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Test Bank for Childrens Thinking 5th Edition by Bjorklun


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I. Basic concepts in cognitive development


A. Cognition
1. can’t be observed directly, so must infer cognitive process based on
observable behaviors
2. includes unconscious and nondeliberate processes used to solve problems
3. macromechanisms – conscious, higher-order cognitive processing
4. micromechanisms – unconscious, basic processes
B. Development
1. Changes in structure (can be physical or psychological) and function
(actions related to a structure) over time
2. Structure and function are bi-directional
C. Developmental Function and Individual Differences
1. This text covers developmental functioning (age-related changes over time)
and individual differences in cognition
2. Assessment of individual functions are based on averages, with individual
variations being seen as unimportant.

II. The Five Truths of Cognitive Development


A. Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
1. interested not in whether biology and environment contribute to a
cognitive outcome, but how they interact
2. “innate” implies genetically-based constraints on development
a. representational constraints
b. architectural constraints
c. chronotopic constraints
3. dynamic systems approaches
1. development is continuous and bi-directional at all levels
b. self-organization – patterns emerge from a complex system
c. changes are nonlinear, but stable patterns emerge and can be
studied
d. phase changes – abrupt move from one stable pattern to another
B. Cognitive Development is Constructed within a Social Context
1. the social environment plays an important role in determining a child’s
development
2. developmental contextualism
3. sociocultural perspectives
4. evolutionary theory
C. Cognitive Development Involves both Stability and Plasticity over Time
1. stability – the extent to which the same rank relative to their peers on some
aspect of congnition over time.
2. plasticity – the extent to which some developed cognitive skill can be altered
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3. some cognitive skills are relatively stable and static over time, while others may
be more dynamic and susceptible to change
D. Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is Represented
1. representation – the mental encoding of information
2. there are qualitative differences in the way information is encoded as children
age
E. Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control over their Behavior and Cognition
1. how do children go about solving problems that may have multiple paths to a
correct answer?
2. becoming a strategic learner
3. executive functions – basic cognitive processes, including attention, planning,
behavioral flexibility, and manipulating information in memory.
F. Two Additional Topics
1. The importance of taking an evolutionary perspective
2. Cognitive development involves changes in both domain-general and domain-
specific abilities
a. Modularity
b. Case: are minds a general problem solving devise or a collection of
unique modules

Key Terms
architectural constraints (or innateness) function
bidirectionality of structure and function genetic determinism
(structure  function) individual differences
chronotopic constraints (or innateness) modularity
cognition nativism
development (ontogeny) plasticity (of cognition and behavior)
developmental contextual model representation
developmental function representational constraints (or innateness)
domain-general abilities self- organization
domain-specific abilities sociocultural perspectives
dynamic system stability
empiricism strategies
executive function structure

Additional Suggested Readings (Available Through InfoTrac)

Ablard, K. E. & Mills, C. J. (1996). Implicit theories of intelligence and self-perceptions of


academically talented adolescents and children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
25(2), 137-148. Article A18395616

Asbury, K., Dunn, J. F., Pike, A., & Plomin, R. (2003). Nonshared environmental influences on
individual differences in early behavioral development: A monozygotic twin differences
study. Child Development, 74(3), 933-943. Article A102791834
Full file at https://testbanku.eu/

Lawson, A. E. (2002). The origin of conditional logic: does a cheater detection module exist?
Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(4), 425-444. Article A95514336
Full file at https://testbanku.eu/

Prichard, O. (July 28, 2003). Father and son on death row: Nature or nurture? Knight
Ridder/Tribune News Service, K6391. Article CJ105959354

Ridley, M. (June 2, 2003). What makes you who you are: Which is stronger--nature or nurture?
The latest science says genes and your experience interact for your whole life. Time,
161(22), 54. Article A102361760

Wilson, K. M. & Swanson, H. Lee. (2001). Are mathematics disabilities due to a domain-
general or a domain-specific working memory deficit? Journal of Learning Disabilities,
34(3), 237-248. Article A75277612

Web Links

For a general overview of cognitive development, click on the cognitive development module at
http://cogsci.uncc.edu/# . The other modules don’t specifically deal with cognitive development,
but they are good resources on topics in cognitive science. These modules were developed by
the Cognitive Science Academy at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101030602/
Read a series of articles exploring the relative importance of genes and environment in "making
you who you are."

http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy-2.html
How much free will do we really have? Read a sociological social psychology perspective at

http://www.cogdevsoc.org/
The Cognitive Development Society.

InfoTrac Keyword Search

Nature and nurture


Domain general
Stability of intelligence
Cognitive Development

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to…

1. Define cognitive development, including the concepts of development, cognition,


structure and function.

2. Understand the importance of cognitive immaturity.


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3. Describe the nature of the relationship between structure and function. Provide research
evidence to support your position.

4. Characterize the extreme views of “nature” influence vs. “nurture” influence, and discuss
how the two interact in development.

5. Discuss “innateness” and the contributions of representational, architectural, and chronotopic


constraints.

6. Explain the difference between domain-general and domain-specific abilities and how
they enter into cognitive development.

7. Identify examples of developmental changes in intentional control.

Discussion Questions

1. Identify an example of cognitive immaturity and speculate on how it might be adaptive at a


specific point in development.

2. Do you think intelligence is stable over time or is it subject to change? If it changes, under
what circumstances would do so?

3. What is the relationship (if any) between biological and environmental forces and stability
and plasticity. In other words, are biological influences stable or plastic? How about
environmental influences? Are there any exceptions to your position?

4. Speculate on how a child’s representation of the sun’s apparent movement across the sky
might change as the child developed. Are these changes due to qualitative changes in
thinking or quantitative changes in knowledge?

Topics/Classroom Activities

Getting to Know You


I like to begin each new term by learning the names of all students in the class. This works
for small to medium size classes. I have the students pair up with someone they don’t know and
interview each other for about 5-10 minutes. They find out the interviewee’s name, class
standing, hometown, what they want to be doing five years from now, and one interesting fact
about themselves (that they are willing to make public!). Each person introduces the person they
interviewed to the class, along with the information gleaned from the interview. The entire class
then practices the first names of everyone using cumulative rehearsal (as each person is
introduced the class recites all the names learned thus far and adds on the new one). This can
take a lot of time for larger classes, but it seems to jump-start bonding, comfort with speaking in
class, and helps me learn names.
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Interaction of Nature and Nurture


Plant two of the same kind of seeds in two separate containers. After they have sprouted,
provide optimal growing conditions for one container and poor conditions for the other (e.g.,
dark room, inadequate water). Both plants should be viable, but one should look much healthier
than the other. Take these to class and ask students if genetics or environment is responsible for
the differences between the two plants. On the one hand, they are obviously the same kind of
plant (same leaves, color, etc.). However, one plant is smaller (more wilted, paler, etc.) than the
other. Work toward a discussion of how genes and environment interacted to produce the
different-but-not-completely-different outcomes. An alternative is to start with two plants as
identical as you can find, and proceed as above.

Writing Assignment

How has the concept of stage-like development (with its characteristics of qualitative
change, discontinuity, and homogeneity of function) entered into mainstream thinking about
cognitive development? Think about how these concepts are illustrated by educational practices.

InfoTrac Exercise

Do people have an evolved, domain-specific ability to detect cheating, or do they


recognize cheating due to domain-general logic? If the first possibility is true, then should there
be any difference in performance on logical tasks that involve cheating and those that don’t
involve cheating? What would you predict if the domain-general hypothesis is correct? Briefly
summarize the five experiments presented here. What was the author’s conclusion, and what
evidence did he use to support his conclusion?
Lawson, A. E. (2002). The origin of conditional logic: Does a cheater detection module exist?
Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(4), 425(20). Article A95514336

Test Bank Questions

Select the one best answer for each item.

1. Evolution has provided each species with tools for survival and the ability to
adapt to changing environments. Bjorklund argues that the most important tool
provided by evolution for the human species is
a. language.
b. problem-solving ability.
c. consciousness.
d. intelligence.
REF: Introduction
ANS: D

WWW 2. Evolution has provided human beings with the ability to _____________, an
ability that has not been provided to lower animals.
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a. use language
b. adapt to changes in their environment
* c. change their environment
d. experience self-conscious emotions
REF: Introduction
ANS: C

3. Psychologists who study cognition typically measure cognitive function by


a. examining different patterns of brain function, such as the patterns in
which neurons fire.
b. asking people to reflect upon their thinking processes and report how they
think.
c. inferring cognition from different behaviors that can be observed
directly.
d. direct observation of the cognitive structures and their functions in the
brain.
REF: Cognition
ANS: C

4. Cognition refers to
a. overt, observable behaviors.
b. mental processes or faculties by which knowledge is acquired and
manipulated.
c. the genetic inheritance determining one's level of intelligence.
d. the interaction of nature and nurture with regard to one's intelligence.
REF: Cognition
ANS: B

5. Those mental processes that are within an individual’s conscious awareness are
called _________, while those that are outside of conscious awareness are called
_________.
a. cognitive processes; developmental processes
b. macromechanisms; micromechanisms
c. developmental processes; cognitive processes
d. micromechanisms; macromechanisms
REF: Cognition
ANS: B

6. Which of the following is an example of a micromechanism?


a. Developing a problem-solving plan
b. Executing the plan for solving a problem
c. The initial encoding of a stimulus related to solving a problem
d. Evaluating the success of a problem-solving plan
REF: Cognition
ANS: C
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7. Which of the following is an example of a macromechanism?


a. The initial encoding of a stimulus
b. The classifying of a stimulus
c. Dreaming
d. Developing a problem-solving plan
REF: Cognition
ANS: D

8. Development refers to
a. physical growth only.
b. mental changes only.
c. changes in structure or function over time.
d. the maintenance of structure and function over time.
REF: Development
ANS: C

WWW 9. Developmental function refers to


a. the purpose of development.
b. the functional value of development.
c. the form that development takes over time.
d. the patterns of intellectual aptitudes that differ among individuals.
REF: Development
ANS: C

10.Which of the following best reflects the differences between structure and
function, when speaking of cognitive development?
a. Structure refers to the brain; function refers to the mind.
b. Structure refers to the mechanics of cognition; function refers to the
content.
c. Structure refers to the organization of thoughts; function refers to their
construction.
d. Structure refers to hypothetical mental construct, faculty, or ability that
changes with age; function refers to the actions related to the structure.
REF: Development
ANS: D

11. Suppose a child's inherent characteristics, such as her activity level, influence her
behaviors and the experiences she has. Further suppose that these influence her
underlying cognitive or behavioral structures. This scenario best illustrates which
of the following themes in cognitive development?
a. the bidirectional relationship between structure and function
b. the continuity versus discontinuity view of development
c. the stage-like quality of nature versus nurture effects
d. homogeneity of behavioral and cognitive functioning
REF: Development
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ANS: A

12. Individual differences in cognitive development describe the

a. substantial variability of cognitive functions both between and within


different individuals.
b. different growth rates of areas of the brain that differentiate individuals.
c. diverse combinations of talents, aptitudes and likes and dislikes that
differentiate individuals.
d. differential effects of the environment upon children of a given age.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: A

13. Which of the following best reflects the difference between developmental
function and individual differences in cognitive development?
a. Developmental function concerns processes underlying development,
whereas individual differences concern the surface-level changes in
development.
b. Developmental function concerns changes in the form that cognition takes
over time, whereas individual differences concern the patterns of
intellectual aptitudes that differ among children of a given age.
c. Developmental function concerns the purpose of development, whereas
individual differences concern the mechanics of development.
d. Developmental function concerns the development of cognitive processes,
whereas individual differences concern the development of personality
traits.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: B

WWW 14. Piaget believed that the activity of the child (or activity of the child’s mental
structures) promoted changes in schemes. This illustrates
a. how structures determine function.
b. the bidirectionality of structure and function.
c. reciprocity of neurons and synapses.
d. sensorimotor functioning.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: B
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15 Research examining the bidirectionality of structure and function involved


disrupting the development of:
a. chickens
b. rats
c. rabbits
d. rhesus monkeys
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: A

16. According to Piaget, there is a bidirectional effect of structure and function with
regard to cognitive development. This view holds that
a. the activity of mental structures is a necessary condition for their change
and development.
b. cognition is a necessary condition for the proper growth and development
of the brain.
c. structures must be fully and correctly developed in order to function
properly.
d. structures follow a fixed pattern of development, regardless of their
function.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: A

17. Young infants' relatively poor perceptual abilities and preschool children's
tendencies to overestimate their physical and cognitive skills are examples of
a. the progressive nature of cognition.
b. the adaptive nature of cognitive immaturity.
c. developmental delays which can be mediated by appropriate intervention.
d. individual differences.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: B

18. One practical application of the adaptive nature of cognitive immaturity is


a. the view that developmentally delayed children can (and should) be
encouraged to attain age-appropriate skills.
b. the view that children with learning disabilities can (and should) be
encouraged to attain age-appropriate skills.
c. the knowledge that developmentally delayed and learning disabled
children cannot acquire even surface level advancements in behavior.
d. the view that immature cognition may help developmentally delayed
children master certain skills.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: D

19. Ariel, a four-year-old, tends to overestimate her ability to do various things. She
is probably
a. developing normally and her overconfidence is actually beneficial.
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b. at risk because she doesn’t have a realistic idea of what she can do.
c. in need of psychiatric intervention because she is in denial about her self-
efficacy.
d. in need of evaluation; she apparently has a disability that must be
overcome.
REF: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
ANS: A

20. Dr. Peterson, a developmental psychologist, thinks that children are born with
only species-general learning mechanisms. Cognitive development is the result
of experience. Dr. Peterson holds the philosophical view called
a. systemic development.
b. structuralism.
c. nativism.
d. empiricism.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: D

21. There are many views of how nature and nurture interact in the development of
the individual. The view that holds that nature provides only species-general
learning mechanisms, with cognition arising primarily as a result of experience,
is known as
a. nativism.
b. empiricism.
c. transactionalism.
d. interactionism.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: B

WWW 22. A ________ would believe that some aspects of human intelligence, such as
knowledge that a solid object can’t pass through another solid object, are innate.
a. nativist
b. empiricist
c. developmentalist
d. dualist
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: A

23. A behavior that is subject to some genetically-based restriction is best thought of


as
a. innate.
b. developmental.
c. an expertise.
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d. environmentally determined.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: A

24. Basic ideas about the world that seem to be hard-wired into the brain are known
as
a. architectural constraints.
b. representational constraints.
c. developmental constraints.
d. modular constraints.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: B

25. Some suggest that infants are born with some innate ideas about simple addition
and subtraction. This is a(n) _________________ constraint.
a. architectural
b. representational
c. innate
d. numerical
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: D

26. The ways in which the brain is organized at birth, governing the type and manner
in which information can be processed by the brain, are referred to as
a. architectural constraints.
b. representational constraints.
c. developmental constraints.
d. modular constraints.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: A

WWW 27. There is research that suggests that human children are born with certain parts of
the brain that are hard-wired to recognize the appearance of upright faces. This is an
example of a(n) ______________ constraint.
a. architectural
b. representational
c. developmental
d. modular
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: A
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28. Chronotopic constraints refer to


a. representations that are hard-wired into the brain so that some types of
knowledge are innate.
b. ways in which the architecture of the brain is organized at birth.
c. limitations on the developmental timing of events.
d. general, underlying cognitive abilities that influence performance over a
wide range of situations.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: C

29. Some young birds can learn their species-typical song at only one point in
development (not before or after that time). This is an example of a(n)
___________ constraint.
a. contextual
b. representational
c. chronotopic
d. song acquisition
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: C

30. Young Jorian, at just 8 months of age, is starting to repeat some of the sounds
that his father and mother make to him. First he will babble the consonants he hears,
and in a while he will probably say his first full word. The fact that babbling must
come before his first word is spoken is an example of a _________ constraint.
a. representational
b. innate
c. empirical
d. chronotopic
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: D

WWW 31. According to the ________________ approach to development, complex


characteristics emerge from the spontaneous interaction among simpler components.
a. stage theory
b. transactional
c. dynamic systems
d. empirical
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: C
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32. _______________ is the process in which pattern and order emerge from
interaction of the components of a complex system; it is neither exclusively innate
nor the exclusive result of learning.
a. determinism
b. self-organization
c. linear change
d. attractors
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: B

33. Which statement best represents the dynamic systems view of development?
a. Development is emergent.
b. Structures are innate.
c. Structures are formed from experience.
d. Cognitive style is highly heritable.
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: A

34. Phase transitions happen in a _____________ manner.


a. continuous
b. domain-specific
c. discontinuous
d. quantitative
REF: Cognitive Development Proceeds as a Result of the Dynamic and Reciprocal
Transaction of Internal and External Factors
ANS: C

35. The model of cognitive development that emphasizes the importance of


interaction between adults and children, and specifies that the nature of these
interactions is mediated by culture, was forwarded by
a. Urie Bronfenbrenner
b. Lev Vygotsky
c. Jerome Kagen
d. Theodosius Dobzhansky
REF: Cognitive Development is Constructed Within a Social Context
ANS: B
36. Which of the following children is the most likely to learn by observation?
a. A child raised with siblings
b. A child raised without siblings
c. A child raised in a schooled society
d. A child raised in a traditional society
REF: Cognitive Development is Constructed Within a Social Context
ANS: D
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37. Which model of developmental analysis focuses on the development of


psychological processes over an individual’s lifetime, beginning before birth?
a. Developmental contextualism
b. Sociocultural models
c. Evolutionary theory
d. Continuity-Discontinuity paradigms
REF: Cognitive Development is Constructed Within a Social Context
ANS: A

38. According to Bjorklund, which model of cognitive development is the most


useful for explaining why children and adolescents behave as they do?
a. The functional theory
b. The sociocultural theory
c. The evolutionary theory
d. The dialectical theory
REF: Cognitive Development is Constructed Within a Social Context
ANS: C

39. Young Emma is an only-child and has never really had to learn how to share her
toys. She has recently started pre-school, and over time has become better at the
“give and take” that is necessary in her classroom. This ability of a cognitive skill
to be shaped by experience demonstrates:
a. stability
b. resilience
c. plasticity
d. pedagogy
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
ANS: C

40. The degree to which children maintain their same relative rank order over time in
comparison with their peers on some aspect of cognition refers to
a. stability
b. plasticity
c. a chronotopic constraint
d. an architectural constraints
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
ANS: A

41. The stability of intelligence refers to


a. the degree to which children's level of performance remains stable over
time
b. the homogeneity, or even-ness, of cognitive skills within a stage
c. the invariant sequence of stages in cognitive development
d. the degree to which children maintain their relative rank order over time in
comparison with their peers on some aspect of cognition
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
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ANS: D

WWW 42. The plasticity of intelligence refers to


a. the extent to which children's patterns of intellectual competence can be
altered by their environment
b. the fact that children come into the world as "blank slates" and are molded
only by their environment
c. the flexible and variant sequence of stages of cognitive development
d. the heterogeneity, or unevenness, of intellectual functioning within stages
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
ANS: A
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43. The tape recorder model of development (Kagan, 1976) states that early
experience is greatly influential and resistant to later experience. Studies with
institutionalized infants and isolate-reared monkeys have shown that the theory is
a. correct; it is nearly impossible to undo the effects of early experience.
b. correct for human infants and early experience, but incorrect for other
species.
c. incorrect; there is plasticity on the part of a young organism and resilience
concerning the negative effects of early environment.
d. incorrect; early experiences play an unimportant role in development; only
later experiences influence development.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
ANS: C

44. Kagan (1976) proposed that humans are resilient, and developmental outcome
can be positive even when early experience is negative. One situation in which
Kagan would not predict resilience of cognitive ability is
a. when the cognitive ability does not go through transformations in its
development.
b. when the environment goes through drastic changes between adjacent
cognitive developmental stages.
c. when the cognitive ability goes through drastic changes between adjacent
cognitive developmental stages.
d. when the level of performance changes, but the child's rank order among
other children does not change.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
ANS: A

45. Representation refers to


a. the process of reading.
b. the mental encoding of a stimulus.
c. strategies involved in problem solving.
d. children's tendency to “speak for” their peers.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is
Represented
ANS: B

46. Most cognitive developmentalists agree that how children represent knowledge
and encode events
a. changes developmentally.
b. remains stable throughout the lifetime.
c. remains stable for some children and changes developmentally for others.
d. is not possible to understand because these processes are abstract and
unobservable.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is
Represented
ANS: A
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47. When researcher Karen Wynn placed a 5-month old infant in front of a screen
and then presented a visual representation of an impossible math problem, what
did she find?
a. The infants stared equally at an “impossible” and a “possible” outcome.
b. The infants were not able to focus their attention long enough to perceive
either a “”possible” or an “impossible” outcome.
c. The infants spent more time looking at a “possible outcome.”
d. The infants spent more time looking at an “impossible outcome.”
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is
Represented
ANS: D

48. According to Bjorklund, most researchers today believe that children


a. have multiple ways of representing information.
b. represent information in virtually identical ways that do not change until
the children enter school.
c. are incapable of truly representing information prior to entering Piaget’s
concrete operational stage of cognitive development.
d. lack plasticity when it comes to cognitive functions.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is
Represented
ANS: A

WWW 49. Mental operations that are aimed at solving a problem, and are used deliberately
to achieve a goal, are called
a. representations.
b. strategies.
c. basic processes.
d. codes.
REF: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and
Cognition
ANS: B

50. The use of a strategy involves


a. the concerted effort of a group of children.
b. the activation and manipulation of instincts.
c. deliberate mental operations aimed at solving a problem.
d. the use of trial and error methods in solving a problem.
REF: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and
Cognition
ANS: C

51. The use of strategies has been observed in children as young as:
a. infancy
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b. 18 months of age
c. 24 months of age
d. 36 months of age
REF: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and
Cognition
ANS: A

52. The ability to regulate attention and to determine what to do with information
that has been retrieved from long-term memory is called:
a. metacognition
b. strategizing
c. typifying
d. executive function
REF: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and
Cognition
ANS: D

WWW 53. Theories of cognitive development which assume that, at any point in time, a
child's thinking is under the influence of a single set of factors, with these factors
impacting different aspects of cognition equally, are referred to as
a. domain-general theories
b. domain-specific theories
c. homogeneity theories
d. heterogeneity theories
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: A

54. Which of the following best reflects Fodor's (1983) ideas about modular brain
functions?
a. Full appreciation for the mechanics of cognition requires a componential,
or modular, approach to neurosurgery.
b. Certain areas of the brain are dedicated to performing specific cognitive
tasks and are impenetrable to other aspects of brain function.
c. The brain is composed of different units of analysis, with each unit
working in concert with all other units on any particular cognitive
problem.
d. The brain is run by a central processor, or executive module, which selects
and runs each subprocess.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: B

WWW 55. Cognitive modules that represent special-purpose systems and are not subject to
the influence of other parts of the mind are called:
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a. membranously impermeable
b. developmentally structural
c. strategically typified
d. informationally encapsulated
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: D

56. Research by Wolfgang Schneider has supported the use of which type of theory
in explaining the cognitive development of children?
a. domain-specific theories
b. domain-general theories
c. a combination of both domain-specific and domain-general theories
d. neither domain-specific nor domain-general theories
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: C

57. The inflexibility that is implied by the modularity suggested by Fodor can be
beneficial to human beings. Why?
a. It increases the likelihood that complex information will be properly
processed and understood.
b. It increases the likelihood that insignificant information will decay from
memory in a timely fashion.
c. It increases the ability of human beings to multitask; that is, to effectively
focus their attention on multiple stimuli simultaneously.
d. It decreases the ability of distracting stimuli to influence the way in which
incoming information is retrieved.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: A

58. Bjorklund argues that the hallmark of human cognition, which has allowed us to
solve problems that biology could not have imagined, is
a. language
b. intelligence
c. consciousness
d. flexibility
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: D

59. According to your textbook chapter, cognitive developmentalists value the goal
of producing research that can:
a. effectively support only domain-specific theories of development.
b. effectively negate long-valued yet oft-questioned theories from past
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developmentalists.
c. be applied to real-world contexts.
d. effectively support only domain-general theories of development.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: C

60. Bjorklund argues that the principle goal of cognitive developmentalists is to


discover
a. representational changes.
b. changes in intentionality.
c. ways to accelerate development.
d. the underlying mechanisms of developmental change.
REF: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in both Domain-General and
Domain-Specific Abilities
ANS: D

Essay Questions

1. Define cognitive development. Include in your answer a consideration of development,


cognition, structure and function.

2. Generally, young children are cognitively immature compared to older children and adults.
Discuss the importance of this immaturity. Is it harmful, beneficial, or both? Why?

3. Describe the nature of the relationship between structure and function. Provide research
evidence to support your position.

4. Characterize the extreme views of biological influence vs. environmental influence, and
discuss how the two interact in development.

5. Discuss “innateness” and the contributions of representational, architectural, and


chronotopic constraints.

6. Explain the difference between domain-general and domain-specific abilities. Of what


importance are these concepts to cognitive development?

7. Discuss the use of strategies as they relate to intentional control over one’s actions. At what
age do we see these strategies emerge? Provide evidence cited in your text to support your
answer.

8. Discuss developmental changes in representation and intentional control.