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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Due to the limitation of UE capability, one UE can only establish 8 E-RAB for data
transmission.
 LTE network defines different bearer between different device nodes, E-RAB is the user
plane bearer between UE and SGW, and its working state directly reflects the working
state of the wireless side and the terminal side.
 When UE attached to the network, the first dedicated -RAB bearer is established during
the procedure of initial context setup.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Explicit detach:
 The network or the UE explicitly requests detach and signal with each other.
 Implicit detach:
 The network detaches the UE, without notifying the UE. This is typically the case
when the network presumes that it is not able to communicate with the UE, e.g.
due to radio conditions.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 1. UE send Request Detach message to request separation. eNodeB sends the message and
the location of the UE information, such as TAI+ECGI forward to MME.
 2. MME send Session Request Delete message to the S-GW to active all the needed user
EPS.
 3. When S-GW receives the Delete Session Request MME message, the S-GW releases the
related EPS bearer context, and uses the Session Response Delete message to response
MME.
 4. S-GW send Delete Session Request message to PDN-GW.
 5. PDN delete user related information and use Delete Session Response messages to
confirm.
 6. If the UE detach is not caused by shutdown, MME sends Accept Detach messages to UE.
 7. MME sends the Release S1 command to the eNodeB, release the connection of S1-MME
interface on the UE signaling.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The E-RAB release procedure described below:


 If services carried on an E-RAB are complete, the UE requests the MME to
deactivate the EPS bearer using NAS signaling.
 In response to the Uplink NAS Transport message, the MME releases resources
based on the resource release information and then sends an E-RAB Release
Command message to the eNodeB. The E-RAB Release Command message
contains the E-RAB release list, including the E-RAB ID, QoS information of bearers,
configuration information of the transport layer, and NAS information.
 Upon receiving E-RAB RELEASE COMMAND, eNodeB release the dedicated E-RAB.
 The UE releases the DRB and reconfigures AS parameters based on the resources
allocated and the drb-ToReleaseList IE in the received RRC Connection
Reconfiguration message. Then, the UE sends an RRC Connection Reconfiguration
Complete message, informing the eNodeB that the E-RAB release procedure is
complete.
 The eNodeB sends the MME E-RAB Release Complete message, indicating that the
E-RAB release procedure is complete.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 E-RAB is carrying the user service data access layer bearer, E-RAB release procedure is
releasing the resources of users access bearer capacity, it reflects the cell releases the
business data access layer bearer resource ability for the user. we defined E-RAB abnormal
release as dropping events.
 Scene one: eNodeB sends E-RAB Release Indication message to MME, when the released
reason is not “Normal Release”, “Detach”, “User Inactivity”, “Om-Intervention”, “CS
Fallback triggered”, “UE Not Available for PS Service”, “Inter-RAT Redirection”, “Successful
Handover”, “Redirection towards 1xRTT”,At the same time, the data is still transmitting
with the correspond bearer, we call it E-RAB abnormal release.
 Scene two: eNodeB sends UE Context Release Request to MME, when the released reason
is not “Normal Release”, “Detach”, “User Inactivity”, “Om-Intervention”, “CS Fallback
triggered”, “UE Not Available for PS Service”, “Inter-RAT Redirection”, “Time critical
handover”, “Handover Cancelled”, “Redirection towards 1xRTT”, At the same time, the
data is still transmitting with the correspond bearer, we call it E-RAB abnormal release.
 Without the above two scenarios, the rest of the scene are normal release of E-RAB such
as UE initiates to detach and dedicated bearer release.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The base station sends E-RAB Release Indication or UE Context Release Request message
with the corresponding release value in it.
 Value A: Normal Release, Detach, User Inactivity, CS fallback triggered, UE Not Available
For PS Service, Inter-RAT redirection, Successful Handover.
 Value B: Normal Release, Detach, User Inactivity, CS fallback triggered, UE Not Available
For PS Service, Inter-RAT redirection, Time Critical Handover, Handover Cancelled.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 LTE base station support the statistics of the reasons E-RAB release for the sub value and
sub QCI, the statistical value of the sub-value can be used to assess the distribution of the
abnormal cause, sub-QCI statistics can be used to assess the business distribution of
abnormal problems.
 The corresponding causes of dropping value. See Synonyms at 3GPP TS36.413.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The abnormal release caused by core network problems (L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.MME) are not
included in the assessment of the project KPI dropping rate.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 In the process, if dropping reason value is L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.Radio, the dropped is


caused by radio layer.
 Tracking signaling processes, signaling interaction is abnormal, UE initiate RRC re
establishment process was rejected result in dropped calls, such as the UE receives RRC
reconfiguration is directly initiated the RRC re establishment, due to radio layer dropped.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Relevant index:
 L.ChMeas.CQI.DL.*: full bandwidth CQI for the number of reporting * (* indicates
the value of CQI)
 L.ChMeas.PDSCH.MCS.*: the PDSCH scheduling of the cell to select the number of
index MCS * (* indicates the value of MCS)
 L.ChMeas.PUSCH.MCS.*: the PUSCH scheduling of the cell to select the number of
index MCS * (* indicates the value of MCS)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 In the suburbs and rural areas, you can use the TMA or repeater to strengthen the UL/DL
coverage, it may also bring interference.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Bearer establishment, channel allocation, power control, scheduling, control survey, the
CQI reporting cycle, MIMO, and SRS, all these signaling procedure may fail due to the
radio link quality, terminal capacity, timer configuration.
 Problem checking:
 Start the UE side and the eNodeB side Uu interface signaling tracking, check
signaling step by step, to verify where the signaling procedure fail
 Check the PDCCH/PDSCH/PUSCH channel IBLER, analyze whether there has large
number of re-transmission due to bad channel quality
 Verify terminal capability to judge whether it’s supported with the function setting
from eNodeB side;
 Verify UE capability from ‘UE initial message’
 Check whether the UuMessageWaitingTimer setting is reasonable.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 To save UE energy and solve the network congestion, the UE may work in un-synchronism
mode, when new data come, UE needs to send random access to complete uplink
synchronization, synchronization failure will lead to link disconnection.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The scenario is divided into two types according to the signaling process:
 Fail to recovery SRB1 in RRC re-establishment procedure, that is, eNB issued
RRCConnectionReestablishment, but did not receive the
RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete message from the UE.
 Fail to recover other RB in RRC re-establishment procedure, that is, the eNB issued
RRCConnectionReconfiguration, but did not receive the
RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete message from the UE.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 When eNodeB sends RELEASE INDICATION E-RAB message or CONTEXT RELEASE


REQUEST UE message to the MME, the reason is is transmission layer error, then statistic
L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.TNL will count.

 TNL drop has the signal message: eNodeB to send the S1AP_UE_CONTEXT_REL_REQ
message, and the reason is the value of the Resource unavailable transport".

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The reasons like transmission configuration, transmission ports, transmission network fault
and transmission flash off lead to transmission network function and performance
anomalies then cause UE call dropped.
 Transmission related alarm verification:
 SCTP ALM-25888 link failure alarm
 ALM-29207 base station control plane transmission interrupt alarm
 IP Path ALM-25886 fault alarm
 ALM-25952 user side bearer link failure alarm

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 This message means the GTPU status is abnormal which is detected by eNodeB every
minute internally.
 When GTPU is abnormal, if GTPU static detect switch is ‘ON’, it will generate IPPath alarm
or terrestrial link fail, and inform network to release the bearer link; if GTPU static detect
switch is ‘OFF’, it just informs network to release the bearer link, but not generates IPPath
alarm or terrestrial link fail.
 In this case, the GTPU static detect switch is ‘OFF’.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 On LTE base station side, the number of users is limited by the license, when the number
of users reached license limit, the new user's service request will be rejected. If the new
user service is emergency call service, new users will seize the resources of low priority
service user then led some call drops.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Monitor the high load cell and the number of users need to implement, assessment the
number of users overload leads to the deterioration of the dropping rate.

 If the number of users is overload , independent expansion of Lic does not significantly
improve the user's perception, in order to avoid limitation of control channel, then it needs
to increase the radio resource at the same time.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Users in a cell reach to a number, performing PRB utilization statistics, the top cell’s
maximum number of users below the LIC restrictions, PRB utilization continued high and
PDCCH polymerization level is too high, it may lead to UE call drop because of the
limitation of control channel and service channel resources.
 Radio network resource congestion measurement project:
 The average number of uplink Resource Block Physical is used:
L.ChMeas.PRB.UL.Used.Avg
 Down Resource Block Physical is used the average number:
L.ChMeas.PRB.DL.Used.Avg
 The number of PDCCH symbols in the statistical period
is:L.ChMeas.PDCCH.SymNum.X X
 Cell PDCCH aggregation level for the number of X: L.ChMeas.PDCCH.AggLvlXNum
 PRB resource utilization of PUSCH in the interval X sample number:
L.ChMeas.PRB.PUSCH.Util.Samp.IndexX
 PRB resource utilization of PDSCH in the interval X sample number:
L.ChMeas.PRB.PDSCH.Util.Samp.IndexX
 The PRB resource utilization distribution interval 0~9 is defined as follows:
 Index0:[0, 10%)
 Index1:[10%, 20%)
 ...
 Index9:[90%, 100%]

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The common cause of handover to make call drop is handover too late or ping-pong
handover.
 handover late
 After handover failure as a result of handover too late, UE initiate re-establishment,
it may lead to UE establish to the cell without the context, then re-establishment
failure cause UE outage.
 Ping-pong handover
 After handover is accomplished, the target cell will send a large number of
reconfiguration to the UE. ping-pong handover scenario may make UE can't reply
configuration results in time then leading the base station release UE by the cause
of the Radio.UuNoReply.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 After handover failure, UE initiative RRC re-establishment to the best signal quality cell, if
the cell have no UE’s context information, re-establishment will be rejected, the re-
establishment failure result in call drops.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Source cell handover measurement start threshold configuration is too low, leads to to
inter-band / ISO system measuring switch does not start or start late, induced switching
too late, may lead to the failure of the switching.
 With the frequency switching cell bias set, neighbor bias set too small inter-band / ISO
system switching threshold is set too high, causes a switch to trigger, switch to the late,
may lead to the failure of the switching.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 A1: Ms – Hys > Thresh1


 A2: Ms + Hys < Thresh2
 A3: Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Off
 A4: Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh3
 A5: Ms + Hys < Thresh2 and Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh3
 B1: Mn + Ofn – Hys > Thresh4
 B2: Ms + Hys < Thresh2 and Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh4

 If the handover is based on frequency priority, then the optimization should be reversed.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 If the neighboring cell configuration is wrong or missed, eNodeB will not deal with the MR
or the handover target cell would be wrong. Then the HO failure caused.
 NCL and NRT verification:
 LTE external cell NCL query
 LST EUTRANEXTERNALCELL
 LTE same frequency neighbor relationship NRT query
 LST EUTRANINTRAFREQNCELL
 LTE non neighbor relation NRT query
 LST EUTRANINTERFREQNCELL
 1XRTT CDMA2000 external cell NCL query
 LST CDMA20001XRTTEXTCELL
 HRPD CDMA2000 external cell NCL query
 LST CDMA2000HRPDEXTCELL
 1XRTT CDMA2000 neighbor relationship NRT query
 LST CDMA20001XRTTNCELL
 HRPD CDMA2000 neighbor relationship NRT query
 LST CDMA2000HRPDNCELL

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The poor quality of the radio channel leads to the loss of MR and the UE can not receive
the switching instructions correctly, which can not be triggered in time.
 Processing channel quality problem can be measured by the key indicators to assess the
quality of the downlink channel, the following indicators can be used to test the analysis of
DT tools or U2000 tracking:
 RSRP
 RSRP<-110 for weak coverage; RSRP<-118, below the UE demodulation
threshold, the impact of UE demodulation.
 SINR
 SINR<0, downlink channel quality is poor; SINR<-3, affect the UE
demodulation;
 PHR
 Uplink transmit power >18, uplink coverage difference;
 MCS
 MCS distribution is concentrated in 0-5, then it can be considered that the
current channel quality is poor;
 IBLER
 Channel quality HERSHEY'S IBLER converges to 10%, IBLER>20% can be
considered the channel quality is poor.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 For the suburbs or rural areas, if the uplink and downlink unbalanced is very serious, you
can consider using TMA equipment to strengthen the uplink coverage.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Ping-pong handover lead to drops in the road test in the process of general performance
for UE outage events near with ping-pong handover, in the KPI statistics performance for
dropping reason value set in the L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.Radio.UuNoReply statistics.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 The switching threshold and offset setting unreasonable leads to that UE in the main
service cell and the adjacent cell are easy to meet the switching decision conditions,
resulting in UE makes ping-pong handover between the service area and the adjacent cell.
 Switching reported time lag is too short, the neighbor cell signal level is not stable when
the level of reporting measurement report, resulting in handover to the target cell after the
target cell signal quality is poor, once again trigger handover.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Note
 The L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.MME index is not the statistics in the L.E-RAB.AbnormRel
index, which is not included in the core network active release rate dropped.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

 Unreasonable core network parameter configuration may effect signaling interaction, such
as timer T3, causing signaling interaction failures, then eNodeB initiate UE release, appear
abnormal dropping.

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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LTE Call Drop Diagnosis (KPI)

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