materials


≤ 35% pass No. 200 sieve ≥ 36% pass No. 200 sieve
Using LL and PI separates silty materials Using LL and PI separates silty materials
from clayey materials (only for A2 group) from clayey materials

n  The original purpose of this classification system is used


for road construction (subgrade rating).

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Group Index
The first term is determined by the LL

GI = (F200 − 35)[0.2 + 0.005(LL − 40)]


+ 0.01(F200 − 15)(PI − 10)
The second term is determined by the PI

For Group A-2-6 and A-2-7


GI = 0.01(F200 − 15)(PI − 10) use the second term only
F200: percentage passing through the No.200 sieve

In general, the rating for a pavement subgrade is


inversely proportional to the group index, GI.

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Classification

Das, 1998

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Classification (Cont.)

Note:
Das, 1998
The first group from the left to fit the test data is the
correct AASHTO classification.
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Passing No.200 86%
LL=70, PI=32
Example LL-30=40 > PI=32
Passing No.200 86% GI = (F200 − 35)[0.2 + 0.005(LL − 40)]
LL=70, PI=32 + 0.01(F200 − 15)(PI − 10)
LL-30=40 > PI=32 A-7-5(33)
= 33.47 ≅ 33 Round off

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Insitu Stress
&
Stresses in a Soil Mass

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Stress in the ground
load

Water in Solid
the pores grains

•  the increase in the pressure within the pore water causes drainage

•  the rate of drainage depends on the permeability of soil

•  the strength of the soil depend on the stresses within the solid granular

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Total Stress in homogeneous soil

σ v = γ.z
γ = moist unit weight

Dry soil : γd = 14-20 kN/m3


Saturated soil : γsat= 18-23 kN/m3
Moist soil : in between

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Total Stress below a river

σ v = γ sat .z + γ w . z w

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Total Stress in multi-layered soil

σv = γ1. d1 + γ 2 . d2 + γ 3 (z − d1 − d2)

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Total Stress in unsaturated soil

γ sat

σv = γ. z w + γ sat (z − z w )
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Total Stress with a surface surcharge load

σv = γ.z + q

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Pore pressure

hw
hw
u = γ w .hw

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Effective stress

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Case 1
A
3m
sand
B
γ =16.50 kN/m3
3m

C ∇
ξ Calculate :
Total stress,
pore water pressure and
13 m Clay
effective stress
γsat=19.25 kN/m3
At A,B C and D

D
Impermeable layer

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Case 2
A
sand
5 γ =112 lb/ft3
feet
B ∇
ξ
Clay
6 feet Calculate :
γsat=120 lb/ft3
Total stress,
C
pore water pressure and
Clay effective stress
8
feet γsat=125 lb/ft3 At A,B C and D

D
Impermeable layer

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σtotal = σeff + u
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Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Boussinesq Pressure Isobars
Square Continuous

1.5B 1B B/2 B/2 1B 2B 3B

1B 1B

2B 2B

3B 3B

4B 4B

5B

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
6B
Boussinesq Pressure Distribution
q

B Square Footing
B 3/2 B 2B
.70q
.40q
.05q
½B
.34q
.24q
.09q
B ≤

.18q .14q .09q


3/2 B

.14q .10q .07q


2B
Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
2 : 1 Pressure Distribution
q

1
B 2
Δq = 0.44q

B/2

Δq = 0.25q
B

P P
ΔP = ΔP =
( B + Z )2 ( B + Z )( L + Z )

(Square Footing) (Rectangular Footing)


Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Comparison of 2:1 and
Boussinesq Distribution
q

1
0.7q
2
rq = 0.44q
B/2
2:1
0.34q
rq = 0.25q
B
Boussinesq

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Stress caused by a point load
Boussinesq (1883) :

P ⎧⎪3 x 2 z ⎡ x 2 − y 2 2 ⎤ ⎫
y z ⎪
Δ σx = ⎨ 5 − (1 − 2µ )⎢ 2 + 3 2 ⎥ ⎬
2π ⎪ L ⎢⎣L r (L + z ) L r ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
⎩

2 ⎡ y 2 − x 2 2 ⎤ ⎫
P ⎧⎪ 2 y z x z ⎪
Δ σy = ⎨ 5 − (1 − 2µ )⎢ 2 + 3 2 ⎥ ⎬
2π ⎪ L ⎢⎣L r (L + z ) L r ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
⎩

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Stress caused by a point load

3P z3 3P z
3
Δ σz = 5
=
2π L 2π 2 5/2
(r 2
+z )
where

2
r = x2 + y
2
L = x 2 + y + z2 = r 2 + z2

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Stress caused by a line load

2q z3
Δ σz =
πx( 2+ 2 2 )
z

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
case

Hitung tambahan tegangan vertikal di A


Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
The aims of soil compaction

p  Increase shear strength

p  Reduce compressibility

p  Reduce permeability

p  Reduce liquefaction hazard

p  Stabilize soil slope

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

p  Compaction is the densification of soil by


removing of air, which requires mechanical
energy

p  The degree of compaction of a soil is measured in


terms of its dry unit weight (γd)

p  The moisture content at which the maximum dry


unit weight is attained is generally referred to as
the optimum moisture content

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction
p  The important elements in soil compaction
- soil type
- soil moisture content
- compaction effort required

p  The principle reasons to compact soil :


- Increases strength
- Decreases permeability
- Reduces settlement of foundation
- Increases slope stability of embankments

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Result of poor compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Fill materials Compaction difficulty


Gravel Very easy

Sand Easy

Silt Some

Clay Very difficult

Organic Very difficult

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Soil compaction

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Test Equipment
Standard Proctor test equipment

Das, 1998
Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Types of tests
p  Hand test for moisture content

p  Proctor test (ASTM D1557-91)

for high shearing strength

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Field compaction equipment
For cohesive soils
High impact

For granular soils


Shaking or vibratory

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Case
The result of a standard proctor test are given below. Determine the maximum
dry unit weight of compaction and the optimum moisture content

Volume of Weight of wet


proctor mold Moisture
soil in the mold
content (%)
(ft3) (lb)
1/30 3.26 8.4
1/30 4.15 10.2
1/30 4.67 12.3
1/30 4.02 14.6
1/30 3.63 16.8

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Field test
•  Sand cone
•  Ballon Dens meter
•  Shelby tube
•  Nuclear gauge

γ d( field)
R(%) = X100
γ d(max −lab )

R = % field dry unit weight


Sand cone
Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Field Compaction Equipment
and Procedures

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment
Smooth-wheel roller (drum)
•  100% coverage under the
wheel
• Contact pressure up to 380 kPa
•  Can be used on all soil types
except for rocky soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
• The most common use of large
smooth wheel rollers is for
proof-rolling subgrades and
compacting asphalt pavement.
Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment (Cont.)
Pneumatic (or rubber-tired) roller

• 80% coverage under the wheel


• Contact pressure up to 700 kPa
•  Can be used for both granular
and fine-grained soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.
• Can be used for highway fills or
earth dam construction.

Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment (Cont.)
Sheepsfoot rollers
• Has many round or rectangular
shaped protrusions or “feet”
attached to a steel drum
• 8% ~ 12 % coverage
• Contact pressure is from 1400
to 7000 kPa
• It is best suited for clayed soils.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.

Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment (Cont.)
Tamping foot roller

• About 40% coverage


• Contact pressure is from 1400
to 8400 kPa
•  It is best for compacting fine-
grained soils (silt and clay).
• Compactive effort: static weight
and kneading.

Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment (Cont.)
Mesh (or grid pattern) roller
• 50% coverage
• Contact pressure is from 1400
to 6200 kPa
•  I t i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r
compacting rocky soils, gravels,
and sands. With high towing
speed, the material is vibrated,
crushed, and impacted.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and vibration.

Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978
Equipment (Cont.)
• Vertical vibrator attached to
Vibrating drum on smooth-wheel smooth wheel rollers.
roller • The best explanation of why
roller vibration causes
densification of granular soils is
that particle rearrangement
occurs due to cyclic deformation
of the soil produced by the
oscillations of the roller.
• Compactive effort: static weight
and vibration.
• Suitable for granular soils

Holtz and Kovacs, 1981

Reg : 1.2.500.2.31.09.03.02978