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In the previous section we saw that plugging random points in to a function of two

variables gave almost no enli4articular function is to picture its graph. We�ll

get to this in the d to graph a function of a single variable, like g(x) = 3x.
eu would plot (2, 6) because 6 = 3 � 2.
ve coordinates, like (x, y, z).

e da je u opsegu od
+10OC do +35OC.

Ratingen is locatie to time. Be certain to select a product designed for use on

wood floors.
Certain chemicals in wood6rom the Oak Flooring Institute, an affiliate
of NOFMAty installing a humidifier.
Wood floors can be refinished. The old method was to sand the floor with a power
sander, which created dust throughout the area. Basic Coating�s TyKote Recoating
system is
the easiest and proven way to repots as an intermediate bonding layer between the

of his earlier masterpiece destroyed by fire, prompted this trend. Once again old
arguments were called forth to justify the new turn of events. The German archi-
tect and hisl can be spsius argued that his era, "so full of intelligence,"

the production of modern vehicles and ships, and saw the Queen Anne style led
by Richard Norman Shaw as superior tovngly technocratic vision of the fu-
ture was fundamentally opposed to Crane's anticommercialism and socialism.
Crane had argued that the corruption of popular taste was caused by a vulgariza-
tion of manufacture and commerce induced by industrialization. Wagner, on the
contrary, saw the cause of the decline of taste to be historicism's failure to
quickly enough to the adage "Time is money," thus not allowing the beneficial and
expurgating effect of technological improvements to be realized. Streiter, who was
himself more in step with English developments, went so far as to characterize
Wagner's "naive" faith in capitalist redemption as tantamount to "practical
Manchesterism," which, if enacted, would re-create the worst horrors of parvenu
taste of the last half of the century.83
It was Wagner's rejection of architectural eclecticism, rather than his political
acumen, that gave Modern Architecture its historical importance. Wagner was the
first European architect to state publicly his break with the past, although his
position initially was not entirely unequivocal. In the first edition of 1896 he
times professes a willingness to accommodate aspects of the historical language of
form, to rework or modify elements of the traditional vocabulary to meet modern
demands. By the third edition of 1902, however, he is adamant that a radical
break with the past has to be made and a new beginning sought. For example, a
reference in the first edition to "furthering our inherited traditions" is deleted
in the
second edition of 1898 (p. 129, te. 51). In commenting on the new shapes cre-
ated by modern technology, Wagner says in the first edition, "They all recall the
forms of past times..."; the second edition reads, "They scarcely recall the forms
of past times..."; the third edition is emphatic, "They do not recall the forms of

works of the next decade in which he implements this new construction method, in
particular, the Church of Saint Leopold Am Steinhof (1904-1907) and the
Postal Savings Bank (1904-1906 and 1910-1912) (fig. 7). In both cases brick
structures are sheathed or dressed with thin sheets of marble, set in a mortar bed,
and seemingly anchored to the wall with metal bolts, themselves capped with
aluminum heads. The number and spacing of the bolts in various panels is manip-
ulated. In the center panels of the Postal Savings Bank the heads are enlarged and
more densely concentrated (decorative tiles are shown in the competition draw-
ing); at one stage in the design Wagner wanted the anchor caps in the center to be
gilded so as to be seen better from the Ringstrasse, one block away. The panels of
the bank's lower two stories are also cambered to give the appearance of a heavier,
rusticated course. The Church Am Steinhof has two bases of stone: the lower a
fieldstone, the upper a random-range ashlar. Still, the smooth cladding panels of
both buildings, with their prominently displayed anchoring devices, are the princi-
pal elevational motifs employed in this modern way of building.
Yet the anchor bolts had only a limited "functional" value. The critics who re-
viewed these buildings at the time of their completion, as Peter Haiko has noted,
were quite aware that the enhanced and articulated bolts only held the panels in
place during the first three weeks of construction while the binding mortar bed
hardened.95 In essence, they were little more than a decoratively treated form-
work. Such an ornamental conception, says Haiko, is a clever reversal of tradi-
tional logic; the construction is not enriched with ornament expressive of its pur-
pose, but rather the decoration (the bolt heads) is invested with a constructional
meaning seemingly inspired by necessity. Haiko has termed this decorative artifice
"symbolic functionalism," in that the bolts represent the technological, economic,
and time-saving attributes of this type of construction. It was the appearance,
rather than the reality, upon which Wagner's artistic conception was based.
Moreover, it is not just the bolt heads and surface texture that pass beyond a
constructional logic. The cambered panels on the first two stories of the Postal
Savings Bank, which up close are detailed in such a way as to reveal and em-
phasize their purpose as applique, allude to a bank's classical image of impreg-
nability. The concentration of enlarged bolt heads and the projecting blocks in the
upper story (shown in the competition drawing as blue tiles) are abstract residues
of a traditional frieze. The building as a whole, like all of Wagner's designs, is
centralized in a traditional compositional massing. Everywhere, it seems, Wag-
Parquet comprises individual pieces of wood, called �billets.� These are generally
made of
oak, from 3/8 to 3/4 inch thick, joined together to form a variety of patterns.
These small
pieces are held together by various methods: a metal spline, gluing to a mesh of
paper, or
gluing to a form of cheesecloth. Sizes vary from 9 to
19 inches square.
There are many parquet patterns and most manufacturers make a similar variety of
patterns, although the names may vary. One company will name a pattern
Jeffersonian, an-
other Monticello or Mt. Vernon, but they are variations of the same pattern. This
design is made with a central block surrounded by pickets on all four sides. The
center may
be made of solid wood, a laminated block, five or six strips all in the same
direction, or a
standard unit of four sets.
Designers need a word of warning about using some parquet patterns that may have
direction (for example, the herringbone pattern). Depending on whether the pieces
are laid
parallel to the wall or at an angle, a client may
see L�s, zigzags, or arrows. The important thing
to consider is the client�s expectations.
To reduce expansion problems caused by moisture, the oak flooring industry has
oped several types of parquets. The laminated or engineered block is a product that
far less expansion and contraction with moisture changes and, therefore, can be
installed below grade in basements and in humid climates. It can even fit tight to
vertical ob-
structions. Blocks can be glued directly to the concrete with several types of
adhesive, which
the industry is making VOC compliant. One concern in the past has been a laminated
ability to be sanded and refinished. Because the face layer is oak, with proper
the initial service life can be expected to be 20 to 30 years. Any of the laminated
products on
the market today can be sanded and refinished (at least twice) using proper
techniques and
equipment, so the expected life of a laminated block floor is 60 to 90 years.
Parquet flooring is packed in cartons with a specific number of square feet. When
ing parquet flooring, only whole cartons are shipped, so the allowance for cutting
may be
taken care of with the balance of the carton.
All the parquet woods mentioned in this section are quarter sawn or plain sawn, but

some species are cut across the growth rings (end grained). End-grain patterns are
by small cross-cut pieces attached into blocks or strips with the end grain
exposed. The
thickness may vary from 1 inch to 4 inches, depending on the manufacturer. One-and-
inches of end-grain block have insulating qualities equal to 23 inches of concrete.
end-grain block floors are still in place after more than 40 years of heavy in-
dustrial use. These blocks absorb noise and vibration and have been installed
in museums and libraries.
Figure 4.6 illustrates the differences between on, above, and below grade.
Above grade is not a problem for installation of wood floors, because no mois-
ture is present. As mentioned earlier, moisture is the major cause of problems
with wood. On grade means that the concrete floor is in contact with the
ground. The floor usually has drainage gravel as a base, covered by a polyeth-
ylene film to prevent moisture from migrating to the surface. The concrete is
then poured on top of this polyethylene sheet. Below grade means a basement
floor in which the presence of moisture is an even greater problem. All freshly
poured concrete should be allowed to cure for 30 to 60 days.
The National Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association (NOFMA) recom-
mends testing for excessive moisture in several areas of each room on both old
and new slabs. When tests show too much moisture in the slab, do not install
hardwood floors. For a moist slab, wait until it dries naturally or accelerate