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CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The interacting three-tank system is a typical example of a

nonlinear MIMO system. Heiming and Lunze (1999) have regarded three-
tank system as a benchmark problem for reconfigurable control and observer
based fault diagnosis. The linear discrete state space models are essential for
model based control techniques. In this chapter, developments of linear
discrete state space models for fault-free and faulty systems against actuator
failure are presented. The three-tank system proposed by Hou et al (2005) is
used for analysis and synthesis of single objective and multi-objective
reconfigurable control systems explained in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4.

The schematic diagram of the coupled three-tank system is shown

in Figure 2.1. It is composed of three identical tanks with a circular cross
section of area S. The tanks are interconnected by two cylindrical pipes with a
circular cross-section of area SC and outflow coefficients of tank1 and tank 2
are az1 and az2 respectively. The nominal inflows (q1 and q2) are located at
tank 1 and tank 3 respectively. The inflow rate can be continuously
manipulated from 0 to a maximum flow rate of q max to maintain the tank level
of hmax. The measured variables are the level of tank 1 (h1), tank 2 (h 2) and
tank 3 (h3). The nominal outflow pipe has a cross section SC with an outflow
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coefficient az3 and located at tank 3. The control objective is to control level
of tank 1 and tank 3 by manipulating the inflow rates q1 and q2.

Pump 1 Pump 2

S
q1
q2

Sc
az2

h1 az1 h2 h3 az3

The three-tank system represented using the mass balance is given

in Equation (2.1)

dh 1 q 1 - S1 a z1 sgn (h 1 - h 2 ) 2g( h 1 - h 2 )
=
dt S
dh 2 S1 a z1 sgn (h 1 - h 2 ) 2g( h 1 - h 2 ) - S2 a z2 sgn (h 2 - h ) 2g( h 2 - h 3 )
= 3
(2.1)
dt S
dh 3 q 2 + S2 a z2 sgn (h 2 - h ) 2g( h 2 - h 3 ) - S3 a z3 2gh 3
= 3

dt S

the Table 2.1.
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Table 2.1 Physical parameters of the three-tank system

Parameters Values
Tank cross-section area S = 0.0171 m2
Pipe cross- section area SC = S1 = S2 = S3 = 0.00005 m2
Pipe outflow coefficients az1= 0.511, az2 = 0.5279, az3 = 0.7313
Maximum level h max= 0.68 m
Maximum in-flow rate q max=1.2 × 10-4 m3/s

The three-tank system equations involve square-root nonlinearities

and the flow-rates become proportional to the square root of the tank level. In
control engineering, a normal operation of the system may be around an
equilibrium point and the signals may be considered as small signals around
the equilibrium. However, if the system operates around an equilibrium point
and if the signals involved are small signals, then it is possible to approximate
the nonlinear system by a linear system. Such a linear system is equivalent to
the nonlinear system considered within a limited operating range (Ogata
2004). The linearization procedure is presented in the following section.

MODELS

The discrete state space model development technique involves the

following steps to obtain fault-free and faulty models:

1. Linearization of nonlinear equations around the operating

point using Taylor’s series expansion method.

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3. Modeling of faulty system by introducing loss in control

effectiveness in actuator.

Equation (2.2)

x(t) = Ac x(t) + Bc u(t)

(2.2)
y(t) = Cc x(t)

where,

b b
1 1 0
f1 f1 f1
h1 - h 2 h1 - h 2
h h h
1 2 3 b b b b
1 1 2 2 ,
f f f
AC 2 2 2 h1 - h 2 h1 - h 2 h 2 - h3 h 2 - h3
h1 h2 h3
b b b3
f f f 0 2 2
3 3 3 h 2 - h3 h 2 - h3 h3
h h h
1 2 3

dh1 dh 2 dh 3
f1 , f2 , f3
dt dt dt

f1 f1 1
0
q1 q2 S

f2 f2
BC 0 0
q1 q2
f3 f3
1
0
q1 q2 S
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x1 h1 - h1o
x = x 2 = h 2 - h 2o
x3 h 3 - h 3o

u1 q1 - q1o
u= =
u q -q
2 2 2o

where [h10, h20, h 30] and [q10, q 20] are steady state operating points of level and
flow rate respectively.

a z × S1 × 2g a z × S2 × 2g a z × S3 × 2g
b1 = 1 , b2 = 2 , b3 = 3
2×S 2×S 2 ×S

The linearization technique is valid in the vicinity of the operating

point. The above nonlinear system is linearized around the following steady
state operating points

[q1o q 2o ]T = [0.35787 0.65363] T 10-4 m3 / s

The continuous state space model for the parameters in Table 2.1 is
as given below

0.01046 0.01046 0 58.4795 0

1 0 0
AC 0.01046 - 0.02127 0.01081 , BC 0 0 and CC
0 0 1
0 0.01081 0.0183 0 58.4795

Most practical systems are continuous-time systems. However, they

use discrete-time controller to obtain optimum performance.
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The discrete state space model is obtained by discretizing the

continuous state space model with sampling period Ts = 1s as given in
Equation (2.3)

x (k + 1 ) = A x (k ) + B u (k )
(2.3)
y(k ) = C x (k )

where

0.9896 0.0103 0.00005 58.18 0.001089

1 0 0
A 0.0103 0.9791 0.0106 ,B 0.3028 0.312 and C
0 0 1
0.00005 0.0106 0.9819 0.001089 57.95

x(k), u(k) and y(k) are the state, input and output vectors of discrete model
respectively.

The actuator fault is modeled as a bias fault through the control

effectiveness factor which represents the gain of actuator. If the gain is zero,
then the actuator is 100% effective. During normal operation, the actuator
delivers the control signal without any loss. Therefore, =0. When a fault
occurs in the actuator, due to either partial blockage or aging, the actuator
cannot deliver the control signal without loss. Such a failure condition can be
represented by a reduced control effectiveness factor. The magnitude of
reflects the severity of actuator fault. The actuator fault with 80% loss of
control effectiveness in actuator (pump) 1 is considered for simulation. The
continuous and discrete faulty models have the form given in Equations (2.4)
and (2.5)
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x (t) = A x (t) + Bc f u (t)

f cf f f (2.4)
y (t) = C x (t)
f cf f

where xf (t) and yf (t) are the state and output vectors of faulty system in
continuous form respectively and faulty system state matrix Acf = Ac, faulty
system input matrix Bcf = (1- ) Bc and faulty system output matrix Ccf = Cc .

x (k + 1) = A x (k) + B u (k)
f f f f f (2.5)
y (k) = C x (k)
f f f

where xf (k) and yf (k) are the state and output vectors of faulty system in
discrete form respectively. Af, Bf and Cf are the state, input and output
matrices of faulty system in discrete form respectively.

Model parameters for linearized system in continuous form are as

given below:

0.01046 0.01046 0
11.7 0
1 0 0
A
cf
AC 0.01046 0.02127 0.01081 , B
cf
0 0 and C
cf
CC
0 0 1
0 58.48
0 0.01081 0.0183

given below:

0.9896 0.0103 0.00005 11.64 0.001089

1 0 0
A A 0.0103 0.9791 0.0106 ,B 0.3028 0.312 and C C
f f f
0 0 1
0.00005 0.0106 0.9819 0.001089 57.95
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From the continuous model parameters, it is clear that 80% loss of

control effectiveness factor (actuator fault) on pump 1 has caused changes in
the input matrix, by noticing the value of the first element in the first column
changes from 58.475 (Bc) to 11.7 (Bcf). The corresponding changes are
reflected in all the elements of input matrix Bf.

2.4 SUMMARY

The detailed description of the interacting three-tank system and

first principle model are presented. The discrete state space models for fault-
free and faulty systems are derived using Taylor’s series linearization
technique. In the following chapter, the conventional control technique using
the derived discrete model will be discussed.